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DRAFT

FINITE ELEMENT II

Solid Mechanics

Victor E. Saouma

Dept. of Civil Environmental and Architectural Engineering University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309-0428

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Contents

0 PREREQUISITE 0.1 Variational Formulations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.2 Finite Element Formulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.2.1 Strain Displacement Relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.2.1.1 Axial Members . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.2.1.2 Flexural Members . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.2.2 Virtual Displacement and Strains . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.2.3 Element Stiness Matrix Formulation . . . . . . . . . 0.2.3.1 Stress Recovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.3 Direct Stiness Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.3.1 Global Stiness Matrix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.3.1.1 Structural Stiness Matrix . . . . . . . . . . 0.3.1.2 Augmented Stiness Matrix . . . . . . . . . 0.3.2 Logistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.3.2.1 Boundary Conditions, [ID] Matrix . . . . . . 0.3.2.2 LM Vector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.3.2.3 Assembly of Global Stiness Matrix . . . . . E 0-1 Assembly of the Global Stiness Matrix . . . . . . . . 0.3.2.4 Algorithm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E 0-2 Direct Stiness Analysis of a Truss . . . . . . . . . . . E 0-3 Analysis of a Frame with MATLAB . . . . . . . . . . E 0-4 Analysis of a simple Beam with Initial Displacements 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2 Elliptic, Parabolic and Hyperbolic Equations . . . E 1-1 Seepage Problem;(Bathe 1996) . . . . . . . E 1-2 Diusion Problem; (Bathe 1996) . . . . . . E 1-3 Wave Equation, (Bathe 1996) . . . . . . . . 1.3 Solution of Discrete-System Mathematical models . 1.3.1 Steady State Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3.1.1 Elastic Spring . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3.1.2 Heat Transfer . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3.1.3 Hydraulic Network . . . . . . . . . 1.3.1.4 DC Network . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3.2 Equivalent Truss/Direct Stiness Models 1.3.2.1 Nonlinear Elastic Spring . . . . . 1.3.3 Propagation Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3.3.1 Dynamic Elastic System . . . . . 1.3.3.2 Transient Heat Flow . . . . . . . . 1.3.4 Eigenvalue Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3.4.1 Free Vibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 23 26 26 26 26 26 27 28 28 28 29 29 30 30 31 31 32 33 33 38 40 45 45 45 47 48 49 51 51 52 53 54 55 55 58 58 58 59 60 60

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5 97 97 98 98 100 101 104 106 109 109 110 113 113 113 114 114 115 115 117 117 118 119 119 121 121 122 122 123 125 126 127

4 VARIATIONAL and RAYLEIGH-RITZ METHODS 4.1 Multield Variational Principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2 Total Potential Energy Principle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2.1 Static; Euler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2.2 Dynamic; Euler/Lagrange . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E 4-1 Hamiltons Principle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3 General Hu-Washizu Variational Principle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4 Rayleigh Ritz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4.1 Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E 4-2 Uniformly Loaded Simply Supported Beam; Polynomial Approximation E 4-3 Heat Conduction; (Bathe 1996) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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5 INTERPOLATION FUNCTIONS; NATURAL COORDINATE SYSTEMS 5.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2 Cartesian Coordinate System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2.1 C 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2.1.1 Truss element . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2.1.2 Generalization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2.1.3 Constant Strain Triangle Element . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2.1.4 Further Generalization: Lagrangian Interpolation Functions . . . 5.2.1.5 Rectangular Bilinear Element . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2.1.6 Solid Rectangular Trilinear Element . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2.2 C 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2.2.1 Flexural . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2.2.2 C 1 : Hermitian Interpolation Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2.3 Characteristics of Shape Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3 Natural Coordinate System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3.1 Straight Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3.2 Triangular Coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3.3 Volume Coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3.4 Interpolation Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.4 Pascals Triangle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6 FINITE ELEMENT DISCRETIZATION and REQUIREMENTS 129 6.1 Discretization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 6.1.1 Discretization of the Variational Statement for the General TPE Variational Principle129 6.1.2 Discretization of the Variational Statement for the HW Variational Principle . . . 131 6.2 General Element Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135 6.3 Discretization Error and Convergence Rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136 6.4 Lower Bound Character of Minimum Potential Energy Based Solutions . . . . . . . . . . 137 6.5 Equilibrium and Compatibiliy in the Solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 7 STRAIGHT SIDED ELEMENTS; 1st GENERATION 7.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.2 Rod Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.2.1 Truss Element . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.2.2 Beam Element . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3 Triangular Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3.1 Cartesian Coordinate System (CST) . . . . . . . . 7.3.2 Natural Coordinate System . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3.2.1 Linear, T3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3.2.2 Quadratic Element (T6) . . . . . . . . . . 7.4 Bilinear Rectangular Element . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.5 Element Assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139 139 139 139 140 141 141 142 142 143 145 146

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10.3.3 Least-Squares Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.3.4 Galerkin Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E 10-1 String Vibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.4 Applications of the Galerkin Method to 3D Elasticity Problems 10.4.1 Derivation of the Weak Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.4.2 FE Discretization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

11 FINITE ELEMENT DISCRETIZATION OF THE FIELD 11.1 Derivation of the Weak Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.2 FE Discretization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.2.1 No Convection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.2.2 Convection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.3 Illustrative Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E 11-1 Composite Wall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E 11-2 Heat Transfer across a Fin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.4 Comparison Between Vector and Scalar Formulations . . . . . 12 TOPICS in STRUCTURAL MECHANICS 12.1 Condensation/Substructuring . . . . . . . . . . 12.2 Element Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.2.1 Patch Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.2.2 Eigenvalue Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.2.3 Order of Integration . . . . . . . . . . . 12.2.3.1 Full Integration . . . . . . . . 12.2.3.2 Reduced Integration . . . . . . 12.2.3.3 Selective Reduced Integration 12.3 Parasitic Shear/Incompatible Elements . . . . . 12.3.1 Q4, The Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.3.2 Q6, The Solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.3.3 QM6, Further Enhancements . . . . . . 12.4 Rotational D.O.F. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.5 Constraints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

EQUATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

13 GEOMETRIC NONLINEARITY 13.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.1.1 Strong Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.1.1.1 Lower Order Dierential Equation . . . 13.1.1.2 Higher Order Dierential Equation . . 13.1.2 Weak Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.1.2.1 Strain Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.1.2.2 Euler Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.2 Finite Element Discretization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.3 Elastic Instability; Bifurcation Analysis . . . . . . . . . E 13-1 Column Stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E 13-2 Frame Stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.4 Second-Order Elastic Analysis; Geometric Non-Linearity E 13-3 Eect of Axial Load on Flexural Deformation . . E 13-4 Bifurcation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.5 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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E 16-1 MATLAB Code for Explicit Time Integration . 16.3.1.2 NonLinear Systems . . . . . . . . . . 16.3.2 Implicit Case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.3.2.1 Newmark Method; Forward dierence 16.3.2.2 Linear Case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.3.2.3 NonLinear Case . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.4 Free Vibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.5 Homework . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

A VECTOR OPERATIONS A.1 Vector Dierentiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.1.1 Derivative WRT to a Scalar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E A-1 Tangent to a Curve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.1.2 Divergence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E A-2 Divergence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.1.3 Gradient . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.1.4 Scalar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E A-3 Gradient of a Scalar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E A-4 Stress Vector normal to the Tangent of a Cylinder . A.2 Vector Integrals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.2.1 Integral of a Vector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.2.2 Line Integral . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.2.3 Integration by Parts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.2.4 Gauss; Divergence Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.2.5 Stokes Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.2.6 Green; Gradient Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E A-5 Physical Interpretation of the Divergence Theorem B CASE-STUDY: FRACTURING of A DAM DUE TO B.1 INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B.1.1 Elastic and Thermal Properties . . . . . . . . . . B.1.2 Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B.2 ANALYSIS II; Thermal Shock . . . . . . . . . . . . . B.2.1 Thermal Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B.2.2 Stress Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B.2.3 Data Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B.3 CONCLUSIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

THERMAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

LOAD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

C MISC. 319 C.1 Units & Conversion Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 319 C.2 Metric Prexes and Multipliers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 320

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List of Figures

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 1.10 1.11 1.12 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 4.1 4.2 4.3 5.1 5.2 Summary of Variational Methods . . . . . . . . . Duality of Variational Principles . . . . . . . . . Frame Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example for [ID] Matrix Determination . . . . . Simple Frame Analyzed with the MATLAB Code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Simple Frame Analyzed with the MATLAB Code Stiness Analysis of one Element Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 25 28 30 32 34 38 41 46 47 49 50 52 53 54 55 56 59 61 62 71 72 75 77 83 85 85 88 89 92 94 94 95

Finite Element Process, (Bathe 1996) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Seepage Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . One Dimensional Heat Conduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rod subjected to Step Load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . System of Rigid Carts Interconnected by Linear Springs, (Bathe 1996) . . . . . . . Slab Subjected to Temperature Boundary Conditions, (Bathe 1996) . . . . . . . . Pipe Network, (Bathe 1996) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DC Network, (Bathe 1996) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Equivalent Trusses/Direct Stiness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Heat Transfer Idealization in an Electron Tube, (Bathe 1996) . . . . . . . . . . . . Stability of a Two Rigid Bars System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Idealization, Discretization and Solution of a Numerical Simulation, (Felippa 2000) Stresses as Tensor Components . . . . . . . . . . . . Cauchys Tetrahedron . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Flux Through Area dS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Equilibrium of Stresses, Cartesian Coordinates . . . Flux vector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Flux Through Sides of Dierential Element . . . . . *Flow through a surface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Components of Tontis Diagram, (Felippa 2000) . . . Fundamental Equations of Solid Mechanics and Heat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Voronoi and Delaunay Tessellation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Control Point for a 2D Mesh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Control Point for a 3D Mesh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A Two Dimensional Triangularization AlgorithmControl Point for a 3D Mesh

Tonti Diagram for the Total Potential Energy, (Cervenka, J. 1994) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 Tonti Diagram for Hu-Washizu, (Cervenka, J. 1994) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 Uniformly Loaded Simply Supported Beam Analysed by the Rayleigh-Ritz Method . . . . 109 Axial Finite Element . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 Constant Strain Triangle Element . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116

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14.1 14.2 14.3 14.4 14.5 14.6 14.7 14.8 14.9

LIST OF FIGURES Finite Element Formulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Stresses in a Plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Free Body Diagram of an Innitesimal Plate Element . Displacements in a Plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Positive Moments and Rotations . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rectangular Plate Element . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Triangular Plate Element in Natural Coordinate System Edges of Adjacent Triangular Elements . . . . . . . . . Discrete Kirchho Triangular Element . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

15.1 Test Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264 15.2 Newton-Raphson Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267 15.3 Modied Newton-Raphson Method, Initial Tangent in Increment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268 15.4 Modied Newton-Raphson Method, Initial Problem Tangent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268 15.5 Incremental Secant, Quasi-Newton Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269 15.6 Schematic of Line Search, (Reich 1993) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270 15.7 Flowchart for Line Search Algorithm, (Reich 1993) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271 15.8 Divergence of Load-Controled Algorithms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272 15.9 Hydrostatically Loaded Gravity Dam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 274 15.10Load-Displacement Diagrams with Snapback . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 274 15.11Flowchart for an incremental nonlinear nite element program with indirect displacement control277 15.12Two points on the load-displacement curve satisfying the arc-length constraint . . . . . . 278 15.13Flow chart for line search with IDC methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 280 A.1 A.2 A.3 A.4 A.5 A.6 A.7 A.8 B.1 B.2 B.3 B.4 Dierentiation of position vector p . . . . . . . . . . . . . Curvature of a Curve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Vector Field Crossing a Solid Region . . . . . . . . . . . . Flux Through Area dA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Innitesimal Element for the Evaluation of the Divergence Radial Stress vector in a Cylinder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gradient of a Vector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Physical Interpretation of the Divergence Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 298 298 299 300 300 303 304 307 311 313 314 315

Boundary Description of Dam for Transient Thermal Analysis . Heat of Hydration Interpolations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Temperature Distribution in the Transient Thermal Analysis at Maximum Principal Stresses and Deformed Mesh at Day 8 . .

. . . . . . . . Day 8 . . . .

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List of Tables

1 2.1 2.2 2.3 4.1 4.2 5.1 5.2 5.3 7.1 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 9.1 9.2 Summary of Variational Terms Associated with One Dimensional Elements . . . . . . . . 23 Selected Examples of Diusion Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 Comparison of Scalar and Vector Field Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 Classication of various Physical Problems, (Kardestuncer 1987) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 Functionals in Linear Elasticity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 Comparison Between Total Potential Energy and Hu-Washizu Formulations . . . . . . . . 106 Characteristics of Beam Element Shape Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 Interpretation of Shape Functions in Terms of Polynomial Series (1D & 2D) . . . . . . . . 127 Polynomial Terms in Various Element Formulations (1D & 2D) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 Shape Functions and Derivatives for T6 Element . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144 Shape Functions, and Natural Derivatives for Q8 Element . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Shape Functions for Variable Node Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Weights for Newton-Cotes Quadrature Formulas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Integration Points and Weights for Gauss-Quadrature Formulaes Over the Interval [1, 1] Coordinates and Weights for Numerical Integration over a Triangle . . . . . . . . . . . . . Natural Coordinates of Bilinear Quadrilateral Nodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161 164 166 168 170 171

Polynomial orders of the shape functions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183 Table of coecients and spectral radii for CS technique. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186

11.1 Comparison of Scalar and Vector Field Problems, Revisited . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209 12.1 Full and Reduced Numerical Integrations for Quadrilateral Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . 215 12.2 Bilinsear and Exact Displacements/Strains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217 14.1 Comparison of Governing Equations in Elasticity and Plate Bending . . . . . . . . . . . . 251 14.2 Integration Rules for Mindlin Plate Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255 A.1 Similarities Between Multiplication and Dierentiation Operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297 B.1 B.2 B.3 B.4 B.5 B.6 B.7 B.8 Concrete Material Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Thermal Properties of the concrete . . . . . . . . . . . . Interface Element Material Properties . . . . . . . . . . Loads applied on the Dam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Heat of Hydration From the Literature . . . . . . . . . . Heat of Hydration Adopted in the Simulation; Days and Sresses Along the Interface Element; m] and [Pa] . . . . Crack Opening and Sliding Displacements; [m] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . J/Kg/Day . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310 310 310 310 312 314 316 316

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A c E h I J L Q t T u, v, w U0 U U0 U W M P u U W

LIST OF TABLES

17

NOTATION

SCALARS Area Specic heat Elastic Modulus Film coecient for convection heat transfer Moment of inertia St Venants torsional constant Length Rate of internal heat generation per unit volume Time Temperature Translational displacements along the x, y, and z directions Strain energy density Strain energy Complementary strain energy density Complementary strain energy Work Potential energy Coecient of thermal expansion Shear modulus Poissons ratio mass density Rotational displacement Virtual moment Virtual force Virtual rotation Virtual displacement Virtual curvature Virtual internal strain energy Virtual external work TENSORS order 1

Vector of coecients in assumed displacement eld Body force Nodal coordinates Unknown element forces and unknown support reactions Matrix of coecients of a polynomial series Displacement shape functions Coordinate shape functions Element nodal forces = F Structure nodal forces Flux per unit area Structure reactions Residuals Traction vector Specied tractions along t Displacement vector Specied displacements along u Displacement vector Nodal element displacements Nodal displacements in a continuous system Finite Element II; Continuum Elements

Draft

ID LM

LIST OF TABLES Matrix relating nodal dof to structure dof structure dof of nodes connected to a given element

19

Victor Saouma

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1 2 3 4 5 6

LIST OF TABLES Jan. 16 18 23 25 30 Feb. 1 6 8 13 15 20 22 27 29 Mar. 5 7 12 14 19 21 Apr. 2 4 9 11 16 18 23 25 30 May 2 Introduction; Course objective; Overview; Notation. Mathematical Formulations. Elasticity Direct Method; Field Eq. Variational Methods Mesh Generators; Laboratory Variational Methods, Mechanics; Laboratory FE Discretization and Requirements; C0 Elements. Isoparametric Elements, Bar Element Isoparamteric Element, Bilinear Element Isoparameteric Element; Quadratic, Hierarchical Elements; Numerical integration Isoparameteric Element; Numerical integration Laboratory Weighted Residuals Galerkin; 3D Elasticity; Field Equation Field Equation, Theory, application Field Equation Exam I Lab (Field Equations) Error Analysis SPRING BREAK Topics (Condensation, Transformation, Integration, Test) Order of Integration, Eignevalu tests Plate Bending Plate Bending Plate Bending Geometric Non Linearity Geometric Nonlinearity Material Nonlinearity Dynamics Review

21

6.1-6.14

7 8 9 10

Ch. 16

12 13 14 15 16

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Chapter 0

PREREQUISITE

In the rst course (CVEN4525/5525, Finite Element I; Framed Structures), the direct stiness method was rst introduced (element stiness matrix, transformation matrix, global stiness matrix assembly, internal force recovery). As an interlude we then covered the exibility method and stiness-exibility relationship. The second part of the course began with a thorough coverage of variational method (duality between extremization of a functional and a corresponding euler dierential equation) followed by a rigorous introduction/derivation of the various energy methods.

1

0.1

Variational Formulations

2 A summary of the various methods introduced in Finite Element I; Framed Structures is shown in Fig. 1, Fig. 2, and Table 1.

U

L

Axial

1 2

P2 dx AE

L 2 2

L

Shear

L

...

1 2

V xy dx

0 L L

... M

0 L

Flexure

0 L

M2 dx EIz T dx GJ

2

0 L

M dx

0 L 0 L

EIz

M dx

0 L

M dx EIz

Torsion

1 2

T dx

0 0

dx d(x ) GJ dx dx dx

T dx

0 0

T T dx GJ

P M w

0

W 1 i 2 Pi i 1 i 2 Mi i w(x)v(x)dx

Virtual Displacement W i Pi i i Mi i

L

Virtual Force W i Pi i i Mi i

L

w(x)v(x)dx

0 0

w(x)v(x)dx

Draft

25

Kinematically Admissible Displacements Displacements satisfy the kinematic equations and the the kinematic boundary conditions 6

? Principle of Stationary Complementary Energy Principle of Complementary Virtual Work 6 Principle of Virtual Work

? Statically Admissible Stresses Stresses satisfy the equilibrium conditions and the static boundary conditions

Victor Saouma

Draft

0.2.3

thus:

27

Let us consider the most general case, or element with: Initial strain: (temperature eect, support settlement, or other) such that: x x = + i x E due to load initial strain x = Ex Ei x {} = [D]{} [D]{i } where [D] is the constitutive matrix which relates stress and strain. Load: q(x) along it. Let us apply the principle of virtual work. U U = = W (0.9-a) (0.9-b) (0.9-c) (0.9-d) (0.9-e) (0.9-f) (0.9-g)

(0.6)

(0.7) (0.8)

or in matrix form:

Combining Eqns. 0.9-a, 0.9-b, 0.9-c, 0.9-f, and 0.9-e, the internal virtual strain energy is given by: U = = vol [B]T [D][B]{} dVol vol [B]T [D]{i }dVol vol [B]T [D]{i }dVol (0.10-a)

[B]T [D][B] dVol{} vol the virtual external work in turn is given by: W = {F} +

q(x)dx

l

(0.11)

Virt. Nodal Displ. Nodal Force combining this equation with: yields: {} = [N]{}

l

(0.12) (0.13)

W = {F} +

[N]T q(x) dx

0

Equating the internal strain energy Eqn. 0.10-a with the external work Eqn. 0.13, we obtain: vol [B]T [D][B] dVol{}

[K] l

vol

{Finit }

{F} +

[N]T q(x) dx

0 {Fe }

(0.14-a)

Victor Saouma

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0.3.1.1

6

0.3 Direct Stiness Method the global (restrained or structures) stiness matrix is K11 K12 K = K21 K22 K31 K32

29

and the rst column corresponds to all the internal forces in the unrestrained d.o.f. when a unit displacement along global d.o.f. 1 is applied. Structural Stiness Matrix

(0.19)

The structural stiness matrix is assembled only for those active degrees of freedom which are active (i.e unrestrained). It is the one which will be inverted (or rather decomposed) to determine the nodal displacements. 0.3.1.2 Augmented Stiness Matrix

7 The augmented stiness matrix is expressed in terms of all the dof. However, it is partitioned into two groups with respective subscript u where the displacements are known (zero otherwise), and t where the loads are known. t ? Pt Ktt Ktu (0.20) = Ru ? Kut Kuu u

8

The rst equation enables the calculation of the unknown displacements. t = K1 (Pt Ktu u ) tt (0.21)

The second equation enables the calculation of the reactions Ru = Kut t + Kuu u (0.22)

10 For internal book-keeping purpose, since we are assembling the augmented stiness matrix, we proceed in two stages:

1. First number all the global unrestrained degrees of freedom 2. Then number separately all the global restrained degrees of freedom (i.e. those with known displacements, zero or otherwise) starting with -1 this will enable us later on to distinguish the restrained from unrestrained dof.

11

The element internal forces (axial and shear forces, and moment at each end of the member) are determined from pint = k(e) (e)

(e) (e)

(0.23)

at the element level where pint is the six by six array of internal forces, k(e) the element stiness matrix in local coordinate systems, and (e) is the vector of nodal displacements in local coordinate system. Note that this last array is obtained by rst identifying the displacements in global coordinate system, and then premultiplying it by the transformation matrix to obtain the displacements in local coordinate system. Victor Saouma Finite Element II; Continuum Elements

Draft

0.3 Direct Stiness Method 2. At this stage, the [ID] matrix is equal to: 0 ID = 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0

31

(0.25)

15

(0.26)

LM Vector

The LM vector of a given element gives the global degree of freedom of each one of the element degree of freedoms. For the structure shown in Fig. 4, we would have: LM LM LM = = = 1 2 4 5 6 7 5 6 7 1 2 3 1 2 3 3 8 9 element 1 (2 3) element 2 (3 1) element 3 (1 4)

0.3.2.3

16

As for the element stiness matrix, the global stiness matrix [K] is such that K ij is the force in degree of freedom i caused by a unit displacement at degree of freedom j.

17 Whereas this relationship was derived from basic analysis at the element level, at the structure level, this term can be obtained from the contribution of the element stiness matrices [K (e) ] (written in global coordinate system).

18

For each Kij term, we shall add the contribution of all the elements which can connect degree of freedom i to degree of freedom j, assuming that those forces are readily available from the individual element stiness matrices written in global coordinate system.

19

Kij is non-zero if degree of freedom i and degree of freedom j 1. Are connected by an element. 2. Share a node. 3. Are connected by an element and the corresponding value in the element stiness matrix in the global coordinate system is zero.

20

There are usually more than one element connected to a dof. Hence, individual element stiness matrices terms must be added up. Because each term of all the element stiness matrices must nd its position inside the global stiness matrix [K], it is found computationally most eective to initialize the global stiness matrix [KS ](N EQAN EQA ) to zero, and then loop through all the elements, and then through each entry of (e) the respective element stiness matrix Kij .

21

The assignment of the element stiness matrix term Kij (note that e, i, and j are all known since we are looping on e from 1 to the number of elements, and then looping on the rows and columns of the S element stiness matrix i, j) into the global stiness matrix Kkl is made through the LM vector (note that it is k and l which must be determined).

22 23 Since the global stiness matrix is also symmetric, we would need to only assemble one side of it, usually the upper one.

(e)

Victor Saouma

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0.3 Direct Stiness Method The full stiness matrix of a beam element is given by v1 V1 12EI/L3 M1 6EI/L2 V2 12EI/L3 M2 6EI/L2 1 6EI/L2 4EI/L 6EI/L2 2EI/L v2 12EI/L3 6EI/L2 12EI/L3 6EI/L2 2 6EI/L2 2EI/L 6EI/L2 4EI/L

41

[ke ] =

(0.56)

This matrix is singular, it has a rank 2 and order 4 (as it embodies also 2 rigid body motions).

27

-3 -4 P 1 2 -3 1 -4 2 M

-4

Figure 8: Stiness Analysis of one Element Structure Cantilivered Beam/Point Load 1. The element stiness matrix is

3 3 12EI/L3 4 6EI/L2 1 12EI/L3 2 6EI/L2 1 1 12EI/L2 2 6EI/L2 3 12EI/L3 4 6EI/L2 4 6EI/L2 4EI/L 6EI/L2 2EI/L 1 12EI/L3 6EI/L2 12EI/L3 6EI/L2 3 12EI/L3 6EI/L2 12EI/L3 6EI/L2 2 6EI/L2 2EI/L 6EI/L2 4EI/L 4 6EI/L2 2EI/L 6EI/L2 4EI/L

k=

K=

4. Ktt is inverted (or actually decomposed) and stored in the same global matrix

L3 /3EI L2 /2EI L2 /2EI L/EI 12EI/L3 6EI/L2 12EI/L3 6EI/L2 6EI/L2 2EI/L 6EI/L2 4EI/L 12EI/L3 6EI/L2 6EI/L2 2EI/L

3. The global matrix can be rewritten as 12EI/L2 6EI/L2 P 6EI/L2 4EI/L 0 = 12EI/L3 6EI/L2 R3 ? 2

R4 ? 6EI/L 2EI/L

Victor Saouma

-2

-3

1 ? 2 ? 3 4

Draft

Pt Ktu u = =

43 load, Pt = Pt Ktu u , and overwrite Pt by Pt 3 L /3EI L/6EI 6EI/L2 6EI/L2 L/3EI 6EI/L2 6EI/L2 L/6EI 6EI/L2 2 3 6EI/L 12EI/L 12EI/L3 12EI/L3 6EI/L2 6EI/L2 12EI/L3

M 0 0 0 M 0 0

0 M 0 0

6. Solve for the displacements, t = K1 Pt , and overwrite Pt by t tt 3 /3EI L L/6EI 6EI/L2 6EI/L2 1 2 L/3EI 6EI/L2 6EI/L2 = L/6EI 0 2 2 3 6EI/L 6EI/L 12EI/L 12EI/L3 0 6EI/L2 6EI/L2 12EI/L3 12EI/L3 M L/6EI

=

0 M 0 0

7. Solve for the reactions, Rt = Kut tt + Kuu u , and overwrite u by Ru M L/6EI 6EI/L2 6EI/L2 L3 /3EI L/6EI M L/3EI L/6EI L/3EI 6EI/L2 6EI/L2 6EI/L2 = 6EI/L2 12EI/L3 12EI/L3 R1

R2 =

M L/3EI 0 0

6EI/L2

6EI/L2

12EI/L3

12EI/L3

M L/6EI M L/3EI 0 0

Cantilivered Beam/Initial Displacement and Concentrated Moment 1. The element stiness matrix is

2 2 12EI/L3 3 6EI/L2 4 12EI/L3 1 6EI/L2 1 1 4EI/L 2 6EI/L2 3 2EI/L 4 6EI/L2 3 6EI/L2 4EI/L 6EI/L2 2EI/L 4 12EI/L3 6EI/L2 12EI/L3 6EI/L2 3 2EI/L 6EI/L2 4EI/L 6EI/L2 1 6EI/L2 2EI/L 6EI/L2 4EI/L 4 6EI/L2 12EI/L3 6EI/L2 12EI/L3

k=

2 6EI/L2 12EI/L3 6EI/L2 12EI/L3

K=

4. Ktt is inverted (or actually decomposed) and stored in the same global matrix

L/4EI 6EI/L2 2EI/L

3. The global matrix can be rewritten as 4EI/L 6EI/L2 M 2 R2 ? 6EI/L 12EI/L3 = R3 ? 2EI/L 6EI/L2 3 2

R4 ? 6EI/L 12EI/L

1 ? 2 3 4

6EI/L2

12EI/L3

6EI/L2

2EI/L 6EI/L2

6EI/L2 12EI/L3

4EI/L 6EI/L2

6EI/L2

Victor Saouma

Draft

Chapter 1

INTRODUCTION

1.1

1

Introduction

Whereas the rst course focused exclusively on one dimensional rod elements, this course will greatly expand our horizons by considering introducing a methodology to solve partial dierential equations, with special emphasis on solid mechanics.

2

The eld of mechanics, can itself be subdivided into four major disciplines:

Theoretical which deals with the fundamental laws and principles of mechanics. A Continuum Mechanics course is a must. Applied mechanics seeks to apply the theoretical knowledge to engineering applications. Elasticity or Fracture Mechanics solutions are such an example of applied mechanics. Computational mechanics combines mathematical models with numerical methods to solve problems on a digital computer. Experimental mechanics is conducted exclusively in a laboratory through physical measurements.

3

Any problem characterized by a PDE can be analyzed by the nite element method. The process of nite element analysis is illustrated by Fig. 1.12.

1.2

4 Since the nite element method is a numerical scheme to solve (partial) dierential equations, let us closely examine some of the major PDE which can be solved.

and the order of the PDE is dened by the order of the highest partial derivatives appearing in the equation. For instance 1 u,xx + 2 u,xy + 3 u,yy + 4 = 0 is quadratic. It would be linear if i is a function of (x, y) only, otherwise it is nonlinear.

6

The general form of a partial dierential equation is (note that we adopt the tensor notation where u,x = du ): dx F (x, y, z, , u, u,x , u,y , u,z , , u,xx , u,yy , , u,xy , u,xz , ) = 0

Many signicant physical systems can be described by second order linear partial dierential equations. The most general form is A(x, y) 2u 2u u u 2u + 2B(x, y) + C(x, y) 2 = x, y, u, , 2 x xy y x y (1.1)

Draft

7 8

1.2 Elliptic, Parabolic and Hyperbolic Equations Where u is the unknown state variable. This equation is classied into three types: B 2 AC < 0 Elliptic Parabolic Hyperbolic u,xx + u,yy = u,xx = u,t u,xx u,tt = 0 G(x, y) Poisson Equation 0 Laplace Equation Heat Equation Wave Equation

47

B 2 AC = 0 B 2 AC > 0

Note: 1. The Laplace equation ( 2 u = 0) is a special case of Poissons equation, where the right hand side is zero. Laplace associated with the equilibrium problem. 2. The Heat equation (Hu,t K 2 2 u = 0) corresponds to exponential decay. Also referred to as Diusion equation (uid ow through porous media, irrotational uid ow, Saint Venant torsion of elastic bars...). 3. The Wave equation (u,tt K 2

2

This classication is established when solving Eq. 1.1 using the method of characteristics because it is then observed that the character of the solutions is distinctly dierent for the three categories of equations.

Example 1-1: Seepage Problem;(Bathe 1996) The idealized dam shown in Fig. 1.2 stands on permeable soil. Formulate the dierential equa-

h1

Impermeable rock

Figure 1.2: Seepage Problem tion governing the steady-state seepage of water through the soil and give the corresponding boundary conditions. Solution: 1. For a typical element of widths dx and dy (and unit thickness), the total ow into the element must be equal to the total ow out of the element. Hence we have qy qy + qy y dx + qx qx + qx dy x qx qy dydx dxdy y x = = 0 0 (1.2-a) (1.2-b)

Victor Saouma

Impermeable wall

q(y+dy)

Seepage

dy

h2

q(x) q(y)

q(x+dx)

y Permeable soil x

dx

Finite Element II; Continuum Elements

dx

Figure 1.3: One Dimensional Heat Conduction 2. The constitutive relation is given by Fouriers law of heat conduction q = k x (1.11)

In this case the element interconnectivity requirements are contained in the assumption that the temperature be a continuous function of x and no additional compatibility conditions are applicable. 4. The boundary conditions are (for t > 0) x =

(0,t)

q0 (t) k

dy =1 .0

|(x,0) = i

Example 1-3: Wave Equation, (Bathe 1996) The rod shown in Fig. 1.4 is initially at rest when a load F (t) is suddenly applied at its free end. Show that the problem-governing dierential equation is the wave equation 1 2u 2u = 2 2; 2 x c t and c= E (1.15)

where E is the Youngs modulus, the mass density, and A the cross sectional area, c corresponds to the velocity of sound in the elastic medium, and u is the state variable. Also state the boundary and initial conditions. Solution:

Victor Saouma

0101

t>0

0101

1.0

q (t)

0101

q(x)

" &'&' ()() && () # ' # ""# " ""# " ## ""# " ""# " ## ""# " ""# " ## ""# " ""# " ## ""# " ""# " ## ""# " %% %% % % $ $$$%$%""" $"#%# $%$%"$ %##% %%$%"$ $$%$%$%%"$%# $$$$"$ $$ %$%$%%$% %% %% $$$$$$$$$ %%%$%$%%$% %$$%$$%$$ %$%$%%$% %% %% $%$%$% $$$%$$%$$ %%$%%$$$%% %% %% $$$$$ $$$$$$

dz=1.0

0101

0101

0101

01

! !!! ! !! !!

Draft

49

q(x+dx)

Draft

10

51

Seepage Example From the rst example we observe 1. The unknown state variables (or their normal derivatives) are given on the boundary. These problems are for this reason also called boundary value problems, where we should note that the solution at a general interior point depends on the data at every point of the boundary. 2. A change in only one boundary value aects the complete solution; for instance, the complete solution for depends on the actual value of h1 . 3. Elliptic dierential equations generally govern the steady-state response of systems. Diusion and Wave Propagation Example 1. Comparing the governing dierential equations given in the three examples we note that in contrast to the elliptic equation, the parabolic and hyperbolic equations Eq. 1.12 and Eq. 1.18 include time as an independent variable and thus dene propagation problems. These problems are also called initial value problems because the solution depends on the initial conditions. 2. We may note that analogous to the derivation of the dynamic equilibrium equations of lumpedparameter models, the governing dierential equations of propagation problems are obtained from the steady-state equations by including the resistance to change (inertia) of the differential elements. 3. The parabolic and hyperbolic dierential equations Eq. 1.12 and Eq. 1.18 would become elliptic equations if the time-dependent terms were neglected. In this way the initial value problems would be converted to boundary value problems with steady-state solutions. 4. The solution of a boundary value problem depends on the data at all points of the boundary. However, in propagation problem, the solution at an interior point may depend only on the boundary conditions of part of the boundary and the initial conditions over part of the interior domain.

1.3

11

Section adapted from (Bathe 1996) The essence of the solution of discrete-system is 1. System idealization: the actual system is idealized as an assemblage of elements. 2. Element equilibrium: the equilibrium requirements of each element are established in terms of state variables (displacement, temperature, pressure, etc...). 3. Element assemblage: element interconnection requirements are invoked to establish a set of simultaneous equations in terms of the unknown state variables. 4. Calculation of state variables: The set of linear equations is solved to determine the state variables at each discretized points. 5. Calculation of ux variable: or derived variables.

12

In the following sections, we shall illustrate, through a number of dierent physical problems, the solution of discrete-systems. This preliminary exposure is a snap-shot of the type of problems which can be addressed by the nite element method.

1.3.1

13 In this rst class of problem, we shall focus on equilibrium problems, that is problems where the solution does not change with time.

Victor Saouma

Draft

15 A wall is constructed of two homogeneous slabs in contact. In steady-state conditions the temperatures in the wall is characterized by the external surface temperature 1 and 3 and the interface temperature 2 . Establish the equilibrium equations of the problem in terms of these temperatures when the ambient temperatures 0 and 4 are known.

1.3.1.2

Heat Transfer

22222 FGFFFGFFGFFFGFFFGFFGFFF 23 FGFGGE GGE E GGE E GGE GGE E GGE GGE E GGE E GGE GGE 3333323 33333 22222 32323E 998 3 3 3 3 32323 3 FEFFFGFFGFFFGFFFGFFGFFFGE 222222 GGE E FGFFFEFFEFFFEFFFEFFEFFFEGF3333323322@ FEFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF322@ EGE EGE E E E E E E E E E 3232E 8 32 32 32 32 3232 32 GFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFG 222222 FGFFFGFFGFFFGFFFGFFGFFFF333333222@ GFFEFFEFFFEFFFEFFEFFF 33333 GEG G GEG G GEG GEG G GEG GEG G GEG G GEG GEG 3232E 989 2 2 2 2 32332232 2 FGFFFGFFGFFFGFFFGFFGFFFE 323232323223 FEFFFEFFEFFFEFFFEFFEFFFGE 2222223 FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF3333322@ EGE E EGE EGE E EGE E EGE EGE E EGE EGE E EGE E EGE EGE 3232E 98 333333 222223 FEFFFEFFEFFFEFFFEFFEFFFEG 3333323 FEFFFEFFEFFFEFFFEFFEFFFGF2322@ 222222 333332 E232E 898 2 2 2 2 322323232 2 333333 2222222222 FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF22@ GEEG G GEEG GEEG G GEEG G GEEG GEEG G GEEG GEEG G GEEG G GEEG GEEG 33333 FGFFFGFFGFFFGFFFGFFGFFFE 2222223 23322E 98 23 32 FEFFFEFFEFFFEFFFEFFEFFFGE 2222223 FGFFFGFFGFFFGFFFGFFGFFFEGF333333222@ 32332E 989 32 32 32 32 23232332 32 FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFGF2232@ GEG G GEG GEG G GEG G GEG GEG G GEG GEG G GEG G GEG GEG 33333 2222232 333332 GFGEFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF333332@ EE E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E 222232 2232EE 988 2 2 2 2 3 33333223 2222232 32332 GFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFGE 3333323 GGE GGE GE GGE GE GGE GGE GE GGE GGE GE GGE GE GGE GGE 222232 EFGFFFGFFGFFFGFFFGFFGFFFF33332322@ 23322E 89 GFEFFFEFFEFFFEFFFEFFEFFFEG 333322 EFGFFFGFFGFFFGFFFGFFGFFFF22223232@ EGE EGE EGE EGE EGE EGE EGE EGE EGE EGE 22223 23232 FEFFFEFFEFFFEFFFEFFEFFFEG 3333223 FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF222222@2 322323EE 8989 BABBAB FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF3CD EG G EG EG G EG G EG EG G EG EG G EG G EG EG 222232D 22@2 FEFFFEFFEFFFEFFFEFFEFFFEG 333323233C 3222233 33223 2333332 33333232 ABAA EG G 232332 GFEFFFEFFEFFFEFFFEFFGFFFEG 232323232323 GEG GEG G GEG G GEG GEG G GEG GEG G FEFFF 232323EE 8989 23 23 23 23 2323 GEG G GEG GEG EAB FGFFFGFFGFFFGFFFGFFFFFF2323232322322@ GFEFFFEFFEFFFEFFFEFFEGFFFEG 2323232323 EFEGFFFEGFFEGFFFEGFFFEGFFEGFFFEGF232323232322@ EGE EGE EGE EGE EGE EGE EGE EGEGE E EGEGE EGEGE 2323232322323 232323 3 232323E 89 FFFFFFFFFFFFF67FF67FFF22@ IH 45223 45 H EG EG EG EG EG EG EG EG EG EG EG EG EG 66EG 2E 89 2 2 2 2 42 HH FFFFFFFFFFFFF6767F45452@ II 77 HH IHIIHI IHI 77 76 54 5445 45 6 6 5

1

2k

B

Victor Saouma 5. These equations can be rewritten as 5k 2k 2k 5k 0 3k 4. Heat ow equilibrium must be satised 2. The state variables are 1 , 2 and 3 . thus

3. We then apply the equilibrium equation for each interface q1 = 3k(0 1 ) Convection q2 = 2k(1 2 ) Conduction q3 = 3k(2 3 ) Conduction q4 = 2k(3 4 ) Convection

where q is the total heat ow, A the area, the temperature drop in the direction of heat ow, and k the conductance or surface coecient.

Conductance

3k

2k(1 2 ) 3k(2 3 )

3k(0 1 )

q1 = q 2 = q 3 = q 4

0 1 3k0 0 2 3k = 2k4 5k 3 q = Ak = = =

3k

3k(2 3 ) 2k(3 4 )

2k(1 2 )

AB B C CD

2k

3 4

(1.28-b) (1.28-c)

(1.28-a)

Draft

I3 I3 I - I3

1

55

I3 4R 3 A E I2

6R 2R 2 4 I - I3

2

1

1

2R B 2E

17

DC Network

Considering the network shown in Fig. 1.8, determine the steady state current distribution in the network. 1. The state variables will be the currents I1 , I2 , and I3 . Ohms law will be applied E = RI where E is the voltage drop across the resistor. 2. The equilibrium equation to be satised across each element law 2RI1 + 2R(I1 I3 ) 4R(I2 I3 ) 6RI3 + 4R(I3 I2 ) + 2R(I3 I1 ) 3. Rewriting this equation in matrix form 4R 0 0 4R 2R 4R interconnection will be Kirchhos = = = 2E E 0 (1.36) (1.35)

1.3.2

2R I1 2E E I2 4R = 0 I3 12R

(1.37)

Each of the preceding problems can be discretized by an equivalent truss framework, and the direct stiness method applied to assemble the global stiness matrix, Fig. 1.9. Heat Transfer: where the displacement correspond to the temperature . 1. Element stiness matrices Spring 1: Spring 2: Spring 3: Spring 4: 2K 3K 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3Ku1 u1 u2 u2 u3 2Ku3 = = = = F3 F1

(1) (1)

F1 (2) F2 F2 (3) F3

(4) (3)

(1.38)

Victor Saouma

Draft

1.3 Solution of Discrete-System Mathematical models 2. Assemble active degrees of freedom 2K 2K 0 3. Equilbrium at each node F1 + F 1 (2) (3) F2 + F 2 (3) (4) F3 + F 3

(1) (2)

57

2K 2K + 3K 3K

(1)

(1.39)

= = =

(2) R1 F1 R2 R2 (3) F3 R3

= =

(1.40)

0 u1 R1 3K0 u2 3K R2 0 = = = 5K u3 R3 2K4

(1.41)

1 5b 1 5b 1 5b 1 1 1 5b + 2b + 3b 1 f rac12b 3b 1 5b 1 2b 1 3b

1 10b

= = = = =

F1

(1)

1 1 1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1 1 1

u1 u2 u2 u3 u2 u3

1 5b u3

(5)

(2)

(3)

(1.42)

(4)

(1) (2)

(1)

1 10b u1 1 5b u3

(1.43)

= = =

= =

Q 0

(1.44)

(1.45)

Victor Saouma

Draft

1.3.3.2

59

3. The equilibrium equation represents a system of ordinary dierential equations of the second order in time. For the solution of these equations it is also necessary to specify the initial conditions for u and u at time t = 0 (u0 and u0 respectively). Transient Heat Flow

Fig. 1.10 illustrates an idealization of the heat ow inside an electron tube. A lament is heated to a temperature f by an electric current; heat is convected from the lament to the surrounding gas and is radiated to the wall which also receives heat by convection of the gas. The wall itself convects heat to the surrounding atmosphere, which is at temperature a . It is required to formulate the system-governing heat ow equilibrium equations.

Wall

Atmosphere

tio n

Filament

Figure 1.10: Heat Transfer Idealization in an Electron Tube, (Bathe 1996) 1. The state variables are the temperature of the gas, 1 , and the temperature of the wall 2 . 2. The governing equations for heat transfer are C1 d1 = k1 (f 1 ) k2 (1 2 ) Gas dt (1.54) d2 = k ( )4 ( )4 + k ( ) k ( ) Wall C2 2 1 2 3 2 a f 2 r dt Note that the rst equation is Newtons law of cooling, and the second is the Stefan-Boltzman law of radiation. 3. The two equations can be written in matrix form as C + K C = = Q C1 0 0 C2 k2 (k2 + k3 ) (1.55-a) (1.55-b) (1.55-c) (1.55-d) (1.55-e)

4. We note that because of the radiation boundary conditions, the heat ow equilibrium equations are nonlinear in . Victor Saouma Finite Element II; Continuum Elements

nv ec

Gas

Co

RSRS RSRS RSRS PQPQ PQPQ PQPQ PQPQ PQPQ PQPQ PQPQ PQPQ

PQPQ

Gas 1

Co

nv ti ec on k2

Convection k3

Filament f

Radiation kr

Wall 2

Atmosphere a

K = Q = =

(k1 + k2 ) k2 1 2

k1 f kr (f )4 (2 )4 + k3 a )

eee

Draft

aa aaa U`Y`Y`Y` UU`Y`Y`Y` a UUU UUU a UUUY` `Y`Y`Y` UUU UUU UUU UUU` UUUY UUU` UUUY` UUU`Y`Y Y`Y`Y`Y Y`Y`Y`Y Y`Y`Y`Y UUUY UUUY` UUU Y`Y` Y`Y` Y`Y` UUU` UUUY UUU` UUUY UUU` `Y`YY` `Y`YY` `Y`YY` UUUY UUU` UUUYY UUU UUU UUU`Y` Y`YY``Y Y`YY``Y Y`YY``Y `UUU UUUY `UU `U UUUY` UUU UUUY` UUU` c cddc cddc cddc dUU UUUYY` UUUUdUU Y`Y`Y` Y`Y`Y` Y`Y`Y` c cddc ddUUUUcUU c` UUUUdcUU dUUUUcUU cY` cUUUUdUU UUUUcUUdc UUUUdUUd cdUUUUdUUc UUUUcUUd dcdcdc dcdcdc dcdcdc dcdcdc ccddUUUUcUUdcc UUUUcUU UUUUdUU UUUUUUcdc dccdccd dccdccd dccdccd dccdccd cUUUUdUU UUUUcdUUcd dcdUUUUcUU cddUUUUdUU UUUUcUUcd UUUUcdUUd cdUUUUdUUcd dcdcdd dcdcdd dcdcdd d dcdcdd cdUUUUcUUcd UUUUcdUUd cdUUUUdUUcdc cdcdc cdcdc cdcdc cdcdc dcdUUUUcUUd cUUUUdUUdc dUUUUcUUc ccUUUUcUU UUUUdUUd cdccd cdccd cdccd ccdcd UUUUcUUc cdUUUUdUU UUUUcUUd cdUUUUUUcdcdcc e cdcd cdcd cdcd cdcd eee

P L B k( - )

2 2 1

UUrU rs UU rs rs UUsU UUrU UUrUs UUUr UUsU UUsUs srrsrs srrsrs s UUsUr UUrrUsrsrrs srrrssr rssrrrssr r sUUrUr rUUsUs sUUU rUUsUrsr sUUsU sUUrU UUrsUs rUUrsU UUsUrsrs sUUsU srsrss rUUrU sUUrU UUUs UUUsr UUsUsr rsrsr UUrUsrsr srsr UrsrsU rrsrs UtUuUtUuUuUUsUrrsr rsrrsr UrU UrUsU rU UUuUUrs Utu tu Uu Utut Uu tutu Ut U Utu U U U Uu uuttutu Ut Uuttu U U U Uu Ut tuuttut Uu Utu Utut Uu ututu Utut Uu Ut uttut Ututu

1 P

UVUU UTUU UVUU UTUUV VTVTV TV VTVTV UVUUT UTUU UTUUV UVUUT UTUUV UTUUVTT TVVTVTT TVVTVTT UVUU UTUU UVUUVT UVUU UTUUT UTVUUV UVUU UVUUTVT TVTVVVTT TVTVVVTT UTUUV UTVUUTV UVUUTV UTUUV VTVTV VTVTV UTVUUVT UVUUVT UTUUT VTVT VTVT UVUUV UTUUTVT TVTTVT TVTTVT XUUUUWXUU UVUUTTV X X X X X UTUU XWXUUUUXUU UTUU WUUUUWUUX UUUTV WXUUUUWXUUWXWXWX UUUUXUUUW WXWXWX WXWXWX WXWXWX WXWXWX UUUUWUUU WXUUUUWXUUUWW WXUUUUXUUXWX WXWX WXWX WXWX WXWX UUUUWUUUW WUUUUWUUW UUUUXUUUW XWXUUUUXUU WUUUUWUU XXUUUUXUUX XXWWXWX XXWWXWX XXWWXWX XXWWXWX WUUUUWUUXWW UUUUXUUUW XXUUUUXUUU WWUUUUXUUUWW UUUUWUUX UUUUWUUWXXWWXWXW UUUUWUUU WXUUUUXUUUW WXXWWXW WXXWWXW WXXWWXW WXXWWXW UUUUWUUU WXUUUUWXUUUWWW XWWXWX XWWXWX XWWXWX XWWXWX WXWX WWXUUUUWUUU UUUUXUUUWW WXXUUUUWXUUWXWXXW XUUUUXUUUW WUUUUWUUU UUUUUUUWW WXWX WXWX WXWX WXWX

1 1.618 P

UgUgU fg fg UfUfU fgfgUUUfgfg UgfUgfU UfUfU UgUgU UgfUgfU gfgfgfUUUgfgffg UfUfU UgUgU UgUgU UfUfU UgfUgfU gffgffgUUUgffgffg UfgUfgU UgUgU UfUfU UfUfU UfggUfggU ggffggUgUgUgfgfgg UgUgU UffUffU fgfgfUfUfUfgfgf UgUgU UpqUpqU fgUgUgUfg q q UhUhU UfUfU UiUiU UhUhU qq pqUUpqUUipqUipqU ffgUUUffg UiUiU UUU UhUhU UhUhU f f bb pqUpqqUpqUhhipqhiqUUUhhipqhiq fgUUUfg qUUqUUhUhU g g UpUpU pUUpUUhUhU UfUfU UiUiU UhqUhqU qUqUqUiqUipqUipqUiq UpUpU pUpUpUphUhUhUph UiUiU UqUqU bbb UpqpqUUipqhhhipqUUUhipqhhipq pqUUpqUUqhipqUqhipqU qUUqUUpUpU bb pUpqpqUpUhipqhipqUUUhipqhipq qUUqUUiUiU pUUpUUhUhU qpUUqpUUpUpU UUU qq pUUpUUiUiU qUUqUUqhipqUqhipqU qUqUqUiqUUUiq UpUpU UhUhU pUppqUpUhhippqUUUhhippq UiUiU UqUqU qUUqUUpqUpqU UqUqU UiUiU pUUpUUhiUhiU UpUpU bbbb UpqppqqpqUUhhipqhiippqqipqUUUhhipqhiippqqipq qUUqUUipqUipqU UpUpU UhUhU pUUpUUUU UiUiU UhUhU qUUqUUqhUqhU pUUpUUpUpU hh bbbb UpqpqpqUUhipqhhipqhipqUhUhUhipqhhipqhipq qpqUUqpqUUiUiU pUUpUUhUhU qpqUUqpqUUipqUipqU pUUpUUipqhUipqhU bbb UpqpqUUhipqhipqUUUhipqhipq

1 2 B

1

26

Victor Saouma

28 27

We now seek to determine the deformed shape for each of the rst critical loads 3 5 1 = 2

B k

A k

2 1

2 1

2 2 + 2 1

1+ 5 2

3 5 2

1 1

Pcr1 Pcr2

2 1 1 1

2 1

1.618 1

2

3 + 1

1 1 32 5

= =

1 1

1+ 5 2

1 2

1 0.618

3 5 2 3+ 5 2

1,2

1 2

k L k L

k1

k = 0.382 L k = 2.618 L

B k( - )

1 2

1 2

1 2 0 0 0

2

1

0 0

3 5 94 = 2 2

1 2

0 0

0 0

.618

0 0

(1.65-d)

(1.65-b)

(1.67-b)

Draft

63

equations in space and/or time complemented by appropriate boundary conditions. The strong form is numerically solved by the nite dierence FDM method.

Variational Form, VF: is a functional which must be stationary (maximum or minimum), and which can lead to either the strong form (corresponding Euler equations), or to the weak form. The variational form is solved by the Rayleigh-Ritz method which leads to a nite element formulation (FEM). Weak Form, WF: is a weighted integral equation which relaxes the strong form to be satised on an average sense inside a nite element through the Weighted Residual method.

32

Note that: 1. The variational method provides a relatively easy way to construct the system of governing equations. This ease stems from the fact that in the variational formulation scalar quantities (energies, potentials and so on) are considered rather than vector quantities (forces, displacements, etc.), 2. Not all problems can be solved by the VF, whereas most can be solved by the WF. 3. In complex problems, a combination of techniques is used Fluid-structure interaction: FEM for the structure, FDM for the uid. Structural dynamics: FEM in space, and FDM in time.

1.4.1

33

Euler Equation

b

a

F (x, u, u )dx

(1.71)

it can be shown that its corresponding Euler equation is given by F d F =0 u dx u in a < x < b (1.72)

This dierential equation is called the Euler equation associated with and is a necessary condition for u(x) to extremize .

34

Generalizing for a functional which depends on two eld variables, u = u(x, y) and v = v(x, y) = F (x, y, u, v, u,x , u,y , v,x , v,y , , v,yy )dxdy

F 2 xy u,xy 2 F + xy v,xy 2 F y 2 u,yy 2 F y 2 v,yy

(1.73)

F F F 2 F u x u,x y u,y + x2 u,xx F F 2 F F v x v,x y v,y + x2 v,xx

+ +

= =

0 0

(1.74)

Example 1-4: Flexure of a Beam The total potential energy of a beam supporting a uniform load p is given by

L

=

0

1 M pw dx = 2

L 0

1 (EIw )w pw dx 2

F

(1.75)

Solution:

Victor Saouma

Draft

36

65

NASTRAN Originally developed by NASA, primarily used by NASA and its contractors. Original version public domain, later version (McNeal Schwindler) commercial. SAP Originally developed by Ed. Wilson at Berkeley. First version public domain, later ones available only for PC (SAP90). NONSAP is the nonlinear version of SAP ANSYS Commercial program mostly used in the Nuclear industry. ABAQUS Probably the most modern and widely used commercial nite element. (Available in Bechtel Lab). ALGOR Very widely used PC/based code, mechanical/civil applications. FEAP Public domain code listed in Zienkiewicz et al., often used in academia as a base for extension. MERLIN our very own!.

1.6

Examples of applications

1. Aircraft, automobile, submarine 2. Dam, buildings, bridges 3. Mechanical design and optimization 4. Heat transfer 5. Biomechanics (hip joints) 6. Electrical (design of rotors) 7. Coastal engineering 8. Fluid mechanics 9. Coupled problems

Victor Saouma

Draft

Chapter 2

FUNDAMENTAL RELATIONS

2.1

1

Introduction

Whereas, ideally, a course in Continuum Mechanics should be taken prior to a nite element course, this is seldom the case. Most often, students have had a graduate course in Advanced Strength of Materials, which can only provide limited background to a solid nite element course.

2

Accordingly, this preliminary chapter (mostly extracted from the authors lecture notes in Continuum Mechanics) will partially remedy for occasional deciencies and will be often referenced. It should be noted that most, but not all, of the material in this chapter will be subsequently referenced.

2.1.1

4

Notation

Matrix: Finite Element [A], [], {F } Indicial: Mechanics cartesian, Fx , ij , Cijkl Tensorial: Mechanics cartesian/curvilinear, F, , C Engineering: (Timoshenko/Voigt) Elasticity, x , xy x.A.x = xT Ax = xi Aij xj indicial In the following sections, we shall briey explain the last two. 2.1.1.1 Indicial Notation tensor matrix (2.1)

5 Whereas the Engineering notation may be the simplest and most intuitive one, it often leads to long and repetitive equations. Alternatively, the tensor will lead to shorter and more compact forms. 6 While working on general relativity, Einstein got tired of writing the summation symbol with its range n=3 of summation below and above (such as i=1 aij bi ) and noted that most of the time the upper range (n) was equal to the dimension of space (3 for us, 4 for him), and that when the summation involved a product of two terms, the summation was over a repeated index (i in our example). Hence, he decided that there is no need to include the summation sign if there was repeated indices (i), and thus any repeated index is a dummy index and is summed over the range 1 to 3. An index that is not repeated is called free index and assumed to take a value from 1 to 3.

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2.1.1.3

13 14

69

In nite element, symmetric second-order tensors are often written as column matrices. This conversion, and the one of other higher-order tensors into column matrices are called Voigt notation. The Voigt rule depends on whether the tensor is a kinetic quantity (such as stress) or a kinematic one (such as strain). 11 1 11 12 22 2 = = {} (2.9-a) 21 22 12 3 11 1 11 12 22 2 = = {} (2.9-b) 21 22 212 3

2.1.2

Tensors

15 We generalize the concept of a vector by introducing the tensor (T), which essentially exists to operate on vectors v to produce other vectors (or on tensors to produce other tensors!). We designate this operation by Tv or simply Tv.

16

We hereby adopt the tensor (or dyadic) notation for tensors as linear vector operators u u = = Tv or ui = Tij vj vS where S = TT (2.10-a) (2.10-b)

17 Whereas a tensor is essentially an operator on vectors (or other tensors), it is also a physical quantity, independent of any particular coordinate system yet specied most conveniently by referring to an appropriate system of coordinates. 18 Tensors frequently arise as physical entities whose components are the coecients of a linear relationship between vectors. 19 A tensor is classied by the rank or order. A Tensor of order zero is specied in any coordinate system by one coordinate and is a scalar. A tensor of order one has three coordinate components in space, hence it is a vector. In general 3-D space the number of components of a tensor is 3 n where n is the order of the tensor.

20

A force and a stress are tensors of order 1 and 2 respectively. The sum of two (second order) tensors is simply dened as: Sij = Tij + Uij (2.11)

21

22

The multiplication of a (second order) tensor by a scalar is dened by: Sij = Tij (2.12)

In a contraction, we make two of the indices equal (or in a mixed tensor, we make a subscript equal to the superscript), thus producing a tensor of order two less than that to which it is applied. For example: Tij Tii ; 2 0 u i vj u i vi ; 2 0 r Amr Amr = B.s ; 4 2 (2.13) ..sn ..sm Eij ak Eij ai = cj ; 3 1 mp Ampr Ampr = Bq ; 5 3 qs qr

23

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X3

71

X3 V3

33 t3 31 13 t1

12

32

23 t2

21

V2 X2

22

X2

V1 X1

11

(Components of a tensor of order 2 are vectors)

31 In fact the nine rectangular components ij of turn out to be the three sets of three vector components (11 , 12 , 13 ), (21 , 22 , 23 ), (31 , 32 , 33 ) which correspond to the three tractions t1 , t2 and t3 which are acting on the x1 , x2 and x3 faces (It should be noted that those tractions are not necesarily normal to the faces, and they can be decomposed into a normal and shear traction if need be). In other words, stresses are nothing else than the components of tractions (stress vector), Fig. 2.1. 32 The state of stress at a point cannot be specied entirely by a single vector with three components; it requires the second-order tensor with all nine components.

2.2.1.2

33

Let us now consider the problem of determining the traction acting on the surface of an oblique plane (characterized by its normal n) in terms of the known tractions normal to the three principal axis, t 1 , t2 and t3 . This will be done through the so-called Cauchys tetrahedron shown in Fig. 2.2, and will be obtained without any assumption of equilibrium and it will apply in uid dynamics as well as in solid mechanics.

34

This equation is a vector equation, and the corresponding algebraic equations for the components of tn are tn1 = 11 n1 + 21 n2 + 31 n3 tn2 = 12 n1 + 22 n2 + 32 n3 tn3 = 13 n1 + 23 n2 + 33 n3 (2.19) Indicial notation tni = ji nj Tensor notation tn = n = T n

35 We have thus established that the nine components ij are components of the second order tensor, Cauchys stress tensor.

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73

Spatial Coordinates (x1 , x2 , x3 ) dened in the deformed coordinate system. This gigives rise to the Eulerian coordinate system

u ui 1. If both the displacement gradients and the displacements themselves are small, then Xi xj and j thus the Eulerian and the Lagrangian innitesimal strain tensors may be taken as equal E ij = Eij .

2. If the displacement gradients are small, but the displacements are large, we should use the Eulerian innitesimal representation. 3. If the displacements gradients are large, but the displacements are small, use the Lagrangian nite strain representation. 4. If both the displacement gradients and the displacements are large, use the Eulerian nite strain representation.

37

Xu + X uu Jc J X)

(2.24)

J+Jc

2

+ +

u2 X1

u3 X1

u2 1 u1 + 2 X2 X1

1 u1 u1 u2 u2 u3 u3 + + 2 X1 X2 X1 X2 X1 X2

38

If large deformation is accounted for (such as in buckling), the Eulerian nite strains are: xx yy zz xy xz yz = = = = = =

u x v y w z 1 2 1 2 1 2

+ + +

1 2 1 2 1 2

2 u 2 v 2 + x + w x x 2 2 2 u v + y + w y y u 2 z

v 2 z

w 2 z

(2.26)

v x w x w y

u y + u z + v z

+ + +

u u x y u u x z u u y z

+ + +

v v x y v v x z v v y z

+ + +

w w x y w w x z w w y z

or ij = From this equation, we note that: 1. We dene the engineering shear strain as ij = 2ij (i = j) (2.28) 1 (ui,j + uj,i + uk,i uk,j ) 2 (2.27)

2. If the strains are given, then these strain-displacements provide a system of (6) nonlinear partial dierential equation in terms of the unknown displacements (3). Victor Saouma Finite Element II; Continuum Elements

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43

75

Conservation laws constitute a fundamental component of classical physics. A conservation law establishes a balance of a scalar or tensorial quantity in voulme V bounded by a surface S. In its most general form, such a law may be expressed as d dt AdV + dS

S

Exchange by Diffusion

=

V

AdV

Source

(2.33)

Rate of variation

where A is the volumetric density of the quantity of interest (mass, linear momentum, energy, ...) a, A is the rate of volumetric density of what is provided from the outside, and is the rate of surface density of what is lost through the surface S of V and will be a function of the normal to the surface n.

44 Hence, we read the previous equation as: The input quantity (provided by the right hand side) is equal to what is lost across the boundary, and to modify A which is the quantity of interest. The dimensions of various quantities are given by

45 Hence this section will apply the previous conservation law to mass, momentum, and energy. The resulting dierential equations will provide additional interesting relation with regard to the imcompressibiltiy of solids (important in classical hydrodynamics and plasticity theories), equilibrium and symmetry of the stress tensor, and the rst law of thermodynamics. 46 The enunciation of the preceding three conservation laws plus the second law of thermodynamics, constitute what is commonly known as the fundamental laws of continuum mechanics.

47

Prior to the enunciation of the rst conservation law, we need to dene the concept of ux across a bounding surface.

48

The ux across a surface can be graphically dened through the consideration of an imaginary surface xed in space with continuous medium owing through it. If we assign a positive side to the surface, and take n in the positive sense, then the volume of material owing through the innitesimal surface area dS in time dt is equal to the volume of the cylinder with base dS and slant height vdt parallel to the velocity vector v, Fig. 2.3 (If vn is negative, then the ow is in the negative direction). Hence, we

vdt

n dS

vn dt

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52

2.2 Vector Fields; Solid Mechanics or for an arbitrary volume dvi Tij + bi = or xj dt T + b = dv dt

77

(2.41)

which is Cauchys (rst) equation of motion, or the linear momentum principle, or more simply equilibrium equation. When expanded in 3D, this equation yields: T12 T13 T11 + + + b1 x1 x2 x3 T21 T22 T23 + + + b2 x1 x2 x3 T31 T32 T33 + + + b3 x1 x2 x3 = 0 = 0 = 0 (2.42-a)

53 We note that these equations could also have been derived from the free body diagram shown in Fig. 2.4 with the assumption of equilibrium (via Newtons second law) considering an innitesimal element of dimensions dx1 dx2 dx3 . Writing the summation of forces, will yield

(2.43)

yy +

yy d y y

+ yx

yx y d y xx + xx x d x

dy

xx xy yx yy dx + xy

xy x d x

2.2.3.3

54 The rst principle of thermodynamics relates the work done on a (closed) system and the heat transfer into the system to the change in energy of the system. We shall assume that the only energy transfers

Victor Saouma

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61 62

2.2 Vector Fields; Solid Mechanics In terms of Lames constants, Hookes Law for an isotropic body is written as Tij = ij Ekk + 2Eij Eij =

1 2

79

or or

T = IE + 2E E=

2(3+2) IT

Tij

3+2 ij Tkk

1 2 T

(2.49)

+ (3+2) ;

2(+)

E (1+)(12) ;

=G=

E 2(1+)

(2.50)

63

Similarly in the case of pure shear in the x1 x3 and x2 x3 planes, we have 21 = 12 212 = = all other ij = 0 G (2.51-a) (2.51-b)

64

E 1+ ij + 12 ij kk 1+ E ij E ij kk or E or = 1+ + 1+ = E E I 12 I

(2.52)

65

66

2.2.4.2

(2.53)

0 1 G 0 0 0 1 0

(2.54)

67

For transversely isotropic, we can express the stress-strain relation in tems of xx yy zz xy yz xz = = = = = = a11 xx + a12 yy + a13 zz a12 xx + a11 yy + a13 zz a13 (xx + yy ) + a33 zz 2(a11 a12 )xy a44 xy a44 xz

(2.55)

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2.2.4.4

73

81

In porous material, the water pressure is transmitted to the structure as a body force of magnitude bx = p x by = p y (2.61)

74 The eective stresses are the forces transmitted between the solid particles and are dened in terms of the total stresses and pore pressure p

ij = ij + mij p

mT = [ 1,

1,

0 ]

(2.62)

i.e simply removing the hydrostatic pressure component from the total stress.

2.2.5

75

In the absence of thermal/initial stresses and pore pressures, the eld equations are written as ij,j ij nj + bi ti = = 0 0 Equilibrium Natural B.C. (2.63)

where bi and ti are the body forces and surface tractions respectively.

76

These equations will form the basis of the variational formulation of the nite element method.

77

To account for the eect of thermal/initial stresses and pore pressures we seek to modify Eq. 2.63, in such a way that bi and ti are replaced by bi and ti . Thermal strains are caused by a change in temperature with respect to the stress-free condition.

78

79

In Thermo- or poro-elasticity problems, the thermal strains and pore pressures are treated as initial strains and stresses, respectively.

80

In porous media, the total stress is equal to the sum of and p. This last term is the pore pressures and acts only in the voids of the material, and the eective stresses act only on the skeleton of the material, (Terzaghi and Peck 1967). It must be noted that the pore pressures p being considered in this discussion and throughout the remainder of this course are the steady state pore pressures; excess pore pressures resulting from dilatant behavior in the skeleton of the material are not considered. Step by step generalization of the eld equations:

81

82

where T is the temperature (change), the coecient of thermal expansion, ij is the Kronecker delta, Thermal stress is simply given by ij = Dijkl 0 or kl ij = T Dijkl kl Victor Saouma (2.65)

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2.3

87

83

Scalar eld problems are encountered in almost all branches of engineering and physics. Most of them can be viewed as special forms of the general Helmholtz equation given by x kx x + y ky y + z kz z + Q = c t (2.77)

88

Equation Heat Flow Fluid ow through porous media Diusion Saint-Venant Torsion Temperature T Piezometric head h ion concentration Prandtls stress function div(D ) + Q = 0 D Q Thermal Heat conductivity supply/sink Permeability Fluid Coecients supply Permeability Ion coecients supply 1 Rate of twist 2 q Heat ux Volume ux Ion ux Constitutive law Fourrier q = D T Darcy q = D Fick q = D Hooke

2.3.1

89

Heat Transfer

Conduction: takes place when a temperature gradient exists within a material and is governed by Fouriers Law, Fig. 2.5 on q :

qx qy

= =

kx

(2.78) (2.79)

where T = T (x, y) is the temperature eld in the medium, qx and qy are the componenets of the heat ux (W/m2 or Btu/h-ft2 ), k is the thermal conductivity (W/m.o C or Btu/h-ft-o F) and T , x Victor Saouma Finite Element II; Continuum Elements

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85

6y + q

qy y dy

qx

qx +

qx x dx

6 dy ?

6 qy dx -

Figure 2.6: Flux Through Sides of Dierential Element Figure 2.7: *Flow through a surface 2. Heat ux across the boundary of the element is shown in Fig. ?? (note similarity with equilibrium equation) I1 = qx + qx dx qx dx dy + x qy + qy qx qy dy qy dy dx = dxdy + dydx (2.86) y x y

d .dxdy (2.87) dt where we dene the specic heat c as the amount of heat required to raise a unit mass by one degree. I3 = c

93

From the rst law of thermodynamics, energy produced I2 plus the net energy across the boundary I1 must be equal to the energy absorbed I3 , thus I1 + I 2 I 3 qy qx d dxdy + dydx + Qdxdy c dxdy x y dt

I1 I2 I3

= =

0 0

(2.88-a) (2.88-b)

2.3.2.2

94

Generalized Derivation

The amount of ow per unit time into an element of volume and surface is I1 =

q(n)d =

D .nd

(2.89)

95

div vd

(2.90)

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2.4 Summary and Tonti Diagrams 4. If the heat input Q = 0, then the previous equation reduces to 2 2 2 + 2 + 2 =0 x2 y z

87

(2.101)

which is an Elliptic (or Laplace) equation. Solutions of Laplace equations are termed harmonic functions (right hand side is zero) which is why Eq. 2.99 is refered to as the quasi-harmonic equation. 5. If the function depends only on x and t, then we obtain c = t x kx x +Q (2.102)

The boundary conditions, for thermal problems, are mainly of three kinds: Essential: Temperature prespecied on T Natural: Flux Specied Flux prescribed on q , qn = cst Convection Flux prescribed on c , qc = h(T T ). Note this type of boundary condition is analogous to the one in structural mechanics where we have an inclined support on rollers. similar boundary conditions can be written for uid ow.

2.4

99

The analogy between scalar and vector problems is shown in Table 2.2. Scalar Conduction T g q div q + Q = 0 g= T q = Dg Fourrier Vector Solid Mechanics Variables u Field Equations LT + b = 0 = Lu = D

Hooke Boundary Conditions T on T u on u Essential BC qn = qT n on q c t = n on t Natural BC (Flux) Table 2.2: Comparison of Scalar and Vector Field Problems

100

To graphically illustrate the inter-relationship between eld equations and variables, Tonti diagrams, Fig. 2.8 have been used. Finite Element II; Continuum Elements

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89

Essential B.C. ui : u

?

Body Forces bi State variable ui

?

Balance LT + b = 0

?

Kinematics = Lu

?

Flux variable ij

Interm. variable ij

Natural B.C. ti : t

Heat Supply Q

Essential B.C. T : T

?

Balance .q = Q

?

State variable T

?

Flux variable q

? Constitutive Rel. q = Dg

Interm. variable g= T

Natural B.C. qn : q c

Victor Saouma

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Chapter 3

MESH GENERATION

Requires further editing

3.1

1

Introduction

Finite element mesh generation is now an integral part of a nite element analysis. With the increased computational capabilities, increasingly more complex structures are being analysed. Those structures must be discretized.

2

The task is one of developing a mathematical model (discretization or tessalation) of a continuum model. This is not only necessary in nite elment analysis, but in computer graphics/rendering also.

In computer graphics, we focus on the boundary representation, and assign colors and shades on the basis of light source and outward normal direction of the polygon.

4

Hence, in the most general case, meshing can be dened as the process of breaking up a physical domain into smaller sub-domains (elements) in order to facilitate the numerical solution of a partial dierential equation. Surface domains may be subdivided into triangle or quadrilateral shapes, while volumes may be subdivided primarily into tetrahedra or hexahedra shapes. The shape and distribution of the elements is ideally dened by automatic meshing algorithms. 1. Point placement, followed by triangularization (discussed below). 2. Sub-domain removal. Elements are gradually removed from the domain, one ata time, until the whole domain is decomposed int nite elements. 3. Recursive subdivision. The domain is broken into simpler parts until the individual parts are single elements or simple regions, that can be meshed directly, for instance by the conformal mapping algorithm. 4. Hierarchical decomposition. The basic principle of a quadtree (or hierarchical decomposition) is to cover a planar region of interest by a square, then recursively partition squares into smaller squares until each square contains a suitably uniform subset of the input.

3.2

Triangulation

5 The concept of Voronoi diagrams rst appeared in works of Descartes as early as 1644. Descartes used Voronoi-like diagrams to show the disposition of matter in the solar system and its environs.

The rst man who studied the Voronoi diagram as a concept was a German mathematician G. L. Dirichlet. He studied the two- and three dimensional case and that is why this concept is also known as

Draft

Chapter 4

Adapted from (Reich 1993)

4.1

1

A Multield variational principle is one that has more than one master eld (or state variable), that is more than one unknown eld is subject to independent variations.

2

In linear elastostatics, we can have displacement, u, strains , or stress as potential candidates for master elds. Hence seven combinations are possible, (Felippa 2000), Table 4.1.

3 In this course, we shall focus on only the Total Potential Energy, and the Hu-Washizu variational principles.

u Y

Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y

Name Single Field Total Potential Energy Total Complementary Potential Energy No name Two Fields Hellinger-Reissner de Veubeke No name Three Fields Hu-Washizu

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99

2. In terms of displacements: (using Equation 4.7) which is more suitable for the subsequent discretization. =

(Lu)T D(Lu)d uT bd

We

(Lu)T D 0 d +

U

(Lu)T 0 d

td uT = 0

t

To obtain the Euler equations for the general form of the potential energy variational principle the volume integrals dening the virtual strain energy U in Equation 4.7 must be integrated by parts in order to convert the variation of the strains (Lu) into a variation of the displacements u.

10 11

S d = x

R Sd + x

RSnx d

(4.7)

yields (Lu)T D d

uT G(D )d uT G(D 0 )d uT G 0 d

uT LT (D )d

(Lu)T D 0 d

uT LT (D 0 )d

(Lu)T 0 d

uT LT 0 d

where G is a transformation matrix containing the direction cosines for a unit normal vector such that the surface tractions t are dened as t = G and the surface integrals are over the entire surface of the body .

12

Substituting Equation 4.8-a into Equation 4.7, the variational statement becomes = +

uT {LT [D(

0)

0)

+ 0 ] +b}d

+ 0 ] t}d = 0 (4.9)

uT {G [D(

13

Since u is arbitrary the expressions in the integrands within the braces must both be equal to zero for to be equal to zero. Recognizing that the stress-strain relationship appears in both the volume and surface integrals, the Euler equations are (BE): Equilibrium (NBC): Natural B.C. LT + b = 0 on G = 0 on t t (4.10)

where the rst Euler equation is the equilibrium equation and the second Euler equation denes the natural boundary conditions. The natural boundary conditions are dened on t rather than because both the applied surface tractions and the matrix-vector product G are identically zero outside t . t

14

In general, only certain forms of dierential equations are Euler equations of a variational functional.

15

For the elastostatic problem, it is possible to start from the Euler equations, and then derive the total potential energy functional by performing the operations just presented in reverse order.

16 The Tonti diagram for the TPE is shown in Fig. 4.2. In this diagram, strong connections are shown by solid lines, weak connections by spring-like symbols, boxes with solid lines denote the primary unknown eld, variables inside dashed boxes are internally derived elds, and shaded boxes indicate prescribed elds.

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101

u u . d 2 t t

(4.17)

A conservative force is one for which the sum of the potential and kinetic energies is conserved).

Example 4-1: Hamiltons Principle For a uniform cross section bar of length L, cross sectional area A, Youngs modulus E, and mass density xed at one end, and connected to a rigid support at the other by a spring with stiness k

k A, E L

1. Show that the kinetic energy and the strain energy are given by

L 2

K U

=

0 L

A 2 EA 2

u t u x

dx

2

=

0

d +

2. For Wnc = 0 derive an expression for the rst variation of the Hamiltons functional H 3. If we are interested in determining the periodic motion, which has the form u(x, t) = u0 (x)eit where is the frequency of natural vibration, and u0 (x) is the amplitude. Show that

L

(4.20)

1 A 2 (u0 )2 EA 2

du0 dx

dx

k 2 [u0 (L)] 2

=0

(4.21)

4. Show that the Euler equations of the preceding functional are d dx EA du0 dx EA 5. Rewrite Eq. 4.21 in terms of x =

x L,

+ A 2 u0 du0 + ku0 dx

u0 L,

kL EA ,

(4.22) (4.23)

u=

2 L2 E

6. Show that if this problem was to be solved by the Rayleigh-Ritz method with u = c 1 x + c 2 x2 then a nontrivial solution c1 = 0 and c2 = 0 exists if an only if 152 640 + 2400 = 0 7. Solve for 1 and 2 , and compare with the exact solution given by + tan = 0 Victor Saouma (4.26) (4.25) (4.24)

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Chapter 5

5.1

1

Introduction

In the Rayleigh Ritz method we solved the variational problem using a functional approximation for the displacement eld (Chapter ??). This powerful method has its limitation in terms of the complexity of solvable problems.

2

As stated above, an alternate approach consists in adopting an approximate displacement eld in terms of the nodal displacements via interpolation functions (or shape functions).

5.2

3 For an element (nite or otherwise), we can write an expression for the generalized displacement (translation/rotation), u at any point in terms of all its nodal ones, u.

u=

i=1

(5.1)

where: 1. ui is the (generalized) nodal displacement corresponding to d.o.f i 2. Ni is an interpolation function, or shape function which has the following characteristics: (a) Ni = 1 at ui (b) Ni = 0 at uj where i = j. 3. N can be derived on the bases of: (a) Assumed deformation state dened in terms of polynomial series. (b) Interpolation function (Lagrangian or Hermitian).

4

Draft

5.2.1.2

9

115

[p]

a1 a2

{a}

(5.12)

where [p] corresponds to the polynomial approximation, and {a} is the coecient vector.

10

{u}

0 1 L 1

[L]

a1 a2

{a}

(5.13)

{a}

1 L

1 L

[L]1

1 0

u1 u2

{u}

(5.14)

11

x L) x L

u1 u2

{u}

(5.15)

[p][L]1

[N]

12

Hence, the shape functions [N] can be directly obtained from [N] = [p][L]1 (5.16)

Note that in some cases L1 is not always possible to obtain, and that in others there may be considerable algebraic diculties for arbitrary geometries. Hence, we shall introduce later on Lagrangian and Hermitian interpolation functions.

13

5.2.1.3

14

Next we consider a triangular element, Fig. 5.2 with bi-linear displacement eld (in both x and y): u v u = = = a 1 + a2 x + a 3 y a4 + a5 x + a 6 y a1 a2 1 x y a3

[p] {a}

Victor Saouma

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Chapter 6

6.1 Discretization

6.1.1

Discretization of the Variational Statement for the General TPE Variational Principle

1 The discretization of Equation 4.7 will be performed on an element domain e using the procedures described in Chapter 2 of (Zienkiewicz and Taylor 1989);

The surface of the element subjected to surface tractions t comprises one or more surfaces of the element boundary . For the present time this discussion will be kept on a very general level with no mention of the dimensionality of the elements; the number of nodes dening the elements; or the nature of the constitutive law.

3 The rst step in the discretization process is to dene the displacements u at a point inside the element in terms of the shape functions N and the nodal displacements ue for the element

u = Nue

(6.1)

4 The virtual displacements u at a point inside the element can also be dened in terms of the shape functions N and the nodal virtual displacements ue for the element

u = Nue

5

(6.2)

In order to discretize the volume integral in Equation 4.7 (Lu)T D(Lu)d (Lu)T D 0 d +

(Lu)T 0 d

uT bd

td uT = 0

t

(6.3)

Draft

11

6.1 Discretization td uT = uT e td NT

t

131

(6.15)

e

NT bd +

t

td NT

(6.16)

the sum of the internal and external virtual work due to body forces and surface tractions is uT bd +

e t

td uT = uT fe e

(6.17)

Having obtained the discretization of the various integrals dening the variational statement for the TPE variational principle, it is now possible to dene the discrete system of equations. Substituting Equations 6.7, 6.13, and 6.17 into Equation 6.3 and rearranging terms, the discretized Principle of Virtual Work is (6.18) uT Ke ue = uT fe + uT f0e e e e

12 13

Since uT is an arbitrary (i.e. non-zero) vector appearing on both sides of Equation 6.18, the discrete e system of equations can be simplied into (6.19)

6.1.2

14

The discretization of the three variational statements dened in Equation 4.62, 4.62, and 4.62 will be performed on an element domain e using the procedures described in Chapter 2 of (Zienkiewicz and Taylor 1989) assembly of the discrete element equations into a discrete global system of equations is straightforward and will be omitted from this discussion.

15

The surface of the element subjected to surface tractions t comprises one or more surfaces of the element boundary e . For the present time this discussion will be kept on a very general level with no mention of the dimensionality of the elements; the number of nodes dening the elements; or the nature of constitutive law.

16

The rst step in the discretization process is to dene the displacements u, strains , and stresses at a point inside the element in terms of the shape functions Nu , N , and N , respectively, and the element nodal displacements ue , strains e , and stresses e u = N u ue = N e = N e (6.20)

We note that contrarily to the previous case (Eq. 6.1) we now have three discretizations (instead of just one).

17

The virtual displacements u, virtual strains , and virtual stresses at a point inside the element can also be dened in terms of the shape functions Nu , N , and N , respectively, and the nodal virtual Finite Element II; Continuum Elements

Victor Saouma

Draft

6.1 Discretization the sum of the internal and external virtual work is uT b d +

e t

133

t uT d = uT fe e

(6.31)

23 Having dened the discretization of the various integrals in the rst variational statement for the HW variational principle (i.e. Equ. 6.22-a), it is now possible to dene the discrete system of equations. Substituting Equations 6.27 and 6.31 into the variational statement and rearranging terms, the discretized Principle of Virtual Work is (6.32) uT FT e = uT fe e e e

where the left-hand side is the virtual strain energy and the right-hand side is the internal and external virtual work. Since ue is an arbitrary (i.e. non-zero) vector appearing on both sides of Equation 6.32, the discrete system of equations can be simplied into FT e = f e e as the discrete system of equations for an element.

24 In order to discretize the second variational statement (i.e. Equ. 6.22-b), Equations 6.20, 6.20, and 6.21-b are substituted into the integrand

(6.33)

[D(

0)

+ 0 ] d =

T e

T e

NT D N d

e T e

T e

NT D

e

d (6.34)

+

25

NT 0 d

NT N d e = 0

e

e

NT D N d NT N d

e

(6.35) (6.36)

e

NT D

NT 0 d

e

(6.37)

T

[D(

0)

+ 0 ] d =

T e

Ae

T e

ge

T e

Ce e = 0

(6.38)

Since the nodal virtual strains are arbitrary they can be eliminated from Equation 6.38 yielding Ae Ce e = g e (6.39)

26

In order to discretize the third variational statement (i.e. Eq. 6.22-c), Equations 6.20, 6.20, and 6.21-c are substituted into the integrand T (L u ) d = T e NT Bu d ue T e NT N d

e

= 0

(6.40)

Victor Saouma

Draft

6.2

135

31 A nite element (just a an approximate displacement eld in the Rayleigh-Ritz formulation) must satisfy two basic requirements

Completeness: The FE discretization must at least accommodate constant displacement and constant strain (or temperature and temperature gradient). This is accomplished by including in two dimensional problems the following = a1 + a2 x + a3 y + possibly additional terms (6.48)

Compatibility or Conformity: The approximation of the eld over element boundaries must be continuous (C0 or C1 continuity). Most nite elements are conforming, but some are not.

32

For instance, with respect to Fig. 6.1, element A must be capable of undergoing rigid body motion without internal strains/stresses, and at node B we should have continuity of displacement (but not slope for this element).

33

If those two requirements are satised, then convergence is assured. In the FE method approximate solution are obtained, and the more elements we use, the more accurate is the approximate solution. In the limit, for innitely small elements, we require the solution to be also innitely close to the exact one. Hence, convergence is ensured if completeness and compatibility requirements are satised. Lax equivalence theorem: Convergence criterion=completeness+ compatibility requirements Two essential requirements:

34

35

Patch test: Completeness can be assessed through the patch test which will be discussed later. Zero Strain Energy: For structural problems, there should be zero strain energy when the element is subjected to a rigid body motion. Recall that in the stiness matrix formulation, the matrix is singular as it embodies not only the force displacement relations, but the equilibrium equations also. To each of those equations, corresponds a rigid body mode which can be detected by an eigenvalue analysis (more about this later).

Victor Saouma

B A

Draft

43 44

137

A third form of acceleration is the so called r renement in which the same number of nodes/elements is retained but the mesh is shifted around to increase its density in zones of high stress gradient. The above convergence procedures can be accelerated within the context of a program which can accommodate adaptive remeshing techniques. Finally, additional errors may come from round-o within the computer.

6.4

A numerical solution that is derived from the principle of minimum total potential energy is a lower bound solution, because the strain energy is smaller than the exact one (i.e. obtained from an innite number of elements).

45 46 This can be readily shown if we consider the displacement u i caused by a load Pi which is increased from zero to its stipulated value. The work done is Pi2ui and must be equal to the internal strain energy U . Alternatively, the potential of the applied load is Pi ui , and the exact potential energy is

exact =

(6.51)

We know that the approximation of is algebraically higher than the exact value (since the exact value is a minimum), hence Pi uiapprox Pi uiexact < (6.53) 2 2

exact approx

47

(6.54)

Note the similarity with the Rayleigh-Ritz method, the lack of enough terms in our polynomial approximation did also result in a sti solution.

6.5

48

In an exact solution over each dierential element equilibrium and compatibility prevails. In a nite element discretization, this is not necessarily the case:

49

Equilibrium of Nodal Forces: Those are automatically satised by denition (k e u f = 0) at the nodes. Compatibility at Nodes: Elements connected to one another have the same displacements (along corresponding dof) at the connecting node. Interelement Continuity of Stress: is usually not satised, that is equilibrium across the elements does not necessarily prevail. For example consider Fig. 6.3 if node 4 is the only one displaced (all others remaining xed), then there will be a discontinuity of xx across element boundary 2-3. Victor Saouma Finite Element II; Continuum Elements

Draft

Chapter 7

7.1 Introduction

1 Having rst introduced the method of virtual displacements, than the interpolation (or shape) functions [N], which relate internal to external nodal displacements, and nally having applied the virtual displacement method to nite element in chapter 6, we derive the stiness matrices of some simple elements.

7.2

7.2.1

2

Rod Elements

Truss Element

The shape functions of the truss element were derived in Eq. 5.11: N1 N2 = = 1 x L x L

[B]

dN2 ] dx 1 L ]

(7.1)

For the truss element, the constitutive matrix [D] reduces to the scalar E; Hence, substituting into [B]T [D][B]d and with d = Adx for element with constant cross sectional area we

L

[ke ]

A

0

1 L 1 L

1 L

1 L

dx

(7.2-a)

Draft

7.3

7.3.1

141

BMat= {D[N1[x,L], {x,2}],D[N2[x,L], {x,2}],D[N3[x,L], {x,2}],D[N4[x,L], {x,2}]} // Simplify Determine the element stiffness matrix in various forms and shapes; Integrate[EI Outer[Times,BMat,BMat], {x, 0, L}] % // MatrixForm % / (EI/L^3) // Simplify % // MatrixForm

Triangular Elements

Cartesian Coordinate System (CST)

10 Having retrieved the stiness matrices of simple one dimensional elements using the principle of virtual displacement, we next consider two dimensional continuum elements starting with the triangular element of constant thickness t made out of isotropic linear elastic material. The element will have two d.o.fs at each node: (7.8) {u} = u1 u2 u3 v1 v2 v3 T 11

The strain displacement relations is required to determine [B] For the 2D plane elasticity problem, the strain vector {} is given by: {} = xx yy xy

T

12

(7.9)

hence we can rewrite the strains in terms of the derivatives of the shape functions through the matrix [B]: N 0 xx x u N yy (7.10) = 0 y v N N xy y x

[B]

13

We note that because we have 3 u and 3 v displacements, the size of [B] and [u] are 9(3 3) 6 and 6 1 respectively.

14

{}

1 y 1 y 3 x 1 x 2 x

0 1 y3

N3 y

0

N3 x

[B]

u1 u2 u3 v1 v2 v3

{u}

(7.11)

15 With the constitutive matrix [D] given by Eq. ??, the strain-displacement relation [B] by Eq. 7.11, we can substitute those two quantities into the general equation for stiness matrix, Eq. 6.8:

[ke ]

[B]T [D][B]d

Victor Saouma

Draft

21 22

7.3 Triangular Elements The displacement shape functions are given by Equation 5.50-b: 2A23 y23 x32 L1 1 L2 2A31 y31 x13 = 2A L3 2A12 y12 x21 Derivatives required for strain-displacement relationships are obtained from Eq. 5.53:

L1 x L1 y

143

(7.14)

where xij = xi xj .

= =

y2 y3 2A ; x3 x2 2A ;

L2 x L2 y

= =

y3 y1 2A ; x1 x3 2A ;

L3 x L3 y

= =

y1 y2 2A ; x2 x1 2A ;

(7.15)

23

Then the ith part of the B matrix becomes: Ni,x 0 Ni,y Bi = 0 Ni,y Ni,x The stiness matrix is then obtained from: K =

(i = 1, 2, 3)

(7.16)

24

BT D Bd

(7.17)

25

This expression is then analytically integrated using Eq. 5.59. In general an isoparametric numerical integration is preferred (Section 8.2.3). 7.3.2.2 Quadratic Element (T6)

26

6 6

u =

i=1

Ni u i

v =

i=1

Ni vi

(7.18)

where the shape functions were obtained in Eq. 5.68 N1 = (2L1 1)L1 N2 = (2L2 1)L2 N3 = (2L3 1)L3

27

N4 N5 N6

= = =

It should be noted that alternatively, we could have obtained those shape functions by assuming u(L1 , L2 ) = a1 + a2 L1 + a3 L2 + a4 L2 + a5 L1 L2 + a6 L2 1 2 (7.20)

and then determine the coecients through satisfaction of the appropriate boundary conditions.

28

The shape functions and their derivatives with respect to the natural coordinates L 1 and L2 are given in Table 7.1 (in terms of L1 , L2 , and L3 ). The B matrix is obtained from: xx x yy = 0 xy y 0

y x L

29

u v

(7.21)

Victor Saouma

Draft

7.4

32

145

The structure stiness matrix of the bilinear rectangular shown in Fig. 7.1 is described by the

Figure 7.1: Rectangular Bilinear Element Mathematica code shown below. Define shape functions; N1[x_,y_,a_,b_] := (1/4)(1-(x/a))(1-(y/b)); N2[x_,y_,a_,b_] := (1/4)(1+(x/a))(1-(y/b)); N3[x_,y_,a_,b_] := (1/4)(1+(x/a))(1+(y/b)); N4[x_,y_,a_,b_] := (1/4)(1-(x/a))(1+(y/b)); Visualize the shape functions; Plot3D[N1[x,y,1,2], {x, -1, 1}, {y, -2, 2}]; Plot3D[N3[x,y,1,2], {x, -1, 1}, {y, -2, 2}]; Define the differential operators; diffx[f_] := D[f,x]; diffy[f_] := D[f,y]; Shape Function Matrix Nmat = { {N1[x,y,a,b],0,N2[x,y,a,b],0,N3[x,y,a,b],0,N4[x,y,a,b],0}, {0,N1[x,y,a,b],0,N2[x,y,a,b],0,N3[x,y,a,b],0,N4[x,y,a,b]} } B Matrix Bmat = {Map[diffx,Nmat[[1]]],Map[diffy,Nmat[[2]]], Map[diffy,Nmat[[1]]]+Map[diffx,Nmat[[2]]]} Define the constitutive matrix Dmat = E/(1-nu^2) * {{1,nu,0},{nu,1,0},{0,0,(1-nu)/2}} Determine the stiffness matrix Intmat = Transpose[Bmat] . Dmat . Bmat; Kmat =Simplify[ t * Integrate[ Integrate[Intmat, {y, -b, b}], {x, -a, a}] ] TeXForm[Kmat]

Victor Saouma

Draft

147

38 Imposing nodal displacements consistent with theory (u 1 = u, u2 = u, and u3 = 0) and similar descriptions for v, and determining the strains from = Bu for the CST element, we obtain

xx = 0

yy = 0

xy =

1 c 2 c 4l

(7.29)

which are clearly wrong. Hence, we conclude the CST element can not properly perform in bending problems (As is expected from a constant strain element behavior when used in a linear strain problem).

39

This deciency will later be addressed by including an additional internal drilling degree of freedom. Zero energy mode can be veried by considering for example the strain xx which is given by xx = 1 (y3 u1 + y3 u2 ) x 2 y3 (7.30)

40

since u1 = u2 for a rigid body motion, we see that xx = 0, similar conditions can be found for yy and xy

7.5.2

41

BiLinear Rectangular

Under exure, the top and bottom sides remain straight giving rise to erroneous strains. From Pascalss triangle (Sect. 5.4), the displacement eld for a bilinear rectangular element is given u = a1 + a2 x + a3 y + a5 xy (7.31)

42

by which is consistent with the element shape functions derived earlier (Eq. 5.31)

43

We note that whereas there is a quadratic term (a5 xy) convergence is governed by the full linear expansion, and that this last term may cause parasitic eects.

44

For an element with an inclined boundary given by y = ax + b, insertion of this expression into Eq. 7.31 yields u = a1 + a3 b + (a2 + a3 a + a5 b)x + a5 ax2 (7.32)

hence, u varies quadratically with x along the inclined boundary. However, this boundary is uniquely dened by only two nodal displacements u1 and u2 , thus the quadratic expression is not uniquely dened and we may have dierent variation along the side from one element to the adjacent one.

45

Continuity across the element not being satised, the element is non-conforming. Finite Element II; Continuum Elements

Victor Saouma

Draft

Chapter 8

8.1

1

Introduction

We have previously examined simple nite elements, in this lecture we shall distort those simpler elements into others of more arbitrary shape.

2 Correspondingly, the natural coordinates will be distorted into new curvilinear sets when plotted in a cartesian x, y, z space, Fig. 8.1.

(-1,1) (1,1)

(-1,-1) (1,-1)

3 L =0

2

L =0

1

L =0

3

3 In the isoparametric formulation, displacements are expressed in terms of natural coordinates, however they must be dierentiated with respect to cartesian coordinates x, y, z. This is accomplished through a transformation matrix J, and integration can no longer be performed analytically but must be done numerically.

Natural coordinates range from -1 to +1, Fig. 8.2 Nodal displacements at any point inside the element can be written in terms of the nodal known

Draft

Geometric Nodal Config. Displacement Nodal Config.

151

Isoparametric

Subparametric

Superparametric

Figure 8.3: Iso, Super, and Sub Parametric Elements Superparamteric: [N] is of lower degree than [N]

8

8.2

8.2.1

Element Formulation

Bar Element

9 The simplest introduction to isoparamteric elements is through a straight three noded quadratic elements, Fig. 8.4.

= 1 1 x,u

= 0 3 L

= +1 2

10 The shape functions for the element can be obtained from the Lagrangian interpolation function used earlier, Eq. 5.25, and in which we substitute x by . The kth term in a polynomial of order n 1 would be

n Nk

= =

n i=1,i=k ( i ) n i=1,i=k (k i )

(8.5-a) (8.5-b)

Victor Saouma

Draft

17 18

153

We observe that B, in general, contains terms in both the numerator and denominator, and hence the expression can not be analytically inverted. Furthermore, the limits of integration are now from -1 to +1, and we shall see later on how to numerically integrate it. A simple Mathematica code to generate the stiness matrix of three noded (quadratic) element:

x1=0;x2=L;x3=L/2; N1[x_,L_]:=(x-x2) * (x-x3)/( (x1-x2) * (x1-x3)); N2[x_,L_]:=(x-x1) * (x-x3)/( (x2-x1) * (x2-x3)); N3[x_,L_]:=(x-x2) * (x-x1)/( (x3-x2) * (x3-x1)); BMat={D[N1[x,L],x], D[N2[x,L],x], D[N3[x,L],x]}; Integrate[EA Outer[Times, BMat, BMat], {x,0,L}]; MatrixForm[%]

8.2.2

8.2.2.1

19

Quadrilaterals

Linear Element (Q4)

We have previously derived the stiness matrix of a rectangular element (aligned with the coordinate axis), this formulation will generalize it to an arbitrary quadrilateral shape.

20

= 1/2 = 1 4 = 1 = 1/2 3 = 1/2 = 1/2 y,v 1 2 = 1 = 1

1 4 1 3 1 1 1 2

x,u

21

n m

u(, ) =

Nij uk =

i=1 j=1

Nj ()Ni ()uk

(8.16)

where k = (i 1)m + j. For a bilinear element, n = m = 2, this can be rewritten as u(, ) = N1 () N2 () u1 u2 u3 u4 N1 () N2 () = NT uN (8.17-a) (8.17-b)

= N1 ()N1 ()u1 + N2 ()N1 ()u2 + N1 ()N2 ()u4 + N2 ()N2 ()u3 = N1 (, )u1 + N2 (, )u2 + N3 (, )u3 + N4 (, )u4

4

=

i=1

Ni u i

22

Victor Saouma

Draft

155

26 Considering the local set of coordinates , and the corresponding global one x, y, the chain rules would give

Ni Ni

x x J

y y

Ni x Ni y

(8.24-a)

Ni x Ni y

[J]1

Ni Ni

(8.24-b)

This last equation is the key to get all the components which will go inside the B matrix.

27

Ni (,) Ni (,)

x x J N1 N1

y y

Ni x Ni y

=

i=1

Ni xi Ni xi

Ni y i Ni y i

Ni x Ni y

(8.25-a)

N2 N2

N3 N3

N4 N4

x1 x2 x3 x4 (1 + ) (1 + )

J

y1 y2 y3 y4

Ni x Ni y

(8.25-b) x1 x2 x3 x4 y1 y2 y3 y4

1 4

(1 ) (1 ) (1 ) (1 + )

(1 + ) (1 )

Ni x Ni y

(8.25-c)

28

1 def

x y

x y

1 detJ

y x

y

x

1 detJ

4 i=1

Ni y i Ni xi

Ni y i Ni xi

(8.26)

29

From calculus, if and are some arbitrary curvilinear coordinates, Fig. 8.6, then dr =

x y

and

ds =

x y

(8.27)

30

From vector algebra, the cross product of two vectors lying in the x-y plane, Fig. 8.7 is C = AB = |A||B| sin k i j k Ax Ay 0 = Bx By 0 = |A||B| sin (8.28-a) (8.28-b) = (Ax By Bx Ay ) k Area (8.28-d) Finite Element II; Continuum Elements (8.28-c)

Draft

8.6.2.5

181

function [bmat,dbmat] = bmatps(shape,cartd,D) %----------------------------------------------------------------------------------% This function calculates the strain matrix B %----------------------------------------------------------------------------------% VARIABLES %----------------------------------------------------------------------------------% shape Shape function at current point % cartd Cartesian shape function derivatives % bmat Strain matrix returned by function % dbmat Strain matrix * constitutive matrix D %----------------------------------------------------------------------------------tic %fprintf(Calculating strain matrix [B]\n) numcols = 2*length(cartd); bmat = zeros(3,numcols); cartdcol = 0; for ibmatcol = 1:2:numcols cartdcol = cartdcol+1; bmat(:,ibmatcol:ibmatcol+1) = [cartd(1,cartdcol) 0 ; 0 cartd(2,cartdcol); cartd(2,cartdcol) cartd(1,cartdcol)]; end dbmat = D*bmat; t = toc; %fprintf(1,Elapsed time for this operation =%3.4fsec\n\n,t)

8.6.3

108

% Shape FUnctions X=-1:1/20:1; Y=X; YT=Y; XT=X; N9=(1-YT.*YT)*(1-X.*X); N8=0.5*(1-YT.*YT)*(1-X); N7=0.5*(1-XT.*XT)*(1+Y); N6=0.5*(1-YT.*YT)*(1+X); N5=0.5*(1-XT.*XT)*(1-Y); N4=0.25*(1-XT)*(1+Y)-0.5*(N7+N8); N3=0.25*(1+XT)*(1+Y)-0.5*(N6+N7); N2=0.25*(1+XT)*(1-Y)-0.5*(N5+N6); N1=0.25*(1-XT)*(1-Y)-0.5*(N8+N5); meshc(X,Y,N1) print -deps2 shap8-1.eps c=contour(X,Y,N1); clabel(c) print -deps2 shap8-1-c.eps meshc(X,Y,N8) print -deps2 shap8-8.eps c=contour(X,Y,N8); clabel(c) print -deps2 shap8-8-c.eps N1=N1-0.25*N9; meshc(X,Y,N1) print -deps2 shap9-1.eps c=contour(X,Y,N1); clabel(c) print -deps2 shap9-1-c.eps N8=N8-0.5*N9;

Victor Saouma

Draft

Chapter 9

Taken from (ervenka, J. 1994) C

9.1

Element Formulation

Taken from (Cervenka, J. 1994) It is necessary to select appropriate interpolation functions for all three elastic elds (i.e. u, and ). The choice of these shape functions must be such that the BB condition is satised (Appendix ??). In this work, the same interpolation functions are used for all three elds (i.e. displacements, strains and stresses), which implies that there is a full number of unknowns in each node. dim(un ) = N dim R, dim(

n)

= dim( n ) = N dim()

(9.1)

where N denotes the number of nodes, dim is the problem dimension and R is the number of rigid body modes. In Section 9.3, it will be shown that this formulation guarantees the satisfaction of the BB condition. The polynomial orders of the eld approximations are given in Table 9.1. Table 9.1: Polynomial orders of the shape functions. eld 2D 3D T3 T6 T4 T10 displacement u linear quadratic linear quadratic strain linear quadratic linear quadratic stress linear quadratic linear quadratic

In general case a variable x is interpolated over a nite element using the expression:

Nen

x=

i

i xi

(9.2)

where Nen is the number of element nodes, i is an interpolation function associated with node i, and xi is the value of variable x at element node i. For the linear triangular element (T3) the interpolation functions are: i = li , i = 1, 2, 3 (9.3)

Draft

9.2 Strain Recovery At the element level, the lumped C matrix for 5 0 e CL = 0 0 the four node linear tetrahedron (T4) is: 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 5

185

(9.11)

where is a constant based on the element volume. CL is by far the simplest strain recovery method since no iterations are required to compute the nodal strains. However, the numerical experiments reported in Section ?? indicate that the displacement solution converges to an erroneous value. Hence, the C-lumping technique is kinematically inconsistent.

9.2.2

Strain smoothing.

Strain Smoothing (Zienkiewicz, Vilotte, Toyoshima and Nakazawa 1985) (SS) is an indirect procedure within Step 2 that avoids the direct decomposition of the C matrix. Nodal strains are iteratively evaluated until the ratio of the Euclidean norms of strain correction to total strains satises a prescribed limit. This technique exploits the diagonal matrix C L previously described and the consistent matrix C dened below. Iteratively the nodal strains are evaluated by:

j+1 n

j n

+ C 1 (Eun C L

j n ).

(9.12)

where is again a constant based on the element volume. The correction of nodal strain j during one iteration is: n where:

j n

where j = 0, 1, 2 . . . is the strain-iteration count. Note that this represents an internal iteration, not to be confused with the MIM iteration of (??). The iteration process involves the nodal strains in the whole mesh since Step 2 is equivalent to the least square t of the nodal based strain eld to the strain eld derived from the displacement eld (Zienkiewicz and Taylor 1989). For a four noded linear tetrahedral element (T4), the consistent matrix C is given at the element level by: 2 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 T d = Ce = (9.13) 1 1 2 1 e 1 1 1 2

j+1 n j n j1 n ,

= A()

(j 1)

(9.14) (9.15)

4 5.

A() = I C 1 C L

The spectral radius is where A() is a xed amplication matrix having a spectral radius = dened as the largest eigenvalue of amplication matrix A(). Since Equation 9.15 involves a product of C and inverse of C L , the constants are cancelled out. By Banachs xed point theorem (Haser and Sullivan 1991) it is necessary for the spectral radius to be less than 1 to ensure convergence of the iterative process given by Equation 9.12. Thus, this value of the spectral radius indicates an error decay of 1 . 5

9.2.3

C-splitting.

A new iterative process was recently developed by (Cervenka, Keating and Felippa 1993) to solve Step 2. This new technique guarantees faster convergence for linear triangular and tetrahedral elements (T3 and T4). This technique is referred to as C-splitting (CS). This method splits the consistent matrix C of Equation 9.13 into two matrices. One matrix is diagonalized and the second is formed such that their algebraic sum is equivalent to the original C matrix: C = CD + CR Victor Saouma (9.16)

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