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ACI MATERIALS JOURNAL

Title no. 99-M40

TECHNICAL PAPER

Effect of High Temperature on Residual Mechanical Properties of Confined and Unconfined High-Strength Concrete
by Bo Wu, Xiao-ping Su, Hui Li, and Jie Yuan
With the increasing use of high-strength concrete (fc > 60 MPa) in building construction, the risk of exposing these structures to high temperatures during a fire has increased significantly. To be able to assess the structural safety of such structures after a fire, it is important that the mechanical properties of the material be well assessed with regard to high-temperature effects. In this context, a study was conducted to investigate the residual mechanical properties of confined and unconfined high-strength concrete (fc = 70 MPa) after a single thermal cycle at 100, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600, 700, 800, and 900 C. An analytical model for the stress-strain relationship for uniaxially loaded high-strength concrete was empirically developed and was shown to be applicable to confined and unconfined concrete after a cycle at a high temperature. The main parameters required to establish the stress-strain relationship are the peak stress, the elastic modulus, and the strain at peak stress. Empirical expressions for these parameters were developed to take into account the temperature and the level of confinement. The knowledge of the residual mechanical properties of concrete is necessary whenever the thermally damaged structure is required to bear a significant share of the loads, even after a severe thermal accident.
Keywords: confined concrete; high-strength concrete; strain; stress; temperature rise.

INTRODUCTION With the development of high-range water-reducing admixtures and the use of silica fume, ready-mixed highstrength concrete (HSC) has become a commercial reality. HSC is one kind of high-performance concrete (HPC) that exhibits superior performance in many aspects (for example, possesses high strength, durability, and workability). As the use of HSC becomes commonplace in buildings, the risk of exposing it to high temperatures also increases. To be able to predict the response of structures that utilize HSC, after exposure to a high temperature, it is essential that the residual mechanical properties of HSC after a thermal cycle at a high temperature be clearly understood. In the 1960s and 1970s, the requirements of the Structural Fire Design promoted both the testing and the modeling of concrete subjected to high temperatures, but attention was limited to normal-strength concrete (NSC) ( fc < 50 MPa) because HSC was still in its infancy. As a result, exhaustive information on the thermohygral and thermomechanical properties of NSC is available.1-12 On the other hand, little information is available on HSC,13-17 with reference not only to thermal shocks (temperature rate 10 to 100 C/min) and progressive heating (as assumed in Structural Fire Design), but also to sustained temperatures (steady conditions13). For unconfined HSC after a thermal cycle at a high temperature, analytical models for the residual mechanical properties ACI Materials Journal/July-August 2002

have been established based on experimental data,16-17 but models for the residual mechanical properties of confined HSC after a thermal cycle at a high temperature have not yet been proposed. The main difference between confined and unconfined HSC is that lateral reinforcement provides passive confinement for confined HSC, whereas no confinement exists in unconfined HSC. The analysis of the residual properties of structural elements after a thermal cycle at a high temperature requires analytical models for the residual mechanical properties of concrete in compression, both in unconfined and confined states. As a rule, HSC is more sensitive to high temperatures because of their reduced porosity, with smaller and less interconnected pores, leading to steam-pressure buildup and a decrease in thermal diffusivity. In all cases, the temperature of 100 C is an important threshold, beyond which concrete permeability increases by two orders of magnitude (because of pore widening due to the vaporization of the adsorbed water; refer to Baant and Thonguthai18) and dehydration speeds up. Among the thermal loads, the thermal shocks are the most exacting because high-temperature gradients and steampressure peaks occur in the pores. Even worse (albeit with localized effects) is the case of hot spots, which may induce pressure peaks and tensile stresses greater than concrete strength in tension, followed by the explosive spalling of the concrete close to the heated surface. Even if sustained temperatures are less demanding, the tests carried out in steady conditions, or after a cycle with a long spell in steady conditions, are instrumental in characterizing the mechanical properties of the material.7 Within this context, the results presented herein regard confined and unconfined high-strength concrete (fc = 70 MPa), loaded up to collapse in uniaxial compression, after a cycle at a high temperature (100, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600, 700, 800, and 900 C). Of course, several tests at room temperature (20 C) were also carried out for comparison. BACKGROUND The test data on NSC show that the entire behavior in compression is deeply affected by temperature (100 to 800 C), in both transient and steady-state conditions. Among the factors affecting the shape of the stress-strain curve, the
ACI Materials Journal, V. 99, No. 4, July-August 2002. MS No. 01-263 received August 23, 2001, and reviewed under Institute publication policies. Copyright 2002, American Concrete Institute. All rights reserved, including the making of copies unless permission is obtained from the copyright proprietors. Pertinent discussion will be published in the May-June 2003 ACI Materials Journal if received by February 1, 2003.

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Bo Wu is a professor in the Department of Civil Engineering at South China University, Guangzhou, Peoples Republic of China. He received his PhD in engineering science from Harbin University of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Harbin, Peoples Republic of China, in 1993. His research interests include high-performance concrete, structural control, fire damage to structures, and smart materials. Xiao-ping Su is an assistant professor in the Department of Civil Engineering at Changchun Engineering Institute, Changchun, Peoples Republic of China. She received her MS in civil engineering from Harbin University of Civil Engineering and Architecture in 2000. Her research interests include high-strength concrete. Hui Li is a professor in the School of Engineering at the Harbin Institute of Technology. She received her PhD in engineering science from Harbin University of Civil Engineering and Architecture in 1994. Her research interests include high-performance concrete, structural control, and health monitoring of structures. Jie Yuan is an assistant professor in the School of Engineering at the Harbin Institute of Technology. He received his PhD in engineering science from the Harbin Institute of Technology in 2001. His research interests include high-strength concrete.

Fig. 1Geometry of test specimens. RESEARCH SIGNIFICANCE The objectives of this research are: 1) to evaluate the effects of a single high-temperature cycle on residual strength and elastic modulus of confined and unconfined HSC; 2) to measure the complete stress-strain curve of confined and unconfined silica fume HSC after a single thermal cycle at high temperature in compression; and 3) to identify the effect of lateral reinforcement on preventing explosive spalling of the test specimens (prisms). The importance of the objectives hardly need to be emphasized, because today more and more buildings and structures are built with a selective use of HSC; additionally, in many cases, heavy loads have to be carried, even after exposure to high temperatures. SPECIMEN PREPARATION The concrete mixture proportions are given in Table 1. The cement used was locally manufactured portland cement with an average 28-day compressive strength of 56.9 MPa. Natural river sand with a fineness modulus of 2.84 was used as the fine aggregate. The coarse aggregate was siliceous gravel. Silicafume powder with a density of 2.2 g/cm3 and a silicon dioxide content of 95% was used in the amount of 12% by weight of cement. The concrete was specified to have a 20 mm maximum aggregate size with a complete grain size distribution; the average 28-day prismatic compressive strength fc was 70 MPa. Standard prismatic specimens 100 x 100 mm in cross section by 315 mm in height were prepared. Three types of specimens (Groups A, B, and C; refer to Fig. 1) were tested. For specimens in Group B, five transverse ties of 6 mm diameter were used. For specimens in Group C, nine transverse ties of 6 mm diameter were used. For specimens in Group A, however, no transverse ties were used. The lateral confinement ratios sv for specimens in Groups A, B, and C are listed in Table 2, respectively; sv is defined as 4 A sh sv = svx + svy = ---------------st h (1)

Table 1Concrete mixture proportions


Components, kg/m3 Waterbinder Cement ratio C 0.27 500 High-range Silica Fine aggregate + water-reducing Slump, fc , cm MPa fume coarse aggregate admixture 60 (12% C) 530 + 1237 9 (1.8% C) 17 70

Table 2Details of specimens


sv Group A 0% Group B 1.5% Group C 3.0% fy, MPa 332 Es, MPa 2.1 105

aggregate-cement ratio (lean mixtures behave better), the type of aggregate (calcareous aggregates have an edge over siliceous and basaltic aggregates) and the test conditions (a sustained load during heating helps markedly) are cited.16 Furthermore, if the residual mechanical properties, after cooling down to room temperature, are at issue, other factors come into play such as the cooling rate (quasistatic processes are beneficial to the residual strength), the type of binder and aggregate (for instance, the siliceous aggregates and the pozzolanic additions reduce both the strength loss and the long-term recovery, after a thermal cycle), and the storage conditions (a sufficiently high relative humidity is beneficial to the mechanical recovery in the long run).16 The residual strength in compression after a cycle at a high temperature, however, is never higher than in a test at a high temperature. The same considerations apply to HSC, but it loses its compressive strength and stiffness more rapidly13,19 because of: 1) denser cement paste, which dries more slowly with higher steam-pressure peaks and less drying-hardening; 2) higher thermal expansion of the cement paste up to 200 C; 3) stress redistribution caused by the weakening of the mortar structure, to the detriment of the aggregate particles, which become overloaded; and 4) greater sensitivity to thermally induced defects due to the more homogeneous microstructure. Because the role of the cement paste in bearing the loads is far greater in HSC than in NSC, the ascending branch of the stress-strain curve is more linear and extended in HSC; but on the other hand, the failure of the cement paste tends to coincide with that of the aggregate. As a result, the postpeak branch is far steeper in HSC than in NSC, and the thermally induced ductility (which has been rarely measured in a hightemperature context) is more pronounced.15 400

where svx and svy are the lateral confinement ratios in two perpendicular directions; Ash(= 3.14 62/4 = 28.26 mm2) is the cross-sectional area of a transverse tie; st is the tie spacing; and h = 100 mm is the cross-sectional dimension of the specimen. Table 2 lists the yield strength fy and elastic modulus Es of the transverse ties. All prismatic specimens were cured in water (1 week) and in air (3 weeks) at room temperature, and then air-dried for at least 2 months before testing. The moisture content of the specimens at the time of testing was not measured. Both ends ACI Materials Journal/July-August 2002

Table 3Number of specimens failed in explosive manner


Nominal temperature, C 100 to 300 400 500 600 700 to 900 Specimen type Group A Groups B and C Group A Groups B and C Group A Groups B and C Group A Groups B and C Group A Groups B and C No. of specimens subjected to high temperature n 9 18 3 6 4 6 4 6 18 No. of specimens failed in explosive manner ne 0 0 2 0 3 0 4 0 0 ne / n, % 0 0 66.7 0 75 0 100 0 0

Fig. 2Typical failures in compression: (a) Group A: no ties; (b) Group B: light confinement; and (c) Group C: heavy confinement. of the prisms were ground to obtain a smooth surface. Then: 1) 10 specimens in Group A, five specimens in Group B, and five specimens in Group C were tested at 20 C as they were; 2) 12 specimens in Group A, 12 specimens in Group B, and 12 specimens in Group C were subjected to a single hightemperature cycle (100, 200, 300, and 400 C), and tested after 2 to 3 weeks of rest at 20 C; 3) eight specimens in ACI Materials Journal/July-August 2002 Group A, six specimens in Group B, and six specimens in Group C were subjected to a single high-temperature cycle (500 and 600 C), and tested after 2 to 3 weeks of rest at 20 C; and 4) nine specimens in Group B and nine specimens in Group C were subjected to a single high-temperature cycle (700, 800, and 900 C), and tested after 2 to 3 weeks of rest at 20 C. 401

Table 4Test results on prisms


fc (T), MPa T, C 20 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 Group A 70.0 68.3 67.4 65.8 56.5 39.6 Group B 78.0 77.3 73.5 80.0 69.1 54.1 36.5 32.7 20.1 18.0 Group C 89.1 90.4 90.7 85.4 77.0 66.7 52.1 43.2 28.9 25.8 Group A 2100 2100 2200 2300 2400 3100 0 (T), Group B 2800 2800 2900 2900 3500 4300 4900 5500 7500 9200 Group C 2950 3000 3200 3500 4500 5700 7070 9000 11,200 11,700 Ec (T), 104 MPa Group A 3.81 3.71 3.57 2.98 2.43 1.48 Group B 3.95 4.03 3.46 3.06 1.91 1.37 0.79 0.71 0.52 0.31 Group C 4.16 4.07 3.44 3.23 1.92 1.38 1.05 0.86 0.62 0.54

Table 5Percent residual peak stress after single thermal cycle


Temperature, C Group A Group B Group C 20 100% 100% 100% 100 97.6% 99.1% 200 96.3% 300 94.0% 400 80.7% 86.4% 500 56.6% 69.4% 74.9% 600 46.8% 58.5% 700 41.9% 48.5% 800 25.8% 32.4% 900 23.1% 29.0%

94.2% 102.6% 88.6%

101.5% 101.9% 95.8%

THERMAL CYCLES During the heating process, the temperature in the furnace increased at a rate of 10 C/min to identify the effect of lateral reinforcement on preventing explosive spalling of HSC at a high heating rate (for example, in an actual fire). After the heating process, the nominal temperature in the furnace was kept constant for 4 h. Subsequently, the prismatic specimens were cooled down naturally to 200 C in the opened furnace, and then reached the room temperature in air. Table 3 lists the number of specimens that failed due to explosive spalling during the thermal cycle. It can be seen from Table 3 that: For specimens in Group A (unconfined HSC), the larger the nominal temperature, the greater the explosive spalling ratio n e /n; and For specimens in Groups B and C (confined HSC), no specimen failed during the thermal cycle, which implies that transverse ties are helpful in preventing HSC subjected to high temperatures from explosive spalling. During the thermal cycle at 600 C, four unconfined specimens failed in an explosive manner; consequently, the exposure to temperatures in the range of 700 to 900 C was meaningless for the specimens in Group A. TEST PROCEDURE Except for nine prismatic specimens in Group A (which exploded during the thermal cycle), 85 prisms were tested in uniaxial compression, and the stress-strain curves were measured. Some details on the technology and instrumentation are given as follows: The end sections of the prismatic specimens were ground and polished to guarantee both parallelism and planarity; The end sections of the specimens were lubricated with a thin layer of stearic acid to reduce prism-to-platen friction; The tests were performed with a hydraulic press; the shortening of the specimen was measured by means of two linear-voltage displacement transducers (LVDTs); and The tests were carried out at a constant shortening rate. The control variable was the shortening of the specimen. In the tests of unconfined concrete, the material 402

was so brittle that the falling branch could not be obtained, but in the tests of confined concrete, the material was softer, and the falling branch was obtained. Typical failures in compression for specimens in Groups A, B, and C are shown in Fig. 2 (a) through (c). RESULTS AND DISCUSSION For the specimens in Groups A, B, and C after a single thermal cycle at 100, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600, 700, 800, and 900 C, the peak stress, the strain at the peak stress, and the secant modulus of elasticity at 40% of the expected peak stress, are listed in Table 4, respectively, with each datum being the average of several nominally identical tests. For comparison, the results for specimens in Groups A, B, and C tested at 20 C are listed in Table 4, each datum again being the average of several nominally identical specimens. Herein, T is the nominal temperature of the thermal cycle; f c(T), 0(T), and Ec (T) are, respectively, the peak stress, the strain at the peak stress, and the secant modulus of elasticity of concrete after a single thermal cycle at temperature T. Peak stress Figure 3 shows the variation of the residual peak stress of confined and unconfined specimens with the nominal temperature of the thermal cycle. Each point in the figure represents the peak stress normalized with respect to the average peak stress of 10 unconfined virgin specimens (Group A) tested at 20 C. Based on the test results listed in Table 4, the loss of the residual peak stress resulting from a single thermal cycle, and the increase of the residual peak stress due to the confinement can be calculated (Table 5 and 6). It can be seen from Fig. 3, and Table 5 and 6 that: The residual peak stresses of both confined and unconfined HSC specimens appear to follow a common trend; For both the confined and unconfined HSC, the peak stress does not vary significantly within the temperature range of 100 to 300 C; In the temperature range of 300 to 900 C, the peak stress in each case drops markedly. At these temperatures, the dehydration of the cement paste results in its ACI Materials Journal/July-August 2002

Table 6Percent residual peak stress with favorable effects of confinement


Temperature, C Group A Group B Group C 20 100% 111.4% 127.3% 100 100% 113.2% 132.4% 200 100% 109.1% 134.6% 300 100% 121.6% 129.8% 400 100% 122.3% 136.3% 500 100% 136.6% 168.4% 600

Table 7Increase in peak strain resulting from single thermal cycle


Temperature, C Group A Group B Group C 20 100% 100% 100% 100 100% 100% 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 104.8% 109.5% 114.3% 147.6%

103.6% 103.6% 125.0% 153.6% 175.0% 196.4% 267.9% 328.6%

101.7% 108.5% 118.6% 152.5% 193.2% 239.7% 305.1% 379.7% 396.6%

Table 8Increase in peak strain due to confinement of transverse ties


Temperature, C Group A Group B Group C 20 100% 133.3% 140.5% 100 100% 133.3% 142.9% 200 100% 131.8% 145.5% 300 100% 126.1% 152.2% 400 100% 145.8% 187.5% 500 100% 138.7% 183.9% 600

gradual disintegration. Because the paste tends to shrink and the aggregate tends to expand at high temperatures, the bond between the aggregate and the paste is weakened, thus gradually reducing the residual concrete strength;15 With an increase in the lateral confinement ratio sv, the residual peak stress increases. For confined HSC specimens, the presence of lateral reinforcement provides passive confinement and exposes the concrete to a multiaxial state of stress, thus increasing the residual peak stress of HSC; and In the temperature range of 500 to 900 C, increasing the lateral confinement ratio leads to more limited losses in terms of peak stress, after a single thermal cycle (Table 5). A regression analysis was carried out on the experimental results for the residual peak stress of confined and unconfined specimens. The resulting expression is

A+BT f c ( T ) fc = C + D T + E T2
with A = B = C = D = E =

( 0 T 300 C ) ( 300 < T 900 C )

(2)

Fig. 3Plots of peak stress versus nominal temperature. on the test results listed in Table 4, the increase of peak strain resulting from a single thermal cycle, and the increase of peak strain due to the confinement can be calculated (Table 7 and 8). It can be seen from Fig. 4, and Table 7 and 8 that: The peak strains of both confined and unconfined HSC specimens appear to follow a common trend; For both the confined and unconfined HSC, the peak strain does not vary significantly within the temperature range of 100 to 300 C; In the temperature range of 300 to 900 C, the peak strain in each case increases considerably; The larger the lateral confinement ratio sv, the larger the peak strain; and In the temperature range of 400 to 900 C, increasing the lateral confinement ratio leads to even greater peak strains, after a single thermal cycle (Table 7). A regression analysis was carried out on the experimental results for the peak strain of confined and unconfined specimens. The resulting expression is

2 1.0013 + 1.1173sv + 6.8678sv ; 2 (2.0396 + 9.9025sv 49 sv ) 104; 0.687 + 21.104sv 93.60332 ; sv 0.00247 0.1058sv + 0.52752 ; sv (5.5422 + 136.583sv 670.2042 ) 106; and sv 0 sv 0.14 where fc(T)is the residual peak stress of HSC after a single thermal cycle at temperature T; fc is the peak stress of unconfined HSC at room temperature; sv = sv fy /fc ; fy is the yield strength of the transverse ties at room temperature; and the lateral confinement ratio sv is defined in Eq. (1). Figure 3 shows the proposed relationship against the experimental results. As can be seen, Eq. (2) fits the residual peak stress of confined and unconfined HSC quite well.

Peak strain (strain corresponding to peak stress) Figure 4 shows the evolution of the peak strain of confined and unconfined specimens with the nominal temperature of the thermal cycle. Each point in the figure represents the peak strain normalized with respect to the average peak strain of 10 unconfined virgin specimens (Group A) tested at 20 C. Based ACI Materials Journal/July-August 2002

0 ( T ) 0 = A + B T + C T (0 900 C)
with

(3)

403

Table 9Loss of elastic modulus resulting from single thermal cycle


Temperature, C Group A Group B Group C 20 100% 100% 100% 100 97.4% 97.8% 200 93.7% 82.7% 300 78.2% 77.5% 77.6% 400 63.8% 48.4% 46.2% 500 38.8% 34.7% 33.2% 600 20.0% 25.2% 700 18.0% 20.7% 800 13.2% 14.9% 900 7.8% 13.0%

102.0% 87.6%

Table 10Variation in elastic modulus due to confinement of transverse ties


Temperature, C Group A Group B Group C 20 100% 103.7% 109.2% 100 100% 108.6% 109.7% 200 100% 96.9% 96.4% 300 100% 102.7% 108.4% 400 100% 78.6% 79.0% 500 100% 92.6% 93.2% 600

Fig. 4Plots of peak strain versus nominal temperature. A = 1.0365 + 8.2436 sv 36.1143 2 ; sv B = (7.8805 211.8473 sv + 1104.0347 2 ) 104; sv C = (3.0083 31.1597sv + 476.5653 2sv) 106; and 0 sv 0.14 where 0(T) is the peak strain of HSC after a single thermal cycle at temperature T; and 0 is the peak strain of unconfined HSC at room temperature. Figure 4 shows the proposed relationship against the experimental results. As can be seen, Eq. (3) gives a good estimate of the peak strain of confined and unconfined HSC. Elastic modulus Figure 5 shows the variation of the elastic modulus of confined and unconfined specimens with the nominal temperature of the thermal cycle. Each point in the figure represents the elastic modulus normalized with respect to the average elastic modulus of 10 unconfined virgin specimens (Group A) tested at 20 C. Based on the test results listed in Table 4, the loss of elastic modulus resulting from a single thermal cycle, and the variation in elastic modulus due to the confinement of transverse ties, can be calculated (Table 9 and 10). It can be seen from Fig. 5, and Table 9 and 10 that: The elastic moduli of both confined and unconfined HSC specimens appear to follow a common trend; For both the confined and unconfined HSC, the elastic modulus drops sharply in the temperature range of 200 to 600 C, and drops gradually in the temperature ranges of 100 to 200 C and 600 to 900 C; By increasing the lateral confinement ratio sv , the elastic modulus does not vary significantly. The elastic 404

Fig. 5Plots of elastic modulus versus nominal temperature. modulus measured in this study is the secant modulus of elasticity at 40% of the expected peak stressat this state of stress, the expansion of the concrete is limited and the effect of confinement is slight, thus the elastic modulus does not vary significantly with an increase in sv; and For both confined and unconfined HSC, the detrimental effect of a thermal cycle on the elastic modulus is even more pronounced than on the peak stress. A regression analysis was carried out on the experimental results for the elastic modulus of confined and unconfined specimens. The resulting expression is

1.028 0.00039T ( 20 T 200 C ) E c ( T ) E c = 1.31 0.0018T ( 200 T 600 C ) (4) 0.438 0.00033T ( 600 T 900 C )
where Ec(T) is the elastic modulus of HSC after a single thermal cycle at temperature T; and Ec is the elastic modulus of unconfined HSC at room temperature. Figure 5 shows the proposed relationship against the experimental results. As can be seen, Eq. (4) fits the elastic modulus of confined and unconfined HSC quite well. Stress-strain curves Typical stress-strain curves for specimens of Groups A, B, and C, and for the different temperature levels, are shown in Fig. 6. The material response was very brittle for unconfined ACI Materials Journal/July-August 2002

(a)

(a)

(b)

(b)

(c) (c) Fig. 6Stress-strain curves: (a) Group A; (b) Group B; and (c) Group C. concretes (Group A) up to 300 C, with a more or less pronounced snap-back, which was fostered by the slenderness of the specimens. Beyond 300 C, both confined (Groups B and C) and unconfined (Group A) specimens softened, to the detriment of the strength (= peak stress; refer to Fig. 3) and to the advantage of the strain corresponding to the peak stress (Fig. 4). It can be seen from Fig. 6 that, in the temperature range of 300 to 900 C, increasing the nominal temperature of the thermal cycle makes the stress-strain curve for both confined and unconfined HSC flatter. ACI Materials Journal/July-August 2002 Fig. 7Nondimensional stress-strain curves: (a) Group A; (b) Group B; and (c) Group C. The nondimensional stress-strain curves for specimens of Groups A, B, and C, and for the different temperature levels, are shown in Fig. 7. It can be seen from Fig. 7 that: The scatter of the experimental results in the descending branch is higher than that in the ascending branch; and Increasing the lateral confinement ratio makes the descending branch flatter. A regression analysis was carried out on the experimental results for the nondimensional stress-strain curves of confined and unconfined specimens. The resulting expression is 405

(a)

(b)

(c) Fig. 8Stress-strain curves: (a) Group A*; (b) Group B*; and (c) Group C*.
2 3 Ax + Bx + Cx ( 0 x 1 ) y = x (x 1) ------------------------------2 D(x 1 ) + x

(5)

with A = 0.8 + 1.2932sv + 29.6366 2 ; sv 406

B = 1.4 2.5934sv 59.1745 2 ; sv C = 1.2 + 1.3002sv + 29.5378 2 ; sv 2 D = 4.52 42.6255sv + 160.9268 sv ; and 0 sv 0.14 where y = /fc(T) and x = /0(T). The nondimensional experimental stress-strain curves for specimens of Group A, B, and C are compared with the model prediction using Eq. (5) (Fig. 7). In spite of the scatter of the experimental results in the descending branch, Eq. (5) provides a reasonably good fitting. Figure 8 shows the effect of ring-ties on the residual stressstrain characteristics of NSC after a single thermal cycle at a high temperature.20 The cylindrical specimens 100 mm in diameter by 200 mm in height were cast in three different types: Groups A*, B*, and C*. For specimens of Group B*, six ring-ties of 2 mm diameter were used. For specimens of Group C*, nine ring ties of 2 mm diameter were used, but for specimens of Group A*, no ring-ties were used. The vertical spacing between the ties was 28.0 and 17.5 mm for the sixand nine-ring specimens, respectively. The lateral confinement ratios sv for specimens of Groups A*, B*, and C* were 0, 0.38, and 0.6%, respectively. During the heating process, the heating rate in the furnace was 16 C/min. The cooling process consisted of quenching the specimens in a water bath for 1 h, then cooling them in air for 23 h. It can be seen from Fig. 8, 6, 3, and 4 that: For both the confined and unconfined NSC, the peak stress does not vary significantly within the temperature range of 100 to 300 C, but in the temperature range of 400 to 700 C, the peak stress drops markedly in each case; The detrimental effect of a thermal cycle on the peak stress of NSC is similar to that on the peak stress of HSC. After considering the difference between the cooling process in the authors tests and that in Terro and Hamoushs tests, and the fact that a quasistatic cooling process is beneficial to the residual strength,16 the detrimental effect of a thermal cycle on the peak stress of HSC may be more pronounced than that on the peak stress of NSC, under the condition that the cooling processes for HSC and NSC are identical; and With an increase in the heating temperature, the peak strain of confined and unconfined NSC has a more profound increase than that of confined and unconfined HSC, even though the lateral confinement ratios sv of specimens of Groups B* and C* in Terro and Hamoushs tests are less than those of specimens of Group B and Group C in the authors tests. The specimens in the authors tests are relatively small, so during the constant temperature period of 4 h that follows the heating process, the maximum temperatures at different locations of a specimen were almost identical. For a largesize HSC member during an actual fire, however, the maximum temperatures at different locations of the member are often different, leading to the varying quality of the fire-damaged concrete with the concrete location. In this way, the passive confinement provided by the lateral reinforcement for confined HSC after the fire varies with the location of the concrete. This is because the effect of confinement depends not only on the arrangement of ties and the amount of lateral reinforcement, but also on the quality of the concrete. Therefore, some modifications need to be introduced to Eq. (2), (3), and (5). Based on the results obtained in this study, a primary analysis has been conducted to investigate the effect of temperature distribution in a large-size HSC member on ACI Materials Journal/July-August 2002

the residual mechanical properties of confined HSC, 21 but further research in this specific subject is desirable. CONCLUSIONS Based on the results obtained in this study, the following conclusions can be drawn: 1. Transverse ties are helpful in preventing HSC subjected to high temperatures from explosive spalling; 2. The residual peak stresses of both confined and unconfined HSC specimens appear to follow a common trend. The peak stress does not vary significantly within the temperature range of 100 to 300 C, but in the temperature range of 300 to 900 C, the peak stress drops sharply. Furthermore, the larger the lateral confinement ratio sv, the greater the residual peak stress; 3. The peak strain of both confined and unconfined HSC specimens also appears to follow a common trend. The peak strain does not vary significantly within the temperature range of 100 to 300 C, but in the temperature range of 300 to 900 C, the peak strain greatly increases. Again, the larger the lateral confinement ratio sv, the greater the peak strain; 4. The elastic modulus of both confined and unconfined HSC specimens are similarly affected by a thermal cycle. The elastic modulus drops sharply within the temperature range of 200 to 600 C, and more gradually within the temperature ranges of 100 to 200 C and 600 to 900 C, but increasing the lateral confinement ratio sv does not help very much. For both confined and unconfined HSC, the detrimental effect of a thermal cycle on the elastic modulus is even more pronounced than that on the residual peak stress; 5. In the temperature range of 300 to 900 C, increasing the nominal temperature of the thermal cycle makes the stress-strain curve for both confined and unconfined HSC flatter; 6. It is possible to formulate, in a simple but efficient way, the relationships between the residual peak stress, the corresponding strain and the elastic modulus, and the temperature for both confined and unconfined HSC; and 7. Although the scatter of the experimental results is far from marginal in the descending branch of the nondimensional stress-strain curves, a simple but reliable relationship can be formulated between the stress and the strain in the concrete for both confined and unconfined HSC. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The authors wish to thank the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Project 59678034) for providing the financial support for this investigation.

T 0 0(T)

= = =

sv = svx, svy = , =

temperature peak strain of concrete at room temperature residual peak strain of concrete after single thermal cycle at temperature T lateral confinement ratio lateral confinement ratios in two perpendicular directions, respectively stress and strain of concrete, respectively

REFERENCES
1. Malhotra, H. L., Effect of Temperature on the Compressive Strength of Concrete, Magazine of Concrete Research, V. 8, No. 23, 1956, pp. 85-94. 2. Harmathy, T. Z., Effect of Moisture on the Fire Endurance in Building Materials, Moisture in Materials in Relation to Fire Test, ASTM Technical Publication No. 385, 1965, pp. 74-95. 3. Abrams, M. S., Compressive Strength of Concrete at Temperatures to 1600 F, Temperature and Concrete, SP-25, American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, Mich., 1971, pp. 33-58. 4. Anderberg, J., and Thelandersson, S., Stress and Deformation Characteristics of Concrete at High Temperatures, Bulletin 54, Lund Institute of Technology, Sweden, 1976. 5. Naus, D. J.; Oland, C. B.; and Robinson, G. C., Testing Program for Concrete at Temperatures to 894 K, Transactions, 6th SMiRT International Conference, Paris, 1981. 6. Thelandersson, S., On the Multiaxial Behavior of Concrete Exposed to High Temperature, Nuclear Engineering and Design, V. 75, 1982, pp. 271-282. 7. Khoury, G. A., Compressive Strength of Concrete at High Temperatures: A Reassessment, Magazine of Concrete Research, V. 44, No. 161, 1992, pp. 291-309. 8. RILEM-Committee 44-PHT, Behavior of Concrete at High Temperatures, U. Schneider, ed., Dept. of Civil Engineering, Gesamthochschule, Kassel University, Kassel, Germany, 1985, 122 pp. 9. Papayianni, J., and Valiasis, T., Residual Mechanical Properties of Heated Concrete Incorporating Different Pozzolanic Materials, Materials and Structures, RILEM, V. 24, 1991, pp. 115-121. 10. Takeuchi, M.; Hiramoto, M.; Kumagai, N.; Yamazaki, N.; Kodaira, A.; and Sugiyama, K., Materials Properties of Concrete and Steel Bars at Elevated Temperatures, Transactions, 12th SMiRT International Conference, Stuttgart, 1993. 11. Wu, B.; Ma, Z. C.; and Ou, J. P., Stress-Strain Relationship of Concrete under Cyclic Loading after High Temperature up to 800 C, Earthquake Engineering and Engineering Vibration, V. 17, No. 3, 1997, pp. 36-43. (in Chinese) 12. Wu, B.; Ma, Z. C.; and Ou, J. P., Experimental Research on Deformation and Constitutive Relationship of Concrete under Axial Loading and High Temperature, Journal of Building Structures, V. 20, No. 5, 1999, pp. 42-49. (in Chinese) 13. Diederichs, U.; Jumppanen, U. M.; and Penttala, V., Material Properties of High-Strength Concrete at Elevated Temperatures, Transactions, 13th IABSE Congress, Helsinki, Finland, 1988, pp. 489-494. 14. FIP-CEB, High-Strength Concrete: State of the Art Report, Bulletin dInformation, No. 197, Working Group on High-Strength Concrete, 1990, 61 pp. 15. Castillo, C., and Durrani, A. J., Effect of Transient High Temperature on High-Strength Concrete, ACI Materials Journal, V. 87, No. 1, Jan-Feb. 1990, pp. 47-53. 16. Felicetti, R., and Gambarova, P. G., Effects of High Temperature on the Residual Compressive Strength of High-Strength Siliceous Concretes, ACI Materials Journal, V. 95, No. 4, July-Aug. 1998, pp. 395-406. 17. Wu, B.; Yuan, J.; and Wang, G. Y., Experimental Research on the Mechanical Properties of HSC after High Temperature, China Civil Engineering Journal, V. 33, No. 2, 2000, pp. 8-12. (in Chinese) 18. Baant, Z. P., and Thonguthai, W., Pore Pressure in Heated Concrete Walls: Theoretical Prediction, Magazine of Concrete Research, V. 31, No. 107, 1979, pp. 67-76. 19. Diederichs, U.; Jumppanen, U. M.; and Penttala, V., Behavior of High-Strength Concrete at High Temperatures, Report No. 92, Helsinki University of Technology, Helsinki, Finland, 1989, 76 pp. 20. Terro, M. J., and Hamoush, S. A., Effect of Confinement on Siliceous Aggregate Concrete Subjected to Elevated Temperatures and Cyclic Heating, ACI Materials Journal, V. 94, No. 2, Mar.-Apr., 1997, pp. 83-89. 21. Su, X. P., The Constitutive Relationship of Confined HSC and Seismic Behavior of Repaired HSC Structures after Fire, MSc thesis, Harbin University of Civil Engineering and Architecture, 2000, 77 pp. (in Chinese)

CONVERSION FACTORS
1 mm 1N 1 MPa 1 C = = = = 0.0394 in. 0.225 lb 145 psi (5/9(F 32)

NOTATION
Ash Ec Ec(T) Es fc fc(T) fy h n ne st = = = = = = = = = = = cross-sectional area of transverse tie elastic modulus of concrete at room temperature residual elastic modulus of concrete after single thermal cycle at temperature T elastic modulus of transverse tie peak stress of concrete at room temperature residual peak stress of concrete after single thermal cycle at temperature T yield strength of transverse tie at room temperature cross-sectional dimension of specimen number of specimens subjected to high temperature number of specimens that failed in explosive manner tie spacing

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