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General Roots and Prefixes

Root or Prefix a, an ab acro act ad alt ambul anima ante anti, ant Meaning not, without away, down, from, off high, tip, top do, move to, toward high to walk soul, life before against, opposite Examples atheist, anarchy, anonymous apathy, aphasia, anemia, atypical, anesthesia absent, abduction, aberrant, abstemious, abnormal, abstract, absorb acrobat, acrophobia, acronym, acromegaly, acropolis action, react, transaction, proactive, activity, activation, deactivate admit, addition, advertisement, adherent, admonish, address, adhesive, adept, adjust altitude, altimeter, alto, contralto, altocumulus, exalt ambulatory, amble, ambulance, somnambulist, perambulate, preamble animation, inanimate, animal, anime, equanimity, animism, animus anteroom, antebellum, antedate antecedent, antediluvian antisocial, antiseptic, antithesis, antibody, antichrist, antinomies, antifreeze, antipathy, antigen, antibiotic, antidote, antifungal, antidepressant army, armament, disarm, rearm, armistice, armor, armory, arms audience, auditory, audible, auditorium, audiovisual, audition, audiobook automobile, automatic, autograph, autonomous, autoimmune, autopilot, autobiography bedecked, besmirch, besprinkled, begrudge, begrime, belie, bemoan

arm audi

weapon to hear





bell bene

war good, well

belligerent, antebellum, bellicose, rebel benefactor, beneficial, benevolent, benediction, beneficiary, benefit bicycle, bifocals, biceps, billion, binary, bivalve, bimonthly, bigamy, bimetal, biathlete, bicarbonate biology, biography, biodiversity, bioavailability, bioflavonoid, biofuel, biohazard, biomass, biorhythm succeed, proceed, precede, recede, secession, exceed, succession, excess chronology, chronic, chronicle, chronometer, anachronism fratricide, suicide, incision, excision, circumcision, precise, concise, precision, homicide, genocide, regicide circumnavigate, circumflex, circumstance, circumcision, circumference, circumorbital, circumlocution, circumvent, circumscribe, circulatory include, exclude, clause, claustrophobia, enclose, exclusive, reclusive, conclude, preclude convene, compress, contemporary, converge, compact, confluence, concatenate, conjoin, combine, convert, compatible, consequence, contract contradict, counteract, contravene, contrary, counterspy, contrapuntal, contraband, contraception, contrast, controversy, counterfeit, counterclaim, counterargument, counterclaim, counterpoint, counterrevolution credo, credible, credence, credit, credential, credulity, incredulous,

bi bio

two life, living

cede, ceed, cess chron cide, cis

to go, to yield time to kill, to cut



clud, clus claus

to close

con, com

with, together

contra, counter

against, opposite


to believe

creed, incredible commun cycl to share circle, wheel commune, community, communism, communicable, communication, commonality, incommunicado bicycle, cyclical, cycle, encliclical, motorcycle, tricycle, cyclone

General Roots and Prefixes (continued)

Root or Prefix de Meaning from, down, away Examples detach, deploy, derange, deodorize, devoid, deflate, degenerate, deice, descend, derail, depress, depart, decompose, destruction divinity, divine, deity, divination, deify, deism democracy, demagogue, epidemic, demographic diameter, diagonal, dialogue, dialect, dialectic, diagnosis, diachronic, diagram, diaphragm, dialysis, diarrhea predict, verdict, malediction, dictionary, dictate, dictum, diction, indict, contradict dismiss, differ, disallow, disperse, dissuade, disconnect, dysfunction, disproportion, disrespect, distemper, distaste, disarray, dyslexia produce, abduct, product, transducer, viaduct, aqueduct, induct, deduct, reduce, induce dynamic, dynamometer, heterodyne, dynamite, dynamo, dynasty ectomorph, ectoderm, ectoplasm, ectopic, ectothermal endotoxin, endoscope, endogenous

dei, div demo dia

God, god people through, across, between



dis, dys, dif

away, not, negative

duc, duct

to lead, pull

dyn, dyna ecto endo

power outside, external inside, within

equi e, ex exter, extra

equal out, away, from outside of

equidistant, equilateral, equilibrium, equinox, equitable, equation, equator emit, expulsion, exhale, exit, express, exclusive, enervate, exceed, explosion external, extrinsic, exterior, extraordinary, extrabiblical, extracurricular, extrapolate, extraneous, exterminator, extract, extradite, extraterrestrial, extrasensory, extravagant, extreme effluence, influence, effluvium, fluctuate, confluence, reflux, influx flexible, reflection, deflect, circumflex, inflection, reflex polygraph, grammar, biography, graphite, telegram, autograph, lithograph, historiography, graphic, electrocardiogram, monogram heterodox, heterogeneous, heterosexual, heterodyne homogenized, homosexual, homonym, homophone hyperactive, hypertensive, hyperbolic, hypersensitive, hyperventilate, hyperkinetic, hyperlink, hypertext, hypersonic, hypertrophy hypotension, hypodermic, hypoglycemia, hypoallergenic, hypothermia, hypothesis

flu, flux flect, flex graph, gram

flow to bend to write

hetero homo hyper

other same over, above


below, less than

General Roots and Prefixes (continued)

in, im infra inter, intro not beneath between inviolate, innocuous, intractable, innocent, impregnable, impossible infrared, infrastructure, infrasonic international, intercept, intermission,

interoffice, internal, intermittent, introvert, introduce intra jac, ject log, logo, loc. loq within, into to throw word, speech, speak intranet, intracranial, intravenous, intramural, intramuscular, intraocular reject, eject, project, trajectory, interject, dejected, inject, ejaculate monologue, dialogue, locution, colloquial, elocution, soliloquy, ventriloquist, apology, doxology, epilogue, logic, eulogy, loquacious malformation, maladjusted, dismal, malady, malcontent, malfeasance, maleficent, malevolent, malice, malaria, malfunction, malignant megaphone, megalomaniac, megabyte, megalopolis mesomorph, mesoamerica, mesosphere metaphor, metamorphosis, metabolism, metahistorical, metainformation, metacognitive perimeter, micrometer, ammeter, multimeter, altimeter, geometry, kilometer microscope, microprocessor, microfiche, micrometer, micrograph misinform, misinterpret, mispronounce, misnomer, mistake, misogynist, mistrial, misadventure, misanthrope, misread transmit, permit, missile, missionary, remit, admit, missive, mission polymorphic, morpheme, amorphous, metamorphosis, morphology, morphing multitude, multipartite, multiply, multipurpose, multicolored, multimedia, multinational


bad, badly

mega meso meta

great, million middle beyond, change



micro mis

small bad, badly

mit, miss morph

to send shape



neo non

new not

neologism, neonate, neoclassic, neophyte nonferrous, nonabrasive, nondescript, nonfat, nonfiction, nonprofit, nonsense, nonentity omnipotent, omnivorous, omniscient, omnibus, omnirange, omnipresent pantheism, pandemic, panacea, panoply, pan-American, panchromatic, pandemonium, panorama paraprofessional, paramedic, paraphrase, parachute, paralegal, parallel, comparison permit, perspire, perforate, persuade, perceive, perfect, permit, perform periscope, perimeter, perigee, periodontal telephone, phonics, phonograph, phonetic, homophone, microphone photograph, photosynthesis, photon polytheist, polygon, polygamy, polymorphous porter, portable, report, transportation, deport, import, export

omni pan

all all, whole, general, completely



per peri phon phot poly port

through, intensive around sound light many to carry

General Roots and Prefixes

Root or Prefix re Meaning back, again Examples report, realign, retract, revise, regain, reflect, rename, restate, recombine, recalculate, redo

retro sanct scrib, script sect, sec semi spect sub

backwards holy to write cut half to look under, below

retrorocket, retrospect, retrogression, retroactive sanctify, sanctuary, sanction, sanctimonious, sacrosanct inscription, prescribe, proscribe, manuscript, conscript, scribble, scribe intersect, transect, dissect, secant, section semifinal, semiconscious, semiannual, semimonthly, semicircle inspect, spectator, circumspect, retrospect, prospect, spectacle submerge, submarine, substandard, subnormal, subvert, subdivision, submersible, submit superior, suprarenal, superscript, supernatural, supercede, superficial, superhero, superimpose synthesis, synchronous, syndicate, synergy, snyopsis, syncretism television, telephone, telegraph, telemetry, telepathy theology, theist, polytheist, pantheism, atheist, monotheist, theophany thermal, thermometer, thermocouple, thermodynamic, thermoelectric attract, tractor, traction, extract, retract, protract, detract, subtract, contract, intractable transoceanic, transmit, transport, transducer, transit, intransitive uncooked, unharmed, unintended, unhappy, unenlightened, unremarkable vector, vehicle, convection, vehement, convey, conveyance, conveyor

super, supra


syn tele theo, the therm, thermo tract

together distance, from afar God heat to drag, draw

trans un

across not

veh, vect, vey

to carry

vert, vers

to turn

convert, revert, advertise, versatile, vertigo, invert, reversion, extravert, introvert convention, prevent, intervention, convent, Advent, invent, inventory vermin, vermicelli, vermiculite, vermicide, vermiform, vermilion vital, vitality, vitamins, revitalize benevolent, volition, voluntary, malevolent vital, vitality, vitamins, revitalize

ven, vent verm vita vol vita

to come worm life to will life

Don't forget to study the many, powerful conjunctions that join words and phrases and clauses together. Have you been studying hard and need to take a refreshing break? Try this. Want more roots and prefixes? Check out these books at

Number Prefixes
Prefix mono, uni Meaning one Examples monopoly, monotype, monologue, mononucleosis, monorail, monotheist, unilateral, universal, unity, unanimous, uniform divide, diverge, diglycerides, bifurcate, biweekly, bivalve, biannual, billion triangle, trinity, trilateral, triumvirate, tribune, trilogy, tricycle, trillion quadrangle, quadruplets, quaternary, quarter, quadrillion quintet, quintuplets, pentagon, pentane, pentameter, quintillion

bi, di


tri quat, quad quint, penta

three four five

hex, ses, sex sept oct non dec cent mill, kilo mega giga tera peta exa zetta yotta milli micro nano

six seven eight nine ten hundred thousand (10^3) million (10^6) billion (10^9) trillion (10^12) quadrillion (10^15) quintillion (10^18) sextillion (10^21) septilion (10^24) thousandth (10^-3) millionth (10^-6) billionth (10^-9)

hexagon, hexameter, sestet, sextuplets, sextillion septet, septennial, septillion, September octopus, octagon, octogenarian, octave, octillion, October nonagon, nonagenarian, nonillion decimal, decade, decalogue, decimate, decillion, December centennial, century, centipede, centillion millennium, kilobyte, kiloton megabyte, megaton, megaflop, megawatt gigabyte, gigaflop, gigahertz, gigawatt terabyte, teraflop, terawatt petabyte exabyte zettabyte yottabyte millisecond, milligram, millivolt, milliwatt, millimeter, millipede microgram, microvolt, microwave, microsecond nanosecond, nanobucks, nanofarad, nanometer, nanomachine, nanotube, nanotechnology, nanogram, nanoscale picofarad, picocurie, picogram, picomole, picosecond femtosecond attosecond, attometer zeptosecond yoctosecond

pico femto atto zepto yocto

trillionth (10^-12) quadrillionth (10^-15) quintillionth (10^-18) sextillionth (10^-21) septillionth (10^-24)

A Handful of Suffixes

Suffix able, ible

Meaning able to be, capable of being

Examples pourable, drinkable, readable, washable, curable, visible, flexible, collectible performance, reliance, defiance, radiance, acceptance, ascendancy, discrepancy, infancy terminator, culminator, agitator, instigator, generator, incubator, accelerator, invigorator, elevator kingdom, freedom, wisdom, sheikdom, fiefdom, sheikdom payee, mortgagee, employee, appointee, abductee, examinee, referee, refugee driver, hiker, reader, manager, polisher, speaker, counselor, author, creator, director, sculptor frightful, delightful, wonderful, cupful, wakeful, bashful, bountiful, beautiful, cheerful, colorful, dreadful, fateful purify, deify, simplify, clarify, petrify, reify, exemplify, pacify purification, deification, simplifiction, clarification, petrification Cornish, Irish, bookish, freakish, foolish, boorish, selfish, sluggish, priggish capitalism, heroism, optimism, skepticism, realism, patriotism, communism, idealism, conservatism tympanist, cellist, idealist, communist, realist, moralist, pharamacist, pragmatist

ance, ancy

state of, process of


one who does [the verb]

dom ee er, or

condition, office, state one who receives one who does [the verb]

ful ify ification ish

filled with to make into process of making into the nature of, resembling doctrine, system, characteristic quality one who performs; an adherent of an ism



ize ization less

to make into the process of making into without, lacking

rationalize, normalize, realize, capitalize, sterilize, dramatize, utilize, colorize rationalization, normalization, realization, capitalization, dramatization loveless, fearless, worthless, nameless, baseless, bottomless, effortless, friendless, noiseless, harmless Example Words agony, protagonist, antagonist, agony, agonize, neuralgia, analgesic, nostalgic, alternative, alternator, alteration, altercation, alternate, amiable, amorous, amity, enamored, paramour, amicable ambidextrous, ambivalent, ambiguous, ambient animated, animal, inanimate, animator, anime, animation, reanimate anthropology, anthropomorphic, philanthrophy, misanthranthropology, anthropomorphic, philanthrophy, misanthropy euphoria, eulogy, euphemism, eugenics, eucalyptus, eukaryote, eurythmics, euthanasia forecast, forefather, foretaste, forehead, foreman, foreboding, forecastle, forearm, forebear, foreclose, foredoom, forego, forefoot, foreground, forehand, foreknowledge, foremost, foreordain, forerunner, foresee, foreshoren, foretell orthodontics, orthodox, orthopedic, orthoscopic, orthostatic postscript, postconsumer, postdoctoral, posterior, postimpact, postfeminism, postgraduate, posthumous,

Root or Prefix agon alg alter am ambi anim

Meaning to struggle pain other friend both alive

anthrop eu

mankind good, well


before, front

ortho post

straight after

postimpressionism, postlude, postmodernism, postpone, postproduction pre before, in front of prefix, predict, prelude, predetermined, preamplifier, predestination, prebiotic, preclude, predate, predisposed, preempt, preference, prefigure, prefrontal, preheat, prehistory, presell, presumptuous, prevent, previous, pretext, pretentious, pretend propel, proceed, produce, promote, project, proclaim, procession, profess, proffer, professor, proficient, profile, profound, profuse, progenitor, progress, prolapse, prolegomenon, prolific, prologue, prolong, pronation, pronounce, propellant, prophesy, prophecy, proponent, prorate, proscribe, prosecute, prospect, protect, protest, provide, provoke prototype, protoplasm, protohistory, protocol, protogalaxy, proton, prototypical, protozoa




first, earliest


approximately, resembling, to quasiperiodical, quasiparticle, quasisome degree governmental, quasi-scientific, quasijudicial, quasi-stellar, quasi-public beyond, extremely ultraviolet, ultrasonic, ultramarine, ultrafine, ultrasensitive, ultrawide, ultrapure, ultraquiet undercoat, underwear, underestimate, underbid, underexpose, undercut, underclassmen, undernourished, underground, undersized, underhand, underlay, undermine, underneath, underpass, underpowered, underline, understand, undertake, undertone, undertow, undervalue, underwrite



beneath, below, too little

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