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Dissertation

Project on the Topic

A study on Data Services with special reference to Internet connectivity in Imphal city & Usage pattern of Internet Subscribers with special reference to BSNL Data Services in Imphal Area

Submitted to :
Punjab Technical University, in the partial fulfillment of the requirement of the Degree of Master of Business Administration(2007-2009)

Submitted by :
Thokchom Sonamani Singh MBA IV Semester Roll No:720440034

Under the guidance of

Shri Gogo Athokpam Faculty Member, ITCTC, RIMS Road Imphal

PUNJAB TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY


JALANDHAR

CERTIFICATE

Certified that Mr. Thokchom Sonamani Singh MBA IV semester has completed his dissertation entitled A study on Data Services with special reference to Internet connectivity in Imphal city & Usage pattern of Internet Subscribers with special reference to BSNL Data Services in Imphal Area under my supervision. To the best of my knowledge and belief, the work is based on investigation made, data collected and analyzed by him and it has not been submitted to any University or institute for the award of any degree or diploma.

(L. Bedananda Singh) Chief Co-ordinator ITCTC, RIMS Road Imphal

(Shri Gogo Athokpam) Faculty Member, ITCTC, RIMS Road Imphal

CERTIFICATE
Certified that Mr. Thokchom Sonamani Singh of MBA IV semester has completed his dissertation entitled A study on Data Services with special reference to Internet connectivity in Imphal city & Usage pattern of Internet Subscribers with special reference to BSNL Data Services in Imphal Areaunder my supervision. To the best of my knowledge and belief, the work is based on investigation made, data collected and analyzed by him and it has not been submitted to any University or institute for the award of any degree or diploma.

DECLARATION

I, the undersigned, hereby declare that the research work entitled- A study on Data Services with special reference to Internet connectivity in Imphal city & Usage pattern of Internet Subscribers with special reference to BSNL Data Services in Imphal Area is taken up as a dissertation work under the guidance of Shri Gogo Athokpam, Faculty Member,ITCTC, Punjab Technical University and submitted in partial fulfillment of requirements of the degree of Master of Business Administration (MBA) of Information Technology and Computer Training Center (ITCTC) for the academic session of 2008-2009 of Punjab Technical University.

Date : Place: (Thokchom Sonamani Singh) MBA 4th Semester


Roll No. 720440034

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

In the preparation of my dissertation on A study on Data Services

with special reference to Internet connectivity in Imphal city & Usage pattern of Internet Subscribers with special reference to BSNL Data Services in Imphal Area within a short span of time,
many person rendered to me and their valuable time and cooperation. I am highly indebted to, who rendered all the necessary guidance, made valuable suggestions and all the required assistance of the dissertation. Lastly, I extend my gratitude to the respondents who gave their kind cooperation in furnishing all the necessary information sought for the preparation of the dissertation during the course of investigation.

Thokchom Sonamani SIngh Date : Place : Imphal


Roll No. 720440034 MBA IV Semester Punjab Technical University

PREFACE
With the emergence of the new information era during the past few decades, the world has become a information based system where all the activities, transaction, business process, integrative development, innovation, creativity etc. will rely on solely or collectively. As one of the information subsystem the Internet has evolved into the rapid developing global scenario with progressive and innovative framework. Everyone needs information today for various purposes and activities, this may bring to the different implication over the society, cultural, behavioral and other different factors at large. We may get an opportunity for the study of the implication out of it in different dimension an wide ranges of aspects. This research explore the areas where the impact and implication from the uses of internet and the technological integration in terms of connectivity and different upcoming mode of communication. The research works carried out with special reference to Imphal city will focus on the Internet uses characteristics and the connectivity technologies preference with regard to the futuristic technological upcoming. This dissertation is divided into: Chapter I : The heading introduction discusses a brief introduction to the topic, the main and specific objectives, the research methodology used and the limitations of the study. Chapter II : Explaining the emerging trend in the internet technology, the different aspects of the uses of internet, Overview of the internet immergence at the Imphal, Different connectivity technology introduced . Chapter III : Data analysis, qualitative and quantitative study of the data collected ; on the internet uses by different segment of uses and the connectivity preferences survey data analysis. Chapter IV : Future of the Internet and upcoming technologies, role of Wireless technologies in the coming years , Conclusion, recommendations and summary.

CONTENT
Certificate Acknowledgement Preface Chapter I : Introduction 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Objectives 1.3 Research Methodology 1.4 Limitation Chapter II : Evolution of Internet and Network 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Emerging trend in the internet technology 2.3 Introduction of Internet and its emergence in Imphal 2.4 Internet Connectivity technologies Chapter III : 3.1 Data analysis interpretation 3.2 Findings Conclusion Chapter IV : Innovative technologies 4.1 Emerging wireless technologies Appendices Acronyms Questionnaire Bibliography

1-4 5 6 6

7 8-11 12-14 15-19

20-30 31-32 35

34-37

1.1 INTRODUCTION
With the development of information system and connectivity with globalisation, the people around the world are getting connected day by day with the framework of technology and communication system. This chapter enclosed the section covering the issues of emerging trends in the internet technology and its introduction with special reference to Imphal. This chapter also encompasses the connectivity technologies and new upcoming issues with regard to wireless communication. The Internet is a worldwide, publicly accessible series of interconnected computer networks that transmit data by packet switching using the standard Internet Protocol (IP). It is a "network of networks" that consists of millions of smaller domestic, academic, business, and government networks, which together carry various information and services, such as electronic mail, online chat, file transfer, and the interlinked web pages and other resources of the World Wide Web (WWW). Terminology The Internet and the World Wide Web are not one and the same. The Internet is a collection of interconnected computer networks, linked by copper wires, fiber-optic cables, wireless connections, etc. In contrast, the Web is a collection of interconnected documents and other resources, linked by hyperlinks and URLs. The World Wide Web is one of the services accessible via the Internet, along with various others including e-mail, file sharing, online gaming and others described below. However, "the Internet" and "the Web" are commonly used interchangeably in non-technical settings. History The USSR's launch of Sputnik spurred the United States to create the Advanced Research Projects Agency, known as ARPA, in February 1958 to regain a technological lead.ARPA created the Information Processing Technology Office (IPTO) to further the research of the Semi Automatic Ground Environment (SAGE) program, which had networked country-wide radar systems together for the first time. J. C. R. Licklider was selected to head the IPTO, and saw universal networking as a potential unifying human revolution. Licklider moved from the Psycho-Acoustic Laboratory at Harvard University to MIT in 1950, after becoming interested in information technology. At MIT, he served on a committee that established Lincoln Laboratory and worked on the SAGE project. In 1957 he became a Vice

President at BBN, where he bought the first production PDP-1 computer and conducted the first public demonstration of time-sharing. At the IPTO, Licklider recruited Lawrence Roberts to head a project to implement a network, and Roberts based the technology on the work of Paul Baran,who had written an exhaustive study for the U.S. Air Force that recommended packet switching (as opposed to circuit switching) to make a network highly robust and survivable. After much work, the first two nodes of what would become the ARPANET were interconnected between UCLA and SRI International in Menlo Park, California, on October 29, 1969. The ARPANET was one of the "eve" networks of today's Internet. Following on from the demonstration that packet switching worked on the ARPANET, the British Post Office, Telenet, DATAPAC and TRANSPAC collaborated to create the first international packet-switched network service. In the UK, this was referred to as the International Packet Stream Service (IPSS), in 1978. The collection of X.25based networks grew from Europe and the US to cover Canada, Hong Kong and Australia by 1981. The X.25 packet switching standard was developed in the CCITT (now called ITU-T) around 1976. X.25 was independent of the TCP/IP protocols that arose from the experimental work of DARPA on the ARPANET, Packet Radio Net and Packet Satellite Net during the same time period. Vinton Cerf and Robert Kahn developed the first description of the TCP protocols during 1973 and published a paper on the subject in May 1974. Use of the term "Internet" to describe a single global TCP/IP network originated in December 1974 with the publication of RFC 675, the first full specification of TCP that was written by Vinton Cerf, Yogen Dalal and Carl Sunshine, then at Stanford University. During the next nine years, work proceeded to refine the protocols and to implement them on a wide range of operating systems. The first TCP/IP-wide area network was made operational by January 1, 1983 when all hosts on the ARPANET were switched over from the older NCP protocols to TCP/IP. In 1985, the United States' National Science Foundation (NSF) commissioned the construction of a university 56 kilobit/second network backbone using computers called "fuzzballs" by their inventor, David L. Mills. The following year, NSF sponsored the development of a higher-speed 1.5 megabit/second backbone that became the NSFNet. A key decision to use the DARPA TCP/IP protocols was made by Dennis Jennings, then in charge of the Supercomputer program at NSF. The opening of the network to commercial interests began in 1988. The US Federal Networking Council approved the interconnection of the NSFNET to the commercial MCI Mail system in that year and the link was made in the summer of 1989. Other commercial electronic e-mail services were soon connected, including OnTyme, Telemail and Compuserve. In that same year,three commercial Internet Service Providers were created: UUNET,

PSINET and CERFNET. Important, separate networks that offered gateways into, then later merged with, the Internet include Usenet and BITNET. Various other commercial and educational networks, such as Telenet, Tymnet, Compuserve and JANET were interconnected with the growing Internet. Telenet (later called Sprintnet) was a large privately funded national computer network with free dial-up access in cities throughout the U.S. that had been in operation since the 1970s. This network was eventually interconnected with the others in the 1980s as the TCP/IP protocol became increasingly popular. The ability of TCP/IP to work over virtually any preexisting communication networks allowed for a great ease of growth, although the rapid growth of the Internet was due primarily to the availability of commercial routers from companies such as Cisco Systems, Proteon and Juniper, the availability of commercial Ethernet equipment for local-area networking and the widespread implementation of TCP/IP on the UNIX operating system. Growth Although the basic applications and guidelines that make the Internet possible had existed for almost a decade, the network did not gain a public face until the 1990s. On August 6, 1991, CERN, which straddles the border between France and Switzerland, publicized the new World Wide Web project. The Web was invented by English scientist Tim Berners-Lee in 1989. An early popular web browser was ViolaWWW, based upon HyperCard. It was eventually replaced in popularity by the Mosaic web browser. In 1993, the National Center for Supercomputing Applications at the University of Illinois released version 1.0 of Mosaic, and by late 1994 there was growing public interest in the previously academic, technical Internet. By 1996 usage of the word Internet had become commonplace, and consequently, so had its use as a synecdoche in reference to the World Wide Web. Meanwhile, over the course of the decade, the Internet successfully accommodated the majority of previously existing public computer networks (although some networks, such as FidoNet, have remained separate). During the 1990s, it was estimated that the Internet grew by 100% per year, with a brief period of explosive growth in 1996 and 1997. This growth is often attributed to the lack of central administration, which allows organic growth of the network, as well as the non-proprietary open nature of the Internet protocols, which encourages vendor interoperability and prevents any one company from exerting too much control over the network. Today's Internet The My Opera Community server rack. From the top, user file storage (content of files.myopera.com), "bigma" (the master MySQL database server), and two IBM blade centers containing multipurpose machines

(Apache front ends, Apache back ends, slave MySQL database servers, load balancers, file servers, cache servers and sync masters). Aside from the complex physical connections that make up its infrastructure, the Internet is facilitated by bi- or multilateral commercial contracts (e.g., peering agreements), and by technical specifications or protocols that describe how to exchange data over the network. Indeed, the Internet is essentially defined by its interconnections and routing policies.

1.2 OBJECTIVES:
Main Objectives: A study on Data Services with special reference to Internet connectivity in Imphal city & Usage pattern of Internet Subscribers with special reference to BSNL Data Services in Imphal Area. Specific Objectives:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. To determine the awareness level of different data services available for connecting internet. To find out the type of data service that respondent/consumer is using. To determine the usage patterns of the consumers. To determine the price range and preferred payment mode of the service. To determine the brand preference of data connection. To study the factors influencing the choice of data services. To study the factors for uses of internet

1.3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY:


The research methodology which was followed for conducting this study is discussed under the following heads. 1. Topic: A study on Data Services with special reference to Internet connectivity in Imphal city & Usage pattern of Internet Subscribers with special reference to BSNL Data Services in Imphal Area 2. Type of research: Research design: The research design or the type of research used is exploratory research. 3. 4. Operational area of study: The operational area of the study was conducted in Imphal city. Type of universe: The sampling units of the study are those respondents who are staying within the operational area.

5. 6. 7.

Size of the sample: The sample size of the study is 100. Sampling technique: The sampling technique employed for these study is non probability convenient sampling. Data collection method: The method of data collection is questionnaire method cum interview. In this research all the data are collected personally through the questionnaire. For the purpose of the study, structured undisguised questionnaire consisting of open end and multiple choice have been used.

8. 9.

Type of data required: The data required for the study is primary data. Finding and conclusion: All the respondents which were obtained through questionnaire methods analyses and interpreted for drawing the conclusion.

1.4 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY:


1. 2. 3. The sample size does not cover the universal population. The study is limited to some selected area of Imphal city. True generalization cannot be arrived due to small sample size.

2.2 Emerging trend in the Internet Technology


The Internet The Internet has opened up many opportunities, from finding out information, conducting communications globally, e.g. through email, voice mail, skype, ecommerce or generally just having fun through on line chats or instant messaging. One often wonders: How did people manage before the time of the Internet? How much harder was it for people to communicate and find out information they need, quickly and easily? A PC connected to the Internet whether through a dialup connection, broadband or Wi-Fi has indeed made it a facile act for many peoples. Teaching PC--Internet based ICT is currently used within the English school curriculum. This kind of ICT (amongst others) is now seen as a core subject that is taught in some primary and secondary schools. The major advantage to this development is ICT has become a transferable subject. Computers or interactive whiteboards are now used across most school subjects as well as innovative schools using more technology like PDA's, Mobile (cell) phones and some games consoles. The interaction created by the use of this ICT makes lessons much more effective and allow children to learn in a way that they enjoy. Communications Apart from Internet a PC allows communication of information through Compact Discs, pen drives, printers, whether laser or inkjet, flash memory cards and exchange of information within a local network through LAN. Work related aspects. As well as benefiting school students to gather information for assignments, PC based ICT is often used in other jobs such as in the police, within libraries, in offices or even shops. It has also emerged as a source of employment in many emerging economies through Business process outsourcing or Knowledge process outsourcing from companies in the developed world. People now have the chance to conduct remote logon, in which they can access their work computers (For example in an office) from home. This has opened up many more opportunities for those that struggle to find time to leave their house to go to work, so they can now just work from home. Information Communications Technology - (ICT) It is an umbrella term that includes all technologies for the communication of information. It encompasses: any medium to record information (whether paper, pen, magnetic disk/ tape, optical disks - CD/DVD, flash memory etc. etc.); and also technology for broadcasting information - radio, television,; any technology for communicating through voice and sound or images- microphone, camera, loudspeaker, telephone to cellular phones. At present, it is apparently culminating

to information communication with the help of personal computers (PCs) networked through the Internet through information technology that can transfer information using satellite systems or intercontinental cables. Indeed, information technology (IT) has become a kind of a hub for communicating information, most often using computers. But, with an expanding fraction of human population getting empowered to share information it may not continue to be so. ICT can become a revolutionary vehicle in developing countries, provided technological innovations emerge on the following lines. Local content in local languages The need of the hour is to enable the intelligentsia to develop information sources that are exclusively for fulfilling the needs of local communities. The content on the Internet that can fulfill these conditions is minuscule at present. Conditions have to emerge in which people are enthused to contribute towards the development of information databases that is exclusively disseminated through local networks, in languages/dialects that are popular in the region. The various modes of ICT may need to be integrated with one another, so that a meaningful volume of information can be generated in the minimum possible time. Future The ICT may not survive in its present form for long. Sooner than later developing countries would get over the PC mania prevalent now in the developed world, unless there is a remarkable change in the economy of owning a PC. Any technology that requires the masses to own a PC, in its present form, to access information is unlikely to be successful in the foreseeable future. Possibilities appear to exist, however, in the mobile phone technology, which is fast becoming very affordable by the masses, is voice based and can be integrated with the Information Technology at the server end of a computer network. For example, in the field of education, people can ask question through a mobile phone, a database of answers to such questions can be generated using the technologies used currently in Wikipedia and call centers and the text in these databases could be converted into voice, by developing text to voice technologies in the various Indian languages. The person seeking information can be Informed when the answer is available and better answers sought based on his/her feedback. The emerging 3G and 4G mobile phone technologies can indeed facilitate such developments. An alternative technology could be to integrate the mobile phone with the television screen, so that visual information can be viewed easily. Similarly, there is a possibility for developing interactive radio, on the lines of interactive TV.

2.3

INTRODUCTION OF INTERNET EMERGENCE IN IMPHAL

AND

ITS

NIC was established in the year 1988 in Manipur with the opening of its State Centre at Imphal. In the year 1990, it opened its district offices, eight in number at that time. Its ninth district centre i.e Imphal East District was opened in the year 2000. NIC is widely known for its prompt services in the field of IT. It has been rendering its services as IT consultant, as S/W developer, as Infrastructure provider and Project implementer. The strength of NIC lies in its qualified professional spread all over the districts as well as in the State Centre with its strong IT infrastructure NIC Manipur is a pilot project of the state government of Manipur that has developed with the aid of the central government of India. The National Informatics Center of Manipur is a department of the Information and Communication Technology wing. It allows the government to facilitate in governance of the region along with maintaining a complete transparency of its functions with the citizens of the state. The NIC Manipur has facilitated in governance at the grass root level. National Informatics Center at Manipur has acted as a catalyst in the development of the state. The project has facilitated in the socio economic development of the people of the state of Manipur. Explicit knowledge is available for the use of the people in the government sites and portals, which are easily accessible by the citizens. The government of Manipur has improved and developed the infrastructure to support the pilot program of National Informatics Center in Manipur. At the national level, the NIC works on the network sources like the Local Area Networks, C-band and Kuband VSATs and the Wireless Metropolitan Area Networks (MANs). Infrastructure in Manipur has been developed to establish the sources of networking. National Informatics Center is engaged in implementing the project in phases in the state of Manipur. The Public Health Engineering Department of Manipur, Chief Minister's MIS, the Loucha Pathap of the Land Records Management and the Manipur Government Employee List were developed by the NIC Manipur. Policies of the government have benefited immensely owing to the presence of the National Informatics Center in Manipur. During the late 90s the internet has made its way to Imphal for the first time with the simple infrastructural support from the Government sector. BSNL was the first Internet Provider to the home user as well as the business enterprises. Although it was the major break through in the history of technology evolution in Manipur the services provided was very poor in quality and speed was considerably very low. The technology rely heavily on the telephone exchange of the state with the facility for the dialup access, the user was provided with the facility to register and activate a user account through the telephone exchange. The ISP (BSNL) will provide a user name and password to the subscriber formally through confidential letters, with

the use of telephone line at any location around the state can access the internet through dial up modem (54kbps). After few year with the introduction many provider like NE line, and local ISP came into the field with the commitment to ensure good quality and service. The tariff and service charges was one of the major concern by the user at large, awareness level prevailed at that time was also quite low which ultimately spread like wild fire rapidly. As time passes new technology came to the scene in Imphal, VSAT, was one among that, many business, enterprise started using VSAT technology for the internet specially in the remote areas of the states like Churachandpur, Bishnupur, chandel and many other places.

2.4 INTERNET CONNECTIVITY TECHNOLOGIES


DSL - Digital Subscriber Line This category of technologies are currently the fastest available right now. DSL is the superset of many technologies, where data is transmitted down your normal copper line as digital signals, because voice uses a different frequency, you can do both at once, splitters at either end split the voice and the data into separate streams. DSL technologies have a limit on the distance between the premises and your local telephone exchange, which is usually between 3KM and 5KM depending on the speed of the service you are applying for. ADSL - Asymetric Digital Subscriber Line Often simply referred to as DSL in America, this method has a different upload and download speed, the download speed is usually much faster than upload, and is therefore ideal for the home user. It usually starts at about 256kbps rising all the way upto 8mbps in some areas, which in theory is the maximum. ADSL2+ Probably able to carry upto 25mbps downstream, this is a new technology being trialled in some areas. SDSL - Symetric Digital Subscriber Line This method has the same upload and download speed, and so therefore the maximum download must be lower. This is more common for business use, or dedicated gamers, as the speed with which you can send data is faster than that of normal ADSL. Cable This system uses a mixture of fibre optics, and coaxial cable to your home, not your existing phone line, therefore the technology must be available in your area. Optical fiber communications was initially developed for the voice phone system. The feverish level of activity that we have experienced since the late 1990s, though, was caused primarily by the rapidly rising demand for Internet connectivity. The Internet has been growing at unprecedented rates. Moreover, because it is versatile and penetrates deeply into the economy, it is affecting all of society, and therefore has attracted inordinate amounts of public attention. The aim of this chapter is to summarize the current state of knowledge about the growth rates of the Internet, with special attention paid to the implications for fiber optic transmission. We also attempt to put the growth rates of the Internet into the proper context by providing comparisons with other communications services. 56K Modem This is the original method most of us used to connect to the internet. It's limited to below 56kbps because of what the line can handle. This technology works by

converting digital signals from your computer into a signal for the phone line, using a modem, at the other end, it's converted back again. ISDN - Integrated Services Digital Network This was the faster option available to many dialup users, with a guaranteed connection of 64 or 128, depending on the number of channels used. A line was typically split into 2 channels, and you would either use both for data, or one for data and the other for simultaneous voice. Wireless This system uses radio technology, and a receiver based on your premises, depending on the technology, the receiver may be attached to your roof or inside the home. The speeds above were based on the UMTS TDD standards, in use by a UK wireless network (provided by Hong Kong). Wireless connections can be used to connect computers in a Local Area Network (LAN), to connect networks in a Wide Area Network (WAN), and to establish international connections. The main advantage is the decreasing costs for installation and maintenance. Bandwidth Limits The first of the limits is how much data you are allowed to download per day or per month. This is usually specified in GBs, and is common on cheaper services for 1GB a month, mid range services 15GBmth, or 1GBday, and unlimited on the premium services. The telephone company will have many users on one exchange, and its at the exchange your data is split between voice and data. The data is then sent down a network cable from the exchange, into the telephone company's network. This is where the first contention comes in, the line may only be, for example, 4mbps. If your ISP says you can have 1mbps, with a 50:1 contention, then a maximum of 200 people may exist on this exchange, if they are keeping to their promise. This is not feasible, and the line is probably capable of a higher data rate, and there will be many lines, but the ratios still exist. If the ratio is anywhere near being met, the telephone company will most likely update the exchange. From the telephone company's network, to your ISPs, there will be another contention, and this depends on the size of the bandwidth your ISP is willing to buy. This will usually not be a problem. Cable Connection Contention on cable is usually between you and the fibre optic network, this depends on how many people are using the bandwidth in your area, for example, if the whole street is downloading a movie, it will slow down, as you're all on the same "cable".

Wireless Contention Contention on a wireless system can take a few forms. Data must travel from your transmitter, the local receiver, then from the local receiver, to the ISPs network. The bandwidth is limited between your transmitter and the local receiver, but this can be improved by using multiple carriers at the receiver, the data is likely to travel from the receiver into the network by a normal network or fibre optic medium. Wireless communication is becoming more and more important. Prices are decreasing and management of these technologies becomes easier. The main challenge is that there is no standard solution, but the technical solution always depends on distance, geographical situation, requirements in terms of bandwidth, speed and licences.

Technology 56K Modem ISDN Single Channel: Dual Channel:

Typical Speed 48 kbps

Maximum Speed 56 kbps 64 kbps 128 kbps

ADSL ADSL2+ SDSL Cable Wireless

1-2 Mbps not in use 1-2 Mbps 2 Mbps 1 Mbps

8 Mbps 25 Mbps 3 Mbps 8 Mbps 12 Mbps

Table 3.1.1 Type of internet user based on their activities


Student Businessman Employee Professional Other

30

20

30

20

10

From the above table and figure it is observed that the majority of the internet users are Students and Professional as compared to Professional and Businessman. Students consist of High schools, College going students, generally they have high learning curve and dynamic in various fields of study. They have also great requirement of the information system for the wide ranges of purposes. We can also notice that student community is also a prospective group with good numbers about 30% with the influence of ICT programme in school and colleges.

Table 3.1.2 Frequency of Usage activities of Internet users


More than once a week 30 once in a month 10

Daily

once a week

not accessible

30

30

Daily > once a week once a week once in a month not accessible

From the above table and figure it is observed that the majority of the internet users have their daily doses to the net which include reading newspaper, daily office works. Professional and Businessman scores in the daily basis whereas Students are distributed in daily, more than once a week and concentrated on once a week frequency pattern.

Table 3.1.3 Preference of internet usage based on location

Home 30

Workplace 40

on the move 30

40 30 20 10 0 Home Workplace on the move

The figure determines the usage pattern based on the preference of location , the priority user are found using in their workplace like office, institution, etc. Home user are mostly dedicated to activities like entertainment and information purpose. The business community prefers on the move internet access that mainly caters their work functions, with professional and employees in descending order of degree of preference.

Table 3.1.4 Familiarity of Internet service provider


BSNL 50 TATA 30 AIRTEL 10 AIRCEL 10

BSNL TATA AIRTEL AIRCEL

We can observe that the majority of the respondent are familiar to BSNL than the other service provider which share 50% of the total response. As BSNL is having a wide variety of internet technology on offer to the subscriber. Next comes TATA PHOTON with its unique brand high speed with mobility. AIRTEL and AIRCEL share a similar space in the familiarity of response.

Table 3.1.5 Experience of Speed available

Highly Satisfied

Satisfied

Fits my need

Not satisfied

10

30

50

10

Not satisfied

Fits my need

Satisfied

Highly Sat

10

20

30

40

50

It is clearly depicted from the above table that most of the respondent uses the internet and are satisfied with speed delivered by their service providers with 50% of the user are satisfy themselves as per their requirement in their workplaces and institutions. The satisfied group are in the second place with 30% of the rating. 10% is shared to both the unsatisfied and highly satisfied subscribers.

Table 3.1.6 Change of Service providers


Change 50 Not Change 50

Reasons for change:

40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Cost Inadequate speed Unservicing of Complaints Others

Cost 40

Inadequate speed 20

Unservicing of Complaints 30

Others 10

From the above table, it is clearly visible that the cost of service being the main deciding factor for the change of the service provider with 50% of the responses. And unservicing of the complaints, with 30% cause the change of service provider, 20% for the speed factor as not define in the package.

Table 3.1.7 Basic uses of internet

Education & Research 50

Entertainment 10

Communication 20

Banking /Ticketing 20

Education & Research Entertainment Communication Banking /Ticketing

With the data collected we notice that the majority of the internet user are more concern in education and research works with 50% contributes to this area of uses. With 20% of the response uses in communication, banking and ticketing. Only 10% responds their uses in entertainment and games.

Table 3.1.8 Quality of internet service available in Imphal


Quality 30 Price 5 Trustworthy 35 Speed 25 Value for Price Paid 5

Value for Price Paid Speed Trustworthy Price Quality 0 10 20 30 40 Series1

It is clearly depicted from the above table that most of the respondent are trustworthy to the service provider with 35% of the response contribute to it. And 30% believe in the quality of the internet service provided. The speed is less concern with 25% respond to the seepd factor. Price is the important factor which contribute ot only 5%, significant improvement is required in the pricing front.

Table 3.1.9 Factor that influence choice of internet service

Mobility 30

Price 10

Offers 40

Speed 20

Mobility Price Offers Speed

Majority of the response indicated based on offers provided along with package of internet service with 40% responses. However, mobility with 30% is the major criteria as the choice of the internet service. Price is least significant as compared to speed with response of 10% and 20% respectively.

Table 3.1.10 Choice of Payment mode


Prepaid 70 Postpaid 30

Prepaid Postpaid

From the above figure, it is clearly visible most of the respondent are inclined to the prepaid service with 70% respondents and postpaid with 30% respondent only. With prepaid connection carries no liability and postpaid connection with unknown liability is the major factor in choice of connection in terms of payment mode.

3.2 FINDINGS
1. It is observed that the employees and students have the highest percentage of the internet uses. This group consists of mostly College going and Graduate students who are dynamic and smart and junior manager and executive in the employees group. It is found that the majority of the in internet user is found to be daily user, more than once a week users and once in a week users. With availability of the internet is increase the daily user are more consuming. The Internet users have more access to internet in their workplaces like office, institution, etc. Home user are mostly dedicated to activities like entertainment and information purpose. With on the move preferer mainly caters to the business community, professional and employees in order of degree of usage. Level of penetration of availability of internet to the Home and on the move can be visualized. It is found out that the most of the respondent are familiar with BSNL than other internet provider as it has a wide range of internet products on offer. From analysis we found out that most of the respondent uses the internet mainly in communication purposes. It is followed by uses of in internet in Education purposes. It is clearly depicted from most of the respondent uses the internet from the public place like cyber caf and CIC centres. The second most uses place is found out to be from home with respect to the total sample size. From the websites listed above the www.google.com and www.yahoo.com are known by all the respondents Among the factors that acts as the barrier for the user to use internet from home, the cost factor is the primary barrier. From the analysis it is found out that majority of the respondents identity is found to be Home having computer at home and willing to connect the internet.

2.

3.

4. 5.

6.

7. 8. 9.

10. The majority of the respondent prefer to have connection through wireless technology (WiFi) because of the various reasons. The second most preferred connectivity mode is through Telephone exchange mode e.g. BSNL by using copper wire. 11. The larger section of the of respondent prefer unlimited quota of internet schemes and packages, Which shows the room for the formulation of different schemes, offers and packages for different user by the ISP. The user mainly seeks higher amount of downloads and web contents exploration.

12. We found out that most preferred connection speed responded by the use is found to be 256kbps Data rate is mostly preferred by the respondents. This is a level of speed where the user can have almost all the facilities and services provided in the internet. 13. It is found out that the amount of rupees willing to pay by the user in monthly basis for the service provided. Which the income and expenditure level increasing the user are willing to pay the said range of amount for the service provided to them.

CONCLUSION
This study has been taken up with interest so as to study the Internet uses and connectivity preferences of the internet user in Imphal area,.Accordingly it is found that majority of the internet user are of the opinion that connectivity as become a basic necessity if one wants to keep updated and stay in pace with the fast changing world. majority of the people who access the internet do so on a regular basis. it is also observed through this study that there is a shifting preference from fixed land line or cable connection towards wireless connectivity , this may be due to the due the technological revolution due to advances in the field of mobile technology. Majority of the internet users belong to the age group 25 30, which are mostly college going student. Majority of the internet user in the context of this study among the internet users in Imphal area access the internet for communication purpose to communicate with friends and family located outside the state. Majority of the internet users in Imphal area access the internet from public setting such as cybercaf , Library etc ,This is because most of the internet users of imphal area either dont own a personal computer at home or they dont avail the internet connection at home .

4.1 EMERGING WIRELESS TECHNOLOGIES


A look into the future of wireless communications beyond 3G Although the new, third generation(3G) wireless technology has not yet been implemented, leading companies in the industry are already laying the groundwork for what some are calling fourth generation (4G) technology. For the purposes of this article, 4G will be considered those technologies that are still in the planning stages and will not be deployed within the next five years. Researchers are continuing their ideas in the development of an undefined wireless world, which could become operational by 2010. The first generation (1G) and second generation (2G) of mobile telephony were intended primarily for voice transmission. The third generation of mobile telephony (3G) will serve both voice and data applications. There really is no clear definition of what 4G will be. It is generally accepted that 4G will be a superenhanced version of 3G i.e., an entirely packet switched network with all digital network elements and extremely high available bandwidth. For the most part, it is believed that 4G will bring true multimedia capabilities such as high-speed data access and video conferencing to the handset. It is also envisioned that 4G systems will be deployed with software defined radios, allowing the equipment to be upgraded to new protocols and services via software upgrades. 4G also holds the promise of worldwide roaming using a single handheld device. Wireless Generations At-a-Glance As with all technology progressions, the next upgrades must be in planning and development phases while its predecessors are being deployed. This statement holds true with all mobile telecommunications to date. It seems that it will also hold true for the next generations of wireless networks. The original analog cellular systems are considered the first generation of mobile telephony (1G). In the early 1980s, 1G systems were deployed. At the same time, the cellular industry began developing the second generation of mobile telephony (2G). The difference between 1G and 2G is in the signaling techniques used: 1G used analog signaling, 2G used digital signaling. As experience shows, the leadtime for mobile phone systems development is about 10 years. It was not until the early to mid 1990s that 2G was deployed. Primary thinking and concept development on 3G generally began around 1991 as 2G systems just started to roll out. Since the general model of 10 years to develop a new mobile system is being followed, that timeline would suggest 4G should be operational some time around 2011. 4G would build on the second phase of 3G, when all networks are expected to embrace Internet protocol (IP) technology. During the last year, companies such as Ericsson, Motorola, Lucent, Nortel and Qualcomm came up with "3G-plus" concepts that would push performance of approved, though still emerging, standards beyond current ones. Interoperability and the Evolution of Network Architectures One of the most challenging issues facing deployment of 4G technologies is how to make the network architectures compatible with each other.

New signaling techniques are being designed specifically to enhance today's second generation (2G) networks, deliver unprecedented functionality for 3G, and successfully drive the Fourth Generation (4G) of wireless, thus delivering immediate and long-term benefits to carriers. With the architecture of each generation of wireless devices addressed in the development of advanced technologies, carriers can easily evolve their systems without additional network modifications, significantly reducing costs and implementation time. Currently, different wireless technologies (e.g., GSM, CDMA, and TDMA1) are used throughout the world for the 2G, 2.5G, and eventually 3G networks. There are two approaches being used to develop 4G access techniques: 3xRTT (currently 1xRTT for 2.5 and 3G) and Wideband CDMA (WCDMA). These disparate access techniques currently do not interoperate. This issue may be solved with software defined radios. LinkAir Communications is developing a new access technology called largearea- synchronized code-division multiple access (LAS-CDMA). LAS- CDMA will be compatible with all current and future standards, and there is a relatively GSM Global System for Mobile Communications CDMA Code Division Multiple Access TDMA Time Division Multiple Access (easy transition from existing systems to) LAS-CDMA (using software defined radios).

4G networks may eventually deliver on all the promises. At times, it seems that technological advances are being made on a daily basis. These advances will make high- speed data/voice-over-Internet-protocol (VoIP) networks a reality. In the meantime, it is important for industry to develop a strong 3G offering that is palatable for the general public. Equally as important, industry must ensure that expectations are realistic and that services meet and exceed those expectations. If all goes according to what the industry envisions, it may be sooner, rather than later that we will see wireless communications evolve. This evolution will give the general public as well as the public safety community amazing functionality from the convenience of a single handheld device. Tomorrow's communications. Mobility, reliability, accessibility, ease- of-use and quality: that is what is driving the Third-Generation standard 3G/W- CDMA, which has become a fact of life in the world of mobile communications. It lets operators tap into the enormous resource offered by the Internet and makes communications more colorful, more attractive and faster, with such features as multimedia messaging or video-telephony. For mobile operators and application developers, 3G/W-CDMA is opening a whole new marketplace with enormous potential for new revenue streams. A host of new features and applications will let operators expand into new areas of the value chain. With 3G/W-CDMA, mobile

phones will become full multi-functional, multimedia devices able to transfer data packets and access the Internet for content and services. Profitable prospects. To turn those opportunities into profit, MNOs need a partner with skill, experience, commitment and a global presence and understanding of the market. Siemens has been committed to Third-Generation networks right from the start. Besides ensuring best-in-class technology and powerful platforms, we have been active in the drive towards standardizing future technologies with all the international agencies, IETF, 3GPP, or OMA. In fact, we have already put several thousand base stations on the air. 3G/W-CDMA has an enviable future. 4G networks may eventually deliver on all the promises. At times, it seems that technological advances are being made on a daily basis. These advances will make high- speed data/voice-over-Internet-protocol (VoIP) networks a reality. In the meantime, it is important for industry to develop a strong 3G offering that is palatable for the general public. Equally as important, industry must ensure that expectations are realistic and that services meet and exceed those expectations. If all goes according to what the industry envisions, it may be sooner, rather than later that we will see wireless communications evolve. This evolution will give the general public as well as the public safety community amazing functionality from the convenience of a single handheld device. Tomorrow's communications is a trademark of Mobility, reliability, accessibility, ease- of-use and quality that is what is driving the Third-Generation standard 3G/W- CDMA, which has become a fact of life in the world of mobile communications. It lets operators tap into the enormous resource offered by the Internet and makes communications more colorful, more attractive and faster, with such features as multimedia messaging or video-telephony. For mobile operators and application developers, 3G/W-CDMA is opening a whole new marketplace with enormous potential for new revenue streams. A host of new features and applications will let operators expand into new areas of the value chain. With 3G/W-CDMA, mobile phones will become full multi-functional, multimedia devices able to transfer data packets and access the Internet for content and services. Profitable prospects. To turn those opportunities into profit, MNOs need a partner with skill, experience, commitment and a global presence and understanding of the market. Siemens has been committed to Third-Generation networks right from the start. Besides ensuring best-in-class technology and powerful platforms, we have been active in the drive towards standardizing future technologies with all the international agencies, IETF, 3GPP, or OMA. In fact, we have already put several thousand base stations on the air. 3G/W-CDMA has an enviable future.