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Geology Study Guide

Exam 1
Nikolaus Alvarado All text derived from: Earth: An Introduction to Physical Geology Tenth Edition: By Tarbuck, Lutgens, Tasa

A study guide with all text and information taken from,Earth: An Introduction to Physical Geology Tenth Edition: By Tarbuck, Lutgens, Tasa and put together to enhance your understanding with a quick reference information booklet.

Table of Contents
Chapter One-Geology ............................................................................................................................................................. 2 Chapter Two- Plate Tectonics ................................................................................................................................................. 2 Chapter Three-Matter and Minerals....................................................................................................................................... 3 Chapter Four-Magma, Igneous Rocks, and Intrusive Activity ................................................................................................. 4 Chapter Five-Volcanoes and Volcanic Hazards ....................................................................................................................... 4 Chapter Six-Weathering and Soil ............................................................................................................................................ 5 Chapter Seven-Sedimentary Rocks ......................................................................................................................................... 7 Helpful Latin Translations ....................................................................................................................................................... 8 Helpful Diagrams ..................................................................................................................................................................... 9 Images: .................................................................................................................................................................................. 12 ALL TEXT ................................................................................................................................................................................ 12

Chapter One-Geology
Catastrophism-the belief that earths landscapes had been shaped primarily by great catastrophes. This philosophy was an attempt to fit the rates of the rates of Earth processes to the then-current ideas on the age of Earth. Uniformitarianism-states that the physical, chemical, and biological laws that operate today have also operated in the geological past. To understand the past we have to first understand the present. Earth is 4.6 billion years old. Relative dating means rocks on top are younger than the underlying rocks Law of Superposition states the same concept as relative dating. Earths Spheres o Hydrosphere o Atmosphere o Geosphere o Biosphere Closes system means they system doesnt interact and Open System means they do. Lithosphere is Crust and Asthenosphere is the solid upper part of the mantle. Continental Margin Portion of seafloor adjacent to major landmasses May include continental shelf, slope, and rise o Continental Shelf-the gentle sloping platform that extends toward the ocean basin. o Continental Slope-the relatively steep drop off that extends off the shelf straight to the basin o Continental Rise-in regions where trenches do not exist the steep continental slope merges into a more gradual incline known as the continental rise. Deep-Ocean Basin The area between continental margins and Oceanic ridges o Abyssal Plains-The incredibly flat ocean floor. o Deep-Ocean Trenches-relatively narrow, extremely deep repressions in the ocean floor. Can extend 36K feet deep Oceanic Ridges Basically an Underwater Mountain Range AKA the mid oceanic ridge The Rock Cycle- SEE FIG-1

Chapter Two- Plate Tectonics


Pangaea-Supercontinent Continental Drift o An idea proposed by Alfred Wegener and found evidence with: Fossil matches Across sea Rock Types and Geological Features matches across seas Ancient Climates matched over seas Continental Jigsaw of Pangaea o They rejected Wegeners idea of continental drift because he lacked a mechanism of why it happened. Paleomagnetism-the record of the direction of the magnetic poles of the earth during the formation of a rock. AKA fossil magnetism. When 1 plate has a convergent boundary on one side it has a divergent boundary on the other side. Oceanic-Oceanic-2 oceanic plates collide Oceanic-Continental-a oceanic and continental plate collide Continental-Continental-2 continental plates collide

CONTINENTAL RIFTING=SEE HELPFUL DIAGRAHMS.

Chapter Three-Matter and Minerals


Mineral o Naturally occurring o Solid Substance o Orderly Crystalline Structure (NOT GLASS) o Well defined chemical composition o Inorganic Rock o Solid mass of mineral or mineral-like matter. o Occur Naturally Atoms o Atomic # is equal to number of protons o Atomic Mass is equal to the number of protons and neutrons. o Electrically stable elements have SAME number of protons(+) as electrons(-) Ions-charged atoms o Cations-positively charged ions o Anions-Negatively charged ions Covalent Bonds o Chemical bond formed by the sharing of a pair of electrons between atoms. Ex. 2 hydrogen atoms have only 1 valence electron so to fill the first level they share their electrons creating H2. Ionic Bonds o A Chemical bond formed by the transfer of electrons. Ex. Na has only 1 valence electron and Cl has 7 valence electrons Na gives up its electron to Cl giving it 8 valence electrons creating NaCl or table salt. Metallic bonds o When they bond the valence electrons are free to move from one atom to another Isotope o an element with a changed number of neutrons from the original element Radioactive Decay o The emitting of particles to create a stable isotope. o WHAT ARE THE 3 TYPES OF RADIOACTIVE DECAY AND WHAT DO THEY DO WITH THE ELECTRONS WHEN IT IS DECAYED Properties of Minerals o Optical Properties Luster The quality of light reflected from the surface Color Streak The color of the powdered form of the mineral o Crystal shape or habit o Mineral Strength Tenacity A minerals resistance to breaking or deforming Hardness Resistance of a mineral to scratch Cleavage The tendency of a mineral to break ALONG PLANES of weak bonding

Fracture Ex. Conchoidal, splintery, or fibrosis fractures.

Silicates o Most abundant elements of earths crust. Contain O and Si. o Silicon-Oxygen Tetrahedron (Si044-) Consist of 4 O ions(each have a 2- charge equalling8-) And one Si ion (4+ charge) together charge is 4-

Chapter Four-Magma, Igneous Rocks, and Intrusive Activity


Intrusive o Igneous rocks formed underground or plutonic rocks Extrusive o Igneous rocks formed aboveground or volcanic rocks FELSIC-MAFIC ETC SEE DIAGRAHMS Igneous Textures o Glassy-produced by VERY RAPID cooling o Pyroclastic-produced from explosive volcanic debris o Phaneretic-(course grained) texture in which magma cools slowly at depth Ex. Granite, Diorite, Gabbro o Porphyritic-produced by slow then rapid cooling Ex. Porphyritic andesite, basalt and granite o Aphanitic-(fine-grained) texture produced when lava cools quickly on earths surface Ex. Andesite, Rhyolite, Basalt

Chapter Five-Volcanoes and Volcanic Hazards


Viscosity of Magma o Temperature, Silica Content, and Volatiles. Greater concentration of silica gives magma higher viscosity High Viscosity=Slow moving with great resistance. Low Viscosity=Fast moving with little resistance. Liquid magma is called MELT Gaseous magma components is called VOLATILES Lava flows o Pahoehoe Smooth surface flow that often resembles a rope-like texture. o Aa Exhibits rough, jagged rocks with dangerously sharp edges and spiny projections and also moves extremely slowly. o Lava Tubes Hardened basaltic flows that develop in the interior of a flow when temperatures remain high long after the surface hardens. o Pillow Lava The outpouring of lava that occurs on ocean floors. The lavas outer skin quickly congeals however; the lava is usually able to move forward by breaking through the hard surface. Pyroclastic material can be broken into 3 categories o Ash/Dust o Blocks

o Bombs Cinder Cones o Smallest volcano made of gravel or CINDERS o AKA Scoria Cones Stratovolcanoes o classic depiction of volcano o AKA Composite Cones Shield Volcanoes o Largest of the 3 volcanoes Caldera o Collapsed volcano o With lake o Translates to cooking pot in Latin Lava Domes o Dome inside volcano kind of like a plug o Such as one on Mount St. Helens now Nue Ardente o glowing avalanches o Pyroclastic flows o Consist of hot gasses and incandescent ash o Comes from Stratovolcanoes

Chapter Six-Weathering and Soil


External Processes o Weathering The physical breakdown (disintegration) and chemical alteration (decomposition) at or near Earths surface o Mass Wasting The transfer of rock and soil downslope under the influence of gravity o Erosion The physical removal of material by mobile agents such as water, wind, or ice. Mechanical Weathering-The physical forces that break rock into smaller and smaller pieces without changing the rocks mineral composition. o Types of Mechanical Weathering Frost Wedging The process of weathering in which water works its way into the cracks in a rock, the freezing of the water (water expands as it freezes) enlarges the cracks and angular fragments are eventually produced. See Fig-8 Salt Crystal Growth Salt crystal growth occurs when sea spray from breaking waves or salty groundwater penetrates crevices and pore spaces in rock. As the water evaporates, salt crystals are formed; they gradually grow larger and eventually push apart the pores or cracks in which they are growing. Thermal Expansion Thermal expansion occurs in places such as deserts where the temperature exceeds 30C. Heating of rock causes expansion and cooling causes contraction. Repeated swelling and shrinking of minerals with different expansion rates exert stress on the rock and break it down. Biological Activity

Plant roots in search of nutrients and water grown into fractures and as the roots grow they wedge the rock apart. Chemical Weathering-Chemical transformation of rock into one or more new compounds. o Types of Chemical Weathering Dissolution A common form of chemical weathering, it is the process of dissolving into a homogenous solution, as when an acidic solution dissolves limestone. Oxidation The removal of one or more electrons from an atom or ion. So named because elements commonly combine with oxygen Hydrolysis (Latin: Hydro=water, Lysis=a loosening) The chemical weathering process in which minerals are altered by chemically reacting with water and acids. Rates of Weathering-the rate in which the rock weathers. The rates vary with a change in several factors that can influence it in different ways. o Climate o Rock characteristics o Differential weathering Regolith o (rhegos=blanket, lithos=stone) o The layer of rock and mineral fragments produced by weathering. Humus o The decayed remains of plant life and animals (organic matter). Soil o Is the combination of mineral and organic matter, water, and air Soil Formation o Controlled by several factors including the following: Parent Material The source of the weathered mineral matter from which soils develop. Time Climate Organic Matter Plants and Animals Topography The Soil Profile o The vertical section through a soil, showing its succession of horizons (the divided soil layers or zones) and the underlying parent material. o The soil profile consist of horizons as follows Topsoil O Horizon-Loose and partly decayed organic matter A Horizon-Mineral matter mixed with some humus E Horizon-Zone of eluviation and leaching (the depletion of soluble minerals from the upper soil) Subsoil B Horizon-Accumulation of clay transported from above C Horizon-Partially altered parent material Unweathered parent material o See Fig-9

Chapter Seven-Sedimentary Rocks


Detrital Sedimentary Rocks o Particle size classification can be seen in Fig-10 o Shale Consist of silt and clay sized particles Detrimental setting: Quite, non-turbulent currents such as lakes, rivers, or flood plains. o Sandstone Consist of sand-sized grains and particles o Conglomerate and Breccia Conglomerate consist of rounded gravels Breccia consist of mainly angular gravels Chemical Sedimentary Rocks o Sedimentary rocks that are derived from ions that are carried in solution to lakes and seas. The materials do not remain dissolved in water indefinably. Some of it precipitates to form chemical sediments. o Limestone Most abundant chemical sedimentary rock Composed mainly of calcite (CaCO3) o Dolostone Composed of dolomite [calcium-magnesium carbonate [CaMg(CO3)2]] o Chert Rocks composed of microcrystalline quartz (SiO2) Varieties are derived from impurities such as Flint gets its dark color from organic matter and Jasper obtains its reddish color from iron oxide. o Evaporites Common precipitates of evaporates include Halite (NaCl), Gypsum (CaSO42H2O) Organic Sedimentary Rocks o The development of coal o 1.)Peat-Partially altered plant material o 2.)Lignite-Soft brown coal o 3.)Bituminous-Soft, black coal o 4.)Anthracite-Hard, black coal (Anthracite is NOT a sedimentary rock, but a metamorphic) Sorting and Particle Shape o The degree of sorting depends on the size of the particles in the sedimentary rock If you have a rock with all the particles the same size you have a very well sorted rock but if you have a rock with a number of different size particles it is poorly sorted o Angularity The more edges a particle has the more angular it is whereas the more rounded a particle is the more rounded it is. o Sorting can determine the history of a sedimentary rock When streams, winds, or waves move sand and other large sedimentary particles they lose their edge and become more round Clays and other FINE grain particles are deposited by WEAKER or STILL currents. Rounder particles were once likely to be water or airborne.

The more rounded a particle is the more it was most likely transported for a longer period of time Very angular grains imply that when the grains were transported they were for a short amount of time and that some other medium such as glacial movement transported them. Stronger currents of air or water deposit larger particles. Deposits of wind-blown sand are usually better sorted than those deposited by wave activity. Poor sorted usually means transported for short time and rapidly deposited Digenesis- The collective term of all chemical, physical, and biological changes that take place after sediments are deposited and during and after lithification. o Lithification-the process by which unconsolidated sediments are transformed into solid sedimentary rock. o Compaction-A physical diagenetic change. As sediment accumulates, the weight of the overlying material compresses the deeper sediments. The deeper sediment is buried, the more it is compacted, the firmer it becomes. As grains are compacted more and more, pore space (open area between particles) is reduced. o Cementation-A diagenetic change that involves crystallization of mineral

Helpful Latin Translations, Prefixes, and Suffixes


Latin Lamin Fissilis In Organicus Paleo Genesis Lithos Neo Globo Quad Pachy Derm Meta Morph Pan Gaia Aheno Di Con Verger Xeno English thin sheet Cleft or split Not Life Ancient Origin Stone New Sphere Four Thick Skin Change Shape All Earth Weak Apart Together Move Stranger Latin Fic Viscos Calderia Intra Ex Folium Rhegos Elu Via Aridos Solum Inceptom Hydro Lysis Dia Organicus Soma Migma Ite Super positum English Make Sticky Cooking pot Within Off Leaf Blanket Get away from Away Dry Soil Beginning Water Loosening Change Life Body Mixture Stone Over Place Latin Crater Fumus Ferrum A Phaner Tabula Discorare Concordare Pyro Clast Bathos Ignis Tekton Sphere Trans Forma Poly Kleiben Pheno Cryst Ology English A bowl Smoke Iron Not Visible Table Disagree Agree Fire Fragments Depth Fire To build A ball Across To form Many Carve Show Crystal The study of

Helpful Diagrams
Fig-1

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Fig-8

Fig-9

Fig-10 Size Range (mm) >256 mm 64-256 mm 4-64 mm 2-4 mm 1/16-2 mm 1/256-1/16 mm <1/256 mm Particle Name Boulder Cobble Pebble Granule Sand Silt Clay Common Sediment Detrital Rock Name Gravel Conglomerate or Breccia Gravel see above Gravel see above Gravel see above Sand Sandstone Mud Shale, Mudstone, or Siltstone Mud see above

Work Cited
Images:
http://www.uwsp.edu/geo/faculty/ritter/images/lithosphere/rock_cycle.gif http://blue.utb.edu/paullgj/geol1403/lectures/Continental_Rifting.JPG http://www.windows2universe.org/earth/images/convection.gif http://www4.nau.edu/meteorite/Meteorite/Images/Silicates.jpg http://staff.imsa.edu/science/si/horrell/materials/silicate_chemistry_files/image017.jpg http://www.geology.um.maine.edu/geodynamics/AnalogWebsite/UndergradProjects2008/Nate%27s_we bsite/Re-formatted%20Images/pluton_dike_sill.jpg http://geophysics.ou.edu/geol1114/notes/weathering/frost_wedging.jpg http://geophysics.ou.edu/geol1114/notes/weathering/ideal_soil_horizons.jpg FIG 10- Table 7.1, Pg. 203: Earth: An Introduction to Physical Geology Tenth Edition: By Tarbuck, Lutgens, Tasa

ALL TEXT
Earth: An Introduction to Physical Geology Tenth Edition: By Tarbuck, Lutgens, Tasa