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1 Landmines Aff
1AC 1/12 .......................................................................................................................................................................5 1AC 2/12 .......................................................................................................................................................................6 1AC 3/12 .......................................................................................................................................................................7 1AC 4/12 .......................................................................................................................................................................8 1AC 5/12 .......................................................................................................................................................................9 1AC 6/12 .....................................................................................................................................................................10 1AC 7/12 .....................................................................................................................................................................11 1AC 8/12 .....................................................................................................................................................................12 1AC 9/12 .....................................................................................................................................................................13 1AC 10/12 ...................................................................................................................................................................14 1AC 11/12 ...................................................................................................................................................................15 1AC 12/12 ...................................................................................................................................................................16 ****Topicality/Agents***** ......................................................................................................................................17 T – Public Health: K of T ............................................................................................................................................18 T - Public Health AT: Prevention Only ......................................................................................................................19 T – Public Health - Demining......................................................................................................................................20 T – Public Health: Victim Assistance..........................................................................................................................21 T: Public Assistance = USAID Funding......................................................................................................................22 Demining Funding = NADR Appropriations ..............................................................................................................23 Demining Funding = NADR Appropriations ..............................................................................................................24 DOD Funds Demining.................................................................................................................................................25 Demining Funding = NADR, DoD, and USAID.........................................................................................................26 ****Inherency**** .....................................................................................................................................................27 Inherency – Africa Needs Demining ...........................................................................................................................28 AT: Landmine Numbers Decreasing ...........................................................................................................................32 Inherency – US Demining Funding Down ..................................................................................................................33 Inherency – US SQ Assistance ....................................................................................................................................34 Inherency – Demining Assistance Decreasing ............................................................................................................35 Inherency –Landmine Health Care ..............................................................................................................................36 ****Health & Human Rts**** ...................................................................................................................................38 Health & Human Rights FW .......................................................................................................................................39 Health & Human Rights FW – AT: No Universal.......................................................................................................41 Health & Human Rights FW - Landmines .................................................................................................................42 ****Advantages**** ..................................................................................................................................................44 Suffering ......................................................................................................................................................................45 Children .......................................................................................................................................................................47 Health Services ............................................................................................................................................................48 Structural Impacts........................................................................................................................................................49 Landmines instability...............................................................................................................................................50 Demining Conflict Resolution ................................................................................................................................51 Demining Peace ........................................................................................................................................................52 Refugees I/L ...............................................................................................................................................................54 Refugees = AIDS/HIV.................................................................................................................................................56 Refugees = Sexual Exploitation...................................................................................................................................57 Malaria I/L...................................................................................................................................................................58 Malaria Impacts - Death ..............................................................................................................................................59 Malaria Impacts – Millions Deaths..............................................................................................................................60 Malaria Impacts - Deaths and economy ......................................................................................................................61 Malaria Impact - children ............................................................................................................................................62 Malaria Impact - Poverty.............................................................................................................................................63 Water I/L .....................................................................................................................................................................64 Water Impact - Survival ..............................................................................................................................................65 Water - basic right .......................................................................................................................................................66 Agriculture I/L.............................................................................................................................................................67 AT: Demined lands can’t be farmed............................................................................................................................69 Humanitarian Aid ........................................................................................................................................................70 Development................................................................................................................................................................71 Democracy...................................................................................................................................................................75
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Impact - Environment..................................................................................................................................................76 Environment – Pollution/Soil Damage ........................................................................................................................77 Environment – Destroy Ecosystems ............................................................................................................................79 Environment – Soil Erosion.........................................................................................................................................83 Environment – Soil Erosion Impacts ...........................................................................................................................84 Toxic Soil – I/L ...........................................................................................................................................................85 Environment - Toxic Soil ...........................................................................................................................................86 Environment – Deforestation.......................................................................................................................................87 Environment – Species Loss........................................................................................................................................88 Biodiversity I/L ...........................................................................................................................................................89 Biodiversity I/L - Africa ..............................................................................................................................................91 Environment – Biodiversity Impacts ...........................................................................................................................92 AT: Biodiversity Alt Causes........................................................................................................................................94 Biodiversity – Plan Solves...........................................................................................................................................95 African Economy –I/L.................................................................................................................................................96 Poverty I/L...................................................................................................................................................................98 African Economy - Impacts.........................................................................................................................................99 ****Country Specific**** ........................................................................................................................................100 Angola .......................................................................................................................................................................101 Mozambique ..............................................................................................................................................................106 Zimbabwe ..................................................................................................................................................................108 Rwanda ......................................................................................................................................................................109 Somalia ......................................................................................................................................................................110 Sudan .........................................................................................................................................................................113 Uganda.......................................................................................................................................................................114 Somaliland.................................................................................................................................................................116 Puntland.....................................................................................................................................................................117 Senegal ......................................................................................................................................................................118 Ethiopia .....................................................................................................................................................................119 Namibia .....................................................................................................................................................................120 Burundi......................................................................................................................................................................121 Chad...........................................................................................................................................................................122 Democratic Republic of the Congo ...........................................................................................................................123 ****US Key**** ......................................................................................................................................................124 US Key - Responsibility ............................................................................................................................................125 US Demining Good—Training and Technology.......................................................................................................127 US Key – Tech ..........................................................................................................................................................130 US Key- Tech Development......................................................................................................................................132 US Key- Local Reliance ............................................................................................................................................133 US Key - Quick Reaction Demining Force ...............................................................................................................135 US key to Demining ..................................................................................................................................................136 US key- Generic ........................................................................................................................................................137 US Key- US Leadership ............................................................................................................................................139 US Solves – Empirical Africa....................................................................................................................................140 US Solves –Balkans Prove ........................................................................................................................................141 ****Solvency**** ....................................................................................................................................................142 Solvency – Public Health Approach..........................................................................................................................143 Solvency - Integrated Program ..................................................................................................................................144 Solvency - USAID ☺ ................................................................................................................................................145 Solvency - Technology Key to Demining .................................................................................................................146 Solvency - Adv ..........................................................................................................................................................148 Solvency - Radar=effective .......................................................................................................................................149 Solvency - Infrared=effective ....................................................................................................................................150 Solvency - Nuclear=effective ....................................................................................................................................151 Solvency - Mine Action Education............................................................................................................................152 AT: Solvency Presses ................................................................................................................................................153 AT: Demining is Dangerous......................................................................................................................................154 AT: Number mines small ..........................................................................................................................................155
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AT: Smart Mines .......................................................................................................................................................156 AT: Landmine Monitor Indicts..................................................................................................................................157 AT: Landmines Good ................................................................................................................................................158 ****AT: CPs***** ...................................................................................................................................................159 AT: Local CP.............................................................................................................................................................160 AT: Ban Landmines CP – No Solvency ...................................................................................................................161 AT Ban CP – Norm Now ..........................................................................................................................................162 AT Ban CP – US Signature Not Necessary ...............................................................................................................163 AT: Ban Mines CP – Doesn’t solve the Aff ..............................................................................................................164 AT: Ban CP - US Policies Solve Mines ...................................................................................................................166 AT: Ban Mines CP ....................................................................................................................................................167 AT; Ban Mines CP - New US Mines Safe................................................................................................................168 Ban Mines CP - AT Hurts Joint Operations ..............................................................................................................169 AT: Ban Mines CP – Neo-Colonialism .....................................................................................................................170 AT: International $ CP – US tech key .......................................................................................................................178 AT: UN CP ................................................................................................................................................................179 AT: AU CP ................................................................................................................................................................180 A2: EU CP.................................................................................................................................................................181 A2: NGO CP..............................................................................................................................................................182 *****AT: Disadvantages*****.................................................................................................................................183 Militarism ..................................................................................................................................................................184 Landmines Outweigh Disadvantage ..........................................................................................................................185 AT: Dogs DA ............................................................................................................................................................187 AT: Animal Rights ....................................................................................................................................................189 AT: Econ DA.............................................................................................................................................................191 AT: Nuclear War = Extinction ..................................................................................................................................193 AT: Aid Trade Off - NADR Key to Anti-Terrorism .................................................................................................194 AT: Aid Trade Off -NADR Budget Terror Module .................................................................................................196 AT: Aid Trade Off -War On Terrorism Bad—Leads to Terrorism ..........................................................................197 AT: Aid Trade Off - War on Terrorism Bad—Undermines Security .......................................................................198 AT: Aid Trade Off -War On Terrorism Bad—Human Rights Abuses .....................................................................199 AT: Aid Trade Off -War On Terrorism Bad—Racial Profiling ...............................................................................202 AT: Aid Trade Off -War on Terrorism Bad—Racial Profiling ................................................................................203 AT: Aid Trade Off -Racial Profiling Bad—No Value to Life ..................................................................................204 ****AT: K’s**** ......................................................................................................................................................205 AT: K – Must Act......................................................................................................................................................206 AT: K’s – General Perm............................................................................................................................................207 AT: Development K ..................................................................................................................................................208 AT: Compassion Fatigue K .......................................................................................................................................210
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ca/PEN/2003-09-10/adeba. Angola. the Angolan scenario is mirrored in Mozambique (2 million mines). The organization believes there are 3. the use of landmines in armed conflicts has increased dramatically. but do not 'walk the talk. Sudan (half a million to 2 million). The task of mine clearance is undertaken by non-governmental organizations. For those caught up in the snare of war. unstable economies and a strangling debt crisis. But if we take one of the worst case scenarios. Apart from grappling with the psychological effects of losing a limb.html] Since their introduction in World War I. Of Africa's 54 states. making the problems worse. September-October 2003. Today the UN estimates there are over 110 million mines the world over. cluster bombs and unexploded ordnance (UXO). Among the challenges facing CAMEO is the problem of getting funding for its mine clearance operations in sub-Saharan Africa." . Most of the population of these countries derive their livelihood from farming. The rumour that landmines are present in a particular location is enough to deny the people the use of that land for farming.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 1AC 1/12 OBSERVATION ONE: INHERENCY 5 Landmines Aff Since WWI the use of landmines has grown substantially – nowhere is this more evident than in sub-Saharan Africa where 21 countries face the deadly consequences of landmines every day – while the problem has only gotten worse. Ninety-eight per cent of landmine victims are civilians. Nowhere is this spectre more painfully true than in sub-Saharan Africa with its seemingly endless wars.300 minefields in Angola. They will not get serious and do something concrete like getting rid of landmines so lives and limbs can be spared and societies can return to a semblance of normal life. Elsewhere in Africa. the victim is ostracized by society. Policy analyst and freelance writer in south Sudan. most of these countries simply do not have the means to clear these minefields. Exact figures on the landmine death toll are hard to come by. booby traps. A British demining group called Halo Trust says there are 500 minefields in three of Angola's 18 provinces. Col (ret. Human Rights Watch estimates 120 Angolans die every month as a result of mines.' Canada appears to care. formed by former military engineers and active in sub-Saharan Africa since January 1998. “Action needed on landmines in sub-Saharan Africa”. Adeba 03 [Brian. but all they appear to want to do is study the problem. life becomes a nightmarish experience as amputated limbs and imminent death become part of life. Saddled with the burdens of conflict. "Some (Western governments) talk big about helping." says the Executive Director.) James Megill. and Somalia (1 million). Each minefield contains an average of 36 mines. http://www. "Sub-Saharan Africa seems to be an area neglected by most donor governments.perc. Peace and Environmental news. One such organization is the Canadian Association for Mine Clearance and Explosive Ordnance Security (CAMEO). These range from anti-personnel mines. 21 have problems with mines. then we can get a better picture. where 9–15 million landmines have been planted since the '60s. to anti-tank mines. mainly from the West. often women and children. donor countries have neglected the region. loses income and is basically reduced to begging.
Land Mines prevent effective agriculture SafeLane 06 (How Do Landmines Affect Development. Aug 8) Most of the hungry in Africa. and on equally large shipments of food aid with the accompanying disincentives for local production. rising poverty levels and increased number of undernourished populations.9 million deaths annually.net/interna.9 million deaths a year Mulama 07 (Joyce.crawfordfund. are not the victims of wars or incompetent governments. people may remain on the land. Development-Africa: Food Security Depends On Access To Western Markets. Alternatively. People may move to less productive but safer areas.dev. Africa does not produce enough food to feed itself even if it were more evenly distributed. especially in border areas. resulting in lower yields and possible malnutrition or starvation. but this argument ignores reality. using precious foreign exchange. http://ipsnews.gc. Rather. Hunger is widespread in Africa. which has led to low food availability. Brown 02 (AG. Record of Conference of ATSE Crawford Fund. people who live off their animals rather than plant fields.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 1AC 2/12 6 Landmines Aff OBSERVATION TWO: AGRICULTURE Africa doesn’t produce enough food to feed itself. Food For The Future. Africa must rely on massive purchases. but landmine casualties may lead to fewer available workers and a reluctance to use the land. Inter Press Service. and then risk malnutrition or starvation. "An estimated 200 million people in Africa are malnourished.asp) On agriculture: Many hectares of productive land are unsafe and have been abandoned.mines. Agricultural development programs cannot proceed in mine-infested regions until demining can occur. and their numbers have increased by almost 20 percent since the early 1990s." an IFPRI statistics shows. because they cannot move their herds where they might wish. and still over 30% of the population remains undernourished. http://www.pdf. http://www. and livestock may not be led to the most productive pastureland. True. are also affected. however." . Pastoralists.org/publications/pdf/proceedings2002. translating into some 2. Low food production results in 2. It says "undernutrition is the major risk factor underlying over 28 percent of all deaths in Africa. Some claim there is enough food in the world for everyone if it were evenly distributed.ca/I/I_F-en.asp?idnews=23156) Some research agencies say the African farmer is growing poorer due to diminishing agricultural productivity.
e. Although it is widely believed that landmines destroy vegetation and kill untold numbers of animals every year. Researcher for the International Campaign to Ban Landmines. The Contribution of Landmines to Land Degradation. It would be a sensible gap not to give proper attention to other lesser known species that may play a fundamental role on the food chain in a given habitat. Dudley et al. “Environmental Aspects of Landmines”.org/resources/document/lm_environment.com/cgi-bin/abstract/112748670/ABSTRACT?CRETRY=1&SRETRY=0) Loss of biodiversity. The very little data that exists on animal population is also highly biased towards domesticated animal and little is known about the impacts suffered by wild populations. Most of the reports on wildlife impacted by landmines tend to focus on certain charismatic species. elephants. As long as they receive enough mass to activate them landmines do not differentiate between human beings or other life forms (Westing.interscience. By altering these populations. Ecosystem Science Division. camels. 2005. Landmines have been blamed for pushing various species to the brink of extinction (Troll. this is unfortunately one of the areas where there is hardly any numerical data to determine how many individuals of a species or where and how they fall victims. http://www. the existing equilibrium of these species and their habitats may be placed under additional pressure.. tigers.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 1AC 3/12 OBSERVATION THREE: ENVIRONMENT 7 Landmines Aff Landmines contribute to species loss that interrupt the equilibrium of the food chain Nachon 05 [Claudio Torres. i.php3] Landmines may cause a number of unregistered impacts on the environment and its components. http://www3. Landmines can threaten biodiversity in a given region by destroying vegetation cover during explosions or de-mining.icbl. . 1996. 2000). Landmines pose an extra burden for threatened and endangered species. next to access denial. UCB. The impact of landmines on different plant and animal populations was discussed by all the participants and was considered to be a foremost environmental concern. and when animals fall victim. Mines destroy biodiversity and drive species towards extinction Berhe 06 (AA.wiley. 2002).
Both trends carry serious future implications. n72 Without plants and animals. Military Law Review.. and new species replaced the old.Professor at Harvard and author of two Pulitzer Prize winning books. In addition to food. As biologic simplicity increases. Biological Diversity. -. because their extirpations could affect a directly useful species negatively. and mankind may someday desperately need the species that it is exterminating today.over the plants and animals of the world. Nonetheless. and the dustbowl conditions of the 1930s in the United States are relatively mild examples of what might be expected if this trend continues. the world's biological diversity generally has decreased. as many as ninety percent of the existing species perished. tame the wilderness.The main premise of species preservation is that diversity is better than simplicity. So why should the world be concerned now? The prime reason is the world's survival. In most cases. species are useless to man in a direct utilitarian sense. the more successfully it can resist a stress.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 1AC 4/12 8 Landmines Aff Biodiversity Loss Causes Planetary Extinction Diner 1994 (David N. As terrible as these catastrophes would be for us. Each new extinction increases the risk of disaster. such a fabric can resist collapse better than a simple. n70 oxygen production. each new animal or plant extinction. 1992) The worst thing that can happen. No one knows how many [*171] species the world needs to support human life." n79 By causing widespread extinctions. “The Diversity of Life”. limited nuclear war. Plants and animals also provide additional ecological services -. they may be critical in an indirect role. and biodegradation. sewage treatment. Biologically diverse ecosystems are characterized by a large number of specialist species. economic collapse. so does the risk of ecosystem failure. as the number of species decline. These ecosystems inherently are more stable than less diverse systems. unbranched circle of threads -.would not be sound policy. the number of species could decline to the point at which the ecosystem fails. n67 In past mass extinction episodes. Theoretically. the loss of a species affects other species dependent on it. -. Loss Of Biodiversity Results In Extinction And Outweighs All Other Impacts WILSON 1992 (Dr. is not energy depletion. n75 Moreover. n76 4. In a closely interconnected ecosystem. if not most. Like a mechanic removing. they can be repaired within a few generations. and to find out -. Lexis) No species has ever dominated its fellow species as man has. . will happen. The spreading Sahara Desert in Africa. This is the folly that our descendants are least likely to forgive us. Like all animal life.Ecological value is the value that species have in maintaining the environment. and exploit nature for the maximum benefit of the human race. n73 Only a fraction of the [*172] earth's species have been examined. n68 2. n71 3. the rivets from an aircraft's wings. mankind pursued this domination with a singleminded determination to master the world. Judge Advocate General’s Corps of US Army. . could cause total ecosystem collapse and human extinction. . Scientific and Utilitarian Value. harelip sucker. Utilitarian value is the direct utility humans draw from plants and animals. one by one. [hu]mankind may be edging closer to the abyss.by allowing certain species to become extinct -. [l]ike a net. This trend occurs within ecosystems by reducing the number of species. "The more complex the ecosystem. Many. For most of history. humans have artificially simplified many ecosystems. Ecological Value. At some point. and yet the world moved forward. species offer many direct and indirect benefits to mankind.which if cut anywhere breaks down as a whole. and flood control are prime benefits certain species provide to man. n77 As the current mass extinction has progressed. or conquest by a totalitarian government. Edward O. the effect of each new extinction on the remaining species increases dramatically. n69 erosion. a large portion of basic scientific research would be impossible. and then humans also would become extinct. filling narrow ecological niches. . -. in which each knot is connected to others by several strands.Scientific value is the use of species for research into the physical processes of the world. people have assumed the God-like power of life and death -extinction or survival -. To accept that the snail darter. or Dismal Swamp southeastern shrew n74 could save mankind may be difficult for some. and within species by reducing the number of individuals. Pest.pollution control. with all its dimly perceived and intertwined affects. The one process ongoing in the 1980’s that will take millions of years to correct is the loss of genetic and species diversity by the destruction of natural habitats. humans live off of other species.
CDC 04 (“The Impact of Malaria. CDC 04 (“The Impact of Malaria.cdc. http://www. a variety of estimates have been proposed using mathematical models. Malaria occurs mostly in poor.gov/malaria/impact/index. UCB.2 billion people lived in areas at risk of malaria transmission in 107 countries and territories.000 malaria deaths were estimated for the year 2000 . which the World Health Organization currently uses to produce annual malaria estimates. Between 350 and 500 million clinical episodes of malaria occur every year.” Center for Disease Control and Prevention. A Leading Cause of Death Worldwide. Malaria is the leading cause of death in sub-Saharan Africa—it is mostly transmitted through mosquitoes. This is due to a combination of factors: A very efficient mosquito vector (Anopheles gambiae) assures high transmission The predominant parasite species is Plasmodium falciparum. The impact is greater in dry. from an analysis of field studies. A Leading Cause of Death Worldwide. it claims about 742.interscience. the information systems of most African countries do not produce dependable estimates. they still can be refined and improved .Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 1AC 5/12 OBSERVATION THREE: MALARIA 9 Landmines Aff Mine craters serve as breeding grounds for mosquitoes Berhe 06 (AA. the crater can develop into a stable element of the landscape when runoff or wind erosion washes soil to its bottom. loosely compacted and exposed desert soils but is less severe in humid soils that have vegetation or physical protection. but can cause substantial disease and incapacitation. flooding and erosion is also higher in areas with steep slopes. The Contribution of Landmines to Land Degradation. 1983. About 60% of the cases of malaria worldwide and more than 80% of the malaria deaths worldwide occur in Africa south of the Sahara. was applied to these malaria-risk populations to produce an estimate of about 766. As most people who die from malaria are African children less than 5 years old. 2000) that the crater may hold water. turn into a marsh and serve as breeding ground for mosquitoes. It is a leading cause of death and disease in many developing countries. At least one million deaths occur every year due to malaria.htm) Malaria is a leading cause of death and illness worldwide. as long as repeated explosions do not occur in the same location. and advocacy. http://www. where an estimated 90% of the deaths due to malaria occur. tropical and subtropical areas of the world (Geographic Distribution). Troll. Valid estimates of the number of malaria deaths are useful for monitoring the impact of prevention and control activities. where young children and pregnant women are the groups most affected. A recent model. 2000).000 deaths among African children less than 5 years old for the year 1995. which causes the most severe form of malaria Local weather conditions often allow transmission to occur year round Scarce resources and socio-economic instability hinder efficient malaria control activities.cdc. To fill this gap.000 deaths a year. The level of the impact can vary depending on the physical conditions of the soil. In warm and humid regions.wiley. and about 742. however. Troll. The malaria mortality rate. identified populations at risk for malaria with a model that predicts where the climate is suitable for malaria transmission . Although these two latter models were considerably superior to previous ones. http://www3. Generally. Ecosystem Science Division. 1983. The explosion was described by nine of the participants as having the ability to facilitate removal and displacement of topsoil while forming a raised circumference around the crater and compaction of soil into the side of the crater. According to the World Health Organization’s World Malaria Report 2005: At the end of 2004.” Center for Disease Control and Prevention.com/cgi-bin/abstract/112748670/ABSTRACT?CRETRY=1&SRETRY=0) When a 250 g antipersonnel landmine detonates. Susceptibility to reduced infiltration. the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the root zone of plants and the atmosphere is also retarded. having accurate information about this group is especially important. When soil is compacted due to external forces. it has been reported (United Nations General Assembly UNGA/A/38/383.htm) Malaria is one of the most severe public health problems worldwide. targeting public health interventions. but most have been simplistic or lacked documentation of the methods and data. In other areas of the world malaria is a less prominent cause of deaths. the type and composition of the explosive and how many landmines detonate in the vicinity. This model was recently refined to account for variations in malaria transmission intensity. its resistance to penetration by plant roots and emerging seedlings increases. transported soil increases sediment load of drainage systems. The area most affected is Africa south of the Sahara. especially in rural areas of some countries in South America and Southeast Asia.gov/malaria/impact/index. it can create a crater with a diameter of approximately 30 cm (United Nations General Assembly UNGA/A/38/383. In such cases. some 3. Malaria is the leading cause of death worldwide—in Africa. Unfortunately.
Other than aid workers. Most mine fields are unmarked. You could painstakingly test each centimeter of the ground in front of you before each step. No. the resources required for the journey seldom available. You may not discover the mine until you put your weight on it. At least 13 pounds of weight may be necessary to activate it. law clerk. p.3 Fall 1999 http://maic. Perhaps sliding a knife into the ground at 30 degrees to see if there is anything dangerous underneath. and their cronies. washouts and topographical changes have occurred.jmu. Three hundred thousand children and counting are severely disabled because of landmines. many landmine fatalities are simply not reported. they claim far more. Unofficially. April 2004. Bus Senior Associate Information Journal Volume 3.htm) One million people have been killed and maimed by anti-personnel mines. Women collecting water.edu/journal/3. WORLD & I. 70 people a day. there is not a lot you can do about it. Pentland 04 (William. Twenty-six thousand people a year become victims. those who live by minefields live in constant fear of dismemberment and death Bus 99(“What You Should Know about Landmine Victims” Margaret S. . anyone who strays into a mine field is at risk. Half the people who step on an anti-personnel mine die from their injuries before they are found or taken to hospital. almost no one has a personal car in the rural developing world. governing elites. Everyone is vulnerable. landmines claim over twenty-six thousand casualties every year. their vital organs are closer to the blast.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 1AC 6/12 OBSERVATION FIVE: LANDMINES 10 Landmines Aff Landmines kill one person every 15 minutes. being smaller. law clerk. or around one person every 15 minutes. The nearest hospitals are usually quite far. (DRG/C6)) Officially. As a result. let alone erratic "public" transportation.3/focus/how_many_victims. After the end of hostilities. San Francisco writer. or have become unmarked after time. World & I. An even higher percentage of children die because. erosion. April. If the horrifying thought suddenly strikes you that where you are walking might be mined. Many cannot afford to buy food. decades afterwards. children playing. You may have no idea that you are in danger until it is too late. men working the land or tending cattle. Most mine-related deaths occur in remote and underdeveloped areas of war-ravaged countries. 253.
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Mines sustain violent cultures and promote instability Litzelman 02 (Michael, Benefit/Cost Analysis of US Demining In Ethiopia and Eritrea, Journal of Mine Action
6.2, http://maic.jmu.edu/journal/6.2/focus/michaellitzelman/michaellistzelman.htm) There is an important U.S. interest to control landmines, especially those that are imbedded in the land of countries that are of national and vital interest to the United States and its allies. Reducing or eliminating these weapons may help to stabilize an important area and region inimical to U.S. interests. The existence of landmines has led to economic and political calamity and creates a greater chance of them being used by a faction or group against innocent civilians or even U.S. personnel. AP landmines may sustain a culture of conflict and violence. Therefore, it may be in the United States’ interest to ultimately assist in eliminating these undiscriminating weapons, which could be of direct benefit to the United States and host nations (HNs).
Landmines prevent humanitarian assistance and perpetuate poverty and instability Bloomfield 04 (Lincoln P. Jr, Assistant Secretary of State for Political-Military Affairs, Jan,
http://usinfo.state.gov/journals/itps/0104/ijpe/bloomfield.htm) Persistent landmines, the residue of past wars, insurgencies, and internal reigns of terror, kill or maim thousands of people each year in dozens of countries around the world. Untold numbers of persistent (or dumb) landmines, estimated in the millions, infest areas in every hemisphere. Landmines and unexploded ordnance (UXO) disrupt humanitarian aid delivery, agriculture, trade, education, and social development. These explosive remnants of war drain scarce public health resources and impede post-conflict reconstruction and economic recovery in impoverished areas most in need of relief. Landmine contamination is a humanitarian disaster that perpetuates poverty, desperation, and regional instability.
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When greater focus is given to large violent events we tend to forget that violence doesn’t come as a “pre-packaged” unit – rather it erupts out of less visible structural violence – instead of just worrying about the large-scale impacts of their (disad/critique/etc.) we need to examine the micro-level structural violence that end in war, violence, and genocide. King 04 [Charles, Associate Professor at the School of Foreign Service at Georgetown University, “The Micropolitics of Social Violence”, World Politics 56.3, 2004, pgs 431-455]
Violent events are often clustered spatially and temporally. Existing research practice has been to treat the cluster itself—something called "the Bosnian war" or "the Rwandan genocide"—as the only serviceable dependent variable. Cases, in other words, have become coterminous with conflicts. But violence does not come in prepackaged units. Violent events are themselves constructed as part of the process of social violence; they are wrapped up in the constitutive power of collective action. Even at the lowest level of aggregation, the individual violent episode, bounding the case can still be frustratingly difficult. Previous instances of violence
may be invoked as rallying points. What outside observers see as discrete phenomena may be, in the minds of participants, multiple iterations of the same dispute. Violent events, in other words, are not natural kinds. The rhetorical battle for control over defining the event can thus be as much a part of the contestation as violence itself. Anyone who has spent time in violent settings, from societies plagued by sectarian discord to an English football match, can understand how difficult it is to distinguish successive iterations of violence from one another, both analytically and causally. Slicing into the complex narrative of first causes and iterated grievances can provide a cross-sectional image of a conflict at one point in time, but it can also be misleading.
Any single episode of violence may be part of an intricate web of meanings connected with previous events and acting as precipitants for those to come. But things can also work in the opposite way. Participants themselves may devise very clear ways of marking off one episode from another. That is why
in societies where interfamilial feuding is common, there are also usually social rules for deciding how to terminate a violent dispute— whose blood and how much of it must be spilled in order for a wrong to be righted, for example.32 The alternative would be an endless spiral of revenge, precisely the condition that complex feuding norms are meant [End Page 449] to forestall. The point is that where any instance of collective violence begins and ends, whether it is a single riot or an entire civil war, can be determined only from within the cognitive landscape of those who are engaged in it. Marking off events as discrete by fiat of the researcher will not do the trick. What constitutes an analytically singular event is thus both a conceptual and an empirical question, part of what Horowitz and Kalyvas have both called, in slightly different senses, the "ontology" of violence.33 But how exactly does one go about ordering the varied and often contradictory versions of who did what to whom? One technique is simply to rely on press reports in local languages, as Beissinger does, and to make sure that those reports come from many different, mainly indigenous sources. That, at least, takes one as close as possible to the action without requiring a multisource account of every killing. Beissinger's careful event analysis protocol (included as an appendix to his book) is a model for how one might think clearly about the problem of bounding the violent event. Another is to write an ethnography of event making, to examine systematically the various meanings attached to violent episodes and to explore the ways in which one is marked off from another. That approach is less amenable to quantitative analysis and may produce only a Rashomon-like series of multiple stories. But focusing on the construction of meaning itself can provide a valuable corrective to the idea of the violent event as a naturally occurring species.34 A third is represented by what Horowitz has called a "near-miss strategy": doing enough microlevel
work to know under what conditions a case that looked to be heading toward large-scale, mass violence instead turned into something smaller, a lynching, for example.35 This is a technique much preached but rarely practiced. It is not quite enough to work at extremely high levels of aggregation, to ask why Yugoslavia's end was violent but Czechoslovakia's was not. Rather, following [End Page 450]through on this strategy would involve narrowing the research focus, both spatially and temporally, and giving greater attention to cases that really seemed, but for a few key variables, to be heading in the same awful direction. These techniques would certainly dampen scholarly ambitions, but that might not be a bad thing. They would cause researchers to take very seriously the bounding of both cases and events. They would remind us to be honest about what we are really studying: not violence tout court, but one small, bracketed space on a scale of behaviors running from murder to total war. Knowing with some certainty why a massacre did not escalate to genocide is not nearly as attractive as saying why one country is war torn and another peaceful. But it is probably closer to science.
Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 1AC 9/12
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Thus the plan:
Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 1AC 10/12
OBSERVATION SIX: SOLVENCY
14 Landmines Aff
The State department has cut funding to demining programs U.S. Campaign to Ban Landmines 06 (Administration Cuts Funding Request for Humanitarian Demining,
Feb, , http://www.banminesusa.org/archives/newsletters/31_Feb_2006.html#7 The United States leads the world in donations to efforts to clear mines, provide assistance to victims, and educate communities on the risks of landmines; its contributions represent close to half the worldwide total for such initiatives. Since 1993, the U.S. has donated over $1 billion, funding research and development on new demining technologies. When announcing its new policy in 2004, the Bush administration pledged to increase the funds available to support the State Department’s portion of the U.S. Humanitarian Mine Action Program by an additional 50% over fiscal year (FY) 2003 baseline levels. This would raise the level to about $70 million per year. At $64.3 million, the State Department’s portion of the FY 2007 budget falls short of the $70 million target. When the president fails to live up to his pledge, the Congress should step in and act.
In order to make serious headway. the inherent risks eviscerate individual productivity. probing carefully."1 Even the most effecient programs are expensive. doctrines. Checking for booby traps. http://maic.000 personnel. and the United Nations has responded to critiques by beginning to focus on the coordination among. Wolf. generating general location data and impact information for planning purposes. food accommodations. much less accomplished sizable clearance. stifling to local initiative and adaptation. prioritize them according to risk and necessity and authorize "treatment" according to these priorities).htm] Manual demining is the gold standard for near-100 percent removal. only $150 (U. Centralization robs the tooth of clearing activities by concentrating excessive resources in the bureaucratic tail. so these donors (plus army headquarters when the deminers are active-duty soldiers) become the projects’ true clients.e. Though appropriate for combat. Bureaucratic factors also increase costs. The United Nations for years praised CMAC as a model of effectiveness and "sustainability.2/notes/danielwolf. with more than 3. funds are too limited in many cases even to clear the most critical areas. has not even finished its preliminary task of mapping all minefields. administrative and budgetary mechanisms. clearing vegetation. Additionally. The desired treatments for these various levels of need have evolved into three accepted risk-reduction "treatment levels. policy review.S. Relying on peacekeeping forces and national armies for leadership. and Steven Barmazel. The challenge is enormous.500 affected sq km. With more than 3.) each. a fact that was tragically proven last year when two children were killed instantly and a third died slowly within earshot of her parents while Norwegian People’s Aid deminers tried frantically to rescue her. President. accompanied by mine awareness training that is often ineffective. However. improve options and transition demining institutions towards a true public-health demining system. Total monthly expenses for the Afganistan Mine Action Program.000 (U.500 affected square kilometers." From the top. and finally low-value lands such as pastures and wastelands. and responsible agencies must go beyond easy fixes—they must make substantial changes in their organization and procedures and bring along donors and affected constituencies in both mined and donor countries. but small spending for actual demining is the reality. public infrastructure and transportation are cleared next. Level 3 is complete clearing (the most expensive). A handful of distant agencies disburse most demining money. in an attempt to match needs with available resources. run $800 (U.S.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 1AC 11/12 15 Landmines Aff Wolf and Barmazel 200 [Daniel H. Ideally. the Cambodian Mine Action Center (CMAC) cleared only 10 sq km a year out of some 3. not economical. Terra Segura International. “The Necessity of Implementing a Public-Health Approach to Humanitarian Demining”. Private landowners will not invest in land clearance unless they expect to make a profit in order to support their families. overall performance must increase dramatically without expecting increased public funding. Total costs for the program’s five expatriate supervisors reach $250. acute threats such as mined schoolyards and water sources are treated immediately even at great cost. . the people living in mine-infested areas are simply powerless beneficiaries. especially in densely vegetated areas. Even when funds are available. When accountability is de-emphasized to allow greater efficiency. inefficiency and misfeasance in CMAC (specifically.) per deminer. not simply spend in ways that may produce net reductions in collective economic well being. A recent U. then private infrastructure and productive lands. rather than the actual operations of. Some who have worked with LAO-UXO in Laos allege that it would collapse without expatriate advisers. Unfortunately. innovation must run a gauntlet of policies and clearance. despite enormous spending since 1995. Level 2 is demarcation of minefield perimeters (meant to put mined land in a safe holding pattern while making the unmined surrounding land available). Experimentation is directed from above. • immediately implementing measures to improve performance within existing institutional constraints. LAO-UXO may be more robust than that. Priorities of donors and national officials often trump the needs of deminers and mined communities. a government ministry in a poor country will not invest in clearing large areas if it cannot expect positive net revenues.N. are military. however. The Bosnia Mine Action Center. akin to acute care.000 personnel. most projects suffer all the typical problems of systems with third-party funding. labor costs are astronomical. 2004. Likewise.S. lack of forward planning and disputed lines of authority.jmu." Recent exposure of nepotism. Obviously. and local responses to local conditions must pass through levels of bureaucratic filters. the rest is equipment. medical support. for instance. • providing a several-year effort to create systemic flexibility. which is very expensive. and Level 1 is an aspirin-like treatment. It must invest its limited funds in growth and development.. not surprisingly. irrespective of justification for high overhead. but an exodus of expatriates would likely cause foreign donors to lose confidence. much less mark mine fields to keep people safely out. for example.) of which is actual wages.edu/JOURNAL/5. CMAC cleared only 10 sq km per year out of some 3. causing LAO-UXO to shut down from lack of funds. Coordination between military and civilian organizations has improved. Publications Director. As a consequence. abuses occur. even considering the economic and social value of avoiding injuries and deaths. This eliminates one of the most powerful incentives for investing in demining—the lure of positive returns on investments. the organizational models for these projects. Improvements in Planning Demining The picture is not entirely dismal. NGOs." recommended that the United Nations "not be involved in the direct implementation of mine action activities. etc. and slow to respond to new or newly-discovered beneficiary needs. demining planners now apply triage to lands (i. insurance.2 The unfortunate result of all these factors is that clearance costs more than most agricultural land is worth. Even minefields around Sarajevo remain unmarked. Accountability is the reason usually given for bureaucratic structures. digging up numerous suspicious objects and rotating crewmembers to deter stress and boredom requires multitudes of low-skilled detection personnel.N. the middle level of care is largely unattainable because Level 2 surveys apply the same labor-intensive techniques used for clearance itself. when applied to mine this model is inefficient. Furthermore. transport. Getting started requires three strategic responses: • adopting the utilitarian public-health philosophy. However. the clearing of land for the commercial use of former Khmer Rouge officers) led to funding cutoffs and contraction. noting the prevalence of "poor management compounded by inappropriate and unsupportive U.
be useful. Researchers cited the need for a new generation of landmine detectors that would be more accurate and reliable to speed landmine removal. approach to mine clearance. $50 million needed for landmine detection. it will not suffice to meet President Clinton's goal and the world's expectation of us.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 1AC 12/12 16 Landmines Aff Technology is critical to demining operations Rand Review 03 (a nonprofit institution to improve policy through research and analysis. Using this technology to reliably rule out suspected areas. "There is a desperate need for better landmine detection equipment. among other projects. The problem is further complicated by the profusion of areas that are declared minefields but are in fact only "suspected" or may consist of only one mine. About 10 years ago the United States joined the fledgling humanitarian mine clearance effort around the world. computer-assisted technology to mimic the processing a dog's nose and brain do to differentiate smells. Sahlin. SF Banner http://www. further. much land can be returned to use without the expense of painstakingly clearing each square foot. The "one at a time" clearance method of the past requires technological augmentation to reach the President's goal." said Jacqueline MacDonald. Vol 27. Highly accurate surveys are needed to separate suspected from confirmed areas and. according to researchers. to limit the actual mined areas to their real boundaries. . but nothing will be developed unless there is investment in a wellorganized. "Technology is available to create better tools to remove landmines. Some currently available satellite and global positioning satellite (GPS) technology may. use technology to cut the problem down to size. Spring. use technology to find and clear the mines. relying on technology that results in a high number of false alarms. with further development.ndu. the one that exploded. US technological leadership and research advancement make it the best actor for solvency Sahlin 98(“Global Mine Clearance: An Achievable Goal?” Carl T. Since that time we have generally expanded our effort by simply doing more of what was done before. A two-part enhanced technology effort is emerging as a cornerstone of the U. according to a RAND report. No 1) A major research and development program costing about $50 million over five to eight years is needed to sharply accelerate efforts to remove landmines that kill thousands of civilians each year in 90 nations. cheap clearance should be the remaining priority. focused research program. further development of fast. Landmine detectors used today operate via a technology that is unable to distinguish landmines from other metallic materials—by far the greatest limitation of the process. The May 1998 Washington Conference acknowledged that 110 million mines may be a counterproductive overestimation. This decision acknowledges that the number of mines is not as central to the issue as the number of victims. With suspected areas ruled out. The conference attendees agreed to revise and lower the estimate.html) As long as the United States is the pre-eminent world power. This research is promising and may result in very low risk mine clearance. Further research in this area coupled with highly accurate surveys could make the concept of land mines in war obsolete. Today's landmine detection equipment is primitive. it will be looked to for leadership in mine clearance." The report said research is needed to develop new technology that can replace the World War II-era equipment—the mainstay of worldwide efforts to remove landmines. and second. August 1998 Jr. First.S. While that approach got mines out of the ground. The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) is developing.edu/inss/strforum/SF143/forum143. an engineer and coauthor of the report. Senior Military Fellow at INSS Number 143.
Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 17 Landmines Aff ****Topicality/Agents***** .
V. Prof International Health John Hopkins and Anne. Public health activities are generally well-motivated by the public interest. Yale. mainly scientific activity. as is usually the case. Professorships in Medicine. Robert. if this silence is to be broken. Often this fair distribution of benefits is impeded by differences in gender. with the understanding that these are differentially weighted in different settings. Black & A. It concerns the structure. Prof of Health Economics and Policy. xiii – xiv) Social justice is the main pillar of public health. Biostatistics and Epidemiology and Sociology and directing BU's Center for Health and Advanced Policy Studies and Lisa D. Hence. p. inescapably. Why might this be so? One answer is that the poor are not only more likely to suffer. To disregard these sociopolitical determinants of the health of society is to relegate public health solely to the prevention and promotion of individual risk behaviors – which are mere epiphenomena. distribution. that are the real stuff of politics. Must break the silence and interrogate forces promoting ongoing structural health violence Farmer 03 (Paul. No honest assessment of the current state of human rights can omit an analysis of structural violence. Mills. the world's poor are the chief victims of structural violence— a violence that has thus far defied the analysis of many who seek to understand the nature and distribution of extreme suffering. politics is an essential part of an effective public health. understanding these approaches is the inescapable context of all public health interventions. Questia) Today. shape the scope of debate on health problems. R. politics is a perhaps necessary but nonetheless distasteful evil which has no appropriate place in the more objective scientific world of public health. A wall between the rich and poor is being built. and race. Muntaner. p. Public health and politics are inappropriate bedfellows if. If we do this. devoid of any partisan preference. so that poverty does not annoy the powerful and the poor are obliged to die in the silence of history. Navarro & C. p. Indeed. Merson. then public health must take place in the social policy arena. politics is reduced to party politics – politics with a small “p. ignoring that public health is always a political activity – we have a duty to overcome the artificial divide between public health and social action McKinley and Marceau 04 (John. Politics of course. not the distracting skirmishes of low-level party struggles. New England Research Institute. can be viewed as a somewhat distasteful activity involving powerful self-interested pressure groups. noting the fall of the Berlin Wall. Political and Economic Determinants of Population Health and Well-Being. is to identify the forces conspiring to promote suffering. 202-3) Most of us consider public health and politics (or social action) to be entirely separate worlds – and many believe that never the twain should meet. we stand a chance of discerning the causes of extreme suffering and also the forces that put some at risk for human rights abuses. public health is. and the influence of money and parties on nationally important decisions. International Public Health: Diseases. This is politics with a big “P. Dean of Public Health. the use of state power to achieve particular ends. Negatives definition overlimits. they are also less likely to have their suffering noticed. even when the burden of disease and ill health within that society is distributed unequally. Marceau. as the following chapters attempt to show.” Viewed in this broader sense. a political activity. and even determine the nature of government responses to them (social policy). Systems. involves much more than just party activities. in contrast. If the health of a population is socially determined. Pathologies of Power: Health. as Chilean theologian Pablo Richard. while others are shielded from risk. Professor of Medical Anthropology at Harvard. to hide the reality of the poor majorities. . Black and Mills 01 (Michael. A critical challenge for public health is overcoming those barriers that prevent the application of the broad array of available prevention approaches and tools. Programs. ” 51 The task at hand. and Policies. Politics. If certain interest groups and individuals in society are able to socially pattern the health of the population. then learning the approach of such groups is an essential component of public health. and the New War on the Poor. 50. eds.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 T – Public Health: K of T 18 Landmines Aff Public Health Policies should have social justice as their central goal – this is best limit Merson. Its basic tenet is that the knowledge obtained on how to ensure a healthy population must be extended equally to all groups in any society. ethnicity. social class. eds. has warned: “We are aware that another gigantic wall is being constructed in the Third World. Who and which groups are able to pattern the social order? What are the sources of their influence? How do they acquire and retain their privileged position? What are the social effects of the government policies that these groups are able to shape? It is these questions. and effects of power in society. many people think that public health ought to remain a value-free.” In this view. M. Human Rights.
In general. Public Health: what it is and how it works.Public Health AT: Prevention Only This does not provide a limit – our contextual standard is better 19 Landmines Aff Turncock 01 (Bernard. Although prevention is considered by many to be the purpose of public health. 19) If pubic health professionals were pressed to provide a one-word synonym for public health. consumption of human and fiscal resources. University of Illinois. p. School of Public Health. days lost from school. Professor Community Health Sciences. prevention characterizes actions that are taken to reduce the possibility that something will happen or in hopes of minimizing the damage that may occur if it does happen. There are as many targets for prevention as there are various health outcomes and effects to be avoided. the most frequent response would probably be prevention. hospital admissions. and many other ends. . Prevention is a widely appreciated and valued concept that is best understood when its object is identified. Prevention can be aimed at deaths. the specific intentions of prevention can be numerous.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 T .
landmines have many adverse effects on the public health of the people of Africa. injuring and disabling over 12..” http://www. even the threat of landmines slows development.000 African people per year. while also killing. These menaces are found in villages.” http://maic. One woman killed or mutilated represents higher risk of illness or malnutrition for the entire family. agricultural development. as well as towards staff insurance and disability allowances.edu/journal/6. studies illustrate that more individuals have died from poor water and sanitation.org/WHAT/health/archi/fact/fmines. disease and malnutrition than direct injuries. http://maic. and health clinics. “Landmines in Africa. the health services and the socio.Demining 20 Landmines Aff Land mines hurt public health in Africa Mine Action Information Center 02 (Upsetting Lives: The Public Health Impact of Landmines in Africa. No. and even in individual homes.economic fabric of the affected countries. environmental and economic impacts. landmines preclude access to water. “Upsetting Lives: The Public Health Impact of Landmines on Africa. on roads. It is not only the physical injuries that affect the inhabitants of these nations. while also killing. These menaces are found in villages. and fields. these weapons are typically deployed in fields. firewood. injuring and disabling over 12.edu/journal/6. near villages and towns.jmu. besides the workload represented by the wounded and disabled persons. and limiting the access of vaccination teams by closing roads and isolating villages and towns. agricultural development. In Angola. schools. towns. They also limit mobility and impede the return of refugees. equipment and supplies. and around roads. towns.3/focus/taylor/taylor. and fields. landmines certainly hinder the well-being of entire African societies. It is not only the physical injuries that affect the inhabitants of these nations. etc: the outcome will be reduced coverage and effectiveness for all PHC activities.htm) Landmines are an immense problem throughout the continent of Africa. And the fact that the civilian casualties of the landmines are mainly women and children adds to the magnitude and gravity of the tragedy. specifically in the way they affect public health. and the economy of a country. Health will lose personnel. pose a threat to Health mobileteams.000 African people per year. landmines have many adverse effects on the public health of the people of Africa." . wells. Land mines are a serious public health hazard according to WHO UNECA 1995 (“Economic and Social Situation in Africa. In the Bulletin of the WHO Pan-African Centre for Emergency Preparedness and Response (Vol. markets. the International Federation of Red Cross (IFRC) and Red Crescent Societies (RCS) estimate that as many as 140 million Africans live in countries where the threat of injury or death due to landmines is high or very high. Both directly and indirectly. schools and health facilities with a dramatic impact on the natural environment the life of the communities. Both directly and indirectly. landmines in Africa have: "wide and long-lasting consequences for the population. even the threat of landmines slows development.org/cfm/21/socrep/afec4. In Angola. schools. and around roads.uneca.htm) Landmines are a global concern since their presence can lead to profound health.htm) Landmines are an immense problem throughout the continent of Africa. and health clinics. http://www. landmines also affect families and communities by preventing land cultivation. social. blocking passage to safe drinking water. schools. funds will be diverted into tertiary care and long-term hospitalization. public health campaigns and the socioeconomic and emotional state of many inhabitants. logistics. Report”. Landmines are a public health issue ARCHI 07 (American Red Cross &Red Crescent Health Initiative. specifically in the way they affect public health.jmu. Besides killing and disabling individuals. around wells. disease and malnutrition than direct injuries.3/focus/taylor/taylor. landmines certainly hinder the well-being of entire African societies. Besides killing and disabling people. Landmines prevent children from attending schools and visiting health facilities.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 T – Public Health . In war and in its aftermath. public health campaigns and the socio-economic and emotional state of many inhabitants. landmines have a huge effect on public health in Africa Taylor 02 (Sarah B. studies illustrate that more individuals have died from poor water and sanitation. 1). wells. health clinics. farming land.ifrc. Both directly and indirectly. In many mine-infested countries. By affecting water safety. landmines. one disabled child represents a long-term burden to the health services of the society at large. the International Federation of Red Cross (IFRC) and Red Crescent Societies (RCS) estimate that as many as 140 million Africans live in countries where the threat of injury or death due to landmines is high or very high..htm) There is another growing health hazard in Africa emanating from the devastation caused by the innumerable landmines in the conflict and post-conflict areas. By affecting water safety. 2.
and legal and advisory services.icbl.edu/journal/6. Landmines Studies Coordinator at Southwest Missouri State University.318 crutches. psychological and social counseling. wheelchairs and other assistant devices. Landmine Monitor identified no casualties from mine incidents. the orthopedic workshop fitted 392 prostheses. “Landmines: A Survivor’s Tale. Public health facilities in Kenya are believed to be adequate to provide first aid and advanced medical care to mine/UXO casualties. vocational training. they are trained to do simple repairs on prostheses.” Landmines: A Survivor’s Tale. access to prosthetics. on the KenyaSudan border. surgical care and physical rehabilitation to mine survivors and other persons with disabilities. and distributed 33 wheelchairs. In 2004. http://www. . produced 116 orthoses and 1. Rutherford. social and economical reintegration. two in June 2004. broader public advocacy for disability rights. provides first aid.jmu. The hospital also provides follow-up assessment. Landmine survivors themselves have defined victim assistance as “emergency and medical care.” Victim assistance directly related to public health Landmine Monitor (“Landmine Report 2005”. The hospital also runs a three-month training course for fieldbased repairers in southern Sudan. December 2002. and judicial reform aimed at removing barriers that hinder persons with disabilities from integrating into society. The definition of victim assistance is comprehensive and is not restricted to the provision of medical treatment for initial traumatic injuries sustained from landmine explosions and the provision of prosthetics. accident prevention programs. who have been evacuated across the border from southern Sudan by ICRC. ranging from rural health centers to national referral hospitals. nursing care and physiotherapy. it can satisfy its obligation to assist victims through policy changes enabling survivors to become more fully integrated into society’s economic and social realms. For example. and mental and emotional rehabilitation of survivors and their families. 2005) In 2004. psychological and peer support. if a state does not have the financial resources to provide direct victim assistance.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 T – Public Health: Victim Assistance 21 Landmines Aff Victim assistance is public health assistance Rutherford 02 (Kenneth R. states can assist victims through programs and policy. Rather.org/lm/2005/kenya. 10 July 2007) This assistance does not require the creation of formal programs necessarily.3/focus/rutherford/rutherford. Three mine casualties from southern Sudan were admitted to the hospital in January–February 2004. http://maic.12 Victim assistance also includes ongoing treatment to aid in physical therapy. nurses and orthopedic technicians.htm. and one in February 2005 for surgical treatment.”13 These activities can take the form of continued rehabilitative care. The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) Lopiding Hospital in Lokichokio. Described below are three specific policy examples of victim assistance. and to refer more complex cases and new cases to Lopiding Hospital. whose implementation did not require “programming. and ongoing training for surgeons.
The WVF is dedicated to improving the mobility. http://www. These programs focus on medical care and physical rehabilitation. Country-based projects meeting criteria are mostly funded through grants to organizations that work closely with host governments and that are registered with USAID. http://maic.S. the WVF has provided $60 million in support for victims of war in sixteen countries. http://www. Related services.S. April 2003 (“The U.edu/journal/7.1/focus/lange/lange. the DoD and USAID.htm) Through the Patrick J. These programs can be funded in a variety of ways.1.state. Issue12.org/reports/2000/uslm/USALM007-07. Leahy War Victims Fund. CDC involvement had focused primarily on MRE.htm) The third primary source of U.S. Issue 7. http://maic. USAID contributes to improving the mobility. health and social integration of the disabled due to casualties of war. including landmine survivors. USAID contributes to improving the mobility. spending on mine victim assistance programs. This includes the expanding of cost-effective. government funding for landmine survivor assistance is the Patrick J. but there are indications that the CDC in the future will engage more in survivors’ assistance initiatives as well. April 5.S. thus it is not possible to give a precise value to U.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 T: Public Assistance = USAID Funding 22 Landmines Aff Humanitarian mine action funding comes from USAID Jenny Lang. Journal of Mine Action. mine action funding is the Patrick J. State department Fellow. health. Through the fund. Funding comes from USAID Leahy War Victims Fund Jenny Lang.gov/t/pm/rls/fs/2002/9183. and social integration of the war disabled.1/focus/lange/lange. self-sustainable local medical facilities.S. Leahy War Victims Fund administered by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID). health.hrw. Leahy War Victims Fund (WVF) administered by the U.S. Humanitarian Demining Program and NADR Funding”. The WVF provides prosthetic assistance for victims who have lost limbs as a result of landmines and other war-related injuries. quality prosthetic services and setting up well equipped. Humanitarian Mine Action Program: Helping Countries “Get on Their Feet”. U. Landmine survivor assistance funding comes from USAID Human Rights Watch.1. Humanitarian Mine Action Program: Helping Countries “Get on Their Feet”. Agency for International Development (USAID).S. Journal of Mine Action. State department Fellow.S.jmu. .3”. 2002 (“The U.S. USAID mine action funding totals $10 million for FY02.htm) The vast majority of U. April 2003 (“The U. The approximate FY 2000 budget is $12 million. Until recently. including landmine survivors. USAID funds for mine action in FY 2002 totaled approximately $8 million. funding support for humanitarian mine action comes from the DOS. June 2000 (“Clinton’s Landmine Legacy”. Demining funding comes from USAID Leahy War Victims Fund Department of State.edu/journal/7. U.htm) The primary vehicle for U. Since 1989. such as gaining access to education and employment opportunities are also funded to promote the economic and social rehabilitation of the victims.jmu. and social integration of adults and children who have sustained physical disabilities as a direct or indirect result of war or civil strife.146 Expenditures for landmine victims are not separated out from those for war victims overall. Issue 7. Funds are normally negotiated and managed directly from USAID's overseas missions.S.
http://www. Department Fellow.3”. 2002 (“The U. Humanitarian Mine Action Program: Helping Countries ‘Get on Their Feet’”. if national resources are insufficient.1/focus/lange/lange. Journal of Mine Action. continued support of demining operations is the responsibility of the Department of State's Office of Humanitarian Demining Programs. DOS funds both commercial and nongovernmental organizations' initiatives supporting a host country's program and its progress towards Sustainment.S.gov/t/pm/rls/fs/2002/9183.state. NADR funding can used to support the programs of international organizations and nongovernmental organizations or can be transferred to other agencies. Once a program is established. and can sustain those operations by directly soliciting donors for support. Humanitarian Demining Program and NADR Funding”. NGO. or international organization operations. Issue12. U. http://www.htm) The Department of State is responsible for assisting a recipient country in sustaining its national demining program. Antiterrorism. an additional $3 million was received for Afghanistan. the U. NADR funds also are used to support programs conducted by international organizations such as the United Nations and the Organization of American States. Antiterrorism. April 5.hrw. training. the Office of Humanitarian Demining Programs (PM/HDP) manages two separate accounts to support mine action. Demining and Related Projects (NADR) appropriation. DOS also provides direct non-cash support to military demining organizations within a mine-affected country. U. to include the provision of equipment. providing $55. NADR funds can be channeled to a U. NADR funds are also used to support programs implemented by international organizations such as the United Nations and the Organization of American States (OAS).htm) DOS funding is provided under the Nonproliferation. Funding for the humanitarian demining programs run by the Department of State is provided by the Nonproliferation. Demining and Related (NADR) Programs appropriation. and other services. FY02 NADR funds total $40 million. Just recently. Congress enacted the Export Control and Foreign Operations appropriation for FY 2003.S.org/reports/2000/uslm/USALM007-07. mine action support from NADR has totaled over $180 million since 1997 (see attached chart). which is managed by the Office of Humanitarian Demining Programs in the Bureau of Political-Military Affairs.128 . April 2003 (“The U.htm) Within DOS.jmu. Antiterrorism. embassy or to an operational element of DoD to support the acquisition of services and equipment.S. Overall Sustainment is achieved when the host nation is successfully managing and conducting humanitarian demining operations.1.S.S. http://maic. NADR funds can also be transferred to the Defense Security Cooperation Agency. These funds support both commercial and non-governmental organization (NGO) mine action initiatives within a specific country. Overall. directly to a U. June 2000 (“Clinton’s Landmine Legacy”. Demining funding comes from NADR appropriations Jenny Lang. Under the Nonproliferation. issue 7. Demining and Related programs (NADR) appropriation.6 million for NADR mine action. NADR is not limited to funding commercial.S.S. Embassy or to an operational element of the DoD to support the acquisition of services and equipment. technical assistance.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 Demining Funding = NADR Appropriations 23 Landmines Aff Funding for mine action support comes from NADR appropriation Department of State. Funding for humanitarian demining programs run by the DOS is provided by NADR Human Rights Watch.edu/JOURNAL/7.
000 Georgia 1.901 Lebanon 1.000 Djibouti 400. Azerbaijan. Namibia. other elements of the QRDF were deployed to the Nuba Mountain region of Sudan to perform a similar short-term survey and clearance mission The NADR is the agency that would fund demining operations GAO 04 (Government Accounting Organization. Djibouti.350. Demining. Mauritania. Peru. The State Department support to mine action is often used to augment training programs executed by the Department of Defense.180.000 Mozambique 2. Azerbaijan. Yemen.000 Zambia 700. Quick Reaction Demining Force (QRDF) Funded from the NADR appropriation and established in 2001 by the Office of Humanitarian Demining Programs.844. Azerbaijan.gao. and Thailand. Angola.895 Jordan 947. Support and Sustainment (including training) to National Demining Offices/Mine Action Centers: Armenia.050. Vietnam.837 Yemen 1. There are two major programs supporting regional stability and humanitarian assistance: the Humanitarian Demining Program and the Small Arms/Light Weapons Destruction Program. the QRDF is intended to rapidly reply to emergency demining situations worldwide.000 Guinea Bissau 488. Zambia. Guinea-Bissau. OAS. It consists of mine detecting dog and manual clearance teams trained by the RONCO Consulting Corporation.208 Oman 273. The countries/regions that received NADR mine action funding and the amount of assistance provided in FY 2001 are presented in the following table. Cambodia. Vietnam. international organizations. Ecuador. Lebanon. OAS. Mine Detecting Dogs: Armenia. Laos. Cambodia.000 Somalia 1.000 OAS 1.000 Zimbabwe 594. Mozambique. Ecuador. Landmine Impact Surveys: Afghanistan. http://www. Zimbabwe.000. Georgia.000  Mine Detection and Clearance: Afghanistan.000 Angola 2. Azerbaijan.800. Zimbabwe.000.270. Antiterrorism. Yemen.S. Rwanda. Mozambique.000 Laos 993. or can be transferred to other agencies.400.org/lm/2002/usa) Funding for most of the programs administered by the Department of State are provided annually by the Nonproliferation. Chad. Equipment and Supplies: Afghanistan. This unit is based in Mozambique and conducts mine clearance there when not deployed.000 Eritrea 1. Azerbaijan. Thailand. national security interests by supporting demining activities and the destruction of small arms and light weapons in areas that have suffered from hostilities. These programs work to achieve U. and related programs follow legal authority. Cambodia. Somalia (Somaliland).pdf) The Department of State’s regional stability and humanitarian assistance programs funded through the NADR account are designed to promote peace and regional stability.650. and Related programs (NADR) appropriation and can be used to support mine clearance programs of individual countries. demining.gov/new.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 Demining Funding = NADR Appropriations 24 Landmines Aff US demining program funding comes from NADR appropriations Land Mine Monitor. Armenia. department of state nonproliferation. Laos. Mine Risk Education: Angola.000 Thailand 1. In early April 2002 part of the QRDF was sent to Sri Lanka to undertake short-term assessment.000 Rwanda 400.000 Chad 300. Armenia.000 Armenia 850. anti-terrorism. Peru. Mauritania. OAS. Thailand.000 Vietnam 1. FY 2001 Afghanistan 2.000 Azerbaijan 1.100. survey and clearance tasks. www.468. Eritrea.022. Oman. Recipients of State Department NADR Mine Action Funding (US$). but some activities need reassessment. Mozambique.000 Namibia 40. Ecuador. as well as meet humanitarian needs in post-conflict situations.000 Mauritania 400.000 Cambodia 2. Ethiopia.000 Ecuador 963. Peru.000 Peru 861. Later in April 2002. August 2002 (“United States of America”. Eritrea. Rwanda. OAS. Lebanon.icbl.items/d04521. Jordan. The NADR account also includes funding for an additional demining activity . Yemen.
htp?WSRet=1&dockey=19942944@USCODE&OLDURL=/gpc/index. including any nonlethal.org/reports/2000/uslm/USALM007-07.google. These funds can only be used to support U. Humanitarian Demining Program and NADR Funding”. and Civic Aid (OHDACA) account. Equipment may be left behind for use by the mine-affected nation. (B) The cost of any equipment. DoD provides training teams for US humanitarian demining program DoD April 3.S. .138 Use of OHDACA funds is restricted under Title 10. United States Code. and services is permitted as long as it directly supports U. Pacific Command.com/ogpc/login.state. Southern Command. supplies.html) U.10 U. Special Operations Forces personnel. OHDACA finances training conducted by U. By law.htp&OL DREFURL=http%3A//news. § 407 Humanitarian demining assistance: authority. April 5.S. self-sustainable indigenous mine action programs. Department of Defense Role in Humanitarian Mine Action The U. Through separate funding (approximately $14 million in FY02). The Defense Security Cooperation Agency administers the funds while the regional military commanders execute the programs. Donation of purchased equipment.wood.140 Purchase of equipment. military trainers and support personnel. OHDACA funded programs are coordinated with the Department of State and approved by the Office of the Secretary of Defense.3”. and Civic Aid (OHDACA) appropriation. Human Rights Watch. 2006 (“U. Department of Defense Role in Humanitarian Mine Action”. — In this section. The Department of Defense (DoD) delivers on-the- ground mine action training: Department of Defense provides mine action training teams Geographic Combatant Commanders (e. Department of Defense Humanitarian Mine Action seeks to build successful. http://www.S.S. http://www.C. limitations (c) Expenses. military personnel are prohibited from entering live minefields or removing mines as part of humanitarian demining programs. and services can occur upon completion of the program.gov/t/pm/rls/fs/2002/9183.htm) DoD funds humanitarian mine action from its Overseas Humanitarian. European Command) execute the Humanitarian Mine Action (HMA) Program in their regions DoD funds humanitarian mine action from OHDACA account Department of State.S. Special Operations Forces as well as limited amounts of equipment to support that training.S.S.S. Disaster. 80% of the funding that comes from the DoD is used for moving US troops and equipment around the world. including activities related to the furnishing of education. FY02 OHDACA funds total $18 million. (e) Humanitarian Demining Assistance Defined. forces participating in humanitarian demining activities.army. supplies.htm) Department of Defense Humanitarian Demining programs are funded annually from the Overseas Humanitarian. Issue12.mil/hdtc/dodhma. U. "the majority of the [OHDACA] funds are used to pay costs associated with deployment of U. According to a military planning document. or small-team equipment or supplies for clearing landmines or other explosive remnants of war that are to be transferred or otherwise furnished to a foreign country in furtherance of the provision of assistance under this section. means detection and clearance of landmines and other explosive remnants of war. individual. again normally conducted by U.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 DOD Funds Demining US demining assistance is funded by the DoD United States Code 25 Landmines Aff http://www.hrw. as it relates to training and support. DoD also supports research and development of promising mine detection and removal technologies. — (1) Expenses incurred as a direct result of providing humanitarian demining assistance under this section to a foreign country shall be paid for out of funds specifically appropriated for the purpose of the provision by the Department of Defense of overseas humanitarian assistance."139 Officers from the Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Peacekeeping and Humanitarian Assistance confirmed that as much as 80 percent of OHDACA funding is spent on personnel allowances and the logistical costs of moving personnel and equipment across the world. Section 401. http://www.S. June 2000 (“Clinton’s Landmine Legacy”.com/archivesearch%3Fq%3Ddemining%2Bunited%2Bstates%26hl%3Den%26 ned%3Dus%26sa%3DN%26sugg%3Dd%26as_ldate%3D2003%26as_hdate%3D2006%26lnav%3Dd0) United States Code .S. 2002 (“The U.S. military forces participating in humanitarian demining activities. or supplies acquired for the purpose of carrying out or supporting humanitarian demining activities.loislaw.g. the term "humanitarian demining assistance". OHDACA also supports mine awareness education initiatives. Disaster. services.
and USAID State Department. or to an operational element of DoD to support the acquisition of services and equipment. funding support for humanitarian mine action comes from DOS. DoD funds training conducted by the U. DoD also supports mine awareness education initiatives and. Another principal source of funding for humanitarian mine action is USAID. technical assistance. DoD.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 Demining Funding = NADR. including the provision of equipment. FY01 NADR funds totaled $40 million. including landmine survivors.S. health. mine awareness efforts. and other services. OHDACA funding is provided principally to support training and equipment. the agency contributes to improving the mobility. DoD funds humanitarian demining activities from its Overseas Humanitarian. Demining and Related (NADR) programs appropriation.usembassy. 2001 (“The U. Through the Patrick J. research and development of promising mine detection and removal technologies. DoD. and USAID 26 Landmines Aff Demining funding comes from the DOS NADR appropriatios. training.S. Mine clearance operations. and the United States Agency for International Development (USAID). http://bogota. and social integration of the disabled. DOS is also able to transfer money to the Defense Security Cooperation Agency. November 1.S. DOS funding is provided under the Nonproliferation.5 million.gov/wwwsmq01. training. through separate funding (approximately $12 million in FY01). and Civic Aid (OHDACA) account. Humanitarian Demining Program: a Commitment to Make the World Mine-Safe”. survivor assistance. Leahy War Victims Fund. NADR funds are also used to support programs conducted by international organizations such as the United Nations and the Organization of American States. DoD.shtml) U. directly to a U. FY01 OHDACA funds totaled $25. These funds support both commercial and nongovernmental organization initiatives to a host country's program and its progress towards sustainment. . and equipment are supported through programs within these entities. Antiterrorism. Special Forces personnel assigned to various commanders-in-chief. Embassy. Through NADR funds.S. Disaster. surveys.
Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 27 Landmines Aff ****Inherency**** .
This victim walked approximately 12 kilometers in the hope that our company would be able to assist him in finding a suitable prosthesis for his leg. and their gratitude is forever. there is still a long way to go before they can reach the status of landmine free countries. and has negative impact on women in particular. allowing the authorities to begin to tackle the deadly legacy of landmines. extended civil wars took place.pdf?OpenElement] Unfortunately. Our company. who work in Africa on a daily basis. Presentation to the AU-EU Security Dialogue: Towards a Common Agenda For De-mining and Disarmament. and will require effort and time and money for many years to come.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=392&Itemid=28] This article focuses on how clearance operations in Africa differ from those in other parts of the world. I have recently come across one country that is still plagued by landmines dating from the Second World War. The security risk in these areas. And in those cases where no maps exist of mined areas. If funding can be found for small clearance projects around small villages and towns. “Challenges of demining in Africa”. such projects will make a huge humane difference to especially the children and the day-to-day lives of the inhabitants. In some countries in Africa. In Angola and in South Sudan. 2007. companies have no choice to do some social good as well. which have now grown into his leg. 20 January 2007 [Director of Peace and Security of the Africa Union Commission.int/rw/lib. which is especially helpful to women and children. is mainly with regard to petty crimes such as theft. Both humanitarian and commercial clearance projects will go a long way in making Africa a safer place. . these clearance projects have a significantly positive effect on the local population. and clearing areas to be used for the benefit of the local population. Even in countries that have been addressing this issue for 10 years now.org/journal/index. where there are places that have been de-mined for 10 yrs. Mostly these are wars long-over by the time that companies will begin clearance projects. Our mine policy needs to take greater account of the gender aspects of landmines.reliefweb. There should be no doubt that there is a huge need for clearance projects and funding for clearance projects on the African continent. the challenges are even greater. Therefore the risk to companies and their staff from active conflict is quite low. On the contrary. In most countries on the continent where clearance is carried out. Humanitarian mine clearance activity on the African continent is in a crisis situation.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 Inherency – Africa Needs Demining 28 Landmines Aff African de-mining projects are in a crisis – there is a huge need for more money and projects to ensure that humanitarian and commercial de-mining is successful Heever 07 [Johann van den. Geofrey Mugumya. Operating on behalf of commercial interests does not mean that these clearance projects do not have a positive influence on the local population of an affected area. These positives will be around forever. He lost his lower leg and created his own prosthesis out of bamboo and copper wire. “The Problems of Landmines and Small Arms. Landmines are a huge problem in Africa. The security risk is probably less than even just 1 percent of that experienced in Afghanistan or Iraq. but mostly it will normalize the lives of million of women and children in the outer rural areas of Africa. though much progress has been made. the problem of landmines has not been resolved in 10 years. To us. The local population is at risk daily of landmine or ERW accidents. We want to urge decision makers all over the world to lend companies on the continent a helping hand. even if it is far away from the bright lights of the rest of the world. In fact. tried to facilitate secondary health clinics. Managing Director of Demining Enterprises International. Mined areas cannot be used for economic activity. the problem is only now being tackled. new job opportunities and skills development. It must be stated that the writer and his company are mostly involved in clearance activities on behalf of commercial clients and not any humanitarian clearance projects. but efforts are still unsuccessful. It will also mean opening up of the continent for investments. As these areas where companies work are mostly in remote areas. the long-running conflicts associated with the use of millions of landmines have only recently been successfully concluded. The local population receives demining companies well in their areas. since these are the main agricultural producers. Mine clearance operations in Africa have its own positives. The photograph in the center of the page shows the legs of a landmine victim. These positive effects include infrastructure reconstruction. we see our work as a peace operation on its own. People of a small village where only a few landmines are cleared and removed around a watering hole will always be thankful and grateful. http://www. http://ipoaonline. both in Africa and internationally. The major challenge posed by landmines in post-conflict countries is as an obstacle to development. or a hand of friendship in trying to free the African continent of these silent killers. This is just one of the countless tragedies left by the legacy of landmines and ERW on the African continent. in coordination with the village administration. where it does exist.nsf/db900SID/AMMF-72JH22/$FILE/au-landminesjan2007.
ca/fr/ev-68075-201-1-DO_TOPIC. Policy analyst for the Associated Press. In 1996. which into force in 1999. “Landmines in Africa.idrc. Somalia. worried the government. The experts are meeting ahead of a major summit to review implementation of the Ottawa Convention that calls for banning and destroying all landmines by 2009.” http://www." Angola and Mozambique are Africa's most heavily mined countries. called for the destruction of the estimated 200 million landmines stockpiled in the world. The re-laying of land-mines in central Mozambique by criminal groups linked to drugand gun-running. Over half of Africa is affected and 140 million people live in countries where the risk of being killed or injured by landmines can be considered high or very high.ifrc. land-mines continue to be planted by both Unita and government forces. Libya and Tunisia have minefields dating back to World War II. a legacy of years of civil war. "We must eliminate this weapon.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 Inherency – Africa Needs Demining 29 Landmines Aff Africa contains at least 40 million landmines—one of the most heavily minded continent. Chad. . "The greatest harm to the civilian population and children is from landmines. the most heavily mined region in the world. Landmines are still being planted in places like Angola. Libya. Eritrea. Mozambique. Despite international clearance efforts in Angola. Liberia. Egypt. The most severely infested countries are Angola. including 48 African nations _ 90 percent of the continent _ have joined the convention. September 15 2004. particularly because some of these mines have been on access roads to the Cahora Bassa hydroelectric powerline rehabilitation project. who is the president of the November Summit on a Mine-Free World. landmines kill.000 people every year worldwide. officials said. Some 143 states. IDRC 07 (“Still Killing: Landmines in South Africa” http://www. Austria's ambassador to the United Nations. ARCHI 07 (American Red Cross &Red Crescent Health Initiative.html) A conservative estimate is that southern Africa has some 20 million mines in its soil. to stop the restoration of state control in remote areas. Land-mines have claimed more than 250000 victims since 1961. Egypt. Highbeam] in Ethiopia's capital Wednesday to draw up plans to eliminate landmines from sub-Saharan Africa. landmine experts and other officials is Experts gathered expected to come up with common stand on landmines that kill and cripple 15." said Wolfgang Petritsch. Rwanda. The experts will also assess hurdles in clearing mined areas and assisting victims in Africa. “Experts map out strategy to eliminate landmines from sub-Saharan Africa”. "The affects of these weapons are there many years after the conflict. Petritsch. land-mines were used in criminal acts in Angola and Mozambique. injure and disable over 12. In addition. In Africa.000 people a year. Landmines kill or maim more than 12. Ethiopia. of which some 400 000 have been cleared since mine clearance efforts began in 1991.htm) Africa suffers from an epidemic of landmines and Unexploded Ordnance (UXO) and is the most heavily mined continent in the world with at least 40 million landmines.000 people per year The greatest danger facing civilians in sub-Saharan Africa is landmines Mitchell 04 [Anthony. Sudan and Uganda." he said.org/WHAT/health/archi/fact/fmines. Morocco and Somalia are the only African countries that have not ratified the convention. The three-day conference attended by diplomats.
Africa Today 52. . because of their inexpensiveness and ease of use. the deliberate degradation of important resources. Instead. Heynen. rebel groups have occupied former government positions and added to or changed the surrounding minefields. 3-25. certainly. none concerning the indiscriminate use of landmines (Human Rights Watch 1994). 1996).12005. They have laid mines under railway lines and on airstrips. mines have been freely used. Second. and badly disciplined. (b) harassment of government forces. Vines 1991. producing severe landmine contamination and depopulation of [End Page 9] large areas and. Since their soldiers are often illiterate. the doctrine that prevails seems aimed at achieving (a) systematic depopulation of specific areas by harassment of [End Page 8] the local population.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 Inherency – Africa Needs Demining 30 Landmines Aff Africa is a hotspot for landmines due to a lack of formal military doctrine on part of governments and rebel groups Oppong and Kalipeni 05 [Oppong. Kalipeni. associate professor of Geography and African Studies at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. a political ecology approach”. creating multiple minefields. Sometimes. First. Project Muse] Internal conflicts predominating throughout Africa do not usually involve the heavy use of armored formations sometimes found in international armed conflict. Even well-trained government armies have engaged in similar tactics. an associate professor of Geography at the University of North Texas. as the political ecology approach argues. There are at least two reasons for this. “The Geography of Landmines and implications for health and disease in Africa. rebel groups have concentrated on the use of antitank mines to prevent road travel (Human Rights Watch 1994). as in southern Sudan or Mozambique. guerrilla armies or irregular forces operating in Africa seldom have any formal military doctrine. and. during fluid phases of internal warfare. or (c) disruption of movements of government forces on transport routes also used by civilians (Unruh. poorly trained. and are among the most popular weapons. where government forces have the advantage in vehicles. and Hossler 2003.
from the South African Campaign to Ban Landmines.php3) Since World War II. For Alex Vines.. President State Council of Environmental Protection Mexico. Intergenerational responsibility was not taken into consideration whatsoever.org/resources/document/lm_environment. Zambia. Wars of national liberation in Southern Africa during the last quarter of the XX century left millions of landmines and other unexploded ordnance (UXOs) condemning future generations to suffer the burden of such insidious high-explosive devices. Burundi. As mentioned above. many unmapped and unmarked. Although many regions of the world are heavily mined. Others include Zimbabwe. Angola and Mozambique. reports of continued use of landmines in Angola. an specialist on humanitarian demining in the region. Severely affected countries include Angola. a signatory to the 1997 Mine Ban Treaty. Malawi. Namibia. Niger. environmental aspects of landmines. Congo-Brazzaville. Liberia. with Mozambique and Angola listed by the United Nations as among the most mine . Mauritania. Guinea-Bissau." Going into deeper detail. http://www.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 Inherency – Africa Needs Demining 31 Landmines Aff Sub-Sahran Africa contains the greatest concentration of mines in the world Nachón 99 (Claudio Torres.  According to Noel Stott. Uganda. ". landmines have been extensively used in Africa during armed conflict.. Chad. "Southern Africa is the most mine affected region in the world. South Africa and Swaziland.Southern Africa is probably the most heavily mined region in the world.contaminated countries. Mozambique. Rwanda. Sudan."  Landmines were widely used by most fractions to conflicts in both. DR Congo." . Somalia (and Somaliland). Djibouti. Senegal. "[i]t is generally accepted that Africa is the most heavily mined continent. "an estimated 20 million mines lie buried in the soils of southern Africa. Eritrea. darkens the hopes to universally ban the weapon in the region. Sierra Leone. and Ethiopia.icbl.
questia pg. and eventually the accumulation becomes so great—as occurred in the early 1990s—that the rest of the world begins to notice. such as those in Angola and Cambodia—pile layer upon layer of mines.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 AT: Landmine Numbers Decreasing 32 Landmines Aff Like sediment. the environment and human rights Anderson 95(“Clearing The Fields Solutions to the Global Land Mines Crisis” Kenneth Anderson director of the Arms Project of Human Rights Watch Published by Basicbooks and The Council on Foreign Relations New York. while successive years of warfare—especially in long-running civil wars. health. development. Dealing with that accumulation will be one of the key social. the problem of mines is compounded by the fact that they accumulate. . In any case. 1995. environmental. landmines accumulate. health. Physical deterioration and mine clearance take relatively few mines out of action. and human rights problems of the 1990s. 19) The world is losing ground against the spread of mines—perhaps (although reliable facts are hard to come by) at an accelerating rate. Only by eradicating this destructive curse is key to development. Mines accumulate like sediment in the developing world.
the administration’s policy contained at least one positive element that Congress should support – a significant increase in the funding level for demining. 2004. While the US Campaign to Ban Landmines remains extremely disappointed with most of the policy. 26 September 2005. http://www. Humanitarian Mine Action Program by an additional 50% over FY03 baseline levels. While the Senate version of the foreign operations appropriations bill included the president’s full request of $72 million in the Nonproliferation Anti-Terrorism.org/issues/item. the House version of the bill unfortunately cuts the president’s request by 22% to $56 million.S. 3057) convenes.R. . We urge you to fund the program at the Senate’s level. On February 27. Demining and Related Programs Account. most notably the abandonment of the decade-long objective to eventually eliminate all antipersonnel mines. USCBL Coordinator. 11 July 2007) We urge you to support the Senate’s position and fully fund the president’s request of $72 million for “Humanitarian Demining” when the conference committee for the foreign operations appropriations bill (H. the Bush administration announced a new United States policy on landmines that significantly departed from past approaches to the landmine scourge. “US Campaign to Ban Landmines Calls on Congress to Support Increased Funding for Demining.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 Inherency – US Demining Funding Down 33 Landmines Aff United States funding of landmine removal continues to be cut Stedjan 05 (Scott Stedjan.fcnl. The administration pledged to increase the funds available to support the State Department’s portion of the U. Humanitarian demining is a critical first step for reconstruction of post-conflict countries.” Friends Committee on National Legislation.php?item_id=1543&issue_id=9.
Democratic Republic of Congo. Mozambique.S. training and equipping indigenous personnel. 2003. create conditions for the return of refugees and displaced persons to their homes. over two dozen are considered landmine/UXO-affected.000 . The United States has provided. Since FY 1993. Egypt. reinforce an affected country’s stability. The Program’s objectives are to reduce civilian casualties. http://www. The Program seeks to accomplish these objectives by supporting a wide range of mine action initiatives including mine risk education (MRE). landmine survey. Nigeria. Djibouti. Among the nations of Africa. Senegal.” Bureau of Political-Military Affairs. Department of State 03 (“US Humanitarian Demining Programs in Africa.gov/t/pm/rls/fs/22173. and encourage international cooperation and participation. DC. spending on humanitarian mine action assistance in Africa has been approximately $141.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 Inherency – US SQ Assistance 34 Landmines Aff US assistance provides over two dozen landmine affected nations in Africa with humanitarian assistance. Northwest Somalia. Ethiopia. Guinea-Bissau.state. Mauritania. including research and development. Rwanda. Zambia. Chad.S. Namibia. Eritrea. Government’s Humanitarian Demining Program (HDP) seeks to relieve human suffering while promoting U. interests. total U. Sudan. Since FY 1993.124. the United States has committed over $700 million to global mine action initiatives. July 2.htm Fact) The U. humanitarian mine action assistance to 19 of these countries: Angola. and mine/unexploded ordnance (UXO) clearance operations in mine-affected nations.S. or is currently providing. Office of Humanitarian Demining Programs Washington. and Zimbabwe. Swaziland.
http://www.) However.000 victims last year.Some 32 countries. says that although "an unusually large number" of countries are still plagued by land mines. In Africa.” Anwar Iqbal. "Neither governments nor donors are doing enough for the victims. Bosnia and Herzegovina. Iraq.These three countries -.Nearly 150 countries officially support the accord.jointly have a stockpile of 170 million anti-personnel mines or land mines specifically aimed at maiming or killed people on foot. Mauritania. About 2.000 of these were children. since 1999. Eritrea. Burundi. There was a decrease of funding to many mine-affected countries. UPI South Asian Affairs Analyst. "resources for mine victims' assistance have declined although the number of victims continues to grow every year. According to this report: -. 2006 (“Landmines”. says that although "an unusually large number" of countries are still plagued by land mines. The ICBL report for 2004.org/Geopolitics/ArmsTrade/Landmines. Angola. the body that should maintain world peace. especially for the victims in sub-Saharan Africa where thousands of uncharted land mines continue to kill and maim innocent civilians. donor contributions to de-mining programs have declined. have still not given their support.globalissues. but decreased in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Russia and the United States -." the ICBL complained. Vanuatu News 04 (“The Ottowa Convention Treaty. these include Angola. says that although "an unusually large number" of countries are still plagued by land mines. Sudan and Uganda. however. Assistance for mine victims has declined since 1999 as landmines kill and maim thousands of civilians in sub-Saharan Africa. particularly in Africa. donor contributions to de-mining programs have declined. Senegal.) The ICBL report for 2004." the report said.6 million). Security Council. Eritrea. the report said. "Mine action funding fell most severely in 2003 for Vietnam and Cambodia. The four-day review conference in Nairobi is expected to urge donors to increase their contributions. Cambodia. Laos and Ethiopia. which include the poorest of the poor. .Org. however. Somaliland. -.asp) There was a decrease in international funding of mine action: The 2005 total of $376 million was down $23 million. are battling with this problem.9 million) and the United States (down $14. however. -. -. A report. September 18. The ICBL report for 2004. Iraq and Mozambique were the top recipients of mine clearance funding between 1992 and 2003 but this was not enough to meet their requirements.N. Chad. Afghanistan. from 2004 This is the first significant decrease since 1992 The global decrease largely reflects big reductions from the two most significant donors: the European Commission (down $14.China." the report said.” Anwar Iqbal. particularly in Africa. and Tajikistan Funding of mine victim assistance is still deemed as largely inadequate. affecting their programs: Afghanistan. Vanuatu News 04 (“The Ottowa Convention Treaty. almost six percent. UPI South Asian Affairs Analyst. Guinea-Bissau. Democratic Republic of the Congo. but three out of the five permanent members of the U.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 Inherency – Demining Assistance Decreasing 35 Landmines Aff Demining efforts have decreased even as countries continue to be plagued by landmines. The international community has decreased funding for mine action Global Issues. particularly in Africa. portrays a dismal picture. donor contributions to de-mining programs have declined.Land-mine explosions claimed more than 8. to be submitted to the Nairobi conference.
many people do not even have information about necessary health care." Cameron Macauley. Highbeam] More than 80 countries contain buried landmines and other explosive remnants of war. over 11. as food security is endangered.200 people each month. in 2002. And for those who need sophisticated post-trauma care. or countries with limited resources to monitor public health. there are only two orthopedic surgeons for 71 million people. they don't feel that their daily lives have been significantly altered yet.700 new landmine/UXO casualties were reported. Landmine Monitor estimates that there are between 15. Landmine Monitor found new landmine casualties reported in 65 countries which included every region of the world. says Paula Claycombe." he told IPS. In Ethiopia. Working with the Landmine Survivors Network (LSN). for example. If farmers believe that there is a single landmine in an area. as innocent civilians are killed or injured in remote areas away from any form of assistance (Landmine Monitor 2003). "Landmines [also] bring about a nutritional risk. Thanks to international efforts.000 people annually. according to the Landmine Monitor Report (LMR) 2005. the number of mineaffected countries has fallen in recent years. "In subSaharan Africa. as well as the number of those killed or injured. where the problem is at its worst today.000–20. and their cases are therefore not included in the tabulations. . which hit 26. The exact figure for landmine casualties is unknown." said Macauley. “The Geography of Landmines and implications for health and disease in Africa. 3-25. Policy analyst for the Inter Press Service. told IPS. As a matter of fact. that land will be abandoned. The International Council of the Red Cross (ICRC) estimates that landmines maim 1. [End Page 3] it does not take into account the many casualties that are believed to go unreported. crops left un-harvested and food sources will be resultantly scarce. In 2002 through June 2003. April 10th 2006. and two to five million new landmines are planted each year (Office of International Security and Peacekeeping Operations 1994). particularly taking into consideration countries experiencing ongoing conflict.000 people that are killed or injured by landmines every year (Landmine Monitor 2003).000 and 20. the first International Day for Mine Awareness and Assistance in Mine Action on April 4 brought reason for hope. an international organization created by and for survivors to help victims reclaim their lives. which together kill or maim between 15. Launched by the U. the numbers are even lower.000 in 1999.12005. and 80 percent are civilians. Africa Today 52. who has 25 years of experience helping landmine victims. New Internationalist 1991). The problem of landmines and other remnants of war or unexploded ordnance can be solved in years rather than decades. or inaccessible minefields in remote areas. Kalipeni. Only about 10 percent of landmine victims have access to basic health care and rehabilitation.N. but may well be far greater. to raise public awareness about landmines and efforts for their eradication. At least 20 percent of the victims are children. an associate professor of Geography at the University of North Texas. since many victims of landmine accidents never reach a health center. While noting the difficulties of obtaining comprehensive data on landmine casualties. The majority of people affected by landmines don’t receive any health assistance Oppong and Kalipeni 05 [Oppong. senior program officer at the United Nations children's agency UNICEF. Macauley stressed that the international community must further recognize the needs of survivors in many postconflict and developing countries.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 Inherency –Landmine Health Care 36 Landmines Aff Only 10% of landmine victims have access to health care – sub-Saharan Africa is the worst Sderlindh 06 [Lisa. Landmine Monitor notes that although this figure falls short of the 15. associate professor of Geography and African Studies at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. "Progress is not evident. Approximately 120 million landmines are buried in seventy-one countries throughout the world. and kill 800 (Coupland 1998. But for thousands of landmine survivors. Project Muse] Landmine contamination is approaching a worldwide crisis.000 estimate. a political ecology approach”. “Conflict: Getting rid of landmines ‘in years instead of decades’”. according to LSN.000 to 20.
” The West Virginia. Along with the medical training WVU-Parkersburg was contracted to provide computer/network instruction for the Chad Landmine Headquarters staff. . Scholar-Diplomat Program.pdf.wvu. Several medical personnel from Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences at the Bethesda Naval Medical Center were contracted by EUCOM to conduct "First Aid" classes for the local population. He covered everything from "Care and Maintenance of Computer Systems in Desert Conditions" to French Microsoft Office 2003 and its application to IMSMA (Information Management System for Mine Action). Most deaths from landmines occur prior to arriving at a hospital. 10 July 2007) There is a great need not only to train local personnel in landmine removal but also to treat landmine victims.edu/~facdis/newsletters/April06newsletter. This is the database software they use to track landmine fields and landmine victims in conjunction with GPS and satellite imagery. “The UN Today: Millennium Goals and Reform Agendas. WVU-P Assistant Professor of Computer and Information Technology Doug Weaver conducted over 60 hours of instruction. 22 March 2006. They taught them how to treat and care for victims up to several days while being transported to a hospital with injuries as serious as severed limbs.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 Inherency –Landmine Health Care 37 Landmines Aff There is a great need for health assistance in landmines Maxwell 06 (John Maxwell. http://www.
Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 38 Landmines Aff ****Health & Human Rts**** .
6 . However. justification. humanitarianism.4 It was this reaction that laid the foundations for what is now known as the humanitarian mine action sector. The ascendancy of human rights has led to conditionality of aid. UN Assistance Mission for Afghanistan Third World Quarterly. the International Covenant on Economic. 2003) Although the language of the early 1990s did not capture the essence of this reaction in terms of a rights-based paradigm. but such principles clearly involve inherent obligations concerning the principles of universality and indivisibility. standards and principles of international human rights into plans. empowerment and obligation. United Nations agencies and member-states. and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights). pp 939–954. The needs-based approach is being eclipsed by most recent developments of the RBA and the latter’s controversial critique of traditional non-political. there is a risk that mine action will experience ideological drift and confusion as it seeks to attract continued donor support and to justify its different interventions in an increasing number of countries world-wide. supposedly neutral. Throughout the latter part of the 1990s focus on developing and defining the paradigm of human rights and the role of such rights in development and international law intensified. Vol 24. engagement and intervention. equality and equity. and accountability. The humanitarian imperative of intervention (the purely needs-based approach) is being superseded by the rights-based approach (RBA). nongovernmental organisations and legal institutions and centres of policy development are increasingly using a rights-based approach as a dynamic closely allied to international humanitarian law in their foundation principles for analysis. increased analysis and evaluation of the impact of aid. as well as participation.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 Health & Human Rights FW 39 Landmines Aff A framework of Human rights is key to actual humanitarian assistance Horwood 03(“Ideological and analytical foundations of mine action: human rights and community impact” Chris Horwood assoc. policies and processes of development. These documents contain a broad range of guarantees addressing virtually all aspects of human life and human development. The norms and standards are those contained in such international treaties and declarations as the International Bill of Human Rights (which comprises the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. No 5. the reaction to mines was in fact born out of a general outrage that innocent civilians were experiencing a denial and abuse of their rights to security and dignity (safety in their communities and freedom from continual fear of explosive remnants of war (ERW)). which at times demands or endorses military intervention (eg Kosovo. and a move away from neutrality as a central principle of humanitarian intervention. Social and Cultural Rights. A fuller exploration of the principles of human rights and their implications for interventions in development cannot be undertaken in this article. Rwanda) or rejects humanitarian assistance that is based on a more politicised implementation of assistance. It comprises the integration of the norms.5 A rightsbased approach to development assistance is a conceptual framework for the process of human development that is normatively based on international human rights standards and operationally directed to promoting and protecting human rights. Bosnia. unless the fundamental justification for mine action intervention is explicitly expressed within a rightbased framework.
Importance is not only placed on the economic capital. through more reliable measurement. No 5. Vol 24. pp 939–954. Donors will increasingly demand that the sector prove. as well as humanitarian intervention. Given that. as the value of social capital increasing concurrently with economic capital is emphasised. In development policy and analysis. 2003) There is a trap the sector may fall into through its current. Inherent in the current interest in socioeconomic analysis—which has by no means gained universal credence at the operational level—is a focus on the economic benefits of mine action. social capital is recognised as an important part of the socioeconomic dynamic. focusing on political gains ignores the social consequences of action Horwood 03(“Ideological and analytical foundations of mine action: human rights and community impact” Chris Horwood assoc. In 1990 the World Bank conducted studies that illustrated how the impact of social development on subsequent economic growth was much greater than the impact of economic growth on subsequent social improvement. narrowly defined. . the only system that impacts can morally be evaluated in. UN Assistance Mission for Afghanistan Third World Quarterly. socioeconomic emphasis: if mine action wants to sell itself as offering important socioeconomic benefits.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 Health & Human Rights FW 40 Landmines Aff The plans commitment to socioeconomic humanitarian assistance is a rights approach. planners should perhaps see this aspect of the implementation of a more rights-based analysis as potentially of use in their planning. the level of impact currently claimed in somewhat empirically vague and imprecise terms. clearance of mined or suspected mined areas could have a far greater social-capital impact (benefiting perhaps a whole community) than the more obvious criteria for selection (economic/agricultural—benefiting perhaps one or two families). then it should fully expect donors and development institutions to evaluate the success of mine action against the opportunity cost of investments in mine action and the alternatives available—such as povertyalleviation programmes or economic-recovery programmes. This is still under-represented in terms of analysis and measurement in the mine action sector. in some contexts.
religious creed. the poor have become well-informed enough to reject separate standards of care. When we the sick. but for the poor there are no clinics. For over a decade. The patients traced the links between the right to treatment and other social and economic rights: It is we who are sick. . does a focus on health bring to the struggle for human rights? This book has argued that a narrow legal approach to health and human rights can obscure the nature of violations. In our professional journals. Although less preoccupied with our illness.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 Health & Human Rights FW – AT: No Universal 41 Landmines Aff Integrating public health and human rights broadens persprctives on human rights while not giving into inequality propped up by appeals to culture Farmer 03 (Paul. But prevention will not save those who are already ill. all human beings are people. as a group of rural Haitians living with HIV made clear in a declaration made public in August 2001. even if they have no acronym) have been demanding access to effective therapy. In the past several years. violence against individuals is usually embedded in entrenched structural violence. we still have problems paying for housing. failure to consider social and economic rights can prevent the allied health professions and the social sciences from making their fullest contribution to the struggle for human rights. gender. We are asking for your solidarity. Casting prison-based tuberculosis epidemics in terms of social and economic rights offers an entrée for public health and medicine. We hear many poignant statements about our circumstances. small country like Haiti. But anthropology—in common with sociological and historical perspectives in general—allows us to place in broader contexts both human rights abuses and the discourses (and other responses) they generate. and the New War on the Poor. but feel compelled to say something clearer and more resounding than what we've heard from others. we feel great sadness for others who don't receive the same treatment we do. we have other tribulations. speak to the subject of “health and human rights. these subaltern voices have been well-nigh blotted out. Everyone has a right to live. I believe that violations of human dignity are not to be accepted merely because they are buttressed by local ideology or longstanding tradition. in the hope that you might do something to help resolve the health problems of the poor. we read in the newspapers that treatment costs less than $600 per year [in developing countries]. 217 . the authorities. and our pain. 15 That is. Although that is what is quoted in press releases. For HIV treatment. But we heard snatches of their rebuke recently with regard to access to antiretroviral therapy for HIV disease. who speak now. Social inequalities based on race or ethnicity. We've also brought some ideas of our own in our knapsacks. like most anthropologists. our misery. Given how dire our situation was prior to treatment. these disciplines permit us to ground our understanding of human rights violations in broader analyses of power and social inequality. it costs more than twice that much. The right to health is the right to life. those living with both poverty and HIV (they are tens of millions strong. they are at least as critical as civil rights. We have learned that such calamities also occur in other countries. the afflicted. the contextualizing disciplines reveal them to be pathologies of power. no nurses. If we were not living in misery. the destitute sick are increasingly clear on one point: making social and economic rights a reality is the key goal for health and human rights in the twentyfirst century. as well as our hope. p. As we reflect on all these tragedies we must ask: is every human being not a person? Yes. An irony of this global era is that while public health has increasingly sacrificed equity for efficiency. more specifically. And in addition to our health problems. the medications now available are too expensive. ” we are aware of two rights that ought to be indivisible and inalienable. Those who are sick should have the right to health care. All people need treatment when we are sick. Pathologies of Power: Health. and other illnesses—is the same as the combat that's long been waged by other oppressed people so that everyone can live as human beings. Professor of Medical Anthropology at Harvard.19. do not embrace the rigidly particularist and relativist tendencies popularly associated with the discipline. these demands have become increasingly specific. We remain concerned about sending our children to school. Conversely. We who are already infected believe in prevention too. Each day we face the distressing reality that we cannot find the means to support them. The battle we're fighting— to find adequate care for those with AIDS. no doctors. for example. I. it is therefore we who take the responsibility to declare our suffering. Although trained in anthropology. [We] are fortunate to have access to medications and health care even though we do not have money to buy them. Many of our health problems have been resolved with [antiretroviral] medications. here in a poor. But while we feel fortunate to have access to these services. and—above all—social class are the motor force behind most human rights violations. living with AIDS. 14 Whether or not we continue to ignore them. many of us would not be in this predicament today…. We have trouble finding employment. Questia) But what. tuberculosis. Human Rights. no health care. an important step in the process that could halt these epidemics. we would like to share them with you. We have come together … to discuss the great difficulties facing the sick. It is we. thereby enfeebling our best responses to them. One of the central points of this book is that public health and access to medical care are social and economic rights. but rather in decent poverty. In other words. Furthermore. Furthermore. we have benefited greatly. We have a message for the people who are here and for all those able to hear our plea. Whereas a purely legal view of human rights tends to obscure the dynamics of human rights violations. Not being able to feed our children is the greatest challenge faced by mothers and fathers across the country of Haiti.
including denial of the right to: adequate food.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 Health & Human Rights FW .8 Mines have a complex impact on poverty that is more than just economic: valuable social capital is adversely affected by the presence or suspected presence of mines and UXO. Thus. UN Assistance Mission for Afghanistan Third World Quarterly. standards of living adequate for mental and physical health and well-being without the presence of fear. . and reluctant to accept that mine action must also face the same sociopolitical complexities that face development agencies when planning and executing their policies. poverty alleviation and the realisation of basic human rights for millions of people. The Plan is key to alleviating the abuses of HRs Horwood 03(“Ideological and analytical foundations of mine action: human rights and community impact” Chris Horwood assoc. access to education and favourable and safe working conditions. People’s rights are violated by mines specifically through denial of the rights to: life. Vol 24.11 Mine action needs to be understood not only as a classically humanitarian or a typically developmental form of assistance but also as a key effort needed for recovery. freedom of movement and freedom of association. By denying access to land for transport and food production. Although particular functions of mine action— such as clearance and survey—are explicitly technical. cultural and political activities—predominantly at the micro. pp 939–954. UN Assistance Mission for Afghanistan Third World Quarterly. community level. women and children are killed and maimed by anti-personnel landmines and UXO. 2003) To a certain degree the mine action sector has been reluctant to identify itself closely with other humanitarian and development interventions.Landmines 42 Landmines Aff Landmines cause economic poverty and the complete destruction of Human Rights Horwood 03(“Ideological and analytical foundations of mine action: human rights and community impact” Chris Horwood assoc. Both block people from normal essential activities. No 5. There is an erroneous perception that mine action is more technical than a range of other forms of development assistance. physical integrity and socioeconomic development in the widest sense. the presence of mines and UXO also hinders political participation and thereby has an impact on the legitimacy of governments and democracy while diverting development planning or rehabilitation intervention to non-contaminated areas. 2003) Each year thousands of innocent men. equal access to public service and participation in cultural and religious life. the ability of mines and UXO to block normal social economic. pp 939–954. reconstruction. the means of producing that food and access to potable water. No 5. in addition to successfully fulfilling their design objectives. adequate housing and return to homes and communities (in the case of internally displaced persons and refugees). They achieve this for years and decades after the end of conflict. Vol 24. the sector should to some extent be ‘demystified’ and mainstreamed in strategic development planning processes and should not continue its current parallel existence. but also at the macro national scale—is considerable. communal resources and facilities. participation in the government of the country.
by contrast. This article. Vol 24. community facilities and developed infrastructure offer attractive and immediately obvious socioeconomic benefits to donors and operators keen to seek out relevant contaminated areas. however.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 Health & Human Rights FW . depth and level of its sustained impact.Landmines 43 Landmines Aff The plan solves the ideological misnomers of the status quo. there may be mines in a Somali village that do not block access to a school because there is no school to block. as a favoured tool of the current mine action interest in socioeconomic analysis. Cost–benefit analyses. Within the mine action community. A cost–benefit analysis of mine action will favour mine action in countries with already existing infrastructure. UN Assistance Mission for Afghanistan Third World Quarterly.) In Bosnia. whether this be humanitarian or development-based. the very existence of the mines may hinder the potential construction of a school in the future. Mine action practitioners tend not to consider mine-affected people as rights-holders: at best. argues that the philosophical and analytical foundations of mine action will define the scope. Croatia and Kosovo. relying cost-benefit analysis ruins progress and ignore the systemic harms of mines Horwood 03(“Ideological and analytical foundations of mine action: human rights and community impact” Chris Horwood assoc. such as roads. in terms of poverty alleviation. Additionally. No 5.13 The issue of the responsibilities and obligations of the international community and the specific rights of individuals affected by mines have to a large extent been neglected in mine action. This is not necessarily the aim of strategies focusing on poverty alleviation and other humanitarian interventions. reference documentation and analysis of the mines sector. pp 939–954. mine action should be careful not to trap itself and betray the initial humanitarian impetus of mine action of the 1990s or distance itself from the rights-based obligations suggested earlier in this article. however. since cost–benefit analysis cannot calculate the impact of mines blocking access to structures that do not exist. the clearance of these structures may have little impact on poor and marginalised groups that are affected by mines. the use of cost–benefit analysis can prove to be a double-edged sword. pp 939–954. particularly if fairly simply conducted. 2003) With regard to the relevance of an RBA to the impact of mines and UXO. 2003) While seeking socioeconomic credentials for intervention. far from being a question of semantics. UN Assistance Mission for Afghanistan Third World Quarterly. Vol 24. the ideological positioning of mine action within the culture of rights-based approaches will bring it closer to development agencies and donors in terms of policy and intervention. will tend to favour clearance of national or regional infrastructure. the latter participate marginally and late in the mine action process by pointing out where mines may be located at the community level. use of an RBA is the paradigm needed in order for mine action to survive as a sector and correctly engage with longer-term intervention. there is a striking absence of any reference to rights in the policies and strategies. In particular. and discussion of an RBA appears abstract and unhelpful to the practicalities of removing mines and UXO on the ground. clearance in other areas may be crucial to improving their livelihood: an immediate illustration of how a rights-based approach could yield richer information and wider options from which to prioritise . No 5. However. understanding of the connection between rights and mines is limited and at present not deemed relevant. For them. This requires a conceptual change within both the mine action sector and the overall development sector in their understanding of mine action. only by taking a rights based approach to humanitarian demining will ever fix the problem itself Horwood 03(“Ideological and analytical foundations of mine action: human rights and community impact” Chris Horwood assoc. (For instance.14 Only a Human Rights approach to Humanitarianism yields benefits. Not least. pylons and bridges. Emphasising cost–benefit analysis also presupposes that a return on investments is the overall aim of the assistance.
Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 44 Landmines Aff ****Advantages**** .
html) 19. http://www. the amputees become a burden on their families and a drain on a feeble economy. Nor can very many developing world societies absorb a large number of amputees into economies that depend on physical labor. questia pg. And once the amputation is complete.hartford-hwp. as well as antibiotics. The ripple effects and indirect costs of mine wounds in economically marginal societies go on and on. International Secretariot. 20-21) The health and social services of developing countries suffer devastating effects of mines. physical and social rehabilitation of these people (injured civilians) is a challenge and a burden to their respective societies” (SAPEM. 1995. often indiscriminately used over large areas of land.100). 20. pg 21-22. the rehabilitation and fitting of prosthetics are expensive. The presence of thousands of amputees within a country places a heavy and continuing medical burden on the community. both legs or an arm. psychological problems. “Their capacity to maim and kill arbitrarily long after wars have ended leads to unacceptable levels of human suffering…the medical care. mine injuries have left over 30.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 Suffering 45 Landmines Aff Landmines cause extreme suffering—amputations. the amputations typically required for mine wounds generally necessitate not just one but several operations. Large transfusions are usually needed. Associate Professor of Social Work at the University of Botswana. Where medical care is available. October 1995 (“Landmines and Mine Clearance Technologies”. In Angola it is estimated that there are 70. As a result amputees often remain limbless and difficult to rehabilitate. Northern Somalia (1:650) and Uganda (1:1. and economical costs. . Questia) One immediate example of the consequence of war in Africa is the destructive capacity of landmines. 1996: 3). The severe damage caused by landmines is reflected in the ratio of amputees to the total population in countries such as Angola (1:470).com/archives/27a/013. Landmines cause expensive injuries worsening societal progress Anderson 95(“Clearing The Fields Solutions to the Global Land Mines Crisis” Kenneth Anderson director of the Arms Project of Human Rights Watch Published by Basicbooks and The Council on Foreign Relations New York. Those who survive usually require surgery which often involves amputating a leg. Landmines cause unacceptable amounts of human suffering Apollo Rwomire.000 landmine amputees (nearly 1 per cent of the population) and a further ten million unexploded landmines. 2001 (“Social Problems in Africa: New Visions”.682). one for every inhabitant. The psychological problems that can result from the loss of a limb and the hardship of new circumstances are often untreated. Mozambique (1:1. In Cambodia. With the economic problems that result from war.000 amputees in a country with a population of eight million. Many war-ravaged states cannot fund a comprehensive healthcare system and often cannot even provide victims with a prosthesis which typically costs about $125.
Jack Geiger. In the technologically developed countries of the West. 1995.. their preferred level is not high enough to remove all of the damage tissues. they have been mutilated. 135) The staggering costs for direct medical care and rehabilitation are. in which family and community survival are dependent on subsistence farming. and disruption of transportation and agricultural markets.D. no euphemism is possible. in turn. creates multiple crises: psychological damage. and economic hardship of amputees. Even if the family members accept the operation. . questia pg. they may point out the level at which they wish the surgeon to cut. Geiger and Giannou 95(“Clearing The Fields Solutions to the Global Land Mines Crisis” H. amputee victims of land mines would be described as "physically challenged" or "disabled. Before that can happen. is a former consultant surgeon to the International Committee of the Red Cross Published by Basicbooks and The Council on Foreign Relations New York. loss of productivity of family care takers. the family must confer among themselves. or provide food or the fuel for its cooking. however. M. dwarfed by other. These people are seen (and see themselves) as cripples. This form of dehumanization ends in exclusion and worse as families can’t come to terms with victims loss of humanity.D. Chris Giannou. delaying the operation. the children cannot even play. social ostracism. They cannot help their families eke out an existence. M. All too often. The widespread use of land mines in impoverished agrarian societies.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 Suffering 46 Landmines Aff Social ostracism causes landmine victims to be socially excluded psychologically conditioning them to feel worthless.. is president of Physicians for Human Rights and professor of community medicine at the City University of New York Medical School. lesstangible but equally important social costs. A patient who has already had a foot or part of a leg blown away by a land mine needs surgery. and amputation there would cause infection or gangrene. in places like Afghanistan or Somalia." Less-charitable persons would use the word handicapped. in the belief that the operation should "save" as much of the leg as possible. In the bleak poverty of war-ravaged societies of the Third World. removal of hundreds of thousands of acres of arable land from safe use for decades. A family's attempts to come to terms with the social and emotional trauma of a land mine victim can have catastrophic consequences. or would make the fitting of an adequate prosthesis impossible. these wounds are also a cause of social ostracism. In many societies.
37 When children are playing together or collecting firewood or farming. and uncountered threat to children in some 26 countries. http://www. whole sibships can be engulfed in the blast. and more mines continue to be laid than cleared.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 Children 47 Landmines Aff Landmines don’t just kill on explosion.39 The 2000-3000 victims killed or maimed each month40 include many children. Professor Department of Paediatrics and Child Health.com/cgi/content/full/314/7087/1099#Landmines) Antipersonnel landmines are an inhuman.37 38 escalating. or when simply using found objects to make toys.41 Refugee children are killed when they return home to their villages. Blinding in one or both eyes is common and some degree of conductive deafness is inevitable.37 38 41 42 when collecting scrap metal for subsistence survival. . Recent advances in paediatrics: II–childhood and adolescence. Mines made of plastic float on the runoff of annual floodwaters and so kill or injure civilian farmers and children far from the site of primary implantation or dispersal. They leave children maimed and unable to support themselves Pearn 97 (John. abdomen. The medical consequences of landmines include avulsion of one or both feet and shrapnel wounds to the pelvis.bmj. and face. British Medical Journal.
Landmines. Extremity Trauma Study Branch . Landmine survivors often require more surgical procedures than other war injuries.jmu. Low or no vaccination coverage in a village will give rise to the six preventable childhood diseases. and therefore villages or towns near minefields are often left out of public health campaigns. and damaged markets. hepatitis. and longer hospital stays than patients with other war-related injuries (Coupland 1996a & 1996b. require more attention. Even with international assistance. as an indirect result of the presence of landmines. and HIV Land mines overwhelm emergency services Mark S. malaria. Mass immunization requires mobile vaccination teams. including disease surveillance. landmine injuries can quickly overburden local medical services. agricultural land and access to public health clinics and public meeting places are mined. as mentioned. can greatly increase the risk of the affected population contracting infectious diseases. Rountree (MD. the incidence of landmine related injuries doubled.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 Health Services Land mines prevent effective health services Humanitarian Demining 95 (Direct And Indirect Consequences Of Landmines 48 Landmines Aff On Public Health. The effects of landmines on healthcare systems is incalculable – they tie up resources. further escalating the morbidity and mortality rates for these and other injuries (Stewart 1999). Journal on Mine Action 4. In general. http://www. Such high mortality and disability rates among children. The increased frequency of blood transfusions facilitates the spread of syphilis. associate professor of Geography and African Studies at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. by preventing health service activities and discouraging humanitarian assistance.edu/journal/4. A similar difficulty is faced by public health workers and humanitarian agencies when there is an epidemic outbreak close to a mined area. resulting in an estimated 2.asp#phil1) In areas where roads. their lives can be put in danger.humanitariandemining. Kalipeni. . as landmines [End Page 4]compound the problems by tying up the resources of the healthcare system. From 1980-1993. Designed to maim rather than kill.2/Focus/GLE/global. most of the poliomyelitis cases of disability originate from provinces where landmine concentration is high (9). creating shortages of medical supplies and lengthening the wait for treatment. an associate professor of Geography at the University of North Texas. starving people.“Countering the Global Landmine Epidemic Through Basic Science Research”. “The Geography of Landmines and implications for health and disease in Africa. and facilitate the spread of disease Oppong and Kalipeni 05 [Oppong. the presence of landmines in and around a village or community interferes with access and delivery of health care.000 deaths or injuries per month (Rutherford 1997). Eshaya-Chauvin and Coupland 1992). Project Muse] Besides the visible impact in shattered lives. 3-25.htm) Landmine injuries have reached epidemic proportions in the Third World. a political ecology approach”. affecting both combatants and civilians.org/archive/lmeffects. In such a setting. longer recovery times and their injuries rapidly deplete the limited blood supplies. In Afghanistan. many countries’ emergency services are quickly overwhelmed. June 2000 http://maic. Africa Today 52. resulting in increased rates of child morbidity and mortality. may.12005. four times as many surgical procedures. a public health campaign such as mass immunization is difficult to carry out. Landmine-injury victims require nearly three times as many units of blood. where mobile teams are not familiar with their surroundings. the effect on health systems is incalculable. This hypothesized relationship between polio-related disability and landmines needs further investigation. be much greater than those directly attributable to mine explosions.2.
It was the devastating human impact of mines—in peacetime. pp 939–954. access. and continues to be. UN Assistance Mission for Afghanistan Third World Quarterly. estimated in the millions. Jr. infest areas in every hemisphere. No 5. agriculture. classified as humanitarian intervention without any real analysis of the deeper nature of the threat posed by mines and the mechanisms needed to address it. http://usinfo.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 Structural Impacts 49 Landmines Aff Landmines prevent humanitarian assistance and perpetuate poverty and instability Bloomfield 04 (Lincoln P. Vol 24. 2003) In addition to arguments related to political and national peace building or reconstruction.htm) Persistent landmines.gov/journals/itps/0104/ijpe/bloomfield. health and trade affected development and blocked socioeconomic recovery.3 . on civilian populations—that initially captured the attention of the international humanitarian community and the world media. and regional instability. and social development.state. Untold numbers of persistent (or dumb) landmines. Assistant Secretary of State for Political-Military Affairs. The consensus was that basic and essential rights of thousands of communities were being directly infringed by the presence of landmines and that people had a right to be free of this scourge. Jan. These explosive remnants of war drain scarce public health resources and impede post-conflict reconstruction and economic recovery in impoverished areas most in need of relief. and all efforts to mitigate the impact of mines was. they destroy communities in terms of the economy. trade. but their impact on agriculture. social and economic arguments are being increasingly used for actual clearance and EOD. rights and health Horwood 03(“Ideological and analytical foundations of mine action: human rights and community impact” Chris Horwood assoc. education. kill or maim thousands of people each year in dozens of countries around the world. Landmine contamination is a humanitarian disaster that perpetuates poverty. the residue of past wars. but for many participants the 1995 conference would have been the first time that they had considered the issue of mines within this wider context. In many respects. Words like ‘epidemic’. this development within the mine action sector illustrates a positive maturation of the sector and a deeper understanding of the detrimental role of mines within community and national economics. ‘catastrophe’ and ‘scourge’ were used to describe the impact of mines. One of the keynote speeches of the seminal 1995 International Landmines Conference in Phnom Penh emphasised that not only were mines an abomination in terms of loss of life and limb. desperation. and internal reigns of terror. Mines are bad. water.1 while the more purely humanitarian and emergency-assistance argument continues to be used for mine-risk education (MRE) and mine-victim support. Landmines and unexploded ordnance (UXO) disrupt humanitarian aid delivery.2 This is now generally understood. insurgencies.
JMU. Frazure-Kreuzel-Drew Fellow. The landmines also threatened the implementation of the cease-fire and the sustainability of peace in the Nuba Mountains.jmu.jmu. Following the cease-fire.2/focus/michaellitzelman/michaellistzelman. 1. interest to control landmines. The government of Sudan believed that between 1989 and February 2002. especially those that are imbedded in the land of countries that are of national and vital interest to the United States and its allies. “The Quick Reaction Demining Force: The United States' Response to Humanitarian Demining Crises” http://maic. interests. personnel.S.S. 2002.edu/journal/6.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 Landmines instability 50 Landmines Aff The threat of landmines lead to thousands of victims. the government of Sudan and the Sudan People's Liberation Movement/Army (SPLM/A) accepted a formal cease-fire agreement following the mediation of the United States and Switzerland for a war that had lasted 17 years in the Nuba Mountains. http://maic.htm) There is an important U. it may be in the United States’ interest to ultimately assist in eliminating these undiscriminating weapons. Journal of Mine Action 6.1/focus/roberts/roberts. The actual presence of landmines in some areas. Mines sustain violent cultures and promote instability Litzelman 02 (Michael.160 persons became mine victims in the Nuba Mountain region. Therefore. Benefit/Cost Analysis of US Demining In Ethiopia and Eritrea.htm) On January 19. their suspected presence in others and the inability to differentiate between the two situations all posed real threats to the Nuba Mountains community. The existence of landmines has led to economic and political calamity and creates a greater chance of them being used by a faction or group against innocent civilians or even U. AP landmines may sustain a culture of conflict and violence. and landmines had consistently been cited as a major threat to the civil population and a barrier to freedom of movement and generation of income.2.edu/journal/8. Roberts 04 (Hayden. which could be of direct benefit to the United States and host nations (HNs).S. . the displaced population from both within and outside the region had begun spontaneous relocation and movement despite advice from authorities to wait until their security and safety could be assured. This war had resulted in massive population displacement within the region. Reducing or eliminating these weapons may help to stabilize an important area and region inimical to U. population displacement and prevent sustainability in certain regions in Africa.
The problem of landmines. their activities extend far beyond clarifying the ownership of de-mined land . The hospital relies on income from the government. 2003) Mine action may also serve as a foundation for conflict resolution. combined with the opportunity to purchase a wider variety of medicines have a significant impact on the health of the population. pg 809–822. In Saurimo.1/profiles/hmd_pritchard/hmd_pritchard. meeting at an agreed middle point. it may be representatives of the parties to the conflict or external facilitators who identify the landmine problem as a promising focus for negotiations.jmu. HMD Response's program benefits the whole population. Demining is key to conflict resolution. The longer-term benefits are also substantial. By focusing on health.29 These units deal with the clarification of land rights and take part in the prioritisation of land for de-mining. No. both the ability to have a greater selection and quality of food. The viability of the local hospital depends on the ability of the local community to afford its services. collected through taxes. The two sides de-mined different sections of the road. if and when acknowledged by all parties to the conflict. but are part of the regular civilian administrative structure and.edu/journal/3. may serve as a fruitful starting point for the development of joint solutions.htm) The gradual reestablishment of the local economy has both immediate and long-term health benefits. One of the biggest obstacles to national renewal in Angola is the permanent political and military instability in the country. Although this situation is national in character and its leading protagonists display little interest in creating a permanent peace. mine action managers may engage in pure conflict-resolution missions in order be able to start de-mining or other types of projects. once in place. the demining work undertaken by HMD Response is contributing to the process of reopening access routes throughout the area. stability and the prevention of barriers inherent to civil wars Pritchard 99(“An Integrated Approach to Providing Humanitarian Aid: The Humanitarian Demining Development Response Program in Saurimo. The opening of the road was a concrete signal of newly gained confidence. where the government and the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) agreed to de-mine the key Highway A9 that links the Jaffna peninsula to the rest of the country.28 Based on a mutual agreement between the parties. associates at International Peace Research Institute Third World Quarterly. and it was widely referred to in various Sri Lankan media as a breakthrough in the peace process. just as it relies on the ability of its patients to buy the medicines they have been prescribed. the prognosis for the continued improvement of the hospital is good because there is sufficient capacity within the local community to ensure its continued viability. 24 No 5. it may prove to be an instrumental step in a longer conflict-resolution sequence.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 Demining Conflict Resolution 51 Landmines Aff Demining efforts impact the local economies promoting hospital development. A recent example comes from Sri Lanka. which again helps to breakdown the barriers created by many years of civil war. Vol.1 Spring 1999 http://maic. on a local level there is much that can be done to improve the situation. and through the training and employment opportunities it is creating. In the short-term. HMD Response aims to give people from all sides of the conflict the chance to participate meaningfully in the community. Similarly. Angola” Amanda Pritchard Acting Director of Strategy and Service Development Mine Action Information Journal Volume 3. At other times. At times. A different example comes from Cambodia. where land disputes led to the setting up of so-called Land Use Planning Units (LUPUs) in some provinces. Sri Lanka proves Harpviken and Skåra 03(“Humanitarian mine action and peace building: exploring the relationship” Kristian Berg Harpviken and Bernt A Skåra. The LUPUs work closely with the national mine action authority.
one tendency is to see the core political activities. however. The same goes for a variety of concrete issues to be settled during or in the aftermath of armed conflict. as having mainly to do with communicating and re-establishing a sense of dialogue. In coming together to develop solutions to the landmine problem. organisations and personnel will have to increase the attention they pay to the impact of their activities on peace. They will need to become equipped not only to assess the impact of interventions on conflict. such as confidence building. 2003) At the most general level. pg 809–822. where a peace-building impact has effectively been sought. the peace-building potential of mine action has proved to be great. 24 No 5. like any other sector operating in conflict settings. In other cases. where they will inevitably have to work their way towards trusting in peace. conflict resolution and reconciliation. Vol. Vol. its inevitable focus on the political aspects of landmines make it an effective agent of change Harpviken and Skåra 03(“Humanitarian mine action and peace building: exploring the relationship” Kristian Berg Harpviken and Bernt A Skåra. 24 No 5. parties emerging from a conflict have a concrete focus for their dialogue. In the cases above. Demining is an important factor in peace building. associates at International Peace Research Institute Third World Quarterly. there may have been similar opportunities. While strong arguments remain for not subordinating all mine action to a centrally coordinated peace-building operation. associates at International Peace Research Institute Third World Quarterly. but also to respond to any opportunities for enhancing peace that arise. one where there are real differences of opinion. Dealing with landmines offers great potential. A minimalist approach is to aim at preventing negative effects of interventions. and where progress in mutual understanding can be demonstrated through solid results. pg 809–822. We have here argued that there is merit in focusing on solving concrete problems. needs to focus more strongly on building the capacity to analyse its impact on conflict and peace. . but these have not always been capitalised upon. as in Sri Lanka and Sudan.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 Demining Peace 52 Landmines Aff Demining programs are the key method to promote peace building abroad Harpviken and Skåra 03(“Humanitarian mine action and peace building: exploring the relationship” Kristian Berg Harpviken and Bernt A Skåra. and to ensure that the resultant analysis is used to improve existing practices. 2003) Humanitarian mine action. returning to how we perceive peace building. while being but one example of this process.
associates at International Peace Research Institute Third World Quarterly. This political core promotes peace Harpviken and Skåra 03(“Humanitarian mine action and peace building: exploring the relationship” Kristian Berg Harpviken and Bernt A Skåra.30 Another avenue to a reconciliatory impact is when a former party to the conflict is engaged in clearing mines. for example when former adversaries work side by side in a programme. has a contribution to make to peace building that goes well beyond the impact that it has through improving security or through facilitating development and reconstruction. this has the potential to defuse tensions at the popular level. when local populations identifying with one group realise that those coming to clear mines in their community belong to another. This effect is presumed to have occurred in Guatemala. Finally. diffusing feuding sides of an issue. and mine action may contribute to both. Mine action programmes may also have a major effect on peace building’s political core. if mine-education activities incorporate rights issues and reflect the international instruments aimed at protecting civilians. as well as in several other Latin American countries. a key component of the effort to tear down old divisions and make it possible for parties who may have been involved in serious atrocities to live together. Generally. when the military was allocated the task of clearing mines. this contributes to building awareness of social injustice more generally. pg 809–822. Vol. as discussed in a 1998 impact-assessment report from Afghanistan. then. Mine action may contribute to reconciliation directly. as in the Sudanese example mentioned above. effectively being seen by the population to be removing the instruments of war. Mine action. 24 No 5. . 2003) Mine action may also be instrumental to reconciliation. co-operative activities and processes of transitional justice are the primary mechanisms here. Similarly.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 Demining Peace 53 Landmines Aff Demining is instrumental to reconciliation.
2003 (“Mozambique”. prolonging stay in refugee camps. The aftermath of such prolonged fighting left over 5.uk/2/hi/africa/1378377. http://www. non-governmental organisations clearing landmines such as the Halo Trust. In southern Sudan. and economic independence becomes a painful mirage.co. Mined areas have prevented repatriation and resettlement of people. electricity pylons and dams. Mines also cut off access to economically important areas. irrigation canals and water points may be no longer accessible. and fisheries. both sides planted millions of landmines for route denial.000 per week. mines have paralyzed agricultural production. Cahill. 54 Landmines Aff http://news.stm) "I wanted to go back home but at the same time I wanted to stay in the camp. creating a growing financial burden on international relief agencies.5 million refugees will not return because mountain roads and fields are infested with mines. Medical treatment for landmine victims. In Afghanistan the situation is even worse. Landmine Survivors Network. border defenses.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 Refugees I/L Fear of landmines prevent repatriation. They have also increased landmine casualties among refugees as they attempt to return home and farm their land. burdening an already overstretched healthcare system. Landmines have prevented millions of displaced persons in Mozambique from repatriating.icbl. mark and clear minefields.000 to 1. and Danish Church Aid. and especially for my children. the most heavily mined province in Mozambique. BBC News. They hamper the provision of aid and relief services and threaten. orchards. such as roads. http://www. leaving thousands trapped in a drought-stricken region. Landmines were also used to disrupt access to water routes.5 million people displaced . But they told me to go. 2001 (“Eritreans Return to Destroyed Homes”. water supplies. Everywhere. 1995 (“Clearing the Fields: Solutions to the Global Land Mines Crisis”. Some 3. Mined roads have disrupted trade. along with Eritrean government landmine clearers have started to survey. June 8. resident and Director of the Center for International Health and Cooperation in New York City. I was so scared I went to look for her because I am afraid of the mines. pg 4) Refugees are afraid to return to their homes. or even prevent it altogether. Land mines have cut the expected rate of repatriation in Cambodia from 10." Now she said she has new worries: "My main concern is the landmines.5 million as refugees in neighboring countries. But it is a long process Landmines prevent repatriation of refugees and displaced people and break down economies International Campaign to Ban Landmines.bbc." "I was just out looking for my daughter because she was late coming from the well. 2005 (“Arguments for a Ban”. where available.org/country_text. Communities are deprived of their productive land: farm land." Many Eritreans ended up in displaced persons camps In Eritrea. particularly in Tete. transportation centers.php?country=mozambique) During the civil war. and other essential services are primary mining targets so that the basic infrastructure of society collapses. Refugees are too afraid to return home because of landmines Kevin M.org/problem/solution/ban_arguments) Landmines slow repatriation of refugees and displaced people. and protection of key economic and strategic installations. making food and goods exchange nearly impossible in some areas. is costly. A landmine incident may cost a family their breadwinner. Landmines hinder tourism and the use of land for recreation such as hiking and skiing. . injure and kill aid workers. agricultural fields. power plants. Vocational training and support may not be available so many survivors struggle to make a living after their accident and become a burden on their families.lsndatabase. August 2. The bill for refugees refusing to leave the camps in Pakistan was $50 million in 1993.4 million internally displaced and 1.
the United Nations approved the Convention on the Prohibition of the Use. is the economic cost. Questia. March-April 2007 (“No More Mines!”.aspx?id=1158) In Angola. including potable sources of drinking water. had been sufficient to depopulate an area for four years. repatriated steadily during 2003. and the spreading of rumours. It is the product of war whose effects can last decades beyond the conflict itself. In Mozambique’s Maputo province. 2004 (“Refugee Return to War Devestated Angola”. the United Nations concluded a contract for the clearance of 2010 kilometres of roads in 1994.interaction. mostly innocent and defenseless civilians and especially children. primary schools. costing US$40. The threat of landmines denies people from their home for years. resulted in years of fear and tens of thousands of dollars spent. was deserted for four years because local people had been told it was mined. http://www. Production. refugees long displaced from 27 years of civil war.php?id=2558) Obstacles to Return 5. and Transfer of Anti-personnel Mines and on their Destruction." Landmines prevent regfugee repatriation to Angola US Committee for Refugees and Immigrants.com) THE ANTI-PERSONNEL landmine is a manifestation of man's cruelty to man [SIC]. Four anti-personnel mines. 6.idrc. Added to the incalculable cost of human life. which had been the centre of a community of 10 000 people. both civilian and military. and have other severe consequences for years after emplacement. Refugees cannot return to Angola because of landmines US Committee for Refugees. According to E-Mine. Issue 59. In Mozambique. Stockpiling. other less hazardous ordnance items were also uncovered. 33 of which are from the Americas. the Electronic Mine Action Network. http://www. prevented more refugees from repatriating. obstruct economic development and reconstruction. . these. specialist with the OAS Department of Public Information. Ø Poor infrastructure. before the community felt safe to return. inhibit the repatriation of refugees and internally displaced persons. yet the clearance produced only 28 mines. broken bridges. it is estimated that between 15. In 1997. Ø Lack of basic social services in areas of refugee return. IDRC 07 (“Still Killing: Landmines in South Africa” http://www. This international treaty was created with the view toward ending the suffering and death caused by antipersonnel landmines "that kill or maim hundreds of people each week.org/article.ca/fr/ev-68075-201-1-DO_TOPIC. which abruptly ended in early 2002.refugees. Better known as the Ottawa Convention. Now there are 152 states party. Fear of land-mines. the village of Mapulenge. and health clinics.000 and 20.000 people. Refugees repatriating to Angola-and UNHCR and other UN agencies and international humanitarian organizations assisting with their return-face three major obstacles: Ø The presence of landmines and unexploded ordnance. and can seriously threaten the ability of an entire country to rebuild long after war has ended. it went into effect two years later. Americas. die or are wounded by landmines every year. and poor road conditions have rendered closed approximately 40 percent of the main refugee returnee areas in Angola to organized refugee repatriation and have slowed repatriation and reintegration to areas deemed safe for refugee return by the UN Security Coordinator (UNSECOORD). 2004 (“Africa”. The presence of hundreds of thousands of landmines and the lack of government-provided basic social services.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 Refugees I/L 55 Landmines Aff Landmines injure thousands and prevent the return of displaced persons Amparo Trujillo. A mine clearance operation in 1994 took three months and uncovered only four mines. The presence of landmines.000 Angolans returned to their war-devastated homeland— primarily from Zambia and Congo-Kinshasa—from June to November 2003. denies land and homes to people who are hesitant to return. Many of these roads had been closed for years.2. whether present or not.org/newswire/detail. January 14.html) The ongoing threat created by live land-mines can prevent civilians from living in their homes and using their fields. Some 100.
not in camps.asp) During conflict and displacement. Children living without parental support are particularly at risk of sexual and physical violence and exploitation. The average estimated length of stay has increased from nine years in 1993 to seventeen years in 2003.unaids. Many factors contribute to increased risk of HIV transmission among refugees both in emergency and post-emergency phases of refugee situations. and are now staying longer in their host countries. In 2005. http://www. Rape is often used as a weapon of war.unaids. . http://www.org/en/Policies/Affected_communities/Refugees. reducing access to HIV prevention.org/en/Policies/Affected_communities/Refugees. weakening social and sexual norms. the global number was 19. In these situations. where drought and conflict continue to force people from their homes in massive numbers.org/en/Policies/Affected_communities/Refugees. sexual and reproductive health services. 7/12/07 (“Refugees and Internally Displaced Persons”. it also undermines efforts to address HIV in host communities. persecution or violence. are at even greater risk of exposure to HIV. This includes refugees and asylum-seekers who flee their country of origin across national borders. Refugees face sexual exploitation and HIV UNAIDS.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 Refugees = AIDS/HIV Refugees face increased risk of HIV transmission UNAIDS. 56 Landmines Aff http://www. 7/12/07 (“Refugees and Internally Displaced Persons”. 7/12/07 (“Refugees and Internally Displaced Persons”.unaids. People who flee their homes and communities lose their means of livelihood. failure to address the HIV-related needs of refugees not only denies them their rights. The vast majority of refugees live within host communities. They may be forced to exchange sexual services to meet their basic needs for food. persons displaced within their own countries (internally displaced persons). women and children. 4 million of whom lived in sub-Saharan Africa. especially girls.asp) Millions of people worldwide are forced to uproot their lives to escape conflict. Host communities also face an increased risk of HIV infection UNAIDS.2 million. and HIV-related treatment and care for those who need it. Health and education services are disrupted. Social networks and institutions break down.asp) Host communities are also at increased risk of HIV. water and shelter. and stateless persons. Women and girls are subject to sexual violence and exploitation in refugee situations.
Children's Institute . insertion of objects into genital openings. members of other clans. during flight. In Sierra Leone. but also during the periods of social disruption and disintegration in the aftermath of war.php?productid=18957&cat=469&page=1) The injuries that refugee women sustain from SGBV persist long after the crime. sexual threats. Refugee victims of SGBV in the region have reported ongoing sexual and reproductive health problems. assaults. humiliation. In refugee camp settings in Africa.University of Cape Town. a 1994 survey of 205 Liberian women and children aged 15-70 years found 49% had experienced at least one incident of physical and/or sexual abuse by soldiers during the Liberian civil war (Koss and Kilpatrick 2001). incest. World Health and Population. guilt. 2007 (“The Relationship of Sexual and Gender-Based Violence to Sexual-Risk Behaviour Among Refugee Women in Sub-Saharan Africa”. World Health and Population. psychological and social problems. women in sub-Saharan Africa are not only vulnerable to SGBV during conflict. "SGBV encompasses a wide variety of abuses that include rape. religious or ethnic groups. a household survey of women revealed that 9% experienced war-related sexual assault and an additional 9% had been sexually assaulted outside a war situation (Coker and Richter 1998). torture. Manager Child Poverty Programme. Children's Institute . Like other regions of the world. psychological and social consequences of SGBV only add to the pain of uprooting and forced migration. exploitation. Survivors of SGBV in refugee situations have been observed to experience depression. while in the country of first asylum and during repatriation and reintegration. and attempted rape" (UNHCR 1999: 36). These physical.com/product. military personnel. The perpetrators are reportedly fellow refugees.longwoods. http://www.University of Cape Town.com/product. shame and loss of self-esteem. . 2007 (“The Relationship of Sexual and Gender-Based Violence to Sexual-Risk Behaviour Among Refugee Women in Sub-Saharan Africa”. especially when they are fleeing the conflict and residing in camps for refugees or internally displaced persons (Human Rights Watch [HRW] 2000). SGBV victims are often rejected by spouses and families. For instance. members of the host population and family members (United Nationals High Commissioner for Refugees [UNHCR 1999]). Manager Child Poverty Programme.longwoods. terror. ostracized and subjected to further exploitation and/or punishment (UNHCR 1999). relief workers.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 Refugees = Sexual Exploitation 57 Landmines Aff Refugees face sexual and gender based violence Johannes John-Langba. involuntary prostitution (sexual bartering). http://www.php?productid=18957&cat=469&page=1) Sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) has been reported to occur during all phases of the refugee experience: prior to flight. domestic violence. These sexual based injuries lead to psychological breakdown and further exploitation Johannes John-Langba. psychological and health consequences of SGBV have been widely noted among refugees in subSaharan Africa. The social. molestation.
it has been reported (United Nations General Assembly UNGA/A/38/383. loosely compacted and exposed desert soils but is less severe in humid soils that have vegetation or physical protection. 2000) that the crater may hold water. . http://www3. the type and composition of the explosive and how many landmines detonate in the vicinity.wiley. Generally.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 Malaria I/L 58 Landmines Aff Mine craters serve as breeding grounds for mosquitoes Berhe 06 (AA.interscience. transported soil increases sediment load of drainage systems. UCB. the crater can develop into a stable element of the landscape when runoff or wind erosion washes soil to its bottom. turn into a marsh and serve as breeding ground for mosquitoes. When soil is compacted due to external forces. 1983. In warm and humid regions. 2000). it can create a crater with a diameter of approximately 30 cm (United Nations General Assembly UNGA/A/38/383. 1983. however. Ecosystem Science Division. Troll. the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the root zone of plants and the atmosphere is also retarded. The explosion was described by nine of the participants as having the ability to facilitate removal and displacement of topsoil while forming a raised circumference around the crater and compaction of soil into the side of the crater. The level of the impact can vary depending on the physical conditions of the soil. flooding and erosion is also higher in areas with steep slopes. Troll. its resistance to penetration by plant roots and emerging seedlings increases. The Contribution of Landmines to Land Degradation. The impact is greater in dry.com/cgi-bin/abstract/112748670/ABSTRACT?CRETRY=1&SRETRY=0) When a 250 g antipersonnel landmine detonates. Susceptibility to reduced infiltration. as long as repeated explosions do not occur in the same location. In such cases.
cdc. http://www.htm) Malaria is one of the most severe public health problems worldwide. At least one million deaths occur every year due to malaria.gov/malaria/impact/index. was applied to these malaria-risk populations to produce an estimate of about 766.gov/malaria/impact/index. CDC 04 (“The Impact of Malaria. This is due to a combination of factors: A very efficient mosquito vector (Anopheles gambiae) assures high transmission The predominant parasite species is Plasmodium falciparum. The malaria mortality rate.cdc.” Center for Disease Control and Prevention. from an analysis of field studies.htm) Malaria is a leading cause of death and illness worldwide. It is a leading cause of death and disease in many developing countries. a variety of estimates have been proposed using mathematical models. Malaria occurs mostly in poor. Malaria is the leading cause of death worldwide—in Africa. This model was recently refined to account for variations in malaria transmission intensity. The area most affected is Africa south of the Sahara. targeting public health interventions. tropical and subtropical areas of the world (Geographic Distribution).000 malaria deaths were estimated for the year 2000 . In other areas of the world malaria is a less prominent cause of deaths. A Leading Cause of Death Worldwide. A recent model. having accurate information about this group is especially important. which the World Health Organization currently uses to produce annual malaria estimates. http://www. and advocacy. some 3. and about 742.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 Malaria Impacts . Although these two latter models were considerably superior to previous ones.” Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Valid estimates of the number of malaria deaths are useful for monitoring the impact of prevention and control activities. but most have been simplistic or lacked documentation of the methods and data. where young children and pregnant women are the groups most affected. According to the World Health Organization’s World Malaria Report 2005: At the end of 2004. they still can be refined and improved . Between 350 and 500 million clinical episodes of malaria occur every year. but can cause substantial disease and incapacitation. especially in rural areas of some countries in South America and Southeast Asia. About 60% of the cases of malaria worldwide and more than 80% of the malaria deaths worldwide occur in Africa south of the Sahara. As most people who die from malaria are African children less than 5 years old.000 deaths a year. it claims about 742.000 deaths among African children less than 5 years old for the year 1995. the information systems of most African countries do not produce dependable estimates. which causes the most severe form of malaria Local weather conditions often allow transmission to occur year round Scarce resources and socio-economic instability hinder efficient malaria control activities. Unfortunately. A Leading Cause of Death Worldwide. CDC 04 (“The Impact of Malaria. where an estimated 90% of the deaths due to malaria occur.Death 59 Landmines Aff Malaria is the leading cause of death in sub-Saharan Africa—it is mostly transmitted through mosquitoes. identified populations at risk for malaria with a model that predicts where the climate is suitable for malaria transmission .2 billion people lived in areas at risk of malaria transmission in 107 countries and territories. To fill this gap.
the disease claims the lives of many more African children than either HIV/AIDs or tuberculosis. Around 90% of these deaths occur in Africa. they usually die within 72 hours.who. (Malarian Africa http://www. with 1 million to 2 million fatalities. there are some 300 million to 500 million cases of malaria each year. Children under the age of five are particularly vulnerable. It accounts for 40% of public health expenditure. About 90 percent of all deaths from malaria occur in sub-Saharan Africa. AIDS & Health Issues”. Roll Back Malaria 2001. Malaria results in more than a million deaths in Africa alone. resulting in more than a million deaths. If children do not receive prompt treatment after developing malaria symptoms.int/cmc_upload/0/000/015/370/RBMInfosheet_3. malaria ranks as the world’s most server tropical parasitic disease. and up to 50% of outpatient visits in areas with high malaria transmission. Rotberg 07 (Stuart. 44) The second-deadliest disease of sub-Saharan Africa.rbm. Malaria is Africa's leading cause of under-five mortality (20%) and constitutes 10% of the continent's overall disease burden. The World Health Organization estimates that malaria kills a child in Africa every 30 seconds.htm There are at least 300 million acute cases of malaria each year globally. “Africa Progress and Problems. Harvard School of Public Health. p. Worldwide. 30-50% of inpatient admissions. .Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 Malaria Impacts – Millions Deaths 60 Landmines Aff Malaria kills more than a million people in Africa—children die within 72 hours if they aren’t immediately treated. mostly in young children.
even though it could be controlled for a fraction of that sum. . There are several reasons why Africa bears an overwhelming proportion of the malaria burden. and therefore deadly. resulting in more than a million deaths.Deaths and economy 61 Landmines Aff Uncontrolled malaria leads to 12 billion lost dollars a year and over a million deaths. This region is also home to the most efficient.rbm.htm) The vast majority of malaria deaths occur in Africa. http://www. the most severe and life-threatening form of the disease. species of the mosquitoes which transmit the disease.int/cmc_upload/0/000/015/370/RBMInfosheet_3. Around 90% of these deaths occur in Africa. Malaria is Africa's leading cause of under-five mortality (20%) and constitutes 10% of the continent's overall disease burden. RBM 01 (Rollback Malaria. 30-50% of inpatient admissions. Malaria has been estimated to cost Africa more than US$ 12 billion every year in lost GDP. south of the Sahara. Moreover.who. It accounts for 40% of public health expenditure.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 Malaria Impacts . many countries in Africa lacked the infrastructures and resources necessary to mount sustainable campaigns against malaria and as a result few benefited from historical efforts to eradicate malaria. There are at least 300 million acute cases of malaria each year globally. where malaria also presents major obstacles to social and economic development. mostly in young children. and up to 50% of outpatient visits in areas with high malaria transmission. Most malaria infections in Africa south of the Sahara are caused by Plasmodium falciparum.
Malaria.children Malaria is the principal cause of at least 1/5th of children in Africa. the report says. the keys to prevention. Brian Greenwood. but children under five and pregnant women are particularly vulnerable due to their weaker immune systems. many children are hospitalized. a world authority on malaria and director of the Malaria Center at the University of London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. One such technology is the use of the insecticide dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) to combat malaria. the report noted. Most people who die are children: one child dies every 20 to 30 seconds . National Geographic News 2003 (June 12.html Malaria is transmitted from person to person through the bite of a female Anopheles—a species of mosquito prevalent throughout sub-Saharan Africa and considered to be the most dangerous. Malaria is easily transmitted through mosquitoes and is the leading cause of death for children. and clinical responses are well understood but poorly implemented. 2004. and clean water. which then translates into improved nutrition. Inspired by its effectiveness. CATO. proper sanitation. During World War II the Allied Forces used DDT to halt the spread of louse-borne typhus and to control malaria. the causes.com/news/2003/06/0612_030612_malaria. National Geographic News 2003. "malaria is the commonest cause of admission into pediatric wards.org/pubs/pas/pa513. Tren 04 (Richard.pdf People in rich countries expect to live longer because of economic growth and the attendant increase in income. http://www.nationalgeographic.cato. Noting that the death toll remains "outrageously high. http://news.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 Malaria Impact . The World Health Organization estimates that malaria infects between 300 million and 500 million people every year and kills more than 1 million. (June 12 http://news. While the majority of healthy adults—who might be bitten up to twice a day by malarial mosquitos in the rainy season—withstand the malaria parasite. However. resulting in a malaria resurgence that has led to a more virulent disease today than in the 1960s. Patients also suffer because of increasing drug and insecticide resistance and underfunded health care systems. estimates that 1 to 2 percent of cases lead to fatalities. In fact.html 62 Landmines Aff A recent report by two United Nations agencies—the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Childrens Fund (UNICEF) #151.com/news/2003/06/0612_030612_malaria. Growing wealth and the concomitant advances in medical and public health technologies decrease the incidence of communicable diseases in rich countries and contribute to important advances against diseases in poor countries." A child dies every 20 seconds of malaria." the report said. “South Africa’s War Against Malaria: Lessons for the Developing World” March 25.nationalgeographic. is the single biggest killer of children under five and a serious threat to pregnant women and their newborn.outlines the enormity of Africa's malaria problem and calls on the global community to step up its efforts to combat the disease. "No country in Africa south of the Sahara for which data are available shows a substantial decline. "New analyses confirm that malaria is a principal cause of at least one-fifth of all young child deaths in Africa. Only a small proportion of malaria infections are fatal. the scourge of malaria persists in less affluent parts of the world." Though there is no single cure for malaria and an effective vaccine is considered years away." The Africa Malaria Report says that sub-Saharan Africa faces continued malarial devastation unless swift action is taken. The high overall number of deaths from malaria reflects the regularity with which Africans—particularly the poorest segments of society— contract malaria. public health officials used DDT to eradicate malaria from Europe and the United States. says Greenwood.
Economists believe that malaria is responsible for a growth penalty of up to 1. Annual economic growth in countries with high malaria transmission has historically been lower than in countries without malaria. http://www. malaria is understood to be both a disease of poverty and a cause of poverty. Malaria also has a direct impact on Africa's human resources. but malaria also hampers children's schooling and social development through both absenteeism and permanent neurological and other damage associated with severe episodes of the disease .rbm.htm) In Africa today.Poverty 63 Landmines Aff Malaria leads to poverty—it hinders social development. Not only does malaria result in lost life and lost productivity due to illness and premature death. RBM 01 (Rollback Malaria. When compounded over the years.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 Malaria Impact .3%% per year in some African countries.int/cmc_upload/0/000/015/370/RBMInfosheet_3.who. this penalty leads to substantial differences in GDP between countries with and without malaria and severely restrains the economic growth of the entire region.
as a result for example of fetching water from a fresh spring or well. Under nourishment is particularly devastating to the long-term health and survival of children still in their developing years. landmines may be removed from its original location by heavy rain. forcing people to drink dirty. Mined roads and passes to sources of drinking water and firewood and minefields around villages force villagers to drink polluted water. Humanitarian Demining 95 (Direct And Indirect Consequences Of Landmines 64 Landmines Aff On Public Health. and instead seek other sources perhaps further away and less safe for drinking purposes. the effect that minefields have in preventing access to safe drinking water sources increases morbidity and mortality. and estuarine ecosystems. and damaged infrastructures prevent large numbers of people. especially among children during the summer months. While boiling river water. inter alla. http://www. and prevent the use of farmland LandMines. in general. such as test flies and malarial mosquitoes. with urine and human excrement accumulating nearby their homes and ending up as well in passing rivers and tributaries. In Afghanistan. which causes. can make it safe to drink. minefields can play yet another role in polluting--indirectly--drinking water. Additionally. are not used to latrines.landmines. facilitate the breeding of disease carriers. discourages the villagers from "bothering" to boil their drinking water.asp#phil1) As mentioned earlier. especially those who have recently returned from refugee camps and have recently lost a member to a mine explosion. will tend to avoid such fresh water sources in future. http://www. 2/14) Landmines also prevent access to safe drinking water. The deployment of mines also renders large tracts of fertile farmland unusable. Rural populations. The international community works closely with mine-affected countries to implement victim assistance and rehabilitation programs intended to help mine victims. 2005. diarrhoeal diseases. travelling downstream to more stable water bodies as lagoons.org 06 (Impact of Landmines. Land Mines restrict clean water use. unconfirmed reports of use of landmines as a method for fishing in places as the Tanganika Lake in Tanzania. in general. Sewage and water treatment facilities have been targeted in many African locations. contaminated water that can cause diarrhoea and cholera. that transmits viruses and bacteria. increasing the high probability of water contamination. “Environmental Aspects of Landmines”. It also promotes broad health awareness and immunization campaigns to minimize some of the long-term medical consequences of landmines. which in turn leads to food shortages and severe malnutrition. firewood. from receiving adequate medical care even when treatment is available. rural populations. As well. has indirect and long-term consequences on public health. Minefields thus also tend to change the behavioural patterns of rural populations and villagers. especially those living in remote villages. lakes. grazing and agricultural land.php3] It is generally accepted that the use of landmines has been concentrated not only on the battlefield.humanitariandemining. and use instead a nearby field for such purposes. particularly of rural populations. polluting water with heavy metals and possibly altering chemical composition of sediments. http://www. the mining of roads and passages leading to sources of fresh drinking water. floods and other meteorological phenomena.php. And in countries where cholera recurs every summer. . Funding is a continual problem in providing adequate aid to victims and mine-affected communities.icbl. may suggest that such technique could be in use elsewhere. the fact that often the roads and passages leading to the river or to forest areas for firewood are mined.org/archive/lmeffects. Researcher for the International Campaign to Ban Landmines. In addition.org/resources/document/lm_environment. rotting carcasses of animals killed by landmines turn minefields into breeding grounds for insects.uk/268.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 Water I/L Mine fields prevent access to clean water. Hence. but in and around civilian populations and basic infrastructure.org. Heavy metals from landmines find their way into fresh water supplies – contaminating them and making the water undrinkable Nachon 05 [Claudio Torres.
" The wars of the next century will be about water. the demand for grain could cause global shortages and rising prices. The Chinese government -. The crisis in China has global implications. "The soils erode because the tree roots no longer hold the soil as well. a managing director and co-founder of Firelake Capital Management.htm) 65 Landmines Aff Shiva exposes the ongoing destruction of the earth's resources and how the world's poor are stripped of their rights to the precious commons of good water. where all 14 major rivers are polluted and drying up. The tree branches don't provide the umbrella effect that slows down bullet-like raindrop impacts.S. Ismail Serageldin. responsible for the deaths of more than 1. that damaged 1. We have to put our best thinking. In a 1995 statement.8 million acres of paddy crops." Climate change is a primary cause of water shortages. Catastrophic fires also threaten Alaska as a result of the melting ice. Geological Service for years. melting glaciers.sfgate. Climate change creates not only more flooding and cyclones. The sudden temperature rise is human created.a close second to the global warming crisis -.com/water_wars. The same is true in India. In China's cities. and rising sea levels . Bliss.6 percent each year and severe drought affects the supply . and the disruption of marine wildlife. Shiva writes about a cyclone in Orissa. July 8 online: http://www. 4 billion people will face water shortages by 2050. drought. who worked with the U.blog-city.a source that supplies more than 150 million people -. but that's not the case. but also more droughts and heat waves. online: http://fading-hope. less than 70 percent of water needs are met.cgi?file=/c/a/2007/07/08/EDGOTQ8JBS1. environmental and economic crisis. we have to safeguard and make intelligent use of our water.htm) For our planet's future.000 cattle.com/water_wars. Across the world. Among its consequences are dead forests. We can no longer take it for granted. online: http://fading-hope.and the problems are expected to escalate." Alaska has been hard-hit by water crises recently. . The Global Policy Forum cites conflicts from China to Africa. The water shortage crisis -. the soil erodes more because the mature roots are gone. industrialization. We assume water will be there forever. disease and deadly conflict.blog-city. Of its 669 major cities.8 million children every year ." Shiva notes. We have an opportunity -. energy and resources into finding solutions while we still can.Survival Water extremities pose a serious threat to human survival.com/cgi-bin/article. because of human damage to the environment that throw ecosystems out of balance . causing the thawing of ice caps and glaciers. and both extremes pose a threat to survival .desperately seeking solutions -.DTL) According to data collected from NASA and the World Health Organization. "There is either too much water or too little. 440 face moderate to severe water shortages. deadly conflicts already rage over water.and a moral obligation -. making the Chinese dependent on grain supplies from the West." according to Shiva. The United Nations deems dirty water a leading cause of death for children under age 5. Water shortages lead to millions of deaths.are down 33 percent from the average. and human casualties were around 20. Already in China.83 million homes and 1. water levels in the Yellow River -. India. 2000 (Shepherd. a vice president of the World Bank. Lagod 07 (Martin. asserted. "The l999 cyclone was not a mere natural disorder . use and invest in technological solutions sathat reduce water waste.it was mainly a man-made ecological crisis unleashed by the combined impact of climate change. sagging roads. Geologist Jane Nielson. Its agricultural industry has been nearly crippled by groundwater contamination.to develop. and deforestation. where the population grows by more than 2. wastewater pollution and inadequate treatment facilities have contaminated the water consumed by more than half the population. It killed 300. If the Chinese population continues to grow. Similar catastrophes that appear to be natural have increased in recent years and are likely to intensify even more. In sub-Saharan Africa. Average temperatures in Alaska have risen a startling 7 degrees Fahrenheit in the past 30 years. Everything must be done to reduce the water shortage crisis in order to safeguard survival. If roots are removed and the soil replanted with a monoculture.needs to be at a higher level of awareness for our population." Organizations from the United Nations to the CIA have warned against the dangers of a looming water shortage. crumbling villages. Bliss.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 Water Impact . explains what happens when forests are cut. 2000 (Shepherd.000.calls the water shortage a social. India and the Arabian Peninsula -. "It is the poorest people in the Third World who will be most severely affected by climate change.
and the security of the person. liberty.000 and 20.uk/347. a political issue. Landmines that render potential agricultural land unusable contribute to food shortages and nutrition deficit Landmines that restrict access to potable water contribute to diarrhoeal diseases. Adopt-a-minefield 06 (“Landmines and the Millennium Development Goals” http://www.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 Water . a human rights issue – for nothing is more basic than the right to life.landmines. contributing to diarrhoeal diseases which are the biggest cause of preventable death in the world. and ultimately. mine action is a development issue as well as a humanitarian issue. the greatest cause of preventable death on the planet Landmines that inhibit schools from being built or students and teachers from attending classes limit educational and training opportunities Landmines that hinder the construction and maintenance of roads and other infrastructure can have a devastating economic and social effect Landmines breed insecurity that tears the social fabric of vulnerable states and create further instability Clearly. .org.php) Landmines continue to kill or injure between 15.basic right 66 Landmines Aff Landmines can restrict access to safe drinking water. a social issue. There is also evidence that many more people suffer and die as a result of the indirect but equally lethal impact of landmines as an obstacle to sustainable development.000 people annually.
Unless landmines are removed and destroyed from all these sites. ." . the return to a peaceful way of living faces tremendous challenges. create vast numbers of internally displaced persons (IDPs)." Therefore. In Angola. " [a] more relevant measure of the problem. A larger surface may not be cultivated because of solely fear to landmines. 1996:11).org/resources/document/lm_environment. Kofi Annan.49% of its arable land is contaminated by landmines. and stability Claudio Torres Nachon. as well as inflicting injuries. "Not only do theses abominable weapons lie buried in silence and in their millions. They impose a multidimensional burden on the countries affected by landmines.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 Agriculture I/L 67 Landmines Aff Landmines make land unusable—kills food production Apollo Rwomire.” and that even in Zimbabwe. prolonging the need for international assistance: prevent the delivery of government services. large surfaces of land can not be cultivated According to a report from the US Department of State. waiting to kill or maim innocent women and children. Associate Professor of Social Work at the University of Botswana. but the number of square kilometers of productive land rendered unusable by the presence or suspected presence of landmines or other unexploded ordnance (UXO). uncleared landmines may affect pacification efforts and compromise the environmental and food security of mine affected countries. As well. it is estimated that 33 percent of the country’s land “is virtually unusable due to landmines. Landmines leave thousands of acres of land unusable.php3) Social and economic consequences of landmines are tremendous. and encourage continued militarization of post-conflict societies. water and sewage treatment plants. landmines are in most cases laid near vital infrastructure installations as bridges. electrical towers. but the presence -or even the fear of the presence. for example. rob a village of its livelihood. place yet another obstacle on a country's road to reconstruction and development. http://www. ending lives. health.of a single landmine can prevent the cultivation of an entire field. landmines are also responsible for leaving land unusable for purposes such as building and food production. one million acres of land are totally unusable (SAPEM. In the words of UN Secretary General of the United Nations. impede economic recovery. international environmental lawyer and Landmine Monitor Researcher for Mexico and Belize. hospitals and roads. serve as physical obstacles to unity and reconstruction. In Libya. where the war of liberation ended in 1979. however. pg 21-22. devastating economies. May 1999 (“ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS OF LANDMINES”. 2001 (“Social Problems in Africa: New Visions”.icbl." In many mine-infested countries. In other spheres. is not the number of landmines per country. they "will pose huge ancillary social costs. Humanitarian demining costs are elevated and in most cases drains vital funds from other badly needed investments for reconstruction. it is estimated that about 8. create conditions for the spread of disease. Questia) Apart from killing and maiming innocent people.
Arable (agricultural) land becomes unusable.org 07 (The Economic Costs of Landmines. making it vulnerable to water and wind erosion. Goods and services cannot be sent on mined roads and local businesses suffer while the prices of scarce goods go up. such as electricity and water. irrigation systems. COPYRIGHT 2002 Gale Group The situation in urban areas also provides further evidence of the general economic malaise suffered by countries affected by landmine pollution. or 87 per cent. In many countries. and bridges.(12) . unable to return to their contaminated land and agricultural farms. landmines represent an ongoing catastrophe. The cycle of poverty keeps growing. killing agricultural productivity Claudio Torres Nachon. also in Africa. Page Number: 2+.8 million hectares. nearly 2. electric plants. Volume: 22. unemployment. and transport systems are also systematically mined. . the drought along with the mining of arable land and the road system have had a serious impact on the region. are often driven out into otherwise unused or marginal land. however. In one part of Angola alone. http://www. Policy Analyst for Kangla Online. The objective may not necessarily be to destroy any such asset. http://www. power lines. http://www. As more agricultural land is taken out of production. placing additional pressure on already fragile environment.kanglaonline. key economic installations are frequently targeted for mining operations. The communities. while many are forced to live in the urban areas. At the end of the conflict. Contributors: Frank Faulkner . from which they cannot hope to recover until the problem is eradicated. As a result.author.php3) As landmines are planted just below the surface of the land. water plants. it is often impossible to approach these facilities to repair them or even try to maintain them. air and noise pollution. “Landmines use is against humanity”. In other countries.8 million hectares. landmines have reduced harvest yields by as much as 50%. is often in inverse proportion to the damage inflicted on civilians. Journal Title: New Zealand International Review. international environmental lawyer and Landmine Monitor Researcher for Mexico and Belize. or only 67 per cent. If landmines explode on cultivated land. Pollution causes by landmines drives farmers away from fertile ground – hindering agricultural production and economic development Sandham 03 [Oken Jeet. and problems with water supply sanitation and waste disposal. could be declared safe for use. As an example. COPYRIGHT 1997 New Zealand Institute of International Affairs. it is the national infrastructure—roads. it is estimated that landmines have reduced food production by more than 25%. contributing to overcrowded housing. Issue: 5. but rather to deny its use by the enemy. In many areas. 2003.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 Agriculture I/L 68 Landmines Aff Landmines leave toxins in the soil. regions which were once self-sufficient are now dependent upon outside sources for their food. May 1999 (“ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS OF LANDMINES”. dams and industrial plants—that are often mined during civil conflicts.asp) Sometimes mines are placed in farmer's fields.com/index. causing inflation. during the Second World War. powerlines are isolated. Publication Year: 1997. their most direct impact is upon soil quality and composition. As part of an overall military strategy. In Mozambique. The end-product is the comprehensive breakdown of the national infrastructure.org/cyberschoolbus/banmines/units/unit1c. levels of agricultural production are dramatically reduced. the mining of irrigation systems and water-delivery plants makes it almost impossible to farm even those fields which are mine-infested. other services. By 1980 approximately 1. Mines severely limit food production UN. Any military advantage to be gained. of Libya's rangelands were rendered unusable by landmines. When a landmine explodes it destroys surrounding vegetation and shatters and displaces the soil. become spotty in these situations.org/resources/document/lm_environment. congested traffic. Landmines represent an ongoing catastrophe making land unusable for farming Anti-Personnel Landmines: A Modern Day Scourge.php?template=kshow&kid=663&] The pollution caused by the landmine explosions also has the effect of pushing the people from their traditional lands because most of the mines are often laid in the habitation areas.icbl. denying regular maintenance and repair.un. For these countries. watertreatment plants.
http://www.int/rw/rwb. UNEP. .nsf/0/e6c910032f05b67b85256f5e00695c00?OpenDocument&Click=] Roots of Peace. grapes in Afghanistan.” Source: United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). is also developing agricultural projects in de-mined areas. the once deadly soils are now being used to cultivate rice. It recently conducted a post conflict assessment of Liberia and has received similar requests from other African countries including Angola. for example. In Afghanistan. United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). which has a Post Conflict Assessment Unit based in Geneva.” said Ms Kuhn. the United Nations Mine Action Service and the UK-based Mine Advisory Group. “Together we have planted rice in Cambodia. the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). has carried out studies in several wartorn countries and regions including the Balkans.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 AT: Demined lands can’t be farmed 69 Landmines Aff Empirical examples of Afghanistan and Cambodia show that de-mined lands are fruitful. which works with bodies including the UNEP. Afghanistan and Iraq. the de-mined areas have been restored into grape growing fields and in Cambodia. orchards in Croatia and wheat in Iraq—converting ‘swords into plough shares’ in war torn countries. 02 Dec 2004 [“ ‘Roots of Peace’ back demining/ecotourism project in Angola.reliefweb.
Students are unable to safely make their way to school. http://www. . Even in a healthy economy. 70 Landmines Aff Http://www. agriculture and human services. The community's access to natural resources is restricted.com/Landmines_html/Real_Weapons_Destruc.html) The human costs of mines already in the ground are enormous. Entire regions are denied basic services because repairs to infrastructure are impeded. When roads are impassable. producing an inflationary spiral that is politically destabilizing De-mining is key to allowing foreign aid in King 01 (Elizabeth. Teachers and healthcare workers.canadianlandmine. and societies are thrown into chaos. Businesses then raise their prices and workers demand wage increases. Mines isolate power lines. cannot get to work. for example. and road and rail networks. Humanitarian aid shipments are disrupted. goods and services cannot be easily transported. In the economic realm. bridges. Danger in the Earth. Landmines became an obstacle in the path to sustainable development with severe economic. emergency and aid workers in developing countries around the world became increasingly less able to improve a community's access to water. and environmental consequences on mine-affected communities. water plants. Thousands of lives are lost to explosions.cfm) In the mid-1980s. Workers cannot move from one part of the country to the other and economic development is further impeded. When product availability dwindles. medical.thirdworldtraveler.org/greenteacherarticle.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 Humanitarian Aid Land Mines paralyze entire regions and stop aid The Defense Monitor 96 (Landmines: The Real Weapons of Mass Destruction. The Canadian Landmine Foundation. mines can artificially limit supplies of critical products. social. prices skyrocket. landmines bar access to infrastructure such as roads and railways and slow post-war reconstruction and the redevelopment of human services.
Nonetheless. 1996. as well as reconciling and healing societies from the trauma of conflict. .int/w/rwb. Cambodia and Mozambique alone have suffered more than 6 million US dollars loss due to landmine’s effect on animals. destroy fertile land for agriculture. Fragile financial systems of developing nations become more susceptible to failure as funds are diverted away from development. landmines and their impacts become added burdens to the already over-taxed economies and overstretched resource bases of struggling nations. he said ending the scourge of landmines on the continent had "not been pursued with all the needed vigour and determination in Africa". 1999).nsf/f303799b16d2074285256830007fb33f/3a1e43697feb90cc49256f57000c23dc?OpenDocument) Said Djinnit.meat. destroy transport networks and destroy important natural resources that support life. For example.000 was deserted for four years because of a rumor that mines were present. to take care of disproportionate health bills of victims. The extensive mine contamination of Afghanistan’s fertile valleys has reduced agricultural production. agricultural land use in Afghanistan could increase by 88–200 percent. lose their limbs and other vital parts of their bodies . leather products or subsistence farming activities has had significant socio-economic effects. The loss of more than 57 000 animals that Andersson et al.org/pubs/monograph_reports/MR1608/) The presence of mines also can cause economic decline (Andersson et al. Even the rumor of mine presence can halt all activity in an affected area. Mines hurt development Berhe 06 (AA.reliefweb.com/cgi-bin/abstract/112748670/ABSTRACT?CRETRY=1&SRETRY=0) Landmines contribute to perpetuations of underdevelopment by killing or injuring a community’s sources of income (people and livestock). 1998).rand. in Mozambique. "We have also seen landmines destroy the healthy and productive part of our active population. stability and development in Africa. Andersson et al.wiley. Ecosystem Science Division. the bread-earners and heads of households. Many victims must undergo multiple surgeries. The Andersson et al. 1995. Integrated Regional Information Networks. that the AU had been at the forefront of the campaign to ban landmines. It is assumed that Afghanistan. landmine experts and other officials. Furthermore. (1995) estimated that without mines. "Landmines continue to be the main impediment to post-conflict reconstruction and development in our countries. At a larger scale. a three-month clearance operation later found only four mines (Vines and Thompson.” Further.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 Development 71 Landmines Aff Demining is crucial to development and peace IRIN 04 (Well Known Invisible Killers Littered Throughout Africa. women and minorities are disadvantaged." Djinnit also told the conference. Cameron et al. http://www. RAND Corporation. head of the Peace and Security Council at the AU. described the devastating effects of landmines on the continent and their impact on development at the conference. http://wwwnotes. Similarly. while de-mining activities drained the resources of the community in Mozambique to the point that there were no funds left to restore de-mined roads. with growing land scarcity the poor. "Ridding the continent of this invisible and indiscriminate weapon is crucial for creating conditions for peace. survey found that “households with a mine victim were 40% more likely to report difficulty in providing food for the family. Nov 24." he told delegates. "We have seen innocent people. women and children amputated. For the nomadic populations in North and Eastern Africa and theMiddle East loss livestock reared for production of dairy. Landmines interfere with economic development. attended by diplomats. the medical bills for survivors can bankrupt families. Andersson et al. UCB. (1995) reported that the highest risk group are men between the ages of 15 and 64 years. security." Mines deter development in affected areas MacDonald Jacqueline 03 (Alternatives For Landmine Detection. and often they are unable to return to work. Most victims are males of working age." the AU official added. inhibiting effective cultivation or control of locust (and other pests) and scaring away tourism and other means of income (similar observations were reported by Hanevik. Several of the participants indicated that a large portions of landmine victims are adult men. Bosnia. 1998).interscience.. Mines affect not only the victims’ families but also the entire community surrounding the mined area. attribute to landmines is equivalent to a minimum annual market value of roughly US$200 per household. Children who lose limbs require multiple prosthetic devices over their lifetimes. Jeffrey. http://www3. The Contribution of Landmines to Land Degradation.and end up handicapped.. Landmines in Vietnam hindered the construction of a new major north–south highway. a town of 10.
or that is present for a sufficient period. "pollution". According to Giannou and Geiger. While few people would argue with the notion that mines represent a serious danger to human health. the direct damage caused by landmines and unexploded ordnance (UXO) may destroy the basis for socio-economic development in badly affected countries. 1985:123]. is defined as: [t]he presence in the environment of any substance or energy that is of sufficient concentration. [t]he widespread use of land mines in impoverished agrarian societies. impede the development of an economic infrastructure ([such as] roads. 20) One approach to examining the effects of land mines is to use the various disciplines from which the land mines crisis is being addressed. landmine expert) Rae McGrath stated that: [i]n many of the poorest countries of the developing world mines are not merely instrumental in denying vital land to farmers. Supporting this. in which family and community survival are dependent on subsistence farming. Tolba states that landmines 'have endangered people. raises the cost of development immensely.edmonton. through the activity of humans [1991:251].htm. etc. creates multiple crises: psychological damage. but have covered large tracts of the earth's surface with non-biodegradable and toxic garbage [McGrath in Davies. all unexploded ordnance) as a profound.even imperative . and particularly agricultural development. Mines clearly fall into this category. and thus as a form of highly toxic pollution. 1995. land mines impose a high barrier. for that matter. pastoralists and retunring refugees. Landmines ruin any chance at Development Anderson 95(“Clearing The Fields Solutions to the Global Land Mines Crisis” Kenneth Anderson director of the Arms Project of Human Rights Watch Published by Basicbooks and The Council on Foreign Relations New York. livestock and wildlife. to be harmful or offensive to humans or likely to cause damage or unnatural change in the environment. according to the UN: unexploded remnants of war endanger people.ab. airports. McGrath 1997:10-11]. following an armed conflict. In summary. it becomes possible . The effects of this kind of pollution are profound. questia pg. 1985:123]. For example. social ostracism. only a small minority currently view them as a pollutant.freenet. even when it can be done. At precisely the time when there is the greatest need to restart agricultural production.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 Development 72 Landmines Aff Landmines hurt economic development and undermine agriculture Gray 97 (Bruce. and economic hardship of amputees. and disruption of transportation and agricultural markets [1995:141]. Even the mere suspicion of mines prevents people using their natural resources by denying access to that component of the environment [UNGA / 38 / 383 1983:13. The UN concludes that because the natural environment constitutes the basis of all social life and economic development. But are mines really a form of pollution? Technically. make land unsafe to farm or irrigate.ca/~puppydog/bgray. to ensure food supplies. long-term environmental threat to human health and well-being. loss of productivity of farm care-takers. Land mines have a disastrous effect on development. power and telephone lines.). mines are a major contributor to economic and social impoverishment. and McGrath 1994:121. removal of hundreds of thousands of acres of arable land from safe use for decades. according to David Meagher's Dictionary of the Australian Environment.to view landmines (and. Yet by adopting the conceptual underpinnings outlined above. Dunlop. and wildlife. http://fn2. and to bring refugees back to their lands. The need to remove land mines. livestock. and hamper mineral exploration [Westing et al. . Landmines: The Most Toxic and Widespread Pollution Facing Mankind. to put people back to productive work. and hindered the development of vast areas of land' [1992:213]. University of Sydney. Westing et al.
and refugee return M2 Newsire 05 [No Author Cited. the presence of landmines impeded the distribution of humanitarian aid. concurring. Special political committee completes debate on removal action.editor. clearance programs were expected to take decades. obstructed access to infrastructure and agricultural land. estimates suggested that more than 100 million mines had been scattered through over 60 countries and each month 2. There was a clear need to mobilize additional financial and technical resources. he said. said the representative of Angola this morning as the Fourth Committee (Special Political and Decolonization) concluded its debate on assistance in mine action. humanitarian aid. The existence of these devices also inhibited the repatriation of refugees and internationally displaced people. Highbeam] The presence of landmines was an obstacle to economic development. especially to those countries emerging from long conflicts. Publication Year: 2004. Delegates stress continuing problems after long-ago conflicts”. and the Sixth Meeting of States parties to the relevant convention. humanitarian aid operations and refugee return. should be emphasized. should review the critical issues still faced by mineaffected countries. said Thailand's representative. at the initial stage of the peacebuilding process. The campaign to ban landmines has been widely celebrated as one of the most successful examples of humanitarian advocacy. said that anti-personnel mines obstructed economic development and delayed reconstruction. and in spite of growing resources dedicated to the task. . As Member States were now discussing the establishment of the Peacebuilding Commission. making it difficult to reconstruct international peace and stability. but also an essential element for the long-term recovery and development of post-conflict States. challenges remained. Place of Publication: New York.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 Development 73 Landmines Aff Landmines obstruct economic development. “Remaining landmines said to be obstacle in many countries to humanitarian aid. Page Number: 78. deterred the repatriation of refugees and diverted vital resources from reconstruction efforts. At the outset of the campaign in the early 1990s. the importance of mine action. The representative of Peru. Contributors: Paul Gready . Landmines impede development Fighting for Human Rights.000 civilians were either killed or severely injured. not only during conflicts but post-conflict. to be held later in the year. Although many mines had been cleared. refugee return. October 2005. In addition to the direct human cost. In the most mine-affected countries. Mine clearance was not only a confidence-building measure. particularly mine clearance. Publisher: Routledge. the number of mines sown worldwide far outpaced demining efforts. economic progress.
as a management tool for the international community as an integrated part of the needs assessment requirements in the overall emergency humanitarian effort in war-torn areas". Hence there is a need for socio-economic indicators. or the area of land cleared. electrical towers. As well. but the presence -or even the fear of the presence." In many mine-infested countries. Researcher for the International Campaign to Ban Landmines. water and sewage treatment plants.49% of its arable land is contaminated by landmines. create conditions for the spread of disease..Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 Development 74 Landmines Aff Landmines carry large social costs by impeding development – slow economic recovery and prolong the need for international aid Nachon 05 [Claudio Torres. recognized that ". which shall include humanitarian and environmental concerns. In Libya. In the words of UN Secretary General of the United Nations. Kofi Annan. but the number of square kilometers of productive land rendered unusable by the presence or suspected presence of landmines or other unexploded ordnance (UXO).had their uses but do not provide adequate measures of benefit to the communities affected or of impact on development. accordingly. Policy makers for funding of humanitarian demining assistance should. uncleared landmines may affect pacification efforts and compromise the environmental and food security of mine affected countries. Unless landmines are removed and destroyed from all these sites. the return to a peaceful way of living faces tremendous challenges. it is estimated that about 8.icbl. place yet another obstacle on a country's road to reconstruction and development. landmines are in most cases laid near vital infra-structure installations as bridges. as well as inflicting injuries. is not the number of landmines per country. http://www.org/resources/document/lm_environment." . waiting to kill or maim innocent women and children." Therefore. create vast numbers of internally displaced persons (IDPs). As well. They impose a multidimensional burden on the countries affected by landmines. Poor decision-making may in fact prove disastrous and counter productive in determined scenarios... they "will pose huge ancillary social costs. A larger surface may not be cultivated because of solely fear to landmines. impede economic recovery. 2005. however.. “Environmental Aspects of Landmines”." . In other spheres. "Not only do theses abominable weapons lie buried in silence and in their millions.simple measures of effectiveness of clearance -such as numbers of mines removed or destroyed. environmental and human settlements assessments may serve ". A report of the First Meeting of the Standing Committee of Experts on Mine Clearance of the 1997 Mine Ban Treaty. large surfaces of land can not be cultivated According to a report from the US Department of State. prolonging the need for international assistance: prevent the delivery of government services. consider at least the above mentioned factors while deciding how to allocate funds in post conflict master recovery planning.php3] Social and economic consequences of landmines are tremendous. " [a] more relevant measure of the problem. rob a village of its livelihood. ending lives.of a single landmine can prevent the cultivation of an entire field. hospitals and roads. serve as physical obstacles to unity and reconstruction. Humanitarian demining costs are elevated and in most cases drains vital funds from other badly needed investments for reconstruction. and encourage continued militarization of post-conflict societies.
Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 Democracy
75 Landmines Aff
Landmine removal has political implications for the establishment of democracy Kempf 06 [Daniela, HDI’s Director of Mine Action Programs. Kempf is a native of Croatia, where she worked as National
Coordinator for the Open Society Institute, “Opening roads to Angola’s future”, August 3rd 2006, Journal of Mine Action, 10.1] Clearing landmines and opening up the roads also has political implications: Angola is preparing for the first free parliamentary elections next year, and these newly opened roads will allow election officials to set up polling places and send international monitors to previously isolated and unreachable villages. When the day comes, voters will be able to go to the voting booth without the fear of landmines. Angola is now free from war, but its people are still struggling with destruction, death and obstacles to development. In order to truly begin post-conflict reconstruction and set itself on the path toward democracy, Angola needs to be freed from the plight of landmines. The partnership among the Humpty Dumpty
Institute, the U.S. government and HALO Trust is helping to clear Angola’s roads for a better future, safe from the risk of landmines.
Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 Impact - Environment
76 Landmines Aff
Landmines cause environmental degradation, leak toxic minerals, and increase global warming LandMine Monitor 2000 (Environmental Aspects of the International Crisis of Antipersonnel Landmines and
the Implementation of the 1997 Mine Ban Treaty, Center For Environmental Law and Economic Integration of the South, http://www.icbl.org/lm/2000/appendices/environment.html) The impact of landmines goes further than the killing and maiming of civilians and military well after conflicts are over. Landmines affect many components of the global biosphere. Among the many problems attached to the use of landmines are those related to its impact on the natural environment and its components. Landmines have killed and maimed large numbers of specimens of wildlife and domestic species worldwide. Landmines set in motion a series of events leading to environmental degradation in the forms of soil degradation, deforestation, pollution of water resources with heavy metals and possibly altering entire species’ populations by degrading habitats and altering food chains. Additionally, landmines are usually placed near hospitals or sanitation facilities, impacting the ability to preserve human health. In certain cases there is a repetitive geographical coincidence between mineaffected zones and biodiversity hotspots. By degrading habitats, impacting population species, altering food’s chain, and placing additional pressure over natural resources, landmines pose a considerable risk to pristine ecosystems throughout the world. Landmine-poaching presents the ultimate distortion of this insidious weapon. It is used as a simple and effective mechanism for killing wildlife. Environmental impacts may occur while demining is taking place or by destruction of stockpile as well. In general terms, environmental impacts of APMs can roughly be categorized as direct or indirect. 1) Direct Impacts Of Landmines On The Environment: By direct environmental impact we refer to those effects, alterations and disruptions caused to the natural environment and/or its components at the moment and specific location of the blast of a landmine; 2) Indirect Impacts Of Landmines On The Environment: Indirect environmental impact of landmines are those effects, alterations and disruptions that may take place at differentiated spatial and temporal scheme from an original location or explosion of a landmine. From a temporal spectrum indirect impacts may be continuous and/or delayed at a short, medium or long term. By continuos impacts we refer to those landmine related physico-chemical effects which degrade, pollute or transform in any ecologically sensitive perspective those environmental elements interacting with the device, i.e. Decomposition or corrosion of the landmine’s case, may produce a prolonged leaking of toxic heavy metals typically present in a landmine, as mercury and lead. Delayed impacts are those negatively affecting the environment and it components at a later time in a single, recognizable event, i.e. Certain methods of mine clearance may produce such impacts. Short term effects generally include the physical destruction of close range vegetation and killing/injuring of wildlife. Medium term impacts may include a deterioration on soil composition preventing cultivation lands to return to levels of agricultural production prior to a landmine explosion. Long term impacts include the persistence and bioaccumulation of certain toxic substances freed into the site of the blast as mercury and lead, both present on most landmines. It is open to discussion how to classify impacts which are specially difficult to assess and quantify. A probable influence into global warming by depletion and enhanced human pressure over natural carbon dioxide sinks as forest presents an enormous task for scientists. As entire populations may not be able to return to their villages or cultivation lands, in occasion they are forced to find new land to settle. To better comprehend the issue, let us remember some basic principles of environmentalism: first, nature knows best; second, everything must go somewhere; and third, but not last, everything is connected to everything else. Therefore, even if such impact on global warming happens to be minimal, it should be properly addressed as an innovative way to reflex on the nature and ends of armed conflict.
Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 Environment – Pollution/Soil Damage
77 Landmines Aff
Chemicals in landmines pollute top soil and contaminate water posing health risks to those who drink it. Matthee 07 [Imbert, Policy Analyst for Clear Path International, “Pollution: Landmines are a global health problem”, February 21st 2006, http://clearpathinternational.org/cpiblog/archives/000858.php]
Pollution. Consider for a moment what the word means. If it's defined as "the presence in the environment of any substance of sufficient concentration to be harmful to humans or cause long-term damage to the natural environment," landmines fit the bill. In fact, some consider landmines as the most toxic and widespread pollution in the world. It's important to
remember that even as we mark the 10th anniversary of the signing of the Ottawa Convention on Dec. 3 this year. I made those points during a presentation Sunday at the 5th Annual Western Regional International Health Conference at the University of Washington campus. The conference is a brainchild of the Puget Sound Partners in Global Health, which include the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, PATH, UW School of Medicine, UW School of Public Health & Community Medicine, Seattle Biomedical Research Institute and others. Puget Sound Partners for Global Health (www.pspgh.org) is a collaboration of Seattle-area researchers, healthcare professionals, students and non-governmental organizations committed to improving global health. It links the Seattle global health community by sharing information; funding international training, education and research opportunities; and holding events focused on global health. I was invited to speak on the health and development problems caused by landmines. They are numerous. But before I get into that, let's look at some global statistics: The world has roughly 110 million landmines spread among 80 countries, mostly in the developing world. More than 140 million people live in areas where their lives or livelihoods are threatened by landmines or unexploded ordnance (UXO). About 20,000 to 30,000 people are killed or injured by mines each year with as many as two out of every three victims being civilians and one in every four being children. Of course, the number of casualties and the burden of the treatment on already challenged health care systems in the Third World is just that part of the landmine problem that sticks up above the surface. Let's go back to the notion of landmines as pollution. That breaks down into two parts: the danger and the
damage. The danger obviously comes from the threat they cause to life, causing people to alter their behavior. One big problem in places like Africa is that the presence or even the fear of landmines means local villagers avoid getting their drinking water from sources that are relatively clean and get them from polluted rivers instead. Add to that the danger of collecting firewood in mined areas and they do not even boil the water for
This leads to serious health conditions such as diarrhoeal diseases. Another one is malnutrition caused by the
presence of mines and UXO in areas that could otherwise yield food crops. In Libya, heavily mined during World War II, two thirds of the arable land is confirmed or suspected of being contaminated. Locally, they are known as "fields of the devil" and have killed 125,000 sheep, goats, cattle and camels since the 1940s, further reducing their use as a source of food. In Afghanistan, already anemic in its ability to produce food crops, 20 percent of all farm land was taken out of circulation by landmines and UXO. Farm output is still only at 45 percent of prewar levels.
The damage landmines cause comes from the explosions and the chemicals inside them. Detonations destroy the top soil. In the former DMZ districts of Gio Linh and Vinh Linh, central Vietnam, a 50 percent drop in the rice
production per hectare has been blamed on regular explosions from ordnance left by years of warfare.
Even lurking quietly on or under the surface, landmine and UXO affect the soil. Their poisonous insides containing TNT, RDX & cyclonites or tetryl leach out and soluble in water, causing toxicity to humans and mammals even in small quantities.
Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 Environment – Pollution/Soil Damage
Landmines are the most toxic pollution facing humanity UNICEF 00 [No Author Cited, “Landmines: A Deadly Inheritance”, 2000, http://www.unicef.org/graca/mines.htm]
78 Landmines Aff
Children in at least 68 countries are today threatened by what may be the most toxic pollution facing mankind — the contamination by mines of the land they live on. Over 110 million land-mines of various types — plus millions more unexploded bombs, shells and grenades — remain hidden around the world, waiting to be triggered by the innocent and unsuspecting, the report says. So common are mines in Cambodia that they are now used for fishing, to protect private property and even to settle private disputes.
threatening our societies and future generations.” . Mr. In the message. Annan cited the oil spill from a Lebanese power station resulting from this summer’s Israeli-Hizbollah war in calling for steps to ensure that international accords on war and armed conflict cover deliberate and unintentional damage to the environment.un. they kill indiscriminately and maim vulnerable civilians. But.” Mr. November 6th 2006. that govern the conduct of war. delivered by UN Deputy Secretary-General of the Conference on Disarmament Tim Caughley.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 Environment – Destroy Ecosystems 79 Landmines Aff Landmines have a prolonged impact on the environment UN News Center 06 [No Author Cited. “Some of these rules.org/apps/news/story. They endanger the lives of peacekeepers and humanitarian-aid workers. http://www. by and large. “Parties engaged in hostilities have a responsibility to observe international rules and agreements. and urging stronger measures to protect the environment during conflict. the environmental consequences of war are overlooked by contemporary laws. “Landmines. And they impede post-conflict reconstruction. yet random.” he said in a message to a meeting in Geneva of the Parties to the Amended Protocol II to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons. booby-traps and other improvised explosive devices aggravate and prolong the horrendous consequences of armed conflict. and strongly appeal to those countries that have not yet ratified this instrument to do so as soon as possible. have an environmental emphasis. especially women and children. such as the Geneva Conventions. suffering of combatants. Mr. ecological damage in call to curb wars impact”. marking the International Day for Preventing the Exploitation of the Environment in War and Armed Conflict. Annan stressed the importance of exchanging information on how to better protect civilians.” he said.” he added. Annan said. “I urge you to also consider how to promote universal adherence to the Protocol. calling for universal adherence to a treaty that seeks to limit the effects of landmines and booby traps. In another message. such as a prohibition of the deliberate destruction of agricultural land. and hamper the repatriation and reintegration of refugees and internally displaced persons.” he added. “Annan targets landmines. They cause excessive. “It is high time that we review international agreements related to war and armed conflict to ensure that they also cover deliberate and unintentional damage to the environment.asp?NewsID=20505&Cr=landmine&Cr1=] 6 November 2006 – United Nations Secretary-General Kofi Annan today took aim at two of the pernicious consequences of war. “Both during and after hostilities.
as toxic elements penetrate the soil. 1." Therefore. may suggest that such technique could be in use elsewhere.php3) Being planted on the surface of the land.org/resources/document/lm_environment. Additionally. This process of long distance transboundary pollution of chemicals leaked by landmines has not been studied to detail. Again. International Campaign To Ban Landmines. or general purpose) may be extremely dangerous (fatal) for soldiers and/or civilians and may also cause local disturbance of soil. "Any of the three varieties of high explosiveweapons (blast.4 Landmines and water pollution It is generally accepted that the use of landmines has been concentrated not only on the battlefield. chromium.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 Environment – Destroys Ecosystems Mines leak poisons and cause extensive damage to ecosystems ICBL 2000 (Environmental Aspects of Landmines. such as iron. start to show. or by decomposition if it is made of wood or other degradable materials. copper. unconfirmed reports of use of landmines as a method for fishing in places as the Tanganika Lake in Tanzania. processes of bioaccumulation may start and reach humans in on way or another. and estuarine ecosystems. . but in and around civilian populations and basic infrastructure.3. especially in forests where fragments implanted in trees could open a way to invasion of micro-organisms. consequences of the corrosion of fragments and the release of various alloying elements. fragmentation. Soil may be affected by the explosion of the weapon or by leaking of toxic substances from a landmine after a period of time in which it is affected by corrosion if it is made of metals.. zinc. In agricultural regions the toxic elements can easily penetrate the human food chain. Sewage and water treatment facilities have been targeted in many African locations. manganese. polluting water with heavy metals and possibly altering chemical composition of sediments. etc. After a prolonged period. lakes. As well. The fragmentation effects can be more severe in some ecosystems than in others. travelling downstream to more stable water bodies as lagoons. landmines most direct impact is over soil quality and composition. it is necessary to produce accurate data on the amount of toxics released by landmines. those toxics may raise to the atmosphere and travel long distances and finally pollute other habitats in distant regions of the world. floods and other meteorological phenomena. Mercury is also appearing as pollutant after utilization of high-explosive weapons. or just beneath its surface. 80 Landmines Aff http://www. As well. landmines may be removed from its original location by heavy rain.icbl.
Other regions of the world as South East Asia. Patterson et al. or "Cyclonite"). carcinogenic. May 1999 (“ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS OF LANDMINES”.icbl. Mines designed to be detonated by the presence. hexahydro-1.4. Westing et al. The impacts of sporadic landmine detonations on soil and vegetation are also deleterious. indiscriminate patient killers. Africa in particular has been severely contaminated with such indiscriminate explosive devices. Not only do mines destroy flora. and killing flora and fauna [UNGA / 38 / 383 1983:11 & 12. are soluble in water. destruction of soil structure. 1985:121]. Mines commonly use 2. injure or kill one or more persons. Among the many problems attached to the use of landmines are those related to its impact on the natural environment and its components. Production and Transfer of Anti-Personnel Mines and on Their Destruction (1997 Mine Ban Treaty). and quite toxic .. 1985:122. Landmines have set in motion a series of environmental problems Claudio Torres Nachon. that are equipped with anti-handling devices. including prolonged direct damage to soil through shattering and displacement. The impact of landmines goes further than the killing and maiming of civilians and military well after conflicts are over. Being silent. Landmines affect many components of the global biosphere. and some fish (RDX is particularly toxic to mammals [UNGA / 38 / 383 1983:12.[I]n scale and persistence. and these substances can leach into the surrounding soil and water as the metal or timber casings disintegrate.. Its victims are not limited to human beings. pollution of water resources with heavy metals and possibly altering entire species' populations by degrading habitats and altering food chains. proximity or contact of a person and that will incapacitate. Stockpiling. with a strong emphasis on Africa.org/resources/document/lm_environment. ". This document recognizes the broader spectrum of unexploded ordnance (UXOs) but due to subject matter objectives our research was limited to antipersonnel landmines. For example. or tetryl as high explosive fillers. and the compounds derived from them as they decompose."  Historically.6trinitrotoluene (TNT).php3) This chapter attempts to address some environmental aspects and impacts of antipersonnel landmines (APMs) in the global environment.3. landmines have killed and maimed large numbers of specimens of wildlife and domestic species worldwide. 14 . landmines remain active long after conflicts are gone. Westing et al.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 Environment – Destroy Ecosystems 81 Landmines Aff Landmines adversely affect ecological processes that cause irreversible damage to ecosystems Bruce Gray. According to Geoffrey Best. and increased vulnerability of soil to water and wind erosion [UNEP 1991 in UNICEF 1994:37]. defines: "Antipersonnel mine" means a mine designed to be exploded by the presence.even in small quantities [UNEP / GC / 103 1977:2.5-trinitro-1. proximity or contact of a vehicle as opposed to a person. 1985:122].. are not considered anti-personnel mines as a result of being so equipped. These substances. . Monday. A UNEP report into the environmental effects of the Iraq-Kuwait conflict concluded that mines caused: irreversible damage to ecosystems. UNGA / 38 / 383 1983:11. both TNT and RDX are lethal to mammals.3. University of Sydney. aquatic micro-organisms. 1996:416]. landmines have been widely used in a number conflicts in many regions of the world since the end of World War II. international environmental lawyer and Landmine Monitor Researcher for Mexico and Belize.it may be said that mines became for the 1970´s and 1980´s what napalm had been for the 1950´s and 1960´s. Landmines (as well as UXO) also introduce poisonous substances into the environment as their casing corrode and decay [UNEP / GC / 103 1977:2. International House The effects on the natural environment are equally profound. landmines set in motion a series of events leading to environmental degradation in the forms of soil degradation. UNGA / 38 / 383 1983:12. long-lived. http://www.5-triazine (RDX. “Landmines: The most toxic and most widespread pollution facing mankind”. mines make up a giant problem and scandal. Article 2(1) of the Convention on the Prohibition of the Use. 1985:121]. they also shatter the soil structure thereby lowering soil productivity.. In that logic. Central and South America and diverse zones throughout Asia are heavily mined as well.17 July 1997. 1996:361. deforestation. Westing et al. A United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) report to the UN General Assembly concluded that mines adversely affect ecological processes by disturbing the soil. Toze et al. Westing et al. the weapon whose careless and indiscriminate uses have inflicted the most cruel and extensive injuries on civilians. destroying vegetation.
Mines thus set off a long chain of direct and indirect effects. rice production per hectare has decreased 50 percent in this area. all of society pays. Landmines also harm the environment when they explode.landmines. Explosives commonly used in landmines. This substantially decreases the productivity of agricultural land and increases an area's vulnerability to water and wind erosion. http://www. landmines also have severe environmental consequences. and long lasting. which contributes to long-term underproduction. carcinogenic. and the loss of valuable vegetation. The environmental impact of landmines is particularly pronounced when viewed in conjunction with socio-economic factors and other consequences of landmine contamination. scattering debris. as minerals are depleted from the soil.uk/268.org 06 (Impact of Landmines. and disrupting soil composition. Landmines also harm the environment when they explode. which contributes to long-term underproduction. 1995. carcinogenic.cfm) In addition to the impact on their victims. It is a long-lived pollution. One study has shown that the detonation of UXO in the Vietnamese province of Quang Tri has drastically reduced soil productivity. Mined areas can restrict access to large areas of agricultural land. and long-lasting. Unexploded ordnance (UXO) detonations have similar results. The limited productive land that is available is over-cultivated. The limited productive land that is available is over-cultivated. toxic. Furthermore. 2/14) 82 Landmines Aff In addition to the impact on their victims. Mined areas can restrict access to large areas of agricultural land. seep into the soil. Unexploded ordnance (UXO) detonations have similar results. Furthermore. destroying surrounding vegetation. landmines introduce poisonous substances into the environment as their casings erode.canadianlandmine. According to estimates. According to estimates. Landmines ruin the environment and society pays as a result Anderson 95(“Clearing The Fields Solutions to the Global Land Mines Crisis” Kenneth Anderson director of the Arms Project of Human Rights Watch Published by Basicbooks and The Council on Foreign Relations New York. The slow degradation of landmines and their devastating impact on surrounding land can render resources unusable for many generations. which in turn can add sediment into drainage systems. The decomposition of these substances can cause many environmental problems because they are often water soluble. destroying surrounding vegetation. landmines introduce poisonous substances into the environment as their casings erode. which in turn can add sediment into drainage systems. forcing populations to use small tracts of land to earn their livelihoods. Danger in the Earth. And since land mines are often laid in places of human habitation. their costs stretch over decades and reach far beyond the initial tragic victim of a mine who loses a limb.org/greenteacherarticle.org. questia pg. adversely affecting water habitats. one that requires physical cleansing of the earth to eliminate.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 Environment – Destroy Ecosystems Landmines leak toxic substances and force overuse of un-mined areas LandMines.php. rice production per hectare has decreased 50 percent in this area. land mine pollution may in some cases have the effect of pushing people who cannot return to their own land out into otherwise unused land. http://www. adversely affecting water habitats. toxic. Explosives commonly used in landmines. over and over again. as minerals are depleted from the soil. seep into the soil. such as trinitrotoluene (TNT).21) The effects of land mines as a pollutant in the environment are just now beginning to be understood. . such as trinitrotoluene (TNT). The Canadian Landmine Foundation. and disrupting soil composition. The decomposition of these substances can cause many environmental problems because they are often water soluble. This substantially decreases the productivity of agricultural land and increases an area's vulnerability to water and wind erosion. One study has shown that the detonation of UXO in the Vietnamese province of Quang Tri has drastically reduced soil productivity. forcing populations to use small tracts of land to earn their livelihoods. landmines also have severe environmental consequences. and valuable vegetation is lost. Mines seep toxic substances and destroy soil composition King 01 (Elizabeth. scattering debris.
“Landmines: The most toxic and most widespread pollution facing mankind”. which leads to an increased sediment load in the drainage system (and increased sedimentation in coastal waters. Valuable forests and fruit trees are speedily striped and felled for firewood and building material. Monan 1997:13].Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 Environment – Soil Erosion 83 Landmines Aff Landmines cause soil erosion Bruce Gray. the destruction of vegetation cover and topsoil by mines and UXO. University of Sydney. has a cumulative effect. In areas where agricultural and grazing land has been mined. . The disruption to the soil structure further exacerbates the erosion problem. The extensive use of landmines accelerates deforestation.17 July 1997. which can adversely affect fish and prawn habitats). Monday. forests often become the only source of fuel and livelihood. International House Furthermore. 14 . Reduced water retention in mountainous regions results in flooding and topsoil erosion on the coastal plains [Monan 1994:13. coupled with deforestation (resulting from the use of defoliants such as Agent Orange).
our only hope for sustaining soil productivity is to conserve as much soil as we can and to build up soil organic matter and enhance the productivity of the soil that remains. As I was doing some reading on the subject. and potash. no soil can be cultivated to much purpose. whereas. All living things require food of one kind or another to keep them alive. I took a class in soils as an undergraduate and have learned a good bit about soils from reading and listening to other people over the years. a well known soil scientist at the University of Missouri during the middle of this century. Growth or roots can split and crumble rock further. Even today there is a common saying that "we are what we eat.” Sep 22. Quoting from the "Great World’s Farm. Today. people no longer ate food from any one region or soil type. In the short run. there was little to eat. All life may not seem to have roots in the soil. exposing more surfaces to weathering and accelerating the process of soil making. and concludes with cycles of life and the balance of nature. which dissolve the minerals contained in the rock. somewhere around the turn of the century. the mixtures became what we generally refer to as soils. for example -.forever. usually a close relative. as organic matter becomes depleted. and soil deposits left behind by retreating glaciers. In spite of our best efforts. if not their lives. Misuse can displace. So. If there are to be productive soils in the future. Still. by then much of the natural productivity will be gone -. Glaciers have also been important actors in mixing soil. phosphorus. the connection between soil and human life was clear and ever present. As long as the soil has a residue of minerals and organic matter from times past. some quantity of soil will be lost – at least lost to our use. He attributed those physical distinctions to differences in nutrient values of the foods they eat. many farmers will have little sense of their ultimate dependence on the soil.missouri. we eat from many soils. all of life depends upon soil. of human health. degrade. The book starts off explaining how soil is formed from rock. on rocks. any real understanding of the direct connection between soil and life has been lost.Professor Emeritus of Agricultural Economics at University of Missouri." But these personal connections have been lost with the aging of urbanization. What’s even sadder is that many farmers don’t realize the dependence of their own farming operation on the health and natural productivity of their soil. I make no claim to being an expert." After the mixed soil minerals are bound in place by plants. being the most common – crop yields can be maintained. At least they knew that "land" meant something more than just a place to play or space to be filled with some form of "development. living things also help create soil for other living things. soil management problems become more complex. and Sustainability. Sand and dust can be carried from one place to another by wind and water. In the meantime. loess hills that were blown and dropped by the wind. the mineral fraction of soil is a "non-renewable" resource – it cannot be recreated or renewed within any realistic future timeframe. who still lived on a farm -. expansion and contraction from heating and cooling. However. They knew when the floods came. the rains came. and the temperature was hospitable to plants and animals. and rock slides and glaciers have all played important roles in transforming the earth’s crust from rock into soil. wearing away by wind and water. we must conserve and make wise use of the soils we have today. production problems appear and it becomes increasingly expensive to maintain productivity.which gave them some tangible connection with the soil. annual amendments of a few basic nutrients – nitrogen. That we must have soil to live is as fundamental as the fact that we must have air to breath. The basic premises of this discourse on "foundational principles" is that soil is the foundation for all of life. and that sustainability is the conceptual foundation for wise soil management. or on trees. this illusion of production without natural soil fertility appears real.edu/faculty/jikerd/papers/NCSOILS. hypothesized that people from different parts of the country had distinctive physical characteristics linked to the soils of the area where they grew up. depended on the things that lived from the soil. or destroyed the productivity of both fractions of soils within a matter of years. Many plants require more complex combinations of minerals than are available from any single type of rock. there was little to eat. This is a foundational principle of natural science. and as more and more foodstuffs were shipped from one region of production to another for consumption.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 Environment – Soil Erosion Impacts 84 Landmines Aff Erosion of soil threatens life on the planet Ikerd 1999 [John E. Life also requires air and water. Living things other than plants get their food from plants. They knew that when the soil was rich. Thus. Little more than a century ago. which penetrate crevices in rocks previously caused by mechanical weathering. But. proceeds through growth and reproduction of plants and animals. First. and the soil was bare. it stresses that all life is rooted in the soil. Initially molten lava covered all of the earth’s crust." For most. As lichens grow and die. Over time. Most urban dwellers also have lost all sense of personal connection to the farm or the soil. Lichens are a unique sort of plant that can grow directly on rock. once the mineral fraction of soil is lost. and mixing required millions of years. They extract their food by secreting acids. Things that are not directly rooted in the soil -. I ran across a delightful little book called. and the soil was bare. Some plants which feed on dead lichens put down roots. most people were farmers and those who were not lived close enough to a farm to know that the food that gave them life came from the soil. it will become apparent that it would have been far easier and less costly in the long run to have maintained the natural fertility of the soil. whether animal or vegetable. “Foundational Principles: Soils. One of the most common laments among farmers today is that "people no longer know where their food comes from. their physical makeup was significantly linked to the make up of local soils. however. from all around the world." If so. or from other living things that feed on plants. Selina Gaye. The copyrights apparently had run out. mixing with sand and dust from other rocks along the way. plants dried out and died. which in turn depended on the make-up of the soils on which their foodstuffs were grown. During most of this century many people living in cities either had lived on a farm at one time or knew someone. Some of the richest soils in the world are fertile bottomlands along flooding streams and rivers. As additional "trace elements" are depleted. . but soil is still at the root of all life. since the book didn’t have a copyright date." written by an English author. "we actually are the soil from which we eat. Chemical reaction with oxygen and carbon dioxide. living things. But. unless it also contains some amount of organic matter – matter derived from organized. all soil started out as rock." The connection between soil and life is no longer so direct or so clear. so they could get more of what they knew about a lot more things in a little book. Eventually. The dissolving.still require minerals that come from the earth. The soil that washes down our rivers to the sea is no more renewable than are the fossil fuels that we are mining from ancient deposit within the earth. but it is still there. So the soils made from various types of rocks had to be mixed with other types before they would support the variety and complexity of plant life that we have come to associate with nature.ssu. Organic matter alone is not enough to make a fertile soil. the organic fraction is a renewable or regenerative resource that can be recreated or renewed over decades. And. but with less than one-half percent of organic matter. Specific types of rock contain limited varieties of minerals and will feed limited varieties of plants – even when pulverized into dust. But it’s quite possible that when people lived most of their lives in one place. and plants feed on the soil. I am not a soil scientist. whatever the mineral matter composing it.beginning in kindergarten and continuing through college. In times not too long past. Most plants have to wait until rock is pulverized into small particles before they can feed on the minerals contained in the rock. and food to eat . Whereas. All life requires food and there is simply no other source of food except living things that depend directly or indirectly on the soil. Back then people didn’t know so much about everything. It’s just less obvious.that live in the sea. It ‘s sad but true. but nothing lives from air and water alone. They knew that when droughts came. They must have soil from somewhere." "No soil is really fertile. As people began to move from one place to another throughout their lives. Albrecht’s hypothesis was never fully tested. and of social studies that should be taught at every level in every school in the world -. including humanity. "The Great World’s Farm. food was bountiful and there was plenty to eat. They knew very well that their physical well being. and ate mostly food produced locally. grinding. Their spores settle on rock and begin to grow. minerals are left in their remains to provide food for other types of plants. soil binding and adding organic matter can be accomplished in a matter of decades. But. They have been told by the experts that soil is little more than a medium for propping up the plants so they can be fed with commercial fertilizers and protected by commercial pesticides until they produce a bountiful harvest. or at least over a few generations. William Albrecht. Stewardship. and successions of plants and animals added organic matter and tilth. So I will try to stick to the things that almost anyone might know or at least understand about soil.html] A foundation is "the basis upon which something stands or is supported" (Webster). its productivity is lost forever. plants were covered with water and died. Thus. that stewardship of soil is the foundation for agricultural sustainability. http://www. water to drink. The first stages of soil formation are distinguished from the latter stages by at least one important characteristic.
landmines most direct impact is over soil quality and composition. President State Council of Environmental Protection Mexico. as toxic elements penetrate the soil. This process of long distance transboundary pollution of chemicals leaked by landmines has not been studied to detail. consequences of the corrosion of fragments and the release of various alloying elements. The fragmentation effects can be more severe in some ecosystems than in others. As well. processes of bioaccumulation may start and reach humans in on way or another." Therefore. . or by decomposition if it is made of wood or other degradable materials. copper. or general purpose) may be extremely dangerous (fatal) for soldiers and/or civilians and may also cause local disturbance of soil.php3) Being planted on the surface of the land.icbl. Mercury is also appearing as pollutant after utilization of high-explosive weapons. environmental aspects of landmines. ruining farming land and putting deadly elements into the food chain Nachón 99 (Claudio Torres.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 Toxic Soil – I/L 85 Landmines Aff Landmines ruin soil quality. chromium. In agricultural regions the toxic elements can easily penetrate the human food chain. especially in forests where fragments implanted in trees could open a way to invasion of micro-organisms. "Any of the three varieties of high explosive-weapons (blast. fragmentation. or just beneath its surface. those toxics may raise to the atmosphere and travel long distances and finally pollute other habitats in distant regions of the world. it is necessary to produce accurate data on the amount of toxics released by landmines. Again.. such as iron. http://www. After a prolonged period. start to show. etc.org/resources/document/lm_environment. manganese. Soil may be affected by the explosion of the weapon or by leaking of toxic substances from a landmine after a period of time in which it is affected by corrosion if it is made of metals. zinc.
& 247]. the destruction of vegetation cover and topsoil by mines and UXO.. and these substances can leach into the surrounding soil and water as the metal or timber casings disintegrate. one that requires physical cleansing of the earth to eliminate' [1995:21]. more than 125 000 camels. While the effects of landmines on non-human species are at this point in time far from clear. camels. coupled with deforestation (resulting from the use of defoliants such as Agent Orange). Patterson et al. Unfortunately however. Westing et al. Westing et al. all of which has an adverse impact on fish and other wildlife [Roberts & Williams 1995:11. This has led Anderson to declare that '[t]he effects of land mines as a pollutant in the environment are only just nowbeginning to be understood. Westing et al. A UNEP report into the environmental effects of the Iraq-Kuwait conflict concluded that mines caused: irreversible damage to ecosystems. It is a long-lived pollution. preliminary studies conducted by UNEP [UNEP / GC / 103 1977:2. UNEP 1991]. The same holds for cows. and killing flora and fauna [UNGA / 38 / 383 1983:11 & 12. Their severe and long-term effect on land usage. The impacts of sporadic landmine detonations on soil and vegetation are also deleterious. Fraser 1995. hexahydro-1. Sgaier 1985:36. Vietnam provides another example of the environmental damage caused by mines. The extensive use of landmines accelerates deforestation. the most environmentally damaging of all the explosives used on land in the Gulf War were the fuel-air explosive bombs used to clear minefields. In addition to livestock. both TNT and RDX are lethal to mammals. There is a significant cost in livestock associated with landmines. and some fish (RDX is particularly toxic to mammals [UNGA / 38 / 383 1983:12. and by starting fires [Reuters 1997].6 million dollars.even in small quantities [UNEP / GC / 103 1977:2..ca/~puppydog/bgray. destroying vegetation. 1985:126]. 1985:121]. or tetryl as high explosive fillers. coastal mangroves and dune systems. Westing et al. A United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) mines adversely affect ecological processes by disturbing the soil. goats.5-trinitro-1. Supporting these views. 1996:416]. University of Sydney. water supply. as well as anecdotal evidence [Spinney 1994:12. rare and endangered species are threatened by mines. and the compounds derived from them as they decompose. Furthermore. Valuable forests and fruit trees are speedily striped and felled for firewood and building material. degrade very slowly and render land and other natural resources unusable for years. The result is a 50% reduction in rice production per hectare [Monan 1994:13. Landmines (as well as UXO) also introduce poisonous substances into the environment as their casing corrode and decay [UNEP / GC / 103 1977:2. [l]and mines are recognised as having a devastating environmental impact. Westing et al.5-triazine (RDX. forests often become the only source of fuel and livelihood. 1985:122. UNGA / 38 383 1983:6-16. dramatically reducing the soil's productivity. and cattle have been killed by mines and other UXO (this equates to approximately one animal per 1 000 per annum) [UNGA / 38 / 383 1983:16. long-lived. landmine expert) 86 Landmines Aff The effects on the natural environment are equally profound. 1985:121].edmonton. indicate that these effects are highly deleterious. They pulverised what little top soil existed and destroyed any vegetation that had established itself [Cave 1991 in UNEP 1991:45. eradicated gazelles from parts of Libya. Not only do mines destroy flora. Monan 1997:13]. soil degradation. over the forty years between 1940 and 1980. UNGA / 38 / 383 1983:12. mine clearance can be equally similarly [UNGA / 38 / 383 1983:11. Furthermore. carcinogenic. For example.6trinitrotoluene (TNT). including elephants in Africa and Sri Lanka. In subsistence pastoral and agricultural societies where personal wealth is often measured in livestock. and infrastructure make them among the most toxic of all man-made pollutants. which can adversely affect fish and prawn habitats). 179. Mines have killed many animals. even generations [1995:176]. they also shatter the soil structure thereby lowering soil productivity.4. Landmines are an extra burden to already threatened species and habitats. . Roberts & Williams 1995:262]. Monan 1997:13]. and deforestation all occur Gray 97 (Bruce. aquatic micro-organisms. destruction of soil structure. and quite toxic . These substances.Toxic Soil Toxic substances. Monan 1995.3. 93. sheep.3. the economic and social impacts on family structures of livestock losses of this magnitude can be devastating. which leads to an increased sediment load in the drainage system (and increased sedimentation in coastal waters. affects drainage systems. horses. and increased vulnerability of soil to water and wind erosion [UNEP 1991 in UNICEF 1994:37]. are soluble in water. water tables. In the Munzur Mountains in Turkey's eastern province of Tunceli.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 Environment . at a value of about $31. Land mines . in turn. 1985:122]. the sporadic detonation of mines and UXO throughout Gio Linh and Vinh Linh districts have effectively destroyed the fertile topsoil (the O to A horizon of soils). landmines are said to be destroying large swathes of the national park's fragile environment through a combination of shattering of the soil structure. Westing report to the UN General Assembly concluded that et al. Toze et al.. 1996:361. pushed snow leopards to the brink of extinction in Afghanistan. 1985:117-136. Westing et al. wetlands. the Director of UNEP has stated that '[m]ines and unexploded ordnance pose one of the most serious and potentially long-lasting threats to the environment of Kuwait' [UNEP 1991:9 & UNYB 1991:506]. & Roberts and Williams 1995:11 & 247]. According to Jim Monan's [1994:13] case study on landmines and underdevelopment in Quang Tri province (central Vietnam). including prolonged direct damage to soil through shattering and displacement. http://fn2. destruction of vegetation and ground cover. Turkey provides a further example. The total direct cost of damage caused by mines to animals and vehicles comes to about $155 million [1994:24].. has a cumulative effect. while Aqa states that: [t]here have also been about 264 000 goats and sheep killed in Afghanistan. Landmines: The Most Toxic and Widespread Pollution Facing Mankind.freenet. Reduced water retention in mountainous regions results in flooding and topsoil erosion on the coastal plains [Monan 1994:13. UNGA / 38 / 383 1983:11. and killed one of the few remaining male silver-backed mountain gorillas in Rwanda [Roberts & Williams 1995:11]. In areas where agricultural and grazing land has been mined. and vehicles. as Jan Eliasson (United Nations Under Secretary-General for Humanitarian Affairs) explains.htm. Deforestation. In Libya for example. Mines commonly use 2. The disruption to the soil structure further exacerbates the erosion problem. 1985:122]. or "Cyclonite").ab. According to UNEP. . Pearce 1995:42.
in turn. 179.17 July 1997. water tables. Valuable forests and fruit trees are speedily striped and felled for firewood and building material. landmines are said to be destroying large swathes of the national park's fragile environment through a combination of shattering of the soil structure. the destruction of vegetation cover and topsoil by mines and UXO. Monday. University of Sydney. The disruption to the soil structure further exacerbates the erosion problem. forests often become the only source of fuel and livelihood. Turkey provides a further example. 93. coastal mangroves and dune systems. destruction of vegetation and ground cover. Reduced water retention in mountainous regions results in flooding and topsoil erosion on the coastal plains [Monan 1994:13. International House Furthermore. The extensive use of landmines accelerates deforestation. wetlands.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 Environment – Deforestation 87 Landmines Aff Landmines accelerate deforestation Bruce Gray. In areas where agricultural and grazing land has been mined. coupled with deforestation (resulting from the use of defoliants such as Agent Orange). & 247]. 14 . affects drainage systems. Deforestation. all of which has an adverse impact on fish and other wildlife [Roberts & Williams 1995:11. In the Munzur Mountains in Turkey's eastern province of Tunceli. which can adversely affect fish and prawn habitats). and by starting fires [Reuters 1997]. has a cumulative effect. Monan 1997:13]. which leads to an increased sediment load in the drainage system (and increased sedimentation in coastal waters. “Landmines: The most toxic and most widespread pollution facing mankind”. .
Most of the reports on wildlife impacted by landmines tend to focus on certain charismatic species. camels. By altering these populations.icbl. elephants. i. 2005.e.org/resources/document/lm_environment. http://www. Researcher for the International Campaign to Ban Landmines.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 Environment – Species Loss 88 Landmines Aff Landmines contribute to species loss that interrupt the equilibrium of the food chain Nachon 05 [Claudio Torres.php3] Landmines may cause a number of unregistered impacts on the environment and its components. . tigers. It would be a sensible gap not to give proper attention to other lesser known species that may play a fundamental role on the food chain in a given habitat. “Environmental Aspects of Landmines”. the existing equilibrium of these species and their habitats may be placed under additional pressure.
iisd. Landmines have been blamed for pushing various species to the brink of extinction (Troll. The very little data that exists on animal population is also highly biased towards domesticated animal and little is known about the impacts suffered by wild populations. President State Council of Environmental Protection Mexico. some 24. He also knows of elephants and other wildlife being maimed or destroyed in this way". Sometimes these impacts can be deliberate.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 Biodiversity I/L 89 Landmines Aff Landmines destroy biodiversity and cause “ecocide” through destruction of the environment McNeely 02 [Jeffrey." Although Angola is a signatory of the 1997 Mine Ban Treaty. and a new word has been added to the military vocabulary: “ecocide. "humans are not the only victims of land mines. this is unfortunately one of the areas where there is hardly any numerical data to determine how many individuals of a species or where and how they fall victims. and when animals fall victim.wiley. no one knows for sure the exact figure or the exact spectrum of the problem. UCB. Chief Scientist at IUCN. for example. hunters and hungry soldiers during Angola's long and bitter war. http://www3.. “Biodiversity. next to access denial. environmental aspects of landmines. As long as they receive enough mass to activate them landmines do not differentiate between human beings or other life forms (Westing. "Thousands of animals such as antelopes and elephant fell prey to landmines. http://www.000 people are killed or maimed by landmines every year.” the destruction of the environment for military purposes clearly deriving from the “scorched earth” approach of earlier times. Landmines can threaten biodiversity in a given region by destroying vegetation cover during explosions or de-mining.interscience.php3) According to the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC). Ecosystem Science Division. 1996. from genes to ecosystems. for example through the activities of refugees. These impacts can be direct—such as hunting and habitat destruction by armies—or indirect. The Contribution of Landmines to Land Degradation. landmines have continued to be used by both Angolan government and UNITA rebels. In reality. Dr. cover. has negative impacts on all levels of biodiversity. Dudley et al.com/cgi-bin/abstract/112748670/ABSTRACT?CRETRY=1&SRETRY=0) Loss of biodiversity. in Angola. and preparations for it.. 2002). refuge. . Foster . Mines destroy biodiversity and drive species towards extinction Berhe 06 (AA. such actions severely condemned by the International Campaign to Ban Landmines and the international community. and those involving relatively small disruptive actions that in turn release large amounts of “dangerous forces” or become self-generating. Westing (1976) divides deliberate environmental manipulations during wartime into two broad categories: those involving massive and extended applications of disruptive techniques to deny to the enemy any habitats that produce food. The impact of landmines on different plant and animal populations was discussed by all the participants and was considered to be a foremost environmental concern.icbl.org/pdf/2002/envsec_conserving_overview. Although it is widely believed that landmines destroy vegetation and kill untold numbers of animals every year. and then parts of the cows raining down. 2000). 2002.pdf] War.has personally seen a herds of cows blown up while crossing a road. According to Anna Richardson. Landmines pose an extra burden for threatened and endangered species. An example of the latter is the release of exotic micro-organisms or spreading of landmines (of which over 100 million now litter active and former war zones around the world—Strada. Conflict and Tropical Rainforests”.org/resources/document/lm_environment. 1996) Landmines have a direct affect on African biodiversity Nachón 99 (Claudio Torres. Environmentally speaking. http://www. training grounds and staging areas for attacks.. Many accidents involving landmines are never reported. They probably saved his life.
Poor soils are fragile.php3) Wildlife and livestock are a common casualty of landmine explosions.php3) Short term effects generally include the physical destruction of close range vegetation and killing/injuring of wildlife. Long term impacts include the persistence and bioaccumulation of certain toxic substances freed into the site of the blast as mercury and lead. barking deer. lethal.icbl. everything is connected to everything else. A probable influence into global warming by depletion and enhanced human pressure over natural carbon dioxide sinks as forest presents an enormous task for scientists. Forests often become the only source of fuel and food. Over-cultivation accelerates the process of desertification. it should be properly addressed as an innovative way to reflex on the nature and ends of armed conflict. which destroys complex ecosystems.org/resources/document/lm_environment. In Tibet. May 1999 (“ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS OF LANDMINES”. Native tigers are threatened by landmines in Cambodia. and this drives them into more marginal and fragile environments. http://www.icbl. and third. rebel forces tested some fields for the presence of landmines by herding cattle across them. environmental aspects of landmines. Brown bears were killed by landmines in Bosnia and Croatia. in occasion they are forced to find new land to settle. This land may be over-cultivated and depleted of its minerals. As entire populations may not be able to return to their villages or cultivation lands. even if such impact on global warming happens to be minimal. everything must go somewhere. vulnerable to erosion and yield less. and long-lasting form of pollution we have yet encountered" Landmines destroy complex ecosystems Claudio Torres Nachon. "landmines may be the most widespread. but not last. Elephants have also been killed by landmines planted along the border between Burma and Bangladesh. international environmental lawyer and Landmine Monitor Researcher for Mexico and Belize. nature knows best. http://www. snow leopard and Royal Bengal tiger have been reported as casualties of landmines – either maimed or killed. and the resulting depletion of resources leads to deforestation and the destruction of biological diversity. When considering the wide array of environmental impacts it can be said that. In the Congo Democratic Republic. let us remember some basic principles of environmentalism: first. There have been reports of antelopes and elephants killed by landmines during the civil war in Angola. . Medium term impacts may include a deterioration on soil composition preventing cultivation lands to return to levels of agricultural production prior to a landmine explosion.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 Biodiversity I/L 90 Landmines Aff Landmines are the greatest poison to the environment Nachón 99 (Claudio Torres. President State Council of Environmental Protection Mexico. Depletion of resources/deforestation The presence of mines denies farmers and villagers access to natural resources. To better comprehend the issue. It is open to discussion how to classify impacts which are specially difficult to assess and quantify. When people are driven off their most productive agricultural land they may be forced to depend on a smaller area of land to survive or earn a living. rare species of clouded leopard. both present on most landmines.org/resources/document/lm_environment. Therefore. second.
..org/resources/document/lm_environment.every village near Chiredzi has lost at least one animal to land mines. it is not adventurous to consider those figures as a fraction of the actual direct impact of landmines on biodiversity." [27 ] In neighboring Mozambique "Mines reportedly have killed more than 100 elephants Landmines are devastating the African environment Nachón 99 (Claudio Torres. Martin Rupiya." There are as well unconfirmed reports of UNITA rebels use of landmines to kill elephants to procure their valuable ivory tusks to buy weapons.250 sheep. Indirect impacts on wildlife are even farther to assess. Considering the difficulties to properly assess the exact number of fauna killed or maimed by landmines. elephants and buffaloes have had to be killed after they were injured by land mines.. ". according to Lt. the whole herd was massacred here. In Libya for example ".icbl. President State Council of Environmental Protection Mexico. less developed countries of Africa. http://www.000 camels.. In the Gonarezhou National Park.. Col. environmental aspects of landmines. A single bowl of tiger penis soup.Minefields have claimed the lives of an estimated 75.250 cattle.250 cattle. It is used as a simple and effective mechanism for killing wildlife.php3) Landmines have taken a deadly toll on biodiversity in Africa and other places of the planet. As elephants flee strictly straight ahead. Considering the difficulties to properly assess the exact number of fauna killed or maimed by landmines." In southern Africa the situation is delicate as the region is host to a wide spectrum of biodiversity.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 Biodiversity I/L . In the Gonarezhou National Park." [27 ] In neighboring Mozambique "Mines reportedly have killed more than 100 elephants.. In Libya for example ". Landmine-poaching presents the ultimate distortion of this insidious weapon...icbl. . Col. May 1999 (“ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS OF LANDMINES”. international environmental lawyer and Landmine Monitor Researcher for Mexico and Belize..500 goats and 1. testimonies account for the killing and suffering of fauna. "people of the village of Mulondo in southern Angola took anti-tank mines from a mine-belt surrounding their village and planted them into the traditional elephant migration paths of the Mupa National Park. 36. 12. From North to South. Losing a cow means much more than losing a source of protein. social and economic values.Minefields have claimed the lives of an estimated 75." In southern Africa the situation is delicate as the region is host to a wide spectrum of biodiversity. Cases of landmine-poaching of highly endangered species as tigers have been reported in Burma and other South East Asia locations. it is necessary to reflect on the impact of landmines on domestic species. Returning to Africa.php3) Landmines have taken a deadly toll on biodiversity in Africa and other places of the planet. In Zimbabwe... Numerous wildlife and domestic animals casualties have been reported.250 sheep. to own cattle means much as they serve many cultural. may cost up US$500.org/resources/document/lm_environment. http://www.00 in Japan. 36. Numerous wildlife and domestic animals casualties have been reported. 12.Africa 91 Landmines Aff Landmines destroy biodiversity in Africa Claudio Torres Nachon. Martin Rupiya. In Zimbabwe.. according to Lt."  Another avenue for direct impact on wildlife may be the intentional use of landmines as a technique for poaching wildlife. elephants and buffaloes have had to be killed after they were injured by land mines. ". an alleged aphrodisiac delicacy.. Indirect impacts on wildlife are even farther to assess. In impoverished... From another perspective.. testimonies account for the killing and suffering of fauna.every village near Chiredzi has lost at least one animal to land mines.000 camels. From North to South.500 goats and 1. it is not adventurous to consider those figures as a fraction of the actual direct impact of landmines on biodiversity.
over the plants and animals of the world. Like all animal life. one by one. -. Lexis) No species has ever dominated its fellow species as man has.Part 2: Loss of Biodiversity.cfm?Issue_ID=651) Extinctions are dangerous for humans. they may be critical in an indirect role. Scientific and Utilitarian Value. Theoretically. Therefore each time we diminish diversity. Paul and Anne Ehrlich compare our situation to an airplane held together by rivets. n67 In past mass extinction episodes. Like a mechanic removing. harelip sucker. Biodiversity Loss Causes Planetary Extinction Diner 1994 (David N. in which each knot is connected to others by several strands.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 Environment – Biodiversity Impacts 92 Landmines Aff The impact is extinction Montague 95 (Peter. -. an occasional rivet will pop out. and within species by reducing the number of individuals. people have assumed the God-like power of life and death -extinction or survival -. n69 erosion. As biologic simplicity increases. Military Law Review. and exploit nature for the maximum benefit of the human race.by allowing certain species to become extinct -. For most of history. Rachel's Environment & Health News. the rivets from an aircraft's wings. . This trend occurs within ecosystems by reducing the number of species.Ecological value is the value that species have in maintaining the environment. a large portion of basic scientific research would be impossible.org/bulletin/bulletin. a crash seems certain to occur. Ecological Value. Judge Advocate General’s Corps of US Army. No single species is essential to our well being. The spreading Sahara Desert in Africa. n72 Without plants and animals. and mankind may someday desperately need the species that it is exterminating today. "The more complex the ecosystem. humans live off of other species. The Four Horsemen -.The main premise of species preservation is that diversity is better than simplicity. as many as ninety percent of the existing species perished. but it is not immediately clear just how dangerous. the world's biological diversity generally has decreased. In their 1984 book. and flood control are prime benefits certain species provide to man. To accept that the snail darter. unbranched circle of threads -. could cause total ecosystem collapse and human extinction. -.pollution control.would not be sound policy. tame the wilderness. . In addition to food.rachel. mankind pursued this domination with a singleminded determination to master the world. and to find out -. Both trends carry serious future implications. the loss of a species affects other species dependent on it. So it is with humans and the other species with whom we share the planet. As time goes on. In most cases. [l]ike a net. n75 Moreover. Biological Diversity. December 14 http://www. . Utilitarian value is the direct utility humans draw from plants and animals. Each new extinction increases the risk of disaster. Plants and animals also provide additional ecological services -. and then humans also would become extinct." n79 By causing widespread extinctions. sewage treatment. with all its dimly perceived and intertwined affects. In the process. we take another irreversible step toward the brink of a dark abyss.Scientific value is the use of species for research into the physical processes of the world. n68 2. and yet the world moved forward. if not most. as the number of species decline. and new species replaced the old. we desecrate the wondrous works of the creator. n77 As the current mass extinction has progressed. n76 4. filling narrow ecological niches.which if cut anywhere breaks down as a whole. EXTINCTION. In a closely interconnected ecosystem. n71 3. the more successfully it can resist a stress. n73 Only a fraction of the [*172] earth's species have been examined. . So why should the world be concerned now? The prime reason is the world's survival. humans have artificially simplified many ecosystems. species offer many direct and indirect benefits to mankind. such a fabric can resist collapse better than a simple. and the dustbowl conditions of the 1930s in the United States are relatively mild examples of what might be expected if this trend continues. No single rivet is essential for maintaining flight. species are useless to man in a direct utilitarian sense. [hu]mankind may be edging closer to the abyss. At some point. Biologically diverse ecosystems are characterized by a large number of specialist species. but eventually if we pop enough rivets. or Dismal Swamp southeastern shrew n74 could save mankind may be difficult for some. so does the risk of ecosystem failure. n70 oxygen production. the effect of each new extinction on the remaining species increases dramatically. No one knows how many [*171] species the world needs to support human life. Many. each new animal or plant extinction. and biodegradation. Pest. These ecosystems inherently are more stable than less diverse systems. because their extirpations could affect a directly useful species negatively. Nonetheless. yet it is certain that we need biological diversity in order to survive. the number of species could decline to the point at which the ecosystem fails.
Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 Environment – Biodiversity Impacts 93 Landmines Aff Loss Of Biodiversity Results In Extinction And Outweighs All Other Impacts WILSON 1992 (Dr. or conquest by a totalitarian government. is not energy depletion. Edward O. will happen. .Professor at Harvard and author of two Pulitzer Prize winning books. limited nuclear war. The one process ongoing in the 1980’s that will take millions of years to correct is the loss of genetic and species diversity by the destruction of natural habitats. economic collapse. As terrible as these catastrophes would be for us. This is the folly that our descendants are least likely to forgive us.. they can be repaired within a few generations. “The Diversity of Life”. 1992) The worst thing that can happen.
http://www. However. 1996 [“ANGOLA'S LANDMINES. CASE NAME: ANGOLA'S LANDMINES. by their very nature. landmines are a man made pollutant and adversely alter the environment for future generations.american.” CASE NUMBER: 295. In time the areas will be prone to desertification as the land is further stripped by the refugees in their attempts to survive. pastures.HTM] Landmines leave no visible damage to the environment. For example.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 AT: Biodiversity Alt Causes 94 Landmines Aff American University. it could be argued. malaria and cholera. and tens of thousands of acres of farmland. in Angola thousands of miles of riverbanks. The increased numbers of people in certain parts of the country place a strain on the resources of the land. May 15. and forest are now unusable. do not allow man to alter the soil by cutting down trees. Landmines. CASE MNEMONIC: LANDMINE. In addition. the landmines have lead to a large migration of people from the countryside to towns and cities. or dumping chemicals. but that is not to say that their impact is any less severe than desertification and deforestation in other parts of the world.edu/TED/LANDMINE. Areas where refugees have been forced to move have been stripped of wood and wild game while water supplies have been depleted and contaminated leading to increases in reported cases of dysentery. extracting minerals. .
An ambitious project to clear deadly land mines from a wildlife sanctuary in southern Africa is being launched today in a bid to give thousands of elephants and local villagers new hope.NSF/db900SID/ACIO-6DZSB5?OpenDocument&Click=] She said around 1. in the Southeast Kuando Kubango province of Angola. 05 Jul 2005[press releases. . Government of Angola. artificial. to help restore an ancient elephant migration route linking Botswana with Zambia and Angola. Reducing the amount of landmines restores the natural migration patterns and increases natural biodiversity. well as safe flow of animals from the North of Botswana. The high. It is part of a wider pln aimed at creating a vast transfrontier conservation area which is being supported by the governments of Switzerland and the United States. through Namibia. thus leading to biodiversity. being one million already available.500 square kilometres to be cleared of landmines are located in the partial reserves of Luiana Park. Angola and Zambia. It was announced during the Nairobi Summit for a Mine-Free World taking place at the headquarters of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). needed balance between humans and animals. The meeting was attended by the Minister of Hotels and Tourism. The initiative. underlines that land mines are an environmental as well as a humanitarian concern. sown during the Angolan civil war.int/rw/RWB. “Angola: Partnership with US landmines-related NGOs.reliefweb. An estimated 120. Roots of Peace and Conservation International are non-profit US organisations which develop mine removal actions and agriculture revival in the rural areas.int/rw/rwb. After the removal of these explosive devices. http://www.” Source: United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). to ensure that the South of the continent is filled up with wild animals. 2 December 2004 . backed by the California based ‘Roots of Peace’.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 Biodiversity – Plan Solves 95 Landmines Aff Landmine removal allow the critical.nsf/0/e6c910032f05b67b85256f5e00695c00?OpenDocument&Click=] Nairobi. The one million US dollar project initially aims to clear mines.000 elephants. The eco-tourism project for Kuando-Kubango region is worth six million dollars.” http://www. Eduardo Chingunji. 02 Dec 2004 [“ ‘Roots of Peace’ back demining/ecotourism project in Angola. United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). whose numbers are growing at five per cent annually would be able to move north into Angola and Zambia if the mines were cleared. The elephants are also coming into increasing conflict with villagers because of the damage they are causing to crops and the daily threats to human life.reliefweb. NGOs representatives and from the National Inter sector Commission for Landmines removal and Humanitarian Aid (CNIDAH). Landmines removal in this region will allow restore balance between nature and human beings. the "Conservation International" will work with the Angolan authorities for the creation of a National Park in the province. number of animals has triggered an environmental disaster with serious damage to the woody vegetation in the Chobe National Park and adjacent areas.
and kill or maim thousands of innocent civilians. further burdening the economy.jmu. Project Muse] As an environmental problem.edu/journal/4. By limiting access to agricultural areas.12005. landmines have profound medical and economic consequences. Journal on Mine Action 4. landmines effectively depopulate whole sections of countries. June 2000 http://maic. Inflation and soaring prices result from the artificial shortages of goods and services caused by restricted movement. Africa Today 52. .000 by air. landmines may contribute to famine. Mined roads escalate the effect of droughts by disrupting domestic food movements and obstructing food relief. “The Geography of Landmines and implications for health and disease in Africa. For landmine amputees. Rountree (MD. it cost $2. Kalipeni.2/Focus/GLE/global. Heynen. Intended to deny access of terrain to enemy troops. and Hossler 2003). an associate professor of Geography at the University of North Texas.2. Market systems are seriously hampered when roads are landmined. a political ecology approach”. In 1980. By preventing access to necessary daily activities and needs land mines kill the economy Mark S. they are deployed to make vital economic assets useless.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 African Economy –I/L 96 Landmines Aff Landmines cripple Africa economies and make it more expensive to deliver aid to certain regions Oppong and Kalipeni 05 [Oppong. 3-25. the limited supply of adequate prosthetic devices can determine their level of dependence on others for support. Extremity Trauma Study Branch .htm) Landmines have a lasting effect on the indigenous population of affected countries in many aspects of daily life. but landmines along the delivery routes made land transportation unfeasible (UNICEF 1996). forcing inhabitants to farm in mined areas. crippling the affected economy (Unruh. disrupt agriculture and transportation.“Countering the Global Landmine Epidemic Through Basic Science Research”. while it cost $80 to deliver one ton of relief supplies by road from Lobito to Huambo in Angola. thus increasing the number of victims. associate professor of Geography and African Studies at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. particularly for civilian populations. because farmers are no longer able to send their produce to the market. Frequently. damage economic infrastructure.
[tasks] that maybe she hadn’t done before. over 75% live in rural areas including small towns and villages. Taylor December 2002 http://maic." Agriculture is key to the African Economy Proctor 05(“Agriculture’s Key Role in Africa’s Fight against Poverty. for academic and policy centres internationally. "In less developed countries. African farmers pursue a wide range of crop and livestock production and marketing enterprises. Hamilton agrees. for economic growth. Hamilton states.jmu. He states. especially one that supplied the primary income. NEPAD’s Comprehensive African Agricultural Development Programme provides a framework to guide future investment and policy. for donors. or the mother." He also notes that the majority of landmine injuries leave the injured physically unable to complete their jobs. "[Children] have to quit school so they can go help the family earn a living. African food crop production and food security is based on a multitude of farming systems. Of some 900 million people. and for the private sector.org/comment/africaagriculture. when a member of a family is injured. is now out foraging. Agriculture is not only a key to both rural and urban food security and to household livelihoods.3/focus/taylor/taylor. a baker. "The challenge in Africa and elsewhere is to retrain people who cannot return to their pre-injury vocations for jobs that they can do after their injuries. . stating. She’s putting herself at risk for being injured too because she’s out hunting food and gathering firewood.htm Journal of Mine Action 6. or it is not really expected for them to work or be the bread winner of the family. disabilities such as the loss of a limb prevent inhabitants from carrying out everyday activities. These rural populations depend heavily. These farming systems are strongly influenced by the prevailing market conditions. She notes. There is little automation. although not exclusively. so they are not really allowed to work. on the production and use of natural resources for their livelihoods: this high level of reliance on natural resources will remain through at least the next generation. who often was at home with the children. "They’re not expected or even wanted to continue working in the workforce.edu/journal/6. an occupational therapist and the Director of International Programs at the Center for International Rehabilitation (CIR). which include market access both locally and globally." Thus. Gerber comments on this dilemma.htm National Resources Institute) The African continent is rich in human and natural resources. He states. you are likely not able to work in agriculture." Gerber knows that disentangling this predicament is problematic. There is no such thing as returning to work.” Felicity Proctor Director of Programme Development 11 March 2005 http://www. a teacher. Unlike many other regions of the world." This societal mentality of many African communities (and throughout much of the world) also has a dramatic economic impact. A person—whether an amputee. and for underpinning the processes of economic diversification. It is the most important source of employment in most countries of the region. the dynamics of the entire family changes. but is also a major contributor to the export economy and thus to foreign exchange earnings. so they’re kind of barred access to jobs. etc. "Usually people with disabilities are no longer considered functional members of society." Laura Hamilton. has witnessed the societal impact of these physical landmine injuries.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 African Economy – I/L 97 Landmines Aff Landmines destroy the African agriculture workforce Taylor 02 (“Upsetting Lives: The Public Health Impact of Landmines in Africa” Sarah B. The African Union through NEPAD has expressed its recognition of the crucial role of agriculture for food security. "Data show that people involved in agriculture are more likely to be injured by mines and UXO than their urban counterparts. If you are not able-bodied in Africa. this in turn severely affects both the social and the economic capacity of the disabled. blinded or disabled—is often no longer capable of working as a farmer. with considerable diversity across and within the major agroecological zones.3) As most African countries are agrarian. subsistence as well as commercial agriculture is a manual process. Unlocking the potential for agriculture is – and must continue to be – a major priority for national governments. A farmer becoming a tailor.nri.
said they were “waging peace on the most heavily mined country in Africa”.htm) The anti-personnel land mine crisis has taken an enormous toll on populations and governments around the world.” Source: United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). and jobs for many people. http://www. mine fields drive whole societies into helpless poverty with no obvious way out.” said Ms Kuhn. California-based. which stymies the resumption of agricultural production. “Land mines effectively bar people from productive land forcing them to clear forests and other precious areas for agriculture with consequences for the fertility of soils. Founder and President of Roots of Peace. at the Worldwide Civil Affairs Conference. United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). Namibia. She said restoring the migration routes by de-mining the reserve also offered the prospect of creating local jobs and much needed income for the people there. mainly because of the land mines. . too”. whose San Rafael. Angola. said: “Land mines are among the horrendous legacies of war that play their deadly role in perpetuating poverty. is one of if not the most mined countries in the world with over 2. shelter and natural medicines suffers. Cambodia. reduces public confidence in fledgling governments and creates many other hurdles for a nation trying to heal the wounds of war. Angola and Zambia. June 6. The failure or inability of a country to address the proliferation of anti-personnel land mines. http://www. So beyond the injuries inflicted and the medical expenses incurred. There are very few ecotourism initiatives in Angola. 02 Dec 2004 [“ ‘Roots of Peace’ back demining/ecotourism project in Angola. denies access to markets.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 Poverty I/L 98 Landmines Aff The effects of landmines include lack of food. accelerated land degradation and loss of wildlife.int/rw/rwb. Number 32 Chicago. organization has established a track record on raising funds for de-mining projects in Afghanistan.int/rw/rwb. beyond the obvious personal suffering.specialoperations. 02 Dec 2004 [“ ‘Roots of Peace’ back demining/ecotourism project in Angola. wetland and wildlife area in southern Africa with significant tourism potential and revenue-raising prospects for local people. “Once completed it would be the largest continuous wilderness. denies farmers use of their fields. assistant secretary of defense for special operations and low-intensity conflict.nsf/0/e6c910032f05b67b85256f5e00695c00?OpenDocument&Click=] Heidi Kuhn. We need more initiatives like this Roots of Peace and Conservation International project in Angola that not only remove these discarded weapons but replace them with the chance for local people to earn a sustainable livelihood.reliefweb.reliefweb. De-mining increases jobs and the prospect of increasing jobs. United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). UNEP’s Executive Director. which suffered decades three decades of civil war which finally came to an end in December 2002. upon which local people depend for items such as food. leading to poverty.com/Literature/Articles/Civil_Affairs.nsf/0/e6c910032f05b67b85256f5e00695c00?OpenDocument&Click=] Klaus Toepfer. Volume 12.200 known sites harbouring mines or unexploded ordnance. shelter.” Source: United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). Landmines drive countries into perpetual poverty Holmes 97(“Civil Affairs: Reflections of the Future”Prepared remarks by H. 1997. Croatia and Iraq.” he said. http://www. Allen Holmes. The direct threat to people from these seeds of misery must be our first concern but it is clear that the environment. Restoring this area is part of a bigger plan to create a large transboundary park known as the Okavango/Upper Zambezi Transfrontier Conservation Area which will stretch from Zimbabwe through Botswana.
Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 African Economy - Impacts
Landmines in sub-Saharan Africa cause war and economic decline
99 Landmines Aff
Luckham et al 99 (Ahmed and R Muggah, “The Impact of Conflict on Poverty in Sub-Saharan Africa,” IDS, 1999, http://www.dfid.gov.uk/pubs/files/conflictsubsaharanafrica.pdf, 11 July 2007) In the majority of African economies the most direct impact of war is on production and household livelihoods. War can deny people access to their land at critical growing or planting periods, increase the costs of agricultural inputs, disrupt markets and restrict sales of produce. The use of landmines for example, in countries like Angola has severely limited access to land in the long term. Agricultural production and family livelihoods have suffered dramatically as a result. A study undertaken by the International Food Policy Research Institute7 determined that African countries had suffered production losses of up to 45% (in Angola). Average production losses through conflict were 12%.War also seriously affected growth in the agricultural sector reducing it by 3% per annum. War has therefore been responsible for increasing the gap between food production and consumption in large parts of Africa and in some countries has created a substantial requirement for imported food and food aid.
Landmines Destroy African Economies Beir 03(“The economics impact of landmines on developing countries,” Gregory L. Bier Adjunct Assistant
Professor, Department of Management, College of Business, University of Missouri-Columbia International Journal of Social Economics Bradford 2003 Vol. 30, Iss. 5/6; pg. 651) Demining brings unique and complex challenges to reconstruction. In an agriculturally-based economy, land must be made readily available to economic activity. Often this involves the laborious task of removing the threat of mines. However, in many instances it is merely the suspicion of mines that makes the land unusable. The World Bank's 1997 operational guidelines on demining (Operations Policy Department, 1997) make the very accurate assessment that its support of demining activities should be limited to indirect activities and that its support should also be tied to a larger project, such as "road construction." Many non-governmental organizations indirectly supplement their demobilization effort by placing former infantry and engineer combatants into demining roles. Economic impact of landmines Landmines simply compound the complexity of systematic economic development. They impact agricultural land, water canals, roads, access to public places and utilities. In an economic reconstruction sense the impact of landmines include: destroys livestock, wildlife, and other environmental resources; disrupts markets and production; prevents the maximum use of farmland; inhibits tourism and potential investment; prevents the delivery of government services; depletes the already limited medical resources in poor countries; impedes the return of refugees (the country's human capital); prolongs the economic reconstruction (that in turn increases instability); prevents the delivery, import and export, of products and services; serves as a physical obstacle to rapport and economic reconstruction; hinders the repair of irrigation systems that allow for restored production; prevents the government from extending its presence around the country.
Landmines prevent economic prosperity Beir 03(“The economics impact of landmines on developing countries,” Gregory L. Bier Adjunct Assistant
Professor, Department of Management, College of Business, University of Missouri-Columbia International Journal of Social Economics Bradford 2003 Vol. 30, Iss. 5/6; pg. 651) It would be of interest to address how the impact of landmines specifically hinders a struggling nation's ability to rebuild its economic base. First, landmines leave a real and lasting impression of the instability the population has witnessed. This impression is not quickly changed. In an agrarian country, its economy can be crippled since it is so dependent on the productivity of the agricultural sector. The presence or even the suspicion of landmines halts farming and transportation systems. Kakar (1995) studied the impact of landmines simply on agriculture and found that, "Without mines, agricultural production could increase 88-200% in Afghanistan, 11% in Bosnia, 135% in Cambodia, and 3.6% in Mozambique." Eimeril (1997) goes on to emphasize that by placing quantifiable figures on the value of land, such as this, simplifies the release of international funding. Even the most simplistic response to this is a rise in prices as a reaction to the limited supply of goods and services.
Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007
100 Landmines Aff
Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 Angola
101 Landmines Aff
Angola is the most heavily mined country in the world with over 20 million mines deployed in over 50% of its providences Oppong and Kalipeni 05
[Oppong; an associate professor of Geography at the University of North Texas. Kalipeni; associate professor of Geography and African Studies at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. “The Geography of Landmines and implications for health and disease in Africa; a political ecology approach”, 3-25, Africa Today 52.12005, Project Muse] It is impossible to estimate the number of landmines in Angola. According to the United States State Department, by 1994 more than 9 million mines had been deployed throughout the country; 2 million had
been laid in Mozambique, 1.0 to 1.5 million in Somalia, 0.5 to 1.5 million in Sudan, and 0.5 to 1 million in Ethiopia and Eritrea (United States Department of State 1994). Scholars have put the total number of landmines in Angola at somewhere around 20 million (Human Rights Watch 2003; Robbins, n.d.); in 2002, the U.S. State Department cited estimates ranging up to 7 million (United States Department of State 2002). With eight of its eighteen provinces—nearly 50 percent of the country—heavily mined, Angola remains one of the most severely mined countries in the world. The provinces of Bie and Huambo, in central Angola, have suffered a disproportionate share of landmine injuries; however, as shown in figure 2, the landmine problem is severe in the south and east, particularly in Moxico Province (Human Rights Watch 1997, 2003).
Landmines are dangerous to animals, plants, and all life. American University, May 15, 1996 [“ANGOLA'S LANDMINES;” CASE NUMBER: 295; CASE
MNEMONIC: LANDMINE; CASE NAME: ANGOLA'S LANDMINES; http://www.american.edu/TED/LANDMINE.HTM] In short, the Angolan landmine situation severely disrupts almost all aspects of the countries environment because landmines are a pollutant to humans, animals and fauna alike. For the time being the laying of landmines has stopped in Angola, but it continues at an alarming rate in other parts of the world and there seems to be no foreseeable solution to the problem. After the integration of both sides into a unified military and government landmines pose the largest threat to a long lasting peace, and the future of Angola both environmentally and literally. If the situation is not remedied with help from the international community Angolans will be confined to certain portions of the country which will not allow for industry and agriculture to flourish and will strain the land where landmines are not present to the point of desertification and severe species loss.
Landmines leave thousands dead or maimed every year Loveman 05 (Ellie Loveman, Mine Action Information Center, “Angola,” Mine Action, Vol 9, No 1,
During the Angolan civil war, the Angolan government, UNITA, Cubans and South Africans deployed mines. In 2000, landmines claimed 840 victims in Angola, with half the accidents occurring on roads contaminated with mines. As of 2001, one in every 334 Angolans was an amputee and less than 30 percent of the population had access to health care. As a result, still today up to half of those injured die before or after surgery. In 2004 alone, a mine incident occurred every four days. On December 4, 1997, Angola signed the Anti-personnel Mine Ban Convention, but landmines were still used against UNITA until a peace agreement was formed between the two parties in April 2002. Angola ratified the Mine Ban Convention on July 5, 2002, and the Convention became effective on January 1, 2003.
Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 Angola
102 Landmines Aff
Prefer plan over the PIC-Angola is severely impacted by landmines has one of the highest rates of landmines in the world Loveman 05 (Ellie Loveman, Mine Action Information Center, “Angola,” Mine Action, Vol 9, No 1,
The war-torn country of Angola is severely impacted by landmines; Steve Priestley, Director of International Projects for Mines Advisory Group (MAG) said, “No matter the total number of mines, of all the countries in the world, Angola is the one most heavily impacted by landmines.” He added, “Whatever you want to do, whether it’s plant a field or rehabilitate a school or open a road, you’ve first got to clear away the mines. The threat of mines has paralyzed the country.”2 In order to create safer living conditions for Angolans, several non-governmental organizations funded by the United States and several other donors have worked or are working to destroy and remove landmines while providing mine risk education (MRE) to help prevent future incidents.
Landmines kill thousands in Angola Loveman 05 (Ellie Loveman, Mine Action Information Center, “Angola,” Mine Action, Vol 9, No 1,
In Angola, the purpose of landmines is well-known: They are planted to cause death or injury to a person or vehicle, and casualties are expected. The Angolan government reports that, as of September 2004, an estimated 700 deaths and 2,300 injuries had resulted from landmines over the previous six years. An additional 80,000 mine survivors are living in Angola. According to the Angola Educational Assistance Fund, Inc., in 1997, 40 percent of mine victims were children, 8,000 of the 70,000 amputees in the population were children and 150 to 200 new accidents occurred each week. Today, according to statistics provided by the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), 10–15 percent of all mine victims worldwide are women. In Angola, the national percentage is 20 percent. More women are working outside the home in traditional male roles due to the deaths and injuries of the men who fought in the war, which increases their chances of encountering landmines. Women are affected in worse ways than men, however, as an injured woman is considered a burden and does not receive necessary support from the male-dominated community.
Landmines prevent water access Feinberg 06 (Lloyd Feinberg, US Agency for International Development, “USAID’s Perspective: The
importance of Social and Economic Development Strategies for Humanitarian Mine Action,” Journal of Mine Action, Vol 9, No 2, February 2006, http://maic.jmu.edu/journal/9.2/feature/feinberg/feinberg.htm, 11 July 2007) For example, in Angola, demining operations made it possible to reestablish a water pumping station in Moxico province that brings potable water to more than 120,000 residents. Mine clearance also allowed the reconstruction of a surgery room in Huila province's Mavinga Hospital. These infrastructural changes will improve the health and productivity of Angola's people, which in turn will contribute to long-term economic gains and increased chances of political stability. The potential gains are great for many people in many sectors. Whether or not mine clearance will have achieved its goals by 2007, it is increasingly important for those concerned about the lasting impacts of landmines and other explosive remnants of war to view their mine action activities within the framework of social and economic reconstruction and development strategies.
Mines are concentrated around roads. economic reconstruction and the resettlement of millions of refugees and internally displaced persons (IDPs).htm] More than three decades of internal conflict left Angola with one of the world’s most serious landmine problems.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 Angola 103 Landmines Aff Angola has the worst landmine problem in Sub-Saharan Africa.S. churches. http://www. Approximately one in 334 Angolans is an amputee mine survivor. vehicles and safety and communications equipment previously purchased with U.htm] Combatants planted these mines to destroy or deny access to Angola’s infrastructure. These mines hinder humanitarian aid. Landmines affect a large portion of the population. the United States contributed $38.000. Landmines pose a critical obstacle to freedom of movement and to restarting Angola’s domestic food production. Bureau of Political-Military Affairs. Bureau of Political-Military Affairs.S. August 2004 [“U.S. allowed access to water and firewood for the resident civilian population. such as schools.000 in financial assistance to Angola.S. so the actual number of landmines in the country is unknown. rather than millions.” To Walk the Earth in Safety: The U.000 physiotherapy interventions. In FY03. and stops the coming of freedom. produced and delivered 1. http://www.800 mobility aids and provided 6. Eight of Angola’s 18 provinces are heavily mined.gov/t/pm/rls/rpt/walkearth/2004/37227. Humanitarian Mine Action Programs: Africa. Commitment to Humanitarian Mine Action.000 in humanitarian mine action assistance to Angola.320.htm] Since Fiscal Year (FY) 1995. and opened roads and rural areas to provide access routes for humanitarian relief.S. The humanitarian demining organization.000. funds. http://www. $1. railways. The Department of Defense Humanitarian Assistance Program has provided excess equipment to supplement the mine detectors. and the United States has funded programs to assist them. Kuando-Kubago and Bie. the U. bridges and public facilities. Malange. Bureau of Political-Military Affairs. Menschen gegen Minen (MgM). Humanitarian Mine Action Programs: Africa. . Landmines lead to infrastructure breakdown. The US has spent more than 45 million dollars on Angola. Agency for International Development (USAID) has provided more than $5. No comprehensive national mine survey exists. the inability to provide humanitarian aid. Large quantities of unexploded ordnance (UXO) also are present. covering nearly 50 percent of the country in a band from the northwest border with the Congo to the southeast border with Namibia.S. There isn’t even a comprehensive system to count the number of mines.” To Walk the Earth in Safety: The U. These NGO demining efforts provided for the resettlement of IDPs. as well as near some provincial capitals. Through a rehabilitation center and fully functioning orthopedic workshop located in wartorn Moxico Province. Commitment to Humanitarian Mine Action. Humanitarian Mine Action Programs: Africa.000 to a Vietnam Veterans of America Foundation program to render rehabilitation and social and economic reintegration to those with mobility needs in Angola’s isolated eastern regions.state.S.gov/t/pm/rls/rpt/walkearth/2004/37227. These funds include $500. increased agricultural land for subsistence farming. The US has poured money into Angola like no other.000 and $705. the United States allocated approximately $4. primarily to facilitate IDP and refugee resettlement and for the delivery of humanitarian assistance. Commitment to Humanitarian Mine Action.000 to Norwegian People’s Aid and MgM. the program has repaired more than 350 prostheses and orthoses.000 amputees and an ever-expanding number of victims under the age of 15.gov/t/pm/rls/rpt/walkearth/2004/37227.S.900.000 to Mines Advisory Group (MAG) for the Eastern Angola Road Access Project. water supply points and health care facilities. including Moxico. estimates the true quantity of mines is probably in the hundreds of thousands.state. August 2004 [“U. August 2004 [“U. respectively. Since 1996. and $395. footpaths and fields.000 to The Hazardous Area Life-Support Organization Trust to continue clearance operations in Bie and Huambo Provinces. still provided exclusively through non-governmental organizations (NGOs).state. military facilities.” To Walk the Earth in Safety: The U. with 80. $980.000 to the LWVF.
In addition. and tens of thousands of acres of farmland. American University. in Angola thousands of miles of riverbanks. and lead to the mass exodus of refugees. The increased numbers of people in certain parts of the country place a strain on the resources of the land. Landmines. have killed at least seventy-thousand people. Land mines have a devastating affect upon the environment by`restricting the movement of people. However. Landmines are also causing difficulties for the Angolan government as it attempts to incorporate democracy and rebuild the shattered country with as little social discontent as possible. do not allow man to alter the soil by cutting down trees. are terrible to the environment. estimates put the number of Angolan amputees resulting from the silent killers at 70. and children. For three decades mines were scattered in Angola's fields. or dumping chemicals. the landmines have lead to a large migration of people from the countryside to towns and cities. 1996 [“ANGOLA'S LANDMINES.american. Refugees are often unable to return to their homes and farm their land.N. 1996 [“ANGOLA'S LANDMINES. CASE NAME: ANGOLA'S LANDMINES. and other unexpected places to intimidate. In 1993 a UN General Resolution moratorium on the sale and export of antipersonnel land mines was passed. Landmines don’t allow people or animals to lead normal lives. However. .Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 Angola 104 Landmines Aff Landmines impede progress in Angola. extracting minerals. malaria and cholera. animals are kept away from centuries old watering holes leaving them confused and likely to die in the harsh elements of the bush. and killing and mutilating many innocent men. May 15. it could be argued. Landmines leave no visible damage to the environment.edu/TED/LANDMINE. deterring farming. roads. CASE NAME: ANGOLA'S LANDMINES.american.HTM] In 1994 the two warring sides in the Angolan civil war signed the Lusaka peace accords and subsequently have slowly retreated from their entrenched positions. international consensus has yet to be achieved and Angola's problem continues unabated. pastures. there is total disruption to human life and the environment. but that is not to say that their impact is any less severe than desertification and deforestation in other parts of the world. In time the areas will be prone to desertification as the land is further stripped by the refugees in their attempts to survive.HTM] Land mines affect Angola on a daily basis.000. In those cases where people attempt to rebuild around the mines many lose their lives in the process.edu/TED/LANDMINE. landmines are a man made pollutant and adversely alter the environment for future generations. http://www. http://www. Estimates of the number of Angolan land mines range between 10 and 20 million which equates to at least 1 to 2 land mines for every person in the country. and cripple their livelihood. by their very nature. due to the heinous number of land mines Angola will remain a country afflicted by the scourge of war for decades to come because the devices act as a silent enemy not allowing the population to progress and rebuild. CASE MNEMONIC: LANDMINE. U.” CASE NUMBER: 295. Areas where refugees have been forced to move have been stripped of wood and wild game while water supplies have been depleted and contaminated leading to increases in reported cases of dysentery. prevent governmental order. For example. villages. maim and kill innocent victims. American University. women. CASE MNEMONIC: LANDMINE. disrupting economies.” CASE NUMBER: 295. In addition. and forest are now unusable. In short. However. May 15.
But a sense of fatalism among many victims. . and public works have been mined or destroyed severely reducing the movement of all people who do not have access to air transportation." one villager told the development agency. Mambo has not yet developed the fear of stigma and is confident she faces a bright future. an NGO that has been running rehabilitation programmes for landmine survivors in the eastern region of Angola since 1997. However." said Emmanuelle Rioufol. I'll be able to play more and dance and go back to school.html) An estimated 6 million mines laid during 27 years of civil war still litter Angola's countryside.disabling one in every 415 Angolans . playing with her doll after a morning of physiotherapy. "Afterwards. Further complicating economic rejuvenation most roads. but a U. American University.edu/TED/LANDMINE.” CASE NUMBER: 295. "Physical rehabilitation is just one piece of the puzzle. blocking access to water points. At the Centro Neves Bendinha in the capital. CASE MNEMONIC: LANDMINE. The Benguela railway. post-trauma support and life skills training which helps integrate landmine victims.org/slm/jose_brinco_B." she said shyly. hampering the recovery of the country's agriculture sector and creating a climate of fear and tension.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 Angola 105 Landmines Aff No one is able to use any of the existing infrastructure in Angola because it is so heavily mined. although those in the heart of the bush may be unaware of the services on offer. May 15. following an escalation in fighting between UNITA and MPLA troops. CASE NAME: ANGOLA'S LANDMINES." explained Tracy Brown. can create problems when it comes to reintegrating into society. landmines also remain a serious impediment to Angola's social and economic reconstruction. There is a shortage of assistance to landmine survivors in Angola now United Nations." Just 10 years old.they don't see any other way of earning money to live." she said. as well as life training skills to help victims realise they still have a future. There is some good news. Medical experts and aid workers believe there is a real shortage of both psychological skills to help deal with the trauma of losing a limb. bridges.american.stoplandmines. or be unable to get to the centres for treatment.HTM] Due to Angola's lack of infrastructure it is difficult to find figures indicating the destruction that landmines have caused. the Angolan harvest was reduced by more than 30 percent. Handicap International. "Most amputees with good rehabilitation don't have to be disabled and incapable of leading a normal life. assistance to landmine survivors is much more complex. Angolaþs only major railroad has been mined so severely that it is no longer in use at all. "Every Angolan knows that somewhere there is a mine with his name on it.S. http://www. the free prostheses and physiotherapy offered there can help them to physically lead a normal life. Yet for those young enough and strong enough. They have left a trail of physical destruction . "I like Luanda and I like learning how to walk by doing all the exercises on the equipment. when I get my new leg. Luanda. State Department report estimates that in 1993. Mambo takes a break. All of these limiting factors caused by landmines severely decrease the ability of the country to attract foreign investment which is desperately needed to stimulate the economy and provide a better standard of living for Angolans. Physical rehabilitation is not in short supply for those living in the cities and major provincial centres. there is very little in the way of other services that address psychological impact. country representative of the Vietnam Veterans of America Foundation (VVAF). lots of them come to the cities to beg. programme director for Handicap International France.as well as psychological trauma. We are trying to postpone that meeting for as long as possible. The railway had provided Angola and neighboring Zaire and Zambia with a major transportation route to send their products to the major Angolan port of Benguela for export to the rest of the world. "Victims often think that all they can do after a landmine accident is to go onto the street and beg . January 2007 (http://www. Apart from the effects on the individual. 1996 [“ANGOLA'S LANDMINES. particularly older mine survivors.
2 million in 2006 from US12. March 20. At a meeting in February to discuss the country's new demining plan. http://www.7 million in 2005. Banze said the government was seeking a strategy to minimise the problem of mines in the country. however." Without disclosing why international donors had cut down on aid destined for the demining process. because we still have a lot of mines lying around in the country. to US$9.htm) International humanitarian support for demining operations in Mozambique dropped by more than 25 percent in 2006." Banze was speaking at the opening of a one-day seminar to debate the 2007/2010 national program of action against landmines.Reduced funding by international donors will delay the clearing of landmines in Mozambique. Vista News reported.org/thenews/newsdesk/IRIN/e4fc28c3f852b56fe1b59a8f3c5cbfe3. 02.afrika.27. do not feel they are up to the task of completing the work themselves. . Funding to Mozambique has significantly decreased. http://www.2007 (Mozambique: Concerns Over Reduced Funding for Demining”. The International Campaign to Ban Landmines (ICBL) in its 2005 Landmine Monitor report also lamented on the dwindling funding for the demining activities.7 million the year before. "Twelve donor countries reported contributing a total of some $10mn to mine action in Mozambique in 2005. international partners have a good will to complement our efforts. however the country is not ready to finish demining on its own Reuters.alertnet. hindering demining efforts." said Banze. "It is important that our partners continue to contribute because the problem we are dealing with. reflecting a growing consensus among donor and aid organisations that landmines in Mozambique no longer posed a major threat. He pointed out that Mozambique has until 2009 to meet its obligations under the Landmine Ban Treaty. still requires a great deal of national and international effort. Government officials.2 million from $12. the deputy minister for foreign affairs and cooperation. "While the primary responsibility to remove the mines rests with the government. Henrique Banze. which left them very little time. Deputy Foreign and Co-operation Minister Henrique Banze was quoted in the Monday edition of the national daily Noticias as saying cuts in funding and the removal of deminers by some demining agencies would stall the process.html) Maputo (Mozambique) . "(It) is important for the international demining partners to continue to contribute to the process. South African Press Association. Donor funding aimed at demining in Mozambique was reduced to US9." he said. from the point of view of development as well as with demining. 2007 (“Mozambique: Demining Operations Wind Down after 15 Years”. said the pull-out of international partners would hinder the country's development.no/Detailed/13629. "This is affecting the implementation of development projects in some parts of the country." says the report.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 Mozambique 106 Landmines Aff Humanitarian assistance has dramatically dropped in mine ridden Mozambique.
Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 Mozambique
107 Landmines Aff
If mines were removed from Mozambique, there would be an increase in economy and transportation. Bureau of Political-Military Affairs, August 2004 [“U.S. Humanitarian Mine Action Programs:
Africa;” To Walk the Earth in Safety: The U.S. Commitment to Humanitarian Mine Action; http://www.state.gov/t/pm/rls/rpt/walkearth/2004/37227.htm] In FY04, the U.S. Department of State’s Office of Weapons Removal and Abatement allocated $1,492,000 for humanitarian mine action (HMA) in Mozambique. These funds consisted of $1,372,000 to The HALO Trust for continued demining operations in two provinces, Zambezia and Cabo Delgado, and $120,000 to improve quality of the skills of the Mozambican Armed Forces’ (FADM) humanitarian demining cadre through additional training, equipment and logistical support, ensuring that work is performed according to International Mine Action Standards. The HALO Trust’s work in Cabo Delgado in northern Mozambique enabled commerce to resume on the main Pemba-Montepuez road to the provincial capital and recovered farmland bordering the road. Mine clearance allowed local communities to cultivate and develop cashew plantations, which contribute to the provincial economy. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and prevention also contributed $350,000 for landmine survivors programs. In FY05, the United States provided $2,336,000 more in mine action aid. Of this amount, The HALO Trust received $676,000 to support seven manual demining teams, one survey team, one mine detecting dog team, and two mechanical teams. $1,666,000 was provided in training, technicial support, and equipment to further develop the FADM humanitarian demining (HD) unit’s capability as the sole government HD provider.
Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 Zimbabwe
108 Landmines Aff
Demining efforts in Zimbabwe fail—in 2003 both the US and EU withdrew funds and support. World News 04 (“Zimbabwe: demining hit by US/EU funding withdrawal” IRIN News Africa
http://archive.wn.com/2004/03/02/1400/p/2d/bfe8d32ff32db1.html) He added that 335 km of land had been cleared in the east of the country, but 630,000 out of an initial 1.8 million anti-personnel mines still remained. Of the 36,000 fragmentation mines planted in the area, 3,200 were yet to be removed. Only 150,000 out of the 400,000 landmines buried in the southeastern triangle of the country, where the Zimbabwe-South Africa-Mozambican borders converge, had been removed. An estimated 250,000 mines were still active. Zimbabwe's stuttering demining effort has been frustrated by a lack of funding, equipment and skilled personnel. In 1997 the US army trained 120 demining engineers and donated Zim $6 million (around US $400,000) to help kick-start the programme. A year later the European Union provided Zim $206 million ($5.8 million) to extend the exercise into the heavily mined eastern highlands along the border with Mozambique. Both the EU and the US withdrew their support in 2000, in protest over the government's human rights and governance record. Sanctions imposed by the EU and US in the wake of flawed presidential elections in 2003 included the suspension of military cooperation. Mugoba acknowledged that the demining exercise had slowed because of a shortage of funds after the withdrawal of US and EU support. The current work was now funded by the government, but he provided no figures for expenditure on the programme.
Landmines in Zimbabwe put entire communities in danger—ongoing projects are unsuccessful. World News 04 (“Zimbabwe: demining hit by US/EU funding withdrawal” IRIN News Africa
http://archive.wn.com/2004/03/02/1400/p/2d/bfe8d32ff32db1.html) BULAWAYO, - Twenty-four years after the liberation war ended, landmines still remain a cruel and present danger for communities living along Zimbabwe's borders with Zambia and Mozambique. An estimated 1.9 million mines were planted in the border areas during the bitter struggle that began in the late 1960s between the colonial government of the then Rhodesia and nationalist guerrillas. The minority government wanted to prevent guerilla incursions from bases in Zambia and Mozambique, while the liberation movements used the mines to cordon off their infiltration routes, secure captured areas and generally complicate pursuit by the Rhodesian army. Buried and forgotten by the soldiers who planted them, today civilians and their livestock are the victims. According to official figures, 568 people have been killed by landmines since independence in 1980, but the real toll is said to be far higher. Since 1980 the Zimbabwe National Army has been demining in the Binga-Victoria Falls area on the border with Zambia and the eastern highlands bordering Mozambique. The operation should have taken 10 years to complete, but is still ongoing.
Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 Rwanda
109 Landmines Aff
There are not enough health professionals to respond to victims’ needs in Rwanda. Landmine Monitor 05 (“Rwanda.” http://www.icbl.org/lm/2005/rwanda)
In early 2005, after pressure from the World Bank and International Monetary Fund, Rwanda dismissed most of its healthcare staff because of lack of proper qualifications. The hospitals can recruit again, but lacks the funds to do so. There is a shortage of trained healthcare professionals. The government is reportedly in the process of building more health centers in the countryside. However, there are still not enough centers to respond to the needs. On average, the centers are 20 to 50 kilometers from the minefields. NDO has a standby team, including medical personnel, to evacuate mine casualties to the nearest hospital. In 2004, NDO conducted four evacuations. Due to a lack of funds, NDO does not offer any other medical or rehabilitation assistance to mine survivors.
Humanitarian aid, economic development, and social advancement are hindered by landmines in Rwanda. Bureau of Political-Military Affairs, August 2004 [“U.S. Humanitarian Mine Action Programs:
Africa;” To Walk the Earth in Safety: The U.S. Commitment to Humanitarian Mine Action; http://www.state.gov/t/pm/rls/rpt/walkearth/2004/37227.htm] Rwanda emerged from its 1994 civil war with an estimated 100,000–250,000 landmines scattered throughout the country. Despite the lack of written records and maps, the Government of Rwanda believes that the heaviest concentrations of landmines, some 50,000–60,000, were in the Kigali area and in four prefectures in the north and northwest, about 10 kilometers from the border with Uganda, an area approximately 120 kilometers long. An additional 1,200 square kilometers of suspected mine-contaminated land is situated south of this region. Significant portions of Rwanda’s roads were mined, cutting off entire regions and hindering the flow of humanitarian aid and commodities. Overall, the mines and unexploded ordnance (UXO) have been a major impediment to the economic and social development of the country. Moreover, the thick vegetation and steep hilly terrain have posed enormous challenges to mine clearance activities.
Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 Somalia
Mine problems can be fixed. They only lack funding Swart 02 (Jab, Mine Action Program for Somalia, Journal of Mine Action v6.1
110 Landmines Aff
http://maic.jmu.edu/journal/6.1/focus/swart/swart.htm) The significant negative socioeconomic impact of landmine and UXO contamination can be seen in almost every aspect of Somali society: reduced land available for livestock and cultivation, increased transportation costs, obstacles to repatriation and re-integration of communities, poor performance of rehabilitation efforts, loss of lives, disability, psychological problems and general lack of security of communities. In 2000, the reported mine victims were 107 in the northwest, 101 in the northeast, 147 in central Somalia and approximately 40 in Mogadishu, of which roughly 40 percent resulted in fatalities. These figures are by no means complete, as the reporting system is very fragmented. The presence of mines has prevented the return of approximately 200,000 refugees from Djibouti and Ethiopia. The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) had anticipated closing these camps by 2001 but has continually fallen short of their targets, in large part because of mine fields—real or perceived. The mine/UXO threat is a finite problem, however, and given sustained stability and funding, it can be solved within seven to 10 years.
There are still a lot of landmines in Somalia. Bureau of Political-Military Affairs, August 2004 [“U.S. Humanitarian Mine Action Programs:
Africa;” To Walk the Earth in Safety: The U.S. Commitment to Humanitarian Mine Action; http://www.state.gov/t/pm/rls/rpt/walkearth/2004/37227.htm] Northwest Somalia (Somaliland) has a severe landmine and unexploded ordnance (UXO) problem. Several conflicts have left large quantities of landmines and UXO along the border between northwest Somalia and Ethiopia, the perimeters of military installations, important access routes and urban areas. Following the Ethiopian conflict, the Somali Army laid mines near the border and around nearby military bases as a defense strategy. The civil war in 1988 saw the continued practice of laying mines, restricting both military and civilian movement within the country. The Somalia Mine Action Center (SMAC) has confirmed the presence of at least 28 mined roads and 63 known and 17 suspected minefields in Somalia.
The landmines in Somalia are non-metallic, thus making hem harder to detect. African Red Cross & Red Crescent Health, Thursday, March 30, 2006 [“African Red Cross &
Red Crescent Health Initiative 2010;” http://www.ifrc.org/WHAT/health/archi/fact/fmines.htm] There are more than 1 million landmines in Somalia. They are found along the Ethiopian border and around military bases, schools, water sources, and even individual homes. Sixty percent of the landmines are estimated to be antipersonnel mines. Landmines that have been found were manufactured in more than 24 countries. Compounding the problem is that approximately 50 percent of the landmines are non-metallic, and no minefield records have been located, although minefield locations are known locally. Seventy percent of all the landmines are found in barrier minefields located in the mountainous terrain along the Ethiopian border. A section of the border from Djibouti to Barbein Genyo contains some 76-96 minefields. The northern part of the country is heavily mined, including the northern capital of Hargeisa and 18 roads leading into it. Concentrations of landmines are found on the grazing lands between Burao and Erigavo in Zeyla. Landmines have also been found in the towns of Burao, Erigavo, and the port town of Berbera. The presence of landmines has disrupted traditional life for many Somalis. Agriculture has suffered, and livestock losses have been heavy. Physicians for Human Rights estimated that in 1992 there were 4,500 people disabled as a result of landmine accidents. According to the Hargeisa Hospital, for the one-year period beginning in February 1991, 75 percent of mine casualties were children 5-15 years of age.
routes are rarely completely closed. OCHA said.[27 ] Casualties continued to be reported in 2005 from mines and UXO.com/stories/200706010029. disabled and killed people. evidence from Baidoa and Marka hospitals shows a recent rise in AT accidents (from virtually nil in Marka in 1998-99) involving civilian transport and agricultural vehicles in the front-line area around Burhakaba and the region between Qoryoley and Kurtunwaarey.org/evaldatabase/files/SOM_00-003. Hiran and Lower Jubba are the most affected regions. a general lack of security of communities. slowing traffic and transport and maintaining a level of (somewhat risky) mobility for e. While road-mining is disruptive.g. education and health services to internally displaced persons (IDPs). with the first reported occurrence of mine-laying in 1964. OCHA voiced particular concern.icbl. many of whom are now using the lull in fighting to return to Mogadishu. landmines have been reported in some areas. airstrips have been rained out. and loss of livestock and vehicles. Landmines increase the multi-vehicle accidents. Accidents have involved multiple victims. relatively high death to injury ratio. which has killed nearly a thousand people. Bay. Humanitarian aid is critical in failed states such as Somalia. reduced land available for farming. however. Sebastian Taylor MSc. UN News Service. over the prevalence of acute watery diarrhoea. 26 May. market purposes. They have driven the cost of transportation sky high. 2005 [“Somalia. 2000 [“Landmines and UXO in Somaliland.html] The mine problem in Somalia is a result of various internal and regional conflicts over an almost 40year period. UN Says”] Humanitarian organizations have also been working to provide clean drinking water. and the fact that some areas affected by the outbreak remain inaccessible. and stop the efforts to rebuild the government and the country. disabilities. Central and southern Somalia are heavily contaminated with mines and unexploded ordnance (UXO). loss of life. Bakool. Landmine Monitor.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 Somalia 111 Landmines Aff The transportation of humanitarian aid is impossible because of all the landmines. May 31. Landmines affect every single aspect of life in Somalia. poor performance of rehabilitation and development efforts. The UN claims that the socioeconomic impact of landmines and UXO can be seen in almost every aspect of Somali society: reduced land available for livestock and agricultural production.unicef. transit through Kenya is still being negotiated and ships are refusing to sail to Somalia following the deadly 19 May attack against a chartered ship off the port of Merka. increase deaths. In addition.org/lm/2005/somalia. Many roads are still too dangerous for transport. . and slow traffic a lot. A guard trying to repulse pirates was killed in that incident.” http://www. Galguduud. “Somalia: Aid Reaches Hundreds of Thousands in Somalia. increased transportation costs. new small-scale diversionary routes are created.” http://www. 2007 [ (New York). However.pdf] Reliable statistics are not available. and obstacles to repatriation and reintegration.html. http://allafrica. Instead. Puntland and Central & Southern Somalia: A feasibility study. a large amount of explosive ordnance exists countrywide. But Difficulties Persist. sanitation.
Further. According to the UN. Somalia’s landmines have prevented 200.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 Somalia 112 Landmines Aff Indigenous awareness is not exhaustive and encourages risky behavior. According to the UN. I have my tuck shop in a certain place .” http://www.then a Somali places the same business right next to mine. 2000 [“Landmines and UXO in Somaliland. 6/29/07 (“Kenya: Africa Insight—Africa Can’t Run Away From Somalia”.org/lm/2001/somalia/#Heading5048) Somalia has a serious landmine and unexploded ordnance (UXO) problem stemming from several conflicts (See Landmine Monitor Report 1999. People in urban and rural areas are familiar with mines and UXO – both in discussion and in physical recognition. 205-207 for details). business rivalry and stiff competition between the locals and refugees has triggered rising tension and violence with locals attacking Somali traders. whose work has been of variable approach and standard.unicef. "For example. 2001 (“Somalia”. this has been left to international and national NGOs. Puntland and Central & Southern Somalia: A feasibility study. Government has not taken on a significant role in advising local communities about danger and risk mitigation. Local traders claim that Somali refugees are destroying their livelihoods. Sebastian Taylor MSc.000 refugees from Djibouti and Ethiopia. In Diepsloot area in Northern Johannesburg. awareness does not cover random mine clusters comprehensively – leaving some unknown and unsuspected. On top of that he sells his goods so cheaply. where it constitutes straightforward overconfidence. the presence of mines – “real or perceived” – has been largely responsible in preventing the return of approximately 200. “A major problem is that the location and extent of mined areas is largely unknown. http://allafrica. http://www.icbl. pp. and awareness does not sufficiently cover the problems and risks of UXO. and therefore the magnitude of the problem to be contained has not been determined.com/stories/200706280958. 26 May.pdf] Indigenous ‘awareness’ can actually increase risk-exposure.org/evaldatabase/files/SOM_00-003.” Somali refugees face racial hatred and violence The Nation (Nairobi). These have had limited impact.000 refugees from repatriating Landmine Monitor. "We are under attack from these people. In Somaliland." a South African trader was quoted saying.html) Somali refugees in South Africa have also become victims of racial hatred and a violence. periods of good and bad harvest. Local awareness does not address the changing cost-benefit evaluations of communities through e. there have been a few relatively small-scale campaigns in mine-awareness.g. all my customers end up deserting me! How .
The UN currently cites a figure of one million landmines. Roughly 40 different types of landmines are known to exist in the country. 2006 [“African Red Cross & Red Crescent Health Initiative 2010. and limited equipment and qualified personnel to conduct basic lifesaving procedures. Both landmines and UXO currently hinder the movement of cease-fire monitors.S. http://www.htm] Sudan has a serious landmine and unexploded ordnance (UXO) problem as a result of its civil war that began in 1983. Landmines inhibit the resettlement of IDPs. economic activities and freedom of movement. respectively. accessed Jul 12.org/country. .asp?c=25] While IDPs and refugees are waiting to return mainly to the southern region.000 amputees and an equal number of deaths. Humanitarian Mine Action Programs: Africa. 2007 [“Sudan.htm] The Sudanese Government recently stated that two to three million landmines and UXO cover some 800. Landmines have been laid by government forces and the SPLA around towns in southern Sudan. stop humanitarian aid. and instill fear.S. the movement of peacekeepers. Mining in the southern region continues to occur. the deployment and activities of peacekeepers. As fightings in Darfur have been intensified since the end of 2006. Local records indicate that between 1989 and February 2002.160 persons became landmine victims in the Nuba Mountain region of southern Sudan.state. Bureau of Political-Military Affairs. and long-term reconstruction and development activities. Thursday. and a recent UN assessment mission stated that between 500. the perceived threat from landmines and ERW are still inhibiting factors for agricultural production. August 2004 [“U.ifrc. humanitarian goods and the civilian population. but yet it lacks basic medical facilities. Both the Government of Sudan (GoS) and armed opposition groups.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 Sudan 113 Landmines Aff Landmines in Sudan hinder humanitarian goods and the movement of civilians. particularly in the south. lack medical services and rehabilitation centers. March 30. emplaced landmines to protect fixed garrisons and interdict roads.” http://www. E-MINE Electronic Mine Information Network.000 and two million landmines may exist.000 square kilometers or 32 percent of the country. African Red Cross & Red Crescent Health. Commitment to Humanitarian Mine Action. The desert of northern Sudan was mined during World War II and again recently in new conflicts along the northwestern border with Libya and the eastern border with Eritrea.” http://www. an estimated 1. The government estimates that mine accidents have resulted in more than 70. They pose great risks to vulnerable people and to emergency humanitarian assistance. Most parts of Sudan. food security. ERW threats posed to local population.org/WHAT/health/archi/fact/fmines. such as the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement/Army (SPLM/A). Sudan is one of the most mined countries in Africa.gov/t/pm/rls/rpt/walkearth/2004/37227.mineaction.” To Walk the Earth in Safety: The U. IDPs and humanitarian workers as well as potential new landmine laying are another area of concern.
even if the peace talks succeed. Others die in the process. The Monitor." she said.html] LIKE a deadly disease long forgotten and assumed defeated. Yasiin Mugerwa. and instill fear in the citizens like a deadly. Last year alone Avsi.” http://allafrica. thousands of IDPs have returned home due to improvement in the security situation in the region. Kampala. It's a serious issue. Ms Aciro said in the past few months. "Many of our people have established settlements that have decongested the major camps but complain that access to social services is still poor and are calling upon the government to remove the landmines. However. the peace talks that began in July 2007. When the residents go digging. The Monitor. landmines . it is now a humanitarian disaster. they sometimes unearth these objects. "The landmine scare is a serious problem in the region that has been a battle ground for years.com/stories/200706181822. an Italian NGO that conducts mine awareness training in the region. Say MPs.com/stories/200706181822. In May. Lango and West Nile are to return home safely. Although the peace talks currently underway in Juba to put an end to the 20-year conflict between the government and the rebel LRA had raised hope for peace. This has negatively impacted on the resettlement programme. . but forgotten disease. 19 June 2007 [(Kampala). Avsi trained 23 community development officers to sensitise IDPs in Gulu and Amuru. The existing unexploded landmines in the region constitute a crisis that needs urgent attention if millions of displaced people in Acholi." Daily Monitor has learnt that more than 500 people have died as a result of the abandoned explosives in past two decades. “Uganda: IDPs Fear to Return Home Due to Landmines. as some displaced persons still live in a climate of fear and violence afraid of the landmines planted by the LRA. Say MPs. many displaced persons still have a long way to go before they return home as Mr Okello-Okello.the scourge of the battlefield of the northern insurgency . To Concy Aciro.” http://allafrica. Some of our people who survived the LRA insurgency fear to go back only to die from possible landmine blasts. 19 June 2007 [(Kampala). have so far achieved little apart from a shaky truce. “Uganda: IDPs Fear to Return Home Due to Landmines.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 Uganda 114 Landmines Aff Landmines obstruct the government’s attempts to resettle IDPs.387 residents in Gulu and Amuru districts in 2006. Yasiin Mugerwa. Statistics from Avsi show that landmines hit and injured 1. the Amuru Woman MP.html] "Some of our villages have many landmines and other dangerous objects. Kampala." he said. preliminary findings show that while the landmine issue began as a military problem. the landmine crisis justifies what UN Emergency Relief Coordinator John Holmes said about the several years it would take to rebuild northern region after 20 years of the war.is affecting the government's efforts to resettle IDPs. also Chua county MP explains. Landmines scare people away from resettling in their homes and stop them from farming. According to Acholi Parliamentary Group Chairperson Livingstone Okello-Okello. received reports of more than 200 bombs and landmines discovered in the area.
” With only one orthopaedic office. plagued by Africa’s longest-running armed conflict for the past 20 years. .Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 Uganda 115 Landmines Aff As in Uganda. and given prostheses free of charge. If they have minor problems.thelancet. Although it is a state facility. and transporting patients. 368 November 11. the conflict has displaced up to 1·7 million people who live in 200 army-guarded camps. if they are major. AVSI foots 90% of the centre’s budget for feeding. 2006) In northern Uganda. we refer them back to the centre. Kalanzi told The Lancet.thelancet. 2006) The orthopaedic centre admits 12 patients every 3 weeks. housed. we follow them up after a period of 3 months. 368 November 11. and gender-based violence are rife. landmines have on average hit 22 people every month for the past 8 years.com Vol. They are fed. treating. “The biggest challenge is lack of personnel. They also undergo rehabilitation and counseling before being discharged. disease outbreaks. according to the UN and humanitarian agencies. We are very few here compared to the number of clients”. the centre is very understaﬀed. Poor sanitation. “After discharge. Classed by the UN Office for Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) as one of four “forgotten emergencies” in the world. we rectify them in the ﬁeld. And continuing insecurity hampers demining efforts and keeps farmers away from their mine-infested fields. rape. Landmines cause all kinds of problems Wakabi 06(“Landmines pose further danger to Uganda’s war refugees World Report” Wairagala Wakabi research associate with Collaboration on International ICT Policy for Eastern and Southern Africa www. human rights abuses. The is a shortage of medical help for landmine victims Wakabi 06(“Landmines pose further danger to Uganda’s war refugees World Report” Wairagala Wakabi research associate with Collaboration on International ICT Policy for Eastern and Southern Africa www.com Vol.
Landmines cause the change of patterns of migration of nomads. However.630 camels. Somali Red Crescent Society records a total of 679 people treated between 1994 and 1999. 2000 [“Landmines and UXO in Somaliland. Puntland and Central & Southern Somalia: A feasibility study. Somaliland is the most heavily mined area in Somalia. However.” http://www. 1.pdf] Somaliland is generally considered the most heavily ordnance-affected area of Somalia. Girls and women are not a demonstrable high-risk group. and 867 vehicles. trade and growth may be substantial.org/evaldatabase/files/SOM_00-003. simultaneously diverted from their normal or traditional route patterns.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 Somaliland 116 Landmines Aff Landmines kill more women and children than any other group. Sebastian Taylor MSc. 26 May. Hence the ultimate impact of successfully mitigated land denial in this group may actually be increased inter-group tensions with the potential for conflict. 12.998 sheep. some areas. many ‘victims’ are livestock. of whom 258 were ‘victims of landmines or bombs’. with specific government attention to disrupting the socioeconomic livelihoods of the SNM-supporting Isaaq nomads (using more AP mines than in the east and southwards. may coincide in a particular area. This contradicts the classical (media. UXO and herding). However. impact of pastoral denial can be mitigated by changing routes. which causes elevated conflict between nomadic groups. where considerably smaller areas and quantities of contamination are found to be the norm. mine action agencies will need to take such reports seriously.414 cattle.and donor-friendly) assertion that the majority of victims occur among women and children.pdf] It is often claimed that women and children are a large proportion of victims. and across age ranges records 17% between ages 13 0 and 19.unicef. and using more random. 26 May. Of the NDA’s 30.” http://www. Reports of widescale mining are. land-denial deployment). and 56% between ages 20 and 39. Sebastian Taylor MSc. Puntland and Central & Southern Somalia: A feasibility study. where awareness of local conditions – including ordnance contamination – may be low. Among sedentary communities there is an issue for refugees and resettlement.org/evaldatabase/files/SOM_00-003. This breaks down as 222 male and 36 female. 2. children are high-risk and high impact victims. which are the cornerstone of Somaliland’s economy. and there is much land denial and wastage. . often contradicted by the experiences of demining agencies. Puntland and Central & Southern Somalia: A feasibility study. Sebastian Taylor MSc. Puntland and Central & Southern Somalia: A feasibility study. Landmines kill animals. Due to the fear of landmines. the remaining 23. different nomadic groups. Given that up to 60% of the population of Somaliland is principally pastoralist. In some areas. 91 horses. the economic impact of UXO and landmines on livelihoods. While actual levels of land use inhibited by community suspicions of mine contamination are difficult to assess. This in itself constitutes a considerable impact on household and community economic well-being. 2000 [“Landmines and UXO in Somaliland. Sebastian Taylor MSc. For nomads.pdf] In Somaliland. trade and growth may be substantial.345 donkeys. 26 May.unicef. potentially leading to conflict for resource access and use. due to the particularities of the conflicts in this zone. routes and roads are accounted presently unused (leading to land-wastage and obstruction of trans-regional traffic).org/evaldatabase/files/SOM_00-003. 2000 [“Landmines and UXO in Somaliland.” http://www. In specific instances (e. 2000 [“Landmines and UXO in Somaliland. the economic impact of UXO and landmines on livelihoods. 26 May.unicef.134 ‘victims’. however.” http://www. Gabiley Mine Tech COA statistics). and that livestock trade is one of the more significant contributors to the national economy3. and that livestock trade is one of the more significant contributors to the national economy3.unicef.pdf] Given that up to 60% of the population of Somaliland is principally pastoralist.g. Representations of injury and fatality impact of mines and UXO should pay more attention to available evidence and truth.351 are livestock: 5. it should be remembered that where this happens. the social and economic aspects are negatively affected.org/evaldatabase/files/SOM_00-003. children are indeed considerably affected (Adadley UXO-contaminated area.
” http://www. . may constitute a more serious problem in this respect. However. which is critical in an agrarian society.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 Puntland 117 Landmines Aff Land denial is a big problem in Puntland. These may be expected to be largely formal minefield. one indicator may be the low level of engagement in Puntland of the World Food Programme. North Mudug. To the west. The impact of the suspicion of mines presence is very real. and along local roads (some of which are currently unused). Beira is also reportedly affected. Puntland and Central & Southern Somalia: A feasibility study. Puntland and Central & Southern Somalia: A feasibility study. The fear of landmines leads to land denial.org/evaldatabase/files/SOM_00-003.unicef.pdf] Land Denial: There is little evidence of land denial in Bari and Nugaal.org/evaldatabase/files/SOM_00-003. to be capable of relatively straightforward clearance.unicef. though known routes for cross-border traffic are functional. Land denial – in terms of cropping. defensive minefields similar to those encountered in Somaliland were reportedly laid during the Ogaden conflict. grazing and market trading routes – may continue to be issues. 2000 [“Landmines and UXO in Somaliland. There are reports of areas of cultivable land that remain unused. 26 May. and Galkayo airport. 26 May. whether there is actual contamination or not. 2000 [“Landmines and UXO in Somaliland. however. of areas of usable pasture that remain ungrazed and of routes and roads untraversed. mines are reported to the south along the border between North and South Mudug. as are the first 100km of road between Galkayo and Cheriiban.pdf] In the wider Galkayo-Goldogob area.” http://www. Sebastian Taylor MSc. and is caused by the fear of landmines. but also probably the subject of relatively high local awareness and avoidance. Sebastian Taylor MSc.
Following a security incident in April 2004. and especially since 1997. in order to find safe agricultural land for cultivation or to become agricultural workers. But. Senegal has not shown interest in demining the rest of its lands. antivehicle mines with sensitive fuzes or antihandling devices.”[21 ] A refugee who had returned back to his village close to the border with Guinea-Bissau explained that “a lot of people here are also worried about landmines that were buried here during the civil war. the suffering of populations and the risks incurred because of the presence of antipersonnel mines. which cannot access populations living in some areas reported as contaminated. Senegal has not engaged in the extensive discussions that States Parties have had on matters of interpretation and implementation related to Articles 1.org/lm/2005/senegal] On 30 December 2004. and the permissible number of mines retained for training.[23 ] The mine problem seriously affects the rehabilitation process and the economic development of Casamance. Handicap International believes that the reduction in casualties.icbl. as a consequence of fear of cultivating their own land. 2006 [“Senegal. and tourism. 2 and 3. the Army ceased demining activities. Because of this we are afraid to venture into the bush to do farm work. fishing. However. deminers and citizens alike are very heavily affected by landmines. Senegal has been identified as one of 24 States Parties with significant numbers of mine survivors. agriculture. including the Senegalese section of Amnesty International. Senegal was absent from the June 2005 intersessional Standing Committee meetings.” http://www. stop people from farming.org/lm/2005/senegal] The mine problem results mainly from fighting in Casamance region since 1982. in September 2002. The presence of landmines is said to block humanitarian projects. The preamble of the agreement acknowledges “the disastrous consequences provoked by over twenty years of conflict and fighting in Casamance. Over the course of the conflict. A six-month emergency study was planned to start in October 2005. 2006 [“Senegal. and with the greatest needs and responsibility to provide adequate survivor assistance. Land mine Report. Senegal participated in international meetings on landmines in Burkina Faso in January. It is estimated that landmines kill 20 livestock per week on average and jeopardize the use of 1. and essentially screw all aspects of life in Senegal. Limited mine clearance which started in the second half of 2003 stopped in April 2004 after deminers were killed in a security incident. It also has an impact on trade between Senegal and Guinea-Bissau. to collect information on the presence of landmines in Casamance and assess their impact on the population. between the Army and MFDC. notably the economic regression of the region.icbl.org/lm/2005/senegal] Key developments since May 2004: On 14 July 2005.[20 ] Since the peace agreement in December 2004.icbl.”[22 ] In 2005. Land mine Report.[4 ] Senegal participated in the First Review Conference of the Mine Ban Treaty. Thus. but did not make any statement. according to the UN Mine Action Service (UNMAS).000 square kilometers of productive land. 2006 [“Senegal. several thousand people were internally displaced. UNDP began assistance to the mine action program in Senegal.” http://www. Senegal states that known mined areas are marked and entry into some mine-suspected areas is banned. transport of goods and services. from 198 in 1998 to 17 in 2004. Land mine Report. and thousands more fled to The Gambia and Guinea-Bissau. and in Paris in March. held in Nairobi in November-December 2004. MFDC).” http://www. having an impact on reconstruction. At the end of 2004. A lack of marking and fencing of mined and mine-suspected areas was criticized in April 2004 by Senegalese human rights organizations. some of the population of Casamance fled again to Guinea-Bissau. Senegal signed a peace agreement with the Movement of Democratic Forces of Casamance (Mouvement des Forces Démocratiques de Casamance. the mine and UXO problem is “a clear impediment to resettlement of IDPs [internally displaced persons] and development of agricultural resources. the General Assembly of Senegal adopted a law on mine action. In 2004. Senegal stated that it would not allow transit or stockpiling of antipersonnel mines on its territory.[25 ] In its Article 7 report for 2004. Senegal has not made known its views on issues related to joint military operations with non-States Parties.” The agreement calls for humanitarian demining in Casamance without delay and urges parties to facilitate mine clearance. thousands of people have been expected to return. is due in large part to mine risk education. .Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 Senegal 118 Landmines Aff The citizens of Sengal. notably for the World Food Programme. kill livestock. Landmines impede the return of IDPs. There needs to be more landmine education there.
” http://www. Prior to the 1998-2000 border war with Eritrea. Land mine Report. E-MINE Electronic Mine Information Network. 2006 [“Ethiopia.icbl. A collaborative process between regional governments. the Ethiopian demining headquarters identified 97 minefields in three regions of the country where it was operating. Adigrat hospital provides emergency care and physiotherapy services. and in most cases.org/lm/2002/ethiopia] 119 Landmines Aff Ethiopia has had a landmine problem for the last 60 years.icbl. 2007 [http://www. Land mine Report. The 2004 Landmine Impact Survey conducted by Norwegian People’s Aid (NPA) was given quality assurance by the UN Mine Action Service and mainly financed by the European Community. The country is littered with large numbers of antipersonnel mines and unexploded ordnance (UXO).” http://www. Ethiopia does not have sufficient medical facilities to support landmine casualties. during which time 33 types of antipersonnel mines have been used. and prioritized those where the majority of recent landmine incidents have occurred and/or where landmines block access to critical livelihood resources. safety. with support from Medecins Sans FrontieresHolland in surgery. local community leaders and Ethiopian mine action survey teams assisted by UN advisors helped further prioritize areas most in need of immediate landmine clearance. . All cleared land is available for common use by community farmers and herders.org/country. plowing and grazing begins immediately after the handover of cleared land to the community.org/lm/2002/ethiopia] In Ethiopia.asp?c=11] Landmine and UXO contamination in the Tigray. Priorities in both Tigray and Afar are mainly determined by the value of land for agricultural purposes. 2006 [“Ethiopia. Afar and Somali regions of northern and southeastern Ethiopia negatively influences food insecurity. few hospitals are capable of performing emergency surgery and most health posts in the mine-affected areas do not have the capacity to provide emergency care to mine casualties. accessed Jul 12. and critical resources.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 Ethiopia Both people and livestock are killed by landmines. Many of the mines and minefields are near populated areas and inflict casualties on both people and livestock. Landmines stop the flow of food. It identified suspected mineaffected areas. adds to regional poverty and denies safe movement.mineaction.
The resulting 10 minefields encompassed more than 360.” To Walk the Earth in Safety: The U. The landmines will most probably be found one at a time. Humanitarian Mine Action Programs: Africa. Bureau of Political-Military Affairs. Commitment to Humanitarian Mine Action. Hundreds of thousands of UXO continue to be embedded along Namibia’s northern border. The mines are difficult to locate.htm] Landmines and unexploded ordnance (UXO) have infested about 100. Namibian Police believe that a significant quantity endanger much of the rural population.S. South African Defense Forces (SADF) had laid more than 44. August 2004 [“U. sand and vegetation growth have covered many of them. Although these mines affect a relatively small geographic area along some 300 miles of the border shared by Namibia and Angola.000 landmines in defensive perimeters around military and police bases and two water supply towers along the Namibia-Angola border in the nation’s northwest. União Nacional para a Independencia Total de Angola (UNITA) and factions of the Forças Armadas de Angola (Angolan Armed Forces [FAA]) in the Angolan civil war laid landmines in the Caprivi and Kavango regions of northeast Namibia. A 900-meter2 area around each pylon contained 24–36 landmines. From December 1999 through May 2002.gov/t/pm/rls/rpt/walkearth/2004/37227.state. . tourists from visiting. For these reasons.000 square kilometers of land (about 12 percent of Namibia) that contain some of the highest population densities in the country. By the time Namibia achieved independence from South Africa in 1989. http://www. because they are unmarked and unmapped.000 square meters of land. combatants probably buried many mines along the edge of rivers and.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 Namibia 120 Landmines Aff Landmines in Namibia discourage farmers from panting.S. a major battleground during the war for independence. the Namibian Police expect landmine casualties will continue to occur until deminers clear the affected areas. over time. The SADF also laid mines around 410 electric power pylons stretching from the northern town of Ruacana south approximately 200 kilometers to the northern border of the Estosha National Game Reserve. frighten away tourists and discourage farmers from planting crops. In addition. and put the rural population in danger.
movement. Three people were injured in the first three months of this year because of landmine accidents. They only go back to cultivate their fields on the hills. and dehumaized Norwegian refugee Council. “Trapped in displacement: internally displaced people in the osce area”] There are an increasing number of refugees who have been refused asylum in countries within the European Union.” http://www. . A number of these people are entering into a situation of internal displacement because they are unwilling or unable to return to their municipalities of origin due to concerns about their personal security.org/intradoc/groups/public/documents/UNTC/UNPAN018826. Internally displaced people are left in a perpetual state of fear. Refugees International. May 24. In Makamba.un. Of particular concern are severely traumatised individuals. to Bosnia and Herzegovina. the presence of landmines is also impeding the return. thereby creating a situation of involuntary return. In Kayogoro. Others are too afraid to return. and who are returning. IDPs who had returned home are at constant risk of being harassed and abused because of increasing banditry and their proximity to areas where former rebels have gathered to await the start of the disarmament and demobilization process.pdf. these people may have to continue to live in their area of displacement in precarious conditions or may have no alternative but to return involuntarily to their pre-war residences.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 Burundi 121 Landmines Aff Landmines perpetuate the displacement of internally displaced people in Burundi. UNHCR has expressed concern that many of these newly internally displaced people are being denied the possibility of acquiring IDP status upon return and are consequently deprived of emergency accommodation as well as basic IDP entitlements. including internally displaced women who were raped in their former places of origin and who may be unwilling or unable to return. Without assistance to secure alternative accommodation elsewhere.org/content/article/detail/965/] Internally displaced interviewed in Makamba and Gitega provinces also expressed serious concerns about security in the areas of return. 5 NOVEMBER 2004 [http://unpan1. Global IDP Project. voluntarily or involuntarily. Makamba province. War crimes witnesses are also particularly vulnerable due to the lack of fully functional national witness protection mechanisms. 2004 [“Burundi: Returning internally displaced in urgent need of assistance and protection.refugeesinternational. UN agencies have also expressed concern that requirements for housing and social assistance may exclude certain categories of vulnerable groups. including fear of persecution.
The total number of victims reported during the course of the LIS was 1. June 2006 [Bureau of Political-Military Affairs. US Department of the State.075 fatalities and 1. According to the national HMA plan. The demining of Ounianga-Kebir opened it for future tourism and trade. mine clearance operations reopened the traditional route of villagers.state.S.org/country.2 square kilometres have been found. In Moyto. ] A landmine impact survey (LIS) implemented between December 1999 and June 2001 identified 249 mine-affected communities covering up to 1. August 2004 [“U. the south (along the border with the Central African Republic) and the capital on April 13. camel herders. along with normalizing access to public buildings. date-palm cultivation has returned.asp?c=7.mineaction. After 18 years of blockage due to mine and UXO infestation. and medical care in treatment facilities.gov/t/pm/rls/rpt/walkearth/2004/37227.668 (824 fatalities and 844 injuries). by 2010 it is expected that demining of all known sites will be completed. progress has been made in reducing deaths and injuries. In 2005 USEUCOM began to focus its mine action efforts on assisting the Chadian Haut Commissariat National au Déminage to develop a Mine Victims Assistance Program through emphasis on management. Between December 2005 and April 2006. Since the start of actual demining in September 2000. with 213. 26 new fatalities and 55 new injuries were recorded.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 Chad 122 Landmines Aff Chad can get their economy and way of life back if we demine the country. and reopening access to cropland. As of August 2006. U. Commitment to Humanitarian Mine Action. trauma management. water and housing. such as schools.000 people and block access to critical resources such as water and grazing areas. land was opened to agriculture. significantly easing and securing the life of the locals.081 square kilometres.” To Walk the Earth in Safety: The U. and traders into northern Faya. A limited mine risk education campaign (funded by UNICEF and with technical support of HCND) was organized. 2007 [http://www. markets. . During the first six months of 2006 alone. Since June 2001. not including the Tibesti region. which is the most-affected area in the country. In Massenya. During these and other battles. UXO removal allowed the airport to reopen. Humanitarian Mine Action Programs: Africa. merchants. various rebel groups attacked the National Army in the east (along the border with Sudan). The US plays an absolute critical role in Chad’s demining program. and medical facilities. “To Walk the Earth in Safety”] As an outcome of continuous mine and UXO clearance in the Fada region. Units were deployed for immediate battle area clearance operations. 2006. evacuation techniques and procedures.211 injuries). accessed Jul 12.S. the total number of recorded victims reached 2. Critical water and food sources were cut off by mines. malfunctioning ammunition was abandoned and became a hazard the civilians in these areas.713 people living in areas considered dangerous. E-MINE Electronic Mine Information Network. humanitarian mine action assistance will enable the Government of Chad to demine its northern provinces and to benefit from economic and social development in those regions. immediate medical care. Bureau of Political-Military Affairs.htm] The United States played a key role in launching Chad’s mine action program in January 1998.S. Continued U.286 (1. http://www. Landmines and ERW affect the livelihoods and safety of over 280.S. military personnel trained a cadre of Chadian deminers who were capable of independently training personnel in humanitarian mine action techniques and procedures. The reopening of the road south of Faya to the capital has enhanced the life of the local residents by improving communications with the capital and the rest of Central and West Africa. new minefields and dangerous areas together measuring 85. The United States also provided necessary demining equipment. in addition to the conflict in the Tibesti Region.
They threaten to cause death and injuries for years to come. affecting mainly civilians. but the growing number of victims and dangerous areas being reported suggests that the impact is considerable. 2007 [“Democratic Republic of the Congo. inaccessibility of areas due to natural conditions (e. 726 suspected mined areas and 631 UXO polluted areas have been reported. and hinder humanitarian aid.” http://www. E-MINE Electronic Mine Information Network. and access to all major roads and paths for the local population as well as the humanitarian aid and development community.asp?c=65] Mines and particularly UXO maim and kill people in the DRC. If mines were removed. and unstable safety conditions have inhibited survey activity. North Kivu and Oriental provinces. The large size of the country. The provinces of Equateur. vegetation and abundant rainfall).1/profiles/drc/DRcongo. and there would be more farming. villages and water resources. accessed Jul 12. reconstruction.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 Democratic Republic of the Congo 123 Landmines Aff There is currently land denial in the Democratic Republic of Congo. and are expected to rise dramatically as more information is gathered from hitherto inaccessible areas and a tenuous return to normalcy in parts of the country allows greater freedom of movement. the figures represent only the tip of the iceberg. The impact of landmines and explosive remnants of war on the population is difficult to determine due to the isolation of areas in the southeast for the past three years. including disease.” http://www.asp?c=65] The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC)—sometimes referred to as the host of the worst emergency to unfold in Africa in recent decades—has more than 1. stop reconstruction.864 victims have been recorded (815 killed and 1.asp?c=65] Successful elections. In this case.mineaction. To date. accessed Jul 12. 707 and 502 areas. transportation would be possible. http://maic. E-MINE Electronic Mine Information Network. Mines are terribly dangerous in the DRC. there have been approximately 2. Megan Wertz. it is essential that mine action be adequately funded to ensure the safe return of refugees and internally displaced persons (IDPs).jmu. mainly due to the ERW threat.mineaction. E-MINE Electronic Mine Information Network. but this is only the tip of the iceberg. 2007 [“Democratic Republic of the Congo. Mission in the DRC.edu/Journal/10.1 The majority of recorded casualties occurred in Equateur. school grounds. James Madison University w/ a B.org/country.049 injured). the clearance of agricultural land.g.. Katanga. hunger and violence. the peaceful establishment of a new government and the formation of an integrated army could mean the beginning of increased humanitarian access and development for the DRC.org/country. have not yet been cleared. Nongovernmental organizations have experienced difficulties when attempting to access remote areas of the DRC. The extent of the problem is difficult to assess.N. Since 2001.htm] The total number of mine/UXO casualties in the DRC is unknown.” http://www. Mines and unexploded ordnance (UXO) are among the most pernicious effects of the years of fighting. in technical and scientific communication. development and peace-building throughout the country. Out of these. IDPs would safely return. respectively. According to the U. . they are one of the most deadly weapons. 1. impede bringning peace.000 people dying every day from war-related causes. the Kivus and Katanga are the most affected.S. Sadly.mineaction. 2007 [“Democratic Republic of the Congo. accessed Jul 12. Landmines hinder humanitarian aid. according to estimates from the International Crisis Group. South Kivu.org/country. Thursday August 03 2006 [worked for the Journal of Mine Action since August 2005. Orientale.585 mine casualties recorded.
Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 124 Landmines Aff ****US Key**** .
20 per cent of them children. the US and Russia. She specifically named China.un. bears a special responsibility for the landmines crisis.000-20. has called on those countries that have not yet ratified the 1997 landmine ban or ended production of the devices to do so. . the overwhelming majority of the 15. But Human Rights Watch released fresh research showing that U. Kenya.200 mine fields known to remain in the country after decades of war. http://www. President Bush should make joining the Mine Ban Treaty a high priority so that the U.S. on 2 December.org/ecosocdev/geninfo/afrec/vol18no4/184briefs. India.htm) With landmines killing or injuring thousands of children each year. Ms. With upwards of 300 mn of the explosive devices scattered across conflict zones in Africa. 10 July 2007) The United States spends more money on humanitarian mine programs than any other country.hrw.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 US Key .” 5 March 2001.htm." http://www." According to the International Campaign to Ban Landmines. The majority of people maimed or killed by landmines are innocent civilians. "Landmines are a deadly attraction for children.-manufactured antipersonnel mines have been used by government or rebel forces in at least twenty-eight countries or regions. ARO 04 (Africa Renewal Online. UNICEF: landmine ban a "moral responsibility. A project to clear mines from a wildlife sanctuary and elephant migration route in Angola was announced at the summit. whose innate curiosity and need for play often lure them directly into harm's way. one of 2. can fully wield its influence and power to achieve a truly global ban on antipersonnel mines.S. "The U. causing numerous civilian casualties. Asia and Latin America. program director of the Arms Division of Human Rights Watch. and Pentagon officials often insist that U.org/english/docs/2001/03/05/usint352." said Stephen Goose. "Countries have a moral responsibility to ratify the mine ban treaty and rid the world of these devastating weapons." The US has a moral responsibility to get rid of landmines. "Washington is one of the largest producers and exporters of mines in the past. mines are a major obstacle to development in some areas.S. mines cause relatively little damage. Carol Bellamy.Responsibility 125 Landmines Aff The United States bears a special responsibility to remove landmine Human Rights News 01 (“US Also Bears Responsibility for Landmines Crisis. the head of the UN Children's Fund (UNICEF)." she told delegates to the first World Summit on a Mine-Free World in Nairobi.000 people killed or maimed annually by landmines are civilians -.S. and one of the largest stockpilers today.
Responsibility 126 Landmines Aff The impacts of landmines are structural – they claim one life every 22 minutes – 800 lives every month – and 2600 lives a year [Mark Stemman. “Land Mines: Mass Destruction in slow motion. poor nations have no choice but to undertake the enormous project of mine clearance.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 US Key .camouflaged explosives made to cripple or kill people. The complete dc-mining of Cambodia alone will take an estimated 250 years. Though they receive less attention than nuclear or other conventional weapons. and wreak economic havoc on strategic areas.000 amputees! And the figures are growing at just such an rate in almost half of the countries we are working in (emphasis added). Coalition for Peace Action. paths.html] Landmines .000 victims every year.6 Although mine-clearing technologies do exist and work to some extent.000 are walking again.peacecoalition.000 Cambodian amputees. According to Handicap International: In 1979.000 in equipment and labor to remove. there were about 10.today . Secretary General Boutros Boutros-Ohali. cripple potential adversaries.manufacture. an unlikelyprospect (Toward Freedom April/May 1995). pose a danger to civilian populations in dozens of nations. In the developing world. After 10 years of hard work. easy to carry.. they risk human lives and drain scarce resources in many developing-world nations. the United States -which has funded the placing of landinines in wars from Angolato Nicaragua .has a special responsibility to take a leadershiprole in the effort to enact an international ban on the expon. Children's exercise books contain pictures of antipersonnel mines 6n their back covers in an attempt to teach the young about the dangerous nines that lay hidden all over the country. . Updated by Scot Natbanson. nearly 15.8 To remove all of the mines in the world today.turn fields. possession.5 There is no solution to the landmines problem in Cambodia in sight. some supplied by the United Stares.7 This robs these nations of precious resources that otherwise could be invested in sustain-able development programs.. remain buried in Cambodia as a grim reminder of two decades of fighting. and use of landmines.100 years If the effort continues at the current rate and landmine proliferation were stopped completely in 1996. Combatants lay landmines to cordon off areas.3 easy to acquire. and capable of making large areas inaccessible.there are 30. would cost $33 billion and take nearly 1. according to a report by U. http://www. This means one casualty every 22 minutes. 26. World War II landmines in the Netherlands continue to maim an average of 12 people per year. Because of the tremendous number of mines strewn indiscriminately throughout the developing world (an estimated 110 million at this time). and travel routes into potential death traps for innocent civilians long after the conflicts end and the causes of war are forgotten. an estimated four million mines. a landmine that costs as little as $3 to purchase often costs as much as $1. or to destroy weaponry .4 Antipersonnel landmines.N. 2 Landmines are cheap. landmines kill 800 people every month. The problem is that . For example. designed smaller to target people on foot.-. In the West. 1995.9 As the world's number one power.org/facts/landmines.
jmu. The goal is to transition new technologies to both military and civilian demining organizations. Army Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate (NVESD) executes the R&D program for the Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Special Operations and Low Intensity Conflict (OASD(SO/LIC)).jmu. which now has been restored to productive agricultural use. UXO LAO personnel have also conducted mine/UXO awareness visits in more than 2. Nearly 3. April 2003 (“The U.1. beans and maniocs. demonstrates and validates equipment for immediate use in various international HD missions and environments. As of January 2003.000 square meters of land.000 pieces of UXO and cleared more than 32.000 mines and over 13.S.S Army Night Vision & Electronic Sensors Directorate. and Laos prove. schools are being rehabilitated and there is access once again to major industries such as the Guinea-Telecom Center. Countermine Division of the US army provides the best demining technology. Jordan has proudly established an effective national mine action program. From the Pentagon. Journal of Mine Action. http://maic. .1/focus/sburke/sburke.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 US Demining Good—Training and Technology 127 Landmines Aff US demining training and technology empirically solve—Guinea Bissau.S.700.1/focus/lange/lange. rendering 257.178 square meters mine safe. A key component of the program is to develop demining technologies and then to provide equipment to the international demining community to assess its capabilities in actual demining conditions. restoring more than 3. Laos U. creating an indigenous capability to clear UXO and also the ability to train additional clearance technicians. and individual deminer tools. coupled with a world-class fabrication facility and access to excellent test facilities. Over 49. The program aims to improve on existing technologies for mine and minefield detection.000 square meters are under cultivation for crops including cashews. April 2003 (“The U.htm) The Countermine Division of the U.edu/journal/7. U. Humanitarian Mine Action Program: Helping Countries “Get on Their Feet”. http://maic.1. Jordan. integrating mature technologies and taking advantage of R&D activity in tactical countermine and UXO clearance. Special Operations Forces soldiers have trained more than 1. mechanical mine and vegetation clearance. Jordan is conducting technical surveys of minefields along the Syrian border. mine neutralization. Jordan Since 1997. The HD R&D Program tests. U.S.123 landmines from about 200 minefields. State department Fellow. More than 300 Laotian medical staff members have received training in emergency rehabilitation or laboratory services. Issue 7. OASD(SO/LIC) provides funding.edu/journal/7.064 acres of land to safe use. Issue 7. which has resulted in significant lowering of casualties. Due to these efforts. the NGO HUMAID has cleared over half of the entire suspected mine-infested land in Guinea-Bissau.S.S Department of Defense Humanitarian Demining Research and Development Program”. At present. This is accomplished through adapting commercial-off-the-shelf equipment. Journal of Mine Action. The program focuses on R&D technology development that reduces the time and cost associated with demining while improving operator safety. Jordan’s Royal Corps of Engineers had cleared 86.htm) Guinea-Bissau Since January 2000. Personnel at UXO LAO (the Lao National UXO Project) have destroyed more than 363.400 villages. The NVESD Countermine Division is wellequipped to execute this program due to its extensive countermine engineering expertise. individual deminer protection.333 pieces of UXO have been destroyed.200 Laotians. much of the land has been transformed for productive use. Homes are being built. reducing time and cost constraints as well as improving safety Sean Burke. Jenny Lang. guidance and management oversight to the program.
the potential exists for introduction of this equipment into the U. As part of the overall task of guiding the host nation to establishment of a national mine action office and conducting demining training.S. Depending on the results of these demonstrations. it is important to be able to detect re-mining activity by former warring parties. http://maic. the NVESD in-house design and fabrication capability.htm) The HD R&D Program has to date deployed equipment to nearly 30 countries.edu/journal/7. when military units deploy for peacekeeping and stability operations. In addition.1.S.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 US Demining Good—Training and Technology 128 Landmines Aff US demining efforts solve best—technology and training allows host countries to move faster and sustain demining operations Sean Burke. they move into areas where fighting has just ended and the danger of landmines is significant. Several HD R&D technologies are now undergoing extensive demonstrations under the JACACTD.S Army Night Vision & Electronic Sensors Directorate. worldwide technology development and field evaluations has proven to be an excellent formula for success. In March 2002. The unique system of annual requirements workshops.jmu. . U.1/focus/sburke/sburke. Some pieces of equipment developed by the R&D Program may be effective tools for peacekeeping and stability operations. the Army established the Joint Area Clearance Advanced Concept Technology Demonstration (JAC-ACTD). First. U. the Thai government officially released cleared land along the Thai-Cambodia border to the civilian population. troops also benefit from the HD R&D Program. The HD R&D Program continues to develop new technologies to improve the safety and efficiency of demining. Also. U. they can recommend technologies developed under the HD R&D Program.S Department of Defense Humanitarian Demining Research and Development Program”. The story of the Tempest and SDTT in Thailand is a prime example. soldiers are key players in establishing sustainable indigenous mine action capacities in supported countries. military. The HD R&D Program was an integral part of this important success. The HD R&D Program also benefits the Army as a whole because its efforts contribute to solving the humanitarian mine problem while assisting military countermine research. Besides providing valuable performance data to demining organizations and the R&D Program. these deployments have had a direct impact on the slow but steady progress being made to remove post-conflict landmines. Issue 7. They need the means to detect and clear all landmines in these areas. April 2003 (“The U.S. In order to examine the military utility of this equipment. Journal of Mine Action.
has also assisted in the investigation of new detection and clearance technologies. Her group examines and adapts existing commercial off-the-shelf technologies and equipment that will help detect. The assistant secretary of defense for special operations and low intensity conflict oversees the DoD Humanitarian Demining Program. And that equipment is needed. and the Organization of American States. Government has been a pioneer and steadfast supporter of mine action." said Beverly Briggs. "In the last year alone we've deployed some eight major mine detection/mine clearance systems into Bosnia. assistant secretary for Political-Military Affairs and Special Represenative for Mine. training.000 mines. Government has spent about $700 million dollars to support mine action efforts in forty-five countries. the development of indigenous mine action capacities and the formation of a wide array of publicprivate partnerships.htm) The U.S.S. At the end of the civil war in Nicaragua there were 132.S. Since then. 4. Humanitarian Demining program includes 33 countries of which DoD has conducted operations in 27. US Humanitarian Demining program solves technological and training requirements for demining American Forces Press Service. Kosovo. Bloomfield Jr.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 US Key – Technology & Training 129 Landmines Aff US is a pioneer in demining—technology. President Clinton directed the Department of Defense to significantly expand its humanitarian demining program. . helping where it can by providing financial support to and training for mine risk education initiatives and clearance efforts. The aim of these partnerships has been to reinforce the official mine action programs of the United States. The DoD program is a critical component of the overall U.S. Humanitarian Mine Action Program4. The U. other donor nations.000 mines still buried in Angola." Briggs said. Journal of Diplomacy and International Relations. where one out of every 236 people is an amputee because of mine blasts. furthermore. as well as the development of leadership and organizational skills necessary to sustain the programs after American military trainers have redeployed.aspx?id=44590) "We're in a mad dash to get to the field with a new capability. Cambodia and Guantanamo Bay. February 9. mine awareness. program.mil/news/newsarticle. Currently the U. such as unexploded cluster bombs and artillery rounds. the U. The United States has taken the lead to assist countries that are experiencing the problems of uncleared land mines.S. and protect individual deminers. A look around the world gives an idea of the scope of the problem: "Hidden Killers" a State Department publication says there are 60 million mines worldwide." This mission does not include anti-tank mines or other ordnance that may be in areas. and funding. Number 1. mark and map minefields.S. neutralize and clear mines. to develop improved mine detection and clearing technology and to share this new technology with the international community. http://www.defenselink.. head of DoD's Humanitarian Demining Research and Development Program office here. Jordan. she said. Officials estimate there are 500.state. 2000 (“DoD Aids Global Demining Efforts”. Lincoln P.gov/t/pm/rls/rm/24987. http://www. There are between 4 million and 6 million land mines in Cambodia. made the response to the landmine crisis a priority and organized its previously ad-hoc efforts into the formal U. DoD's program concentrates on training host nations in the procedures of land mine clearance. In 1993. December 2002 (“Deritus of Conflict: The US Approach to the Humanitarian Problem Posed by Landmines and Other Hazardous Remnants of War”. Vol. "We aim to eliminate the threat posed to civilians by antipersonnel land mines. the United Nations. and victims' assistance. the U.S. In May 1996.
and provided health care for mine victims and their families. require no sophisticated technology.000 casualties each year. CASE MNEMONIC: LANDMINE. The US is the world leader for de-mining activites. and updates on special refugee situations from Sudan to Afghanistan. These maps were provided to US diplomats and posted on the United Nation's ReliefWeb site. are easily transported and are difficult to track and monitor. Humanitarian De-mining 07 (“Landmine threats: Global Problem.S. However.” http://www.edu/TED/LANDMINE. The floods were devastating and generated a multilateral response that included US forces. within 24 hours. the production and distribution of antipersonnel landmines is a much more difficult task. General Assembly called for the eventual elimination of antipersonnel landmines and the creation of an international control regime to regulate the production. the Department worked with non-governmental organizations and the Department of Defense for the delivery of humanitarian assistance to the victims of natural and manmade disasters The Department provided assistance on the floods in Mozambique in the Spring of 2000. these mines remain in the ground long after the conflict ends. U. The Department assisted by using Geographic Information System (GIS) tools and declassified intelligence data to match up radar-based calculations of flood zones with population distribution. killing and maiming civilians and making large area of land unusable for agriculture or development. highlighting areas where there would be concentrations of vulnerable groups. interagency approval of DOD drawdowns for flood victims in Venezuela and southern Africa.” CASE NUMBER: 295.state. 1994 address to the U. created the DoD Humanitarian Demining Research and Development Program specifically to help solve this problem. humanitarian de-mining assistance has reduced landmine casualties. legislative and treaty underpinnings for activity in this area. The US created the a research and development program to solve landmines. Africa. Humanitarian Victim Assistance The Department also managed.” http://www. restored agricultural land to productive use. Department of State 2000 (“Report Narrative. numerous conflicts in Europe. May 15. 1996 [“ANGOLA'S LANDMINES. Since World War II. leads the world in addressing the many problems that land mines pose.humanitariandemining.htm) The Department's Humanitarian De-mining Program has assisted 37 countries on five continents in confronting the direct and indirect effects of landmines. It has set up the Demining Assistance Program to provide mine awareness training and mine clearance training to nations plagued with mines. Approximately 55 million landmines in nearly 60 countries cause over 10. CASE NAME: ANGOLA'S LANDMINES. American University. returned refugees to their homes.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 US Key – Tech 130 Landmines Aff US de-mining expertise is key to solve landmine crisis.S. http://www.HTM] The U.asp) The landmine has been an accepted weapon of war for over a century. landmines are cheaply manufactured and maintained. in a September.gov/s/d/rm/rls/perfrpt/2000/1902. Central and South America. Unfortunately. It has also developed cost effective forms of mine clearance techniques.N. export and stockpiling of antipersonnel landmines. the Middle East and Asia resulted in the planting of millions of landmines.american.org/threats/proliferation. Unlike nuclear weapons. . In January 2000. The U.S. The regime idea was clearly styled after the International Atomic Energy Agency with the hope of emulating its past success in limiting the number of countries with nuclear weapons capabilities. the Department launched an extensive web site on refugee and migration issues to provide reports on USG initiatives with NGOs and International Organizations. In that vein president Clinton. In addition.
be useful. Some currently available satellite and global positioning satellite (GPS) technology may. with further development. computer-assisted technology to mimic the processing a dog's nose and brain do to differentiate smells.Tech 131 Landmines Aff US technological leadership and research advancement make it the best actor for solvency Sahlin 98(“Global Mine Clearance: An Achievable Goal?” Carl T. and second. This decision acknowledges that the number of mines is not as central to the issue as the number of victims. Highly accurate surveys are needed to separate suspected from confirmed areas and.html) As long as the United States is the pre-eminent world power. further development of fast. This research is promising and may result in very low risk mine clearance. First. the one that exploded. The problem is further complicated by the profusion of areas that are declared minefields but are in fact only "suspected" or may consist of only one mine. The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) is developing. The conference attendees agreed to revise and lower the estimate. While that approach got mines out of the ground. cheap clearance should be the remaining priority. About 10 years ago the United States joined the fledgling humanitarian mine clearance effort around the world. use technology to find and clear the mines. With suspected areas ruled out.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 US Key. August 1998 Jr. The May 1998 Washington Conference acknowledged that 110 million mines may be a counterproductive overestimation. approach to mine clearance. The "one at a time" clearance method of the past requires technological augmentation to reach the President's goal. Using this technology to reliably rule out suspected areas. much land can be returned to use without the expense of painstakingly clearing each square foot. Further research in this area coupled with highly accurate surveys could make the concept of land mines in war obsolete. to limit the actual mined areas to their real boundaries. Senior Military Fellow at INSS Number 143. A two-part enhanced technology effort is emerging as a cornerstone of the U. among other projects. .S.edu/inss/strforum/SF143/forum143. it will be looked to for leadership in mine clearance. Sahlin. Since that time we have generally expanded our effort by simply doing more of what was done before. SF Banner http://www.ndu. it will not suffice to meet President Clinton's goal and the world's expectation of us. further. use technology to cut the problem down to size.
S. The United States can research and develop faster and better than any other nation in the clearance effort. the United States should concentrate its greater technological capability on high speed.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 US Key. strategy to achieve the President's goal by the year 2010. and limiting the problem to its true size.S.edu/inss/strforum/SF143/forum143.html) The Departments of State and Defense should collaborate in order to change U.edu/inss/strforum/SF143/forum143. They have trained and equipped roughly one-quarter of all the people who work at this effort around the world. can broaden into a program encouraging economic development while promoting stability and peace. Our experts have helped to remove mines from the ground in 15 nations. its achievement under U. SF Banner http://www. with public and private support. The United States should concentrate on rapidly achieving breakthroughs in research and development. The US is hands down the most important solvency mechanism. they are key Sahlin 98(“Global Mine Clearance: An Achievable Goal?” Carl T. The United States has also led the world in the effort to remove existing land mines.html) While global APL casualty reduction by the year 2010 is a worthwhile goal. Senior Military Fellow at INSS Number 143. Finally.Tech Development 132 Landmines Aff Only the US should enact the plan. Senior Military Fellow at INSS Number 143. That strategy should promote America's ability to do that which it does best. August 1998 Jr. . Sahlin. A good start has been made which. increased reliability surveys. a public information campaign is needed to increase support for this humanitarian cause in the United States. August 1998 Jr. leadership requires a change in current philosophy and an intensively managed follow-through. We should stop funding limited benefit "train the trainer" type missions while increasing contracts with the most reliable private mine clearance companies for operations. It is important to continue removing mines by every means possible because each mine removed is potentially a life saved. again not with talk. Efforts should be redoubled to develop medical and rehabilitative infrastructure because the United States is one of the few countries which can do so. they work the best Sahlin 98(“Global Mine Clearance: An Achievable Goal?” Carl T. SF Banner http://www. This would allow more land to be declared mine-free and returned to use. New partnerships between public and private sectors should be encouraged. These efforts are paying off. Sahlin. applying these technological advances to surveying to quickly confirm or deny suspected minefields. Our superior medical technology can be applied to victim assistance.ndu. but with action that has saved lives.ndu. While other countries continue their efforts.
but has a small budget for demining project support and does not routinely consult on each demining mission. government agencies throughout the process. The United States is actively trying to alleviate APL dangers until the new technology is available. August 1998 Jr. Mine-afflicted countries know that U. once mine clearance has been completed. DOD sends uniformed service members to teach indigenous troops or citizens mine clearance and related subjects. An unwritten policy from Capitol Hill requires that U.Local Reliance 133 Landmines Aff The US solves the best.html) While this research is carried out.S.S. most recipients of U. and adequate availability of spare parts·all serviced by honest and friendly personnel. Wartime mine-breaching operations are different from peacetime clearance because in war there is no concern for preserving the agricultural quality of the soil.S. These NGOs have hands-on experience and are willing to go into the field with their trainees. SF Banner http://www. U. instruction is not as credible as that from Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs).S. The link between mine clearance and economic development could be maximized by closer cooperation among U. adequate training for that equipment. instructors are teaching mine clearing from a theoretical point only. Senior Military Fellow at INSS Number 143. to include evaluative follow-up.ndu.S. instructors not accompany indigenous personnel in minefields during actual mine removal. administrative and logistical support is still highly regarded. . Other U. the recipients of landmine assistance trust them and rely on US supplies Sahlin 98(“Global Mine Clearance: An Achievable Goal?” Carl T.edu/inss/strforum/SF143/forum143. Further. since they have never cleared actual mines under peacetime conditions. military aid in general know that the United States lives up to its written agreements. The U. The United States has the reputation in many mineafflicted countries of providing reliable equipment. government agencies also contribute.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) has a seat on the Inter-Agency Work Group for Humanitarian Demining.S.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 US Key. The impact of this is obvious.S. However. casualties are still occurring at an alarming rate. Sahlin. U.
Agency for International Development (USAID) has a seat on the Inter-Agency Work Group for Humanitarian Demining. instructors are teaching mine clearing from a theoretical point only. An unwritten policy from Capitol Hill requires that U. The impact of this is obvious. adequate training for that equipment. Senior Military Fellow at INSS Number 143.S.S. The link between mine clearance and economic development could be maximized by closer cooperation among U. Further.ndu. since they have never cleared actual mines under peacetime conditions.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 US Key. SF Banner http://www. and adequate availability of spare parts·all serviced by honest and friendly personnel. most recipients of U. once mine clearance has been completed.S. instruction is not as credible as that from Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs). instructors not accompany indigenous personnel in minefields during actual mine removal. U. U. The United States is actively trying to alleviate APL dangers until the new technology is available. The United States has the reputation in many mineafflicted countries of providing reliable equipment. August 1998 Jr.S. administrative and logistical support is still highly regarded. Sahlin.S. The U.S.html) While this research is carried out. However. government agencies also contribute. . to include evaluative follow-up. Mine-afflicted countries know that U. casualties are still occurring at an alarming rate. These NGOs have hands-on experience and are willing to go into the field with their trainees. but has a small budget for demining project support and does not routinely consult on each demining mission.Local Reliance 134 Landmines Aff The US solves the best.edu/inss/strforum/SF143/forum143. DOD sends uniformed service members to teach indigenous troops or citizens mine clearance and related subjects.S. Other U.S. military aid in general know that the United States lives up to its written agreements. the recipients of landmine assistance trust them and rely on US supplies Sahlin 98(“Global Mine Clearance: An Achievable Goal?” Carl T. government agencies throughout the process. Wartime mine-breaching operations are different from peacetime clearance because in war there is no concern for preserving the agricultural quality of the soil.
including the use of MDDs and specially designed mechanical equipment. Issue 7. particularly crises in which landmines are involved.1/focus/lange/lange. As of November 2002. the QRDF is deployed to conduct emergency or special demining operations to assure the safety of refugees and internally displaced persons (IDPs) or to facilitate the peace process. predefined missions. the United States developed a Quick Reaction Demining Force (QRDF). the U. “The Quick Reaction Demining Force: The United States' Response to Humanitarian Demining Crises” http://maic. Jenny Lang. State department Fellow. the United States established a Quick Reaction Demining Force (QRDF) to respond to immediate post-conflict situations. U. In between deployments outside Mozambique. professional humanitarian demining group composed primarily of four 10-man teams of Mozambican mine clearance specialists augmented by eight mine detection dog (MDD) teams of one dog and handler each. Department of State's Office of Humanitarian Demining Programs (now the Office of Weapons Removal and Abatement) in cooperation with the Republic of Mozambique established the QRDF as a result of lessons learned from the immediate post-conflict situation in Kosovo. which allows the QRDF to both perform valuable service in that mine-affected nation as well as keep its professional skills finely honed. Presently based in Mozambique. provision of equipment. The QRDF is deployed to demining crisis situations as directed by the U.S. Roberts 04 (Hayden. UXO and improvised explosive devices (IEDs) found in the areas designated for clearance.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 US Key . the teams locate. post-air war return of refugees to mine-infested Kosovo in 1999.edu/journal/8.S. The United States has also established an independent management unit in Maputo to manage QRDF operations in coordination with Mozambican authorities. training and supervision of QRDF personnel within and outside the Republic of Mozambique. Journal of Mine Action.Quick Reaction Demining Force 135 Landmines Aff US demining forces are capable of solving landmine disasters—the Quick Reaction Demining Force in Mozambique proves. http://maic. map. In Sudan. The teams can be deployed worldwide within 14 days of activation to provide immediate demining assistance in emergency humanitarian situations. record and destroy landmines.edu/journal/7.jmu. displacing thousands of landmines.htm) Based on lessons learned from the Kosovo experience. the QRDF conducted operations for close to six weeks. the force had returned 122. Established in 2000. Once deployed. Humanitarian Mine Action Program: Helping Countries “Get on Their Feet”. creating safe conditions for the public and reducing the number of casualties due to landmines.1. destroying 980 mines and 141 pieces of UXO in the process and allowing thousands of IDPs to safely travel throughout the country as they return to their homes.348 square meters of land to safe use in Sri Lanka. Frazure-Kreuzel-Drew Fellow.jmu.htm) Humanitarian crises. the rapid. Examples of such crises include Hurricane Mitch. and is outfitted with demining-specific tools and materials. When the teams are not deployed in short-term.1/focus/roberts/roberts.S. Overview of the QRDF In April 2001. which struck Central America in 1988. identify. JMU. government. US demining forces solve—they’ve reduced the number of casualties to landmines in Mozambique.S. they perform demining missions in Mozambique. where threats to returning refugees existed. the QRDF executed its first deployed missions in Sri Lanka and Sudan in 2002. . The force incorporates proven demining procedures. the QRDF engages in humanitarian demining in support of Mozambique's National Demining Institute. The QRDF is a permanent. may occur without warning and require an immediate response. To respond to such emergency situations quickly and efficiently. and tropical cyclones Hudah and Eline that ravaged Mozambique in 2000. April 2003 (“The U. The United States oversees recruitment.
22 pg. so is that of the rest of the world. to bring to bear the numbers of deminers that are needed. should be to prominent leader in demining. however. 1995.S.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 US key to Demining 136 Landmines Aff The U. They also help train personnel in effective. . Congress asked the president to produce a report on international mine-clearing efforts in situations involving repatriation and resettlement of refugees and displaced persons. Given current technologies. 22 pg. Indeed. 62) American demining programs educate local populations about how best to cope with land mines until they can be permanently removed. providing the baseline data that all could rely on and refer to. Hidden Killers succeeded in helping to raise awareness of the problem in the U. efforts to understand and address it. Fortunately.S. initial U. most of the world did not take this problem seriously. Such "train the trainer" programs have proved most effective because they enable land mine-plagued countries to address the problem themselves. As recently as 1993. in other governments around the world. global survey of the land mine problem. its progress spills over into other programs Anderson 95(“Clearing The Fields Solutions to the Global Land Mines Crisis” Kenneth Anderson director of the Arms Project of Human Rights Watch Published by Basicbooks and The Council on Foreign Relations New York. this is the most cost-effective way to approach the situation and the only way. initiatives is best understood in the context of a learning process. efforts to sensitize others to the growing land mine problem evoked little attention. resulted in the report Hidden Killers. safe demining techniques.S. approach to the land mine problem is evolving. government. delegated to the secretary of state. This task. so have U. 1995. that awareness and understanding of the problem have been very uneven around the world. It bears stating.S. and among many nongovernmental organizations.S. but the point is that just as the U. that is changing. 1 the very first country-by-country. questia pg. The development of U. US demining programs are key to success Anderson 95(“Clearing The Fields Solutions to the Global Land Mines Crisis” Kenneth Anderson director of the Arms Project of Human Rights Watch Published by Basicbooks and The Council on Foreign Relations New York. 60-61) As the nature of the land mine problem has evolved. in these countries.S. In the 1992 Defense Authorization Act. questia pg. The United States was among the first to assume a leadership role in focusing attention on the problem and in allocating resources to address it.
A typical U. 2000 http://www. "Pat" Patierno. The Campaign has adopted the sixteen most dangerous minefields in Cambodia as identified by the UN. Other Department of State organizations involved in humanitarian demining include the U. PRM helps the resettlement of refugees and internally displaced persons forced to leave their homes because of the presence of landmines. Director. The clearing of the eight minefields in Bosnia will enable a primary school to re-open. to drink potable water. The Campaign has adopted seven minefields in Croatia and once they are cleared refugees will be able to return to their homes. electric power to flow once again. US programs are key to long-term demining solvency Patierno 00(Donald F. U.S.S. Special Operations Forces (SOF) teach mine awareness programs and train the host-nation's nationals to clear the landmines.Generic 137 Landmines Aff US Solves Best Patierno 00(Donald F. such as Afghanistan.int/rw/rwb.reliefweb.int/rw/rwb. and agricultural land yield life-giving crops once more. through the Senator (Patrick) Leahy War Victims Fund. until it reaches the sustainability phase. Refugees and Migration (PRM). the Campaign is clearing 6 minefields in both urban and residential areas as well as clearing roads and restoring agricultural lands to productive use. Bethesda. All these minefields are located in the center of villages making a normal way of life impossible for their inhabitants. Office of Humanitarian Demining Programs Bureau of PoliticalMilitary Affairs U. it sometimes happens that U. Cambodia.S. provides comprehensive medical support to landmine victims and their families. For a variety of reasons. U. program involves helping to set up a mine action center to coordinate all demining activities.S. However. . Office of Humanitarian Demining Programs Bureau of PoliticalMilitary Affairs U. and conducting a demining training program so that the hostnation's people will have the technical know. "Pat" Patierno. establishing a mine awareness program to teach people about the danger of mines and how to report their locations to authorities. In Afghanistan.S. and fosters economic and social stability. Maryland April 2. the Campaign has adopted 46 minefields in five of the most heavily mineaffected nations in the world: Afghanistan.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 US key. Department of State Remarks at the Unitarian Church.5 million. Special Operations Forces are unable to go into certain countries. 2000 http://www. Department of State Remarks at the Unitarian Church. assists the reconstruction of bridges and roads. Bosnia.reliefweb. Bethesda. Department of State Remarks at the Unitarian Church. The total cost for these adoptions is almost $1.int/rw/rwb.S. the Department of State's Office of Humanitarian Demining Programs provides additional funding to support the program. Maryland April 2. Finally. to worship in their churches. Bethesda. clearing of the nine minefields in Mozambique which the Campaign has adopted will restore agricultural land to productive use and provide access to potable water. assistance is provided by a commercial firm which performs the same "training and equip" functions provided by the U. USAID. It helps restores vital land to productive use. and Mozambique. removing landmines has other significant benefits. Director. SOF. and to plant seeds whose fruit will produce good wine. The preferred means to achieve these objectives is to help the mine. Maryland April 2. 2000 http://www. The Department of Defense also provides a limited amount of the initial demining equipment. Croatia.S Agency for International Development (USAID) and the Bureau of Population.affected country establish its own sustainable demining capability.S. In such situations. Director.nsf/AllDocsByUNID/f4dec004b138bcb0c12568c000438d0f) Our principal goal is to remove the threat landmines pose to civilians. Office of Humanitarian Demining Programs Bureau of PoliticalMilitary Affairs U.reliefweb.nsf/AllDocsByUNID/f4dec004b138bcb0c12568c000438d0f) Once the training phase is complete. usually with equipment and service contracts.nsf/AllDocsByUNID/f4dec004b138bcb0c12568c000438d0f) As of March 17 this year. "Pat" Patierno. The US campaign against Landmines has empirically worked Patierno 00(Donald F.how to clear the mines themselves safely and efficiently.S.
ndu. 1997. Sahlin.S.htm) Humanitarian demining is one of the most fundamental humanitarian missions that the United States . the United States should concentrate its greater technological capability on high speed. The United States can research and develop faster and better than any other nation in the clearance effort.S. Number 32 Chicago. can broaden into a program encouraging economic development while promoting stability and peace. This would allow more land to be declared mine-free and returned to use.edu/inss/strforum/SF143/forum143. Efforts should be redoubled to develop medical and rehabilitative infrastructure because the United States is one of the few countries which can do so. Finally. applying these technological advances to surveying to quickly confirm or deny suspected minefields.edu/inss/strforum/SF143/forum143.S.html) The Departments of State and Defense should collaborate in order to change U. http://www. Sahlin. leadership requires a change in current philosophy and an intensively managed follow-through. indigenous infrastructures capable of educating the population to protect themselves from land mines. Allen Holmes. They have trained and equipped roughly one-quarter of all the people who work at this effort around the world. June 6. New partnerships between public and private sectors should be encouraged. The United States has also led the world in the effort to remove existing land mines. forces through the unique training opportunities and regional access afforded by demining activities. including civil affairs -. These efforts are paying off. eliminating the hazards posed by land mines and returning mined areas to their previous condition. they work the best Sahlin 98(“Global Mine Clearance: An Achievable Goal?” Carl T. its achievement under U. The US is hands down the most important solvency mechanism. Volume 12. While other countries continue their efforts. Senior Military Fellow at INSS Number 143.S. personnel will clear land mines or enter active minefields. Under the auspices of my office. We should stop funding limited benefit "train the trainer" type missions while increasing contracts with the most reliable private mine clearance companies for operations. increased reliability surveys.can be involved in and is a high priority for the Clinton administration.and special operations forces.specialoperations. The program assists the host country in development of all aspects of mine awareness and mine clearance procedures.ndu. That strategy should promote America's ability to do that which it does best. but with action that has saved lives. The goal of our demining effort is to help countries establish long-term. SF Banner http://www.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 US Key-General 138 Landmines Aff Only the US should enact the plan. Our experts have helped to remove mines from the ground in 15 nations.com/Literature/Articles/Civil_Affairs. US Humanitarian Demining Assistance provides crucial support for countries Holmes 97(“Civil Affairs: Reflections of the Future”Prepared remarks by H. August 1998 Jr. with the caveat that no U. again not with talk. A good start has been made which.html) While global APL casualty reduction by the year 2010 is a worthwhile goal. Example: civil affairs in Cambodia. with public and private support. It is important to continue removing mines by every means possible because each mine removed is potentially a life saved. at the Worldwide Civil Affairs Conference. The United States should concentrate on rapidly achieving breakthroughs in research and development. DoD is pursuing a vital role in humanitarian demining while improving the readiness of U. SF Banner http://www. . Senior Military Fellow at INSS Number 143. Our superior medical technology can be applied to victim assistance. and limiting the problem to its true size. a public information campaign is needed to increase support for this humanitarian cause in the United States. they are key Sahlin 98(“Global Mine Clearance: An Achievable Goal?” Carl T. assistant secretary of defense for special operations and low-intensity conflict. strategy to achieve the President's goal by the year 2010. August 1998 Jr.
the Civilian Mine Action Center and the U. Our civil affairs personnel create immediate. 1997.S. http://www.S. http://www. June 6.specialoperations. Number 32 Chicago. tangible benefits in host countries around the world: Roads and schoolhouses are built. our civil affairs personnel had only recently been incorporated into demining teams. mined fields are made safe.clearly. we must avoid highcost solutions and seek greater international cooperation. Civil Affairs personnel Key to Hegemony Holmes 97(“Civil Affairs: Reflections of the Future”Prepared remarks by H. chaos and confusion are diffused. at the Worldwide Civil Affairs Conference. Allen Holmes.com/Literature/Articles/Civil_Affairs. governments are stabilized. Now. By making a difference in the lives of the local populace. direct. 1997.com/Literature/Articles/Civil_Affairs.US Leadership 139 Landmines Aff US special forces in civil affairs provide necessary skills for demining Holmes 97(“Civil Affairs: Reflections of the Future”Prepared remarks by H. Embassy.htm) Special operations forces are the primary U. assistant secretary of defense for special operations and low-intensity conflict. Our civil affairs personnel allow us to do just that. our civil affairs personnel are also helping to strengthen the good will of the United States in the eyes of the world -. which is the ultimate goal of this critical program. Number 32 Chicago. Moreover. long-term programs. wells are dug. Volume 12. at the Worldwide Civil Affairs Conference.htm) As we look to the future. military resource for the training programs. our civil affairs soldiers are beginning to play a key role in our humanitarian demining program. Our challenge is to maintain an effective military presence throughout the world within a tighter budgetary environment. Allen Holmes. assistant secretary of defense for special operations and low-intensity conflict. . the civil affairs forces provide the necessary skills to train host nation personnel to develop indigenous demining entities and maintain selfsustaining. Volume 12.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 US Key. our civil affairs forces are invaluable diplomacy multipliers. June 6. In order to do so.specialoperations. the host government. When we met this time last year. Civil affairs personnel serve as liaisons among our demining teams. it is critical that we maintain a presence and develop relationships in regions that are important to our national interest. and order is re-established.
the U. who added that the project is intended for the removal of landmines.state. http://www. Mine awareness training and materials. Deminers have cleared millions of sq. Eritrea. have helped to reduce landmine casualties. the Office of Humanitarian Demining Programs is funding the following countries: Angola. 07/05 . Government of Angola.S. Somalia. The United States has conducted or assessed implementation of mine-detection dog (MDD) programs in several African countries. in order to make the land arable again for agriculture. U. Mozambique. including Eritrea. Rwanda. Guinea Bissau.NSF/db900SID/ACIO-6DZSB5?OpenDocument&Click=] Luanda. m of land and thousands of km of roadway. Agency for International Development (USAID). she said.int/rw/RWB. Chad.700 deminers and medical technicians in at least 10 countries. 2003. Office of Humanitarian Demining Programs Washington.” Bureau of Political-Military Affairs. Ethiopia. July 2. Heidi Kuhn.htm Fact) The majority of funding was provided by the Department of State. “Angola: Partnership with US landmines-related NGOs.S. Namibia. Hundreds of thousands of landmines/UXO have been destroyed in Africa. Djibouti. and Zambia. we would like to help clear landmines in Angola". Other funding was provided by the Department of Defense. enabling hundreds of thousands of refugees and internally displaced persons (IDPs) to return to their homes. such as various media/sign postings. "At a time that the attentions are focused on Africa. Angola shows empirical evidence of the US being able to take out landmines. DC. sign postings and deminers. Rwanda. and Mozambique. In FY 2003. Department of Defense personnel have trained a minimum of 1. This was said at a press conference by the founder of "Roots of Peace".reliefweb.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 US Solves – Empirical Africa 140 Landmines Aff US funding key to demining efforts—training. Sudan. materials.gov/t/pm/rls/fs/22173. 05 Jul 2005[press releases.”http://www. . and the Centers for Disease Control.The Angolan Government today in Luanda established a new partnership with the US Non-Governmental Organisations "Roots of Peace" and "Conservation International" in the field of landmine removal with the aim to allow the return of elephants in the country`s Southeast region. Department of State 03 (“US Humanitarian Demining Programs in Africa.
Humanitarian Demining Program in the Balkans”.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 US Solves –Balkans Prove 141 Landmines Aff US Humanitarian demining program solves—Balkans prove Matt Murphy. Since 1996.S. Mine Action Center. Assuming other donor nations deposit funds into the ITF and the United States matches the funds.N. for example.000 landmines and an undetermined quantity of unexploded ordnance infesting some 186 square miles of land. and Croatian policies to re-establish a multi-ethnic society in Croatia.edu/JOURNAL/4. training and equipping three civilian demining forces. 2000 (“The U. mine-affected Balkan nations are making great progress toward the eventual elimination of their landmine challenges. Although the U.jmu. . countless landmines have been laid in Croatia. six demining projects in communities that welcome the return of ethnic minority residents. Bosnia-Herzegovina's landmine problem is severe.S.S. as well as in other countries.S. In Croatia. These hidden killers have killed and maimed hundreds. government has provided over $40 million to remedy the problem and has joined with the government of Slovenia to support demining and mine action assistance in Bosnia and Herzegovina. the United States will continue to support demining efforts there. the subsequent infusion of Slovenian International Trust Fund monies and the support of other international donors. The United States has also partnered with the Slovenian International Trust Fund for Demining and Mine Victim Assistance in the Balkans. mine-survey operations and mine-clearance support. Bosnia and Herzegovina. Thanks to the initial U. funding assistance for humanitarian demining. a total of 180 men and 27 mine-detection dogs. U.htm) As a result of years of conflict in the Balkans. U.S. vastly impeded the return of refugees to their homes and hindered international efforts to help people in the region. Once that conflict ended. to implement an operation that provided mineawareness education. the U. U.S.1/balkan. the establishment of three regional demining centers. which has proven to be one of the outstanding success stories in humanitarian demining assistance. The United States is also supporting the cleanup effort in Kosovo. support of the ITF is an excellent example of regional and international cooperation and an effective mechanism for addressing the landmine problem throughout the Balkans. These projects support U. http://maic.Bosnia-Herzegovina bilateral accomplishments include: the setting up of a U. and Kosovo. and setting up three military centers that have trained and equipped 1000 deminers and 70 instructors. Republican State Senator from Illinois's 27th district. with an estimated 750.. through the ITF. humanitarian demining program in Bosnia-Herzegovina has reached the sustainment phase through the International Trust Fund (ITF). the United States worked with the United Nations and other countries and international donors.S.S. the United States plans to deploy similar demining teams in Albania and Macedonia to resolve landmine problems in those two countries. fiscal 1999 assistance for demining in Kosovo amounted to almost $3 million. the United States funded. Altogether.
Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 142 Landmines Aff ****Solvency**** .
But the benefits go far beyond this. programs of prevention and behavioral change. Publications Director. stays healthier and lives longer) if all people are protected to some degree than if a few are protected completely. officials divide funds and efforts among acute care. President. . Every day. Wolf. This method would also contribute more to economic development.jmu. fewer economic causes of conflict. public-health workers apply a significant proportion of their resources in a relatively thin layer over large groups.edu/JOURNAL/5. poverty is the rule. “The Necessity of Implementing a Public-Health Approach to Humanitarian Demining”. as would spending all available funds to build a "perfect" airplane while leaving flight operations unregulated. http://maic.e. and less need for foreign military interference and peacekeeping. political stability and tax generation. Wolf and Barmazel 200 [Daniel H. reduced reliance on economic assistance. Terra Segura International.htm] Notwithstanding the humane concern underlying all public-health programs. This makes most demining economically irrational and therefore unsustainable. Most land has low economic value relative to land in rich countries. “The Necessity of Implementing a Public-Health Approach to Humanitarian Demining”. perhaps even entire populations. working to eliminate a single risk factor results in more deaths than a strategy of risk reduction that is optimized but incomplete.2/notes/danielwolf. and devastation is both cause and effect. Striving to achieve a perfect solution for a single aspect of public-health problems wastes resources.. a funding stream that is presently inadequate and possibly subject to erosion.htm] In mined countries. and every day. Similarly.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 Solvency – Public Health Approach 143 Landmines Aff A utilitarian approach to de-mining contributes directly to economic development and political stability Wolf and Barmazel 200 [Daniel H. Changing this picture will require careful but dramatic action. and expected revenues are small. reducing the odds of encountering a mine in all populated areas) would reduce death and injury more than the present practice of expending almost all resources on eliminating mines completely in only a few places. The fundamental premise is that the whole population is better off (i.e. Terra Segura International. economic rationality and practicality govern attacks on everything from typhus epidemics to airplane crashes because it is impossible to protect everyone completely in a world with finite resources. officials simultaneously promote safety in design. Instead of focusing resources on a small portion of the population. Attempting to eradicate all flies that carry typhus at the expense of other variables would be an ineffective (and Sisyphean) strategy. To end a typhus epidemic.edu/JOURNAL/5. In both cases. President. for example.2/notes/danielwolf. Better humanitarian demining is justifiable on the basis of faster casualty reductions at lower cost. The result will be more prosperity and political stability. As demining costs fall and investments in land remediation increase. and Steven Barmazel. Publications Director.. people and livestock stray into unmarked and unfenced mine fields. and construction of sanitation infrastructure. Reducing aggregate threat levels (i. economic activity of all kinds will recover and expand.jmu. and Steven Barmazel. http://maic. Mine clearance depends on philanthropy. dozens of people succumb to the odds they face there. manufacture and operation. 2004. Wolf. to reduce airplane accidents. 2004. So it should be with demining.
or banditry attacks are increasingly travelling long distances to get to that hospital as its reputation for the provision of emergency services has grown. Information is crucial to the success of any humanitarian program.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 Solvency . The reception HMD Response receives is doubly encouraging as the name is evidently associated with both demining and health improvement. Shared Personnel. Similarly. JSTOR) Returning to his home base in Northern Arizona. is added to that provided by the patients attending the hospital who report on the location of mines and UXO as well as on UNITA or banditry attacks. it is now the norm for HMD Response to be called by the hospital's staff if a mine victim arrives. UNITA. including programs in the schools. and HMD Response benefits from the ability to gather information from many different sources. Information gathered through mines survey and mines awareness work. shared information and greater impact. This information can then be used in planning the next steps in the program. they rotate through the hospital emergency room. as well as through actual clearance. Angola” Amanda Pritchard Acting Director of Strategy and Service Development Mine Action Information Journal Volume 3. Six paramedics are employed by HMD Response to work in the minefields.cept. this has the effect of raising standards in the hospital. The HMD Response Program has a far greater impact on the local population as a result of its integrated approach. involving ( I ) actual mine clearance. A single project manager ensures consistency of approach and has provided continuity and control through the first crucial months of the project. It can help set immediate priorities and. David Gowdey elaborated on this con. in case of emergency.1/profiles/hmd_pritchard/hmd_pritchard.mine incident survivors and surviving relatives of victims. . (4)widespread mineawareness training. which benefits the entire local population and ensures that skilled paramedic support is available to the deminers both in the field and. In addition to developing their competence.Integrated Program 144 Landmines Aff Journal of Public Health Policy 1998 (“Removing Landmines: One Limb at a Time?” Journal of Public Health Policy. For example. in the hospital as well. it is clear from hospital records that victims of landmines.1 Spring 1999 http://maic. pp. using new technologies being developed. People have learned to recognise the HMD Response name and look upon it with great respect.jmu. The advantages of this are most strikingly illustrated by the paramedics. (3) emergency clearance of all mines near hospital units and other key areas. No. 261-266. obviously it can be disseminated throughout the local population as part of HMD Response's overall concern to improve their safety. An integrated program is needed. Issue 19. To maintain their skills through constant practice.edu/journal/3. and ( 5 ) medical support and rehabilitation for land. (2)surveying and marking major mined areas to remind people to avoid them. An Integrated Approach is the best way to solve Pritchard 99(“An Integrated Approach to Providing Humanitarian Aid: The Humanitarian Demining Development Response Program in Saurimo. Greater Impact.htm) The immediate benefits of an integrated approach are threefold: shared personnel. where he and the Peace and Justice Network were instrumental in local education and advocacy over the past year. Shared Information.3.
the location of the only hospital in the country capable of performing life-saving surgery.” Bureau of Political-Military Affairs.S. No 2. Djibouti should be able to declare itself “mine safe” by the end of 2003. They also need to be able to take advantage of social and economic services that will help them be productive members of society. The Djibouti humanitarian demining program was initiated in February 2001 and the U.” Journal of Mine Action. Since FY 2000. The Office of Humanitarian Demining Programs is currently planning to significantly reduce funding to nine African countries in the next two years due to those countries reaching “mine safe” status or sustainment. US Agency for International Development. Namibia.2/feature/feinberg/feinberg. July 2. 2003. 11 July 2007) USAID finds the most effective approach to addressing the needs of landmine survivors is including them within the larger population of people living with disabilities. http://www. the capability to conduct their own programs either independently or with minimum outside assistance. skills training. http://maic.7 million to the program.edu/journal/9. Vol 9.gov/t/pm/rls/fs/22173. . USAID is the most effective agency to provide landmine and victim assistance Feinberg 06 (Lloyd Feinberg.USAID ☺ 145 Landmines Aff USAID provides successful aid to de-mining efforts—Namibia. Government has provided over $2. Department of State 03 (“US Humanitarian Demining Programs in Africa. Rwanda.jmu. DC. providing for their participation in national reconstruction efforts and giving them access to the opportunities national reconstruction provides. “USAID’s Perspective: The importance of Social and Economic Development Strategies for Humanitarian Mine Action. February 2006.state.htm. and opportunities that allow them to earn a livelihood. Rwanda and Zimbabwe prove.htm Fact) USAID has assisted several African countries by providing funding and training for prostheses services to fit over 7. appropriate health care and medical services. This requires access to meaningful education. insofar as all members of mine-affected communities and countries need to regain the self-reliance and self-respect they have lost as a result of conflict. and Zimbabwe have reached the sustainment phase in their humanitarian demining programs.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 Solvency .000 amputees with prosthetic devices. the Department of State has provided an emergency medical air evacuation capability in Chad from remote field operations to the capital city. Office of Humanitarian Demining Programs Washington. These opportunities relate directly to the objectives mentioned above.
http://www. Many of the mechanical devices being developed today cannot be used or sustained by a host nation because they are too specialized. in many instances.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 Solvency . mechanically assisted clearance techniques may be used as a tool for area reduction and vegetation clearance." The report said research is needed to develop new technology that can replace the World War II-era equipment—the mainstay of worldwide efforts to remove landmines. Researchers cited the need for a new generation of landmine detectors that would be more accurate and reliable to speed landmine removal. Force XX1 is a firm proponent of establishing sustainable programs that can be maintained by any nation executing mine action operations. this process can be executed at a remarkably low cost in any country that has access to the necessary equipment. focused research program. according to researchers. relying on technology that results in a high number of false alarms. agricultural use or any civil engineering-related project). non-traditional nuisance situations encountered in mine action operations. Force XX1 believes the use of mechanical clearance techniques. our experience in Namibia has led us to also believe that some countries and certain situations can best be served by implementing mechanically assisted mine clearance techniques in concert with manual programs. working together with the Namibian deminers. Mechanically assisted mine action operations serve three purposes: to enhance safety. but also to add to the host nation’s ability to support other developmental programs. "Technology is available to create better tools to remove landmines. but nothing will be developed unless there is investment in a wellorganized. Most often the best approach to meet this requirement is to implement a program using traditional (low-tech) manual techniques. Vol 27. but generally. an engineer and coauthor of the report. Humanitarian Force. Landmine detectors used today operate via a technology that is unable to distinguish landmines from other metallic materials—by far the greatest limitation of the process. $50 million needed for landmine detection. Each host nation situation is different. efficiency.2/features/craigcaisontemphide/craigcaison. Today's landmine detection equipment is primitive. require high maintenance and serve only a single purpose within the scope of humanitarian mine action. However." said Jacqueline MacDonald. and it offers a viable alternative to meeting unique. and effectiveness Caison 02 (Greg. It increases safety. Force XX1 believes that it is critical to use commonly available commercial equipment not only to stay on the lowtech low-maintenance end of the spectrum. Technology is critical to any demining operation.904 mines with no injuries or loss of life.. The equipment Force XX1 uses can serve a dual purpose and may be used in many other capacities by the host nation (i. which are very time consuming and laborious processes for deminers using traditional manual clearance techniques.Technology Key to Demining 146 Landmines Aff Technology is critical to demining operations Rand Review 03 (a nonprofit institution to improve policy through research and analysis. "There is a desperate need for better landmine detection equipment. While more complex than traditional manual mine clearance techniques. . Accomplishing this requires dependable equipment that can be repaired and modified in the field. is a valuable tool that will enhance any mine action program that uses traditional manual clearance techniques. During this period. according to a RAND report. No 1) A major research and development program costing about $50 million over five to eight years is needed to sharply accelerate efforts to remove landmines that kill thousands of civilians each year in 90 nations.edu/journal/6. and to meet unique and important environmental challenges.e.jmu.maic. Spring. to improve the rate of progress.htm) Mechanically assisted mine clearance operations have proven to be extremely effective in the global effort to remove landmines. Mechanically Assisted Mine Clearance Operations. When used in concert with manual techniques. Force XX1. Force XX1 Solutions International has recently finished a three-year effort helping the Namibia Mine Action Program neutralize 401 mined berms using mechanically assisted methods. successfully cleared the berms and removed approximately 3.
Technology Key to Demining 147 Landmines Aff We need tech to be able to solve the growing problem. and to arrest the deterioration. and safety. questia pg. We are learning more about these technologies and their potential for mine clearance. practicability. 123) The mine clearance problem is grave. In practical terms this cannot be achieved by making a commensurate jump in the numbers of mine clearers. Now a concerted effort is needed to establish mechanisms for technology development and funding so that we may put these technologies to work as soon as possible. we need to make a quantum jump in our capability to locate and remove land mines swiftly and cheaply. for reasons of economy.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 Solvency . 1995. . improved technologies must be found. it’s the only way Hays 95(“Clearing The Fields Solutions to the Global Land Mines Crisis” W Patrick Blagden former demining expert at the United Nations Published by Basicbooks and The Council on Foreign Relations New York. and getting rapidly worse.
efforts focus on alleviating the personal and economic burdens caused by APLs by helping afflicted states address medical and financial problems while also training local citizens to neutralize APLs. August 1998 Jr.S. Senior Military Fellow at INSS Number 143. . When a medical infrastructure is developed that is sustainable and can meet all the requirements for rehabilitation. national interests of peace and stability are complemented.ndu. victims can retake their place in productive society. U.S. As economies develop. Mine Clearance Policy Goals to promote human welfare through mine awareness and training. and to promote U.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 Solvency . their local economy. enhancement of host country stability. establishment of sustainable indigenous demining programs. and economic interests. and the logical need for afflicted nations to work the hardest to provide their own solutions.S. foreign policy. These goals and objectives recognize the connection between APL victims. development of medical infrastructure. Stable economies promote political stability.html) U. Sahlin. SF Banner http://www. with the return of arable land and capable people. Mine Clearance Policy Objectives reduction of civilian casualties. security. regions and countries become more stable.Adv 148 Landmines Aff US Policies on Mine Victims are key to economic and political stability Sahlin 98(“Global Mine Clearance: An Achievable Goal?” Carl T.edu/inss/strforum/SF143/forum143.
1/bruschini. develop portable solutions.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 Solvency . Offering a vehicular-based radar. 1997).jmu. 1995). 1995) and FOA (Sweden)(Web page at (Ericsson. using modulated microwave retinas and tomography imaging. GDE (GDE Homepage). 1997). The university. specific to each target type. To decrease the size and price of GPR. have been pioneered by SATIMO (Garreau et al. Moving the wideband antenna reconstructs an image that represents a vertical slice of the soil. and Young. Feb 1998 [“A Survey of Research on Sensor Technology for Landmine Detection.edu/journal/2.” http://maic. in the spectrum of the reflected signal. a feature important to applying GPR to mine detection. Specific GPR Systems Many GPR options are available. Although promising. A study conducted in the 1970s at Ohio State University has already demonstrated the possibility of recognizing targets buried in 30cm of clay (Peters. through a wideband antenna. however. especially the ones currently used. such as FOA (Sweden) (Ericsson and Gustafsson. developed portable standoff equipment that focuses the radar beam through a parabola (Shubert. Conducting research in the same direction are EG&G (Sower and Cave. Used for about 15 years in civil engineering. targeted at AT mines. geology. The small footprint of the antennas (less than 50 cm2) might allow a faster and more simplified scan of a minefield (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. 2] GPR emits into the ground. and penetrate further the ground. Researchers need to investigate the application of GPR to mine detection. the resolution needed to detect small objects involves GHz frequencies. Daniels. the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) developed and patented the Micropower Impulse Radar (MIR). 1995) (both financed by the US Army). further data processing allows the display of horizontal slices or three-dimensional representations (Daniels. which decreases soil penetration and increases image clutter. 1996). is the company ELTA (ELTA Home Page). 1996). does not include GPR systems that use automatic recognition algorithms. an electromagnetic wave covering a large frequency band. this technology is well-researched (GPR Conference. In particular. 1996)(WebGPR). Many outfits. A possible future application of GPR involves discerning complex resonances.Radar=effective 149 Landmines Aff Using radars is more effective in finding landmines because they are faster. in collaboration with Battelle. Other GPR-like variations. . 1994). Raton Technology Research exploited variations of the frequency of a resonant cavity to detect buried objects and yielded encouraging initial results. This abundant research.htm.. GPR systems are expensive: beyond the budget of most demining operations. more accurate. this technology has limitations. and Coleman Research (Barrett. and archeology to detect buried objects and to analyze soil. Claudio Bruschini and Bertrand Gros. The Journal of Humanitarian Demining. Compared to other technologies. Vol. 1996). Reflections from the soil caused by dielectric variations (such as the presence of an object) are measured. Another constraint is cost.
Vol.htm. .Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 Solvency .edu/journal/2. 1996). The surface effect is detectable for weeks after burial and enhances the mine’s signature. A thorough explanation of the various thermal mechanisms affecting the temperature contrast is given in (Simard. it is a volume effect. When this contrast results from the presence of the buried mine (alteration of the heat flow). When the contrast results from the disturbed soil layer above and around the mine (because of burial). it is a surface effect. Infrared (IR) cameras create images that reveal the thermal contrast between the soil immediately surrounding a buried mine and the top layer of soil. Claudio Bruschini and Bertrand Gros. The Journal of Humanitarian Demining.Infrared=effective 150 Landmines Aff Infrared detectors are more effective because it catches the heat given off by the mine for many weeks.” http://maic. 2] Mines retain or release heat at a rate different from their surroundings. Feb 1998 [“A Survey of Research on Sensor Technology for Landmine Detection.jmu.1/bruschini.
operator security. They are reviewed in (Gozani. and X-ray backscatter. with emphasis on military applications and the detection of AT mines. Applying these techniques to mine detection. However. ( Defence Research Establishment. which requires one-sided sensor configurations. interest is growing in techniques for detecting bulk explosives. such as nuclear methods and NQR (Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance) appear promising. .jmu. These techniques are used in security (screening airport luggage (Novakoff.1/bruschini. neutron backscatter. The Journal of Humanitarian Demining. 2] Besides techniques for detecting trace explosives. Claudio Bruschini and Bertrand Gros.Nuclear=effective 151 Landmines Aff Nuclear detecting methods will be effective.” http://maic. in (Department of the Army.htm. Feb 1998 [“A Survey of Research on Sensor Technology for Landmine Detection. is a challenge. 1985) and (Department of the Army.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 Solvency .edu/journal/2. Nuclear methods include thermal neutron activation. 1996) and. some techniques. equipment portability. 1991) also provides thorough information about nuclear methods. 1992) or mail) or Non-Destructive Testing. Vol. and extensive soil penetration. 1991).
much as there is from WWI in Europe. all the kinds of development work that stays away because externals are afraid of the mine threat. and the community made to understand. bogus mine fields eliminated without clearance. http://maic. Invariably. 152 Landmines Aff http://maic. to the indirect ones—boreholes.1/features/labon/labon. This is closely followed by people touching or going into mined areas about which they knew nothing. Suspect areas and mine fields that are not known cannot be dealt with. both of these “information failures” hamper the external relief effort. all of which halted progress in some manner.1/features/labon/labon. This is the smaller problem. be they professional. MA organizations. in every mine/UXO risk area I have knowledge of except Afghanistan. Journal of Mine Action 6. It must be pointed out that benefits range from the direct ones—more area cleared. etc. And there will always be a residual threat. Mine Information allows for development and clearing Labon 02 (Michael. In addition.htm) The benefits of having an information network. and relief agencies. schools. The larger problem for the externals are the “mine fields” that do not exist. (Hereafter. Good information leads to a greater impact for the beneficiaries. Mine Awareness. The primary reasons for involving the community returns to information. someone in or around the community has information on every suspect area.1. The vast majority of casualties I have encountered.). there must be community participation if mine fields are to be left. as invariably. the lack of knowledge in communities led to casualties caused by people doing things they should not have done. commercial or NGO clearance.jmu. it takes as long to clear an area with no mines as it does to clear a heavily mined area. good information gathering during the survey stages can lead to early discrediting of suspect areas.htm) Poor information had two severe consequences. Mine Awareness. there will be better information coming from the individuals. Involvement of the community in priority setting also provides an incentive. First.edu/journal/6. Therefore.jmu. In most cases. clinics.Mine Action Education Mine Action education saves lives.1. resources. As resources available will not solve the communities mine problem (hence the formation of this concept). casualties are caused by ignorance (ignorance being simply a lack of knowledge). Reasons why this is not shared with the rest of the community are numerous. The major factor slowing clearance is vegetation coverage. Journal of Mine Action 6. which in turn frees resources for other tasks. Independent Consultant. Secondly. must be understood. The involvement of the community leads to better priority setting. Independent Consultant. roads.edu/journal/6. or aid. and development problems Labon 02 (Michael. This is further enhanced if there is a development project linked with the concept. as with coping mechanisms and the database. they must be made aware that they will have to cope. old stoves (Kosovo) or the grave of a tortoise (Somaliland).Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 Solvency . and going places (or sending their livestock to places) where they should not have gone. which feeds the information cycle. devices removed. “mine fields” that do not exist but are firmly believed to exist retard progress in the same ways known mine fields do. have come from people touching/tampering with UXO. etc. agricultural projects. development. the term “external” will be used to refer to all actors outside of the benefiting community. and eventually this will come out. If the community is involved. Therefore. This applies equally to suspicious devices that are actually car parts (Mozambique). . If the community is made aware and can see that better information leads to better utilization of resources and hence increased benefits to the community that also feeds the information cycle.
Others are sociological. So it should be with demining.g. Public-health programs and methodologies vary considerably by disease and social setting. 2004. . Some methods are primarily epidemiological—identifying causes. and continually attending to stakeholders at all levels. Wolf. This requires constantly analyzing and tinkering with organizational functioning. people and livestock stray into unmarked and unfenced mine fields. Good public-health programs exploit the weaknesses of their disease adversaries and reinvent themselves as they confront new conditions. Terra Segura International.edu/JOURNAL/5. Ignoring any single element threatens optimization efforts.htm] Striving to achieve a perfect solution for a single aspect of public-health problems wastes resources. turn it around and to maximize effectiveness per dollar invested.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 AT: Solvency Presses 153 Landmines Aff Public health approach solves – perfect the enemy of the good Wolf and Barmazel 200 [Daniel H. and Steven Barmazel. the second goal flows from the first. Every day. http://maic.e. political stability and tax generation. The fundamental premise is that the whole population is better off (i. This method would also contribute more to economic development. to implement the most effective strategic attack on the epidemic in order to stop it in its tracks and 2. among others. (e. dozens of people succumb to the odds they face there.. economics. developing. “The Necessity of Implementing a Public-Health Approach to Humanitarian Demining”. Reducing aggregate threat levels (i. All programs share two goals: 1. programs analyze not only the disease but also the social and technical advantages and impediments faced in the struggle against disease. President..jmu. working to change hygiene habits) or public-works-oriented (building sanitary water and sewage systems to interrupt disease cycles)..2/notes/danielwolf. sociology and political science. Not coincidentally. perhaps even entire populations.e. Publications Director. Using tools from the fields of epidemiology. and every day. They attempt to maximize organizational effectiveness and optimize use of available resources in order to minimize aggregate death and injury. stays healthier and lives longer) if all people are protected to some degree than if a few are protected completely. reducing the odds of encountering a mine in all populated areas) would reduce death and injury more than the present practice of expending almost all resources on eliminating mines completely in only a few places. integrating new technologies. Public-health officials are not magicians but pragmatists. public-health workers apply a significant proportion of their resources in a relatively thin layer over large groups. testing and refining improvements. Instead of focusing resources on a small portion of the population.
George Zahaczewsky (U. Army Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Special Operations and Furthermore. NVESD worked with Andy Smith to develop PPE that could be locally produced in a mineaffected country. Due primarily to his significant interest in PPE as well as his access to and knowledge of several demining theaters.S. AVS mine action consultant. The U. While I do not have all of the relevant data. of course. Issue 7. US demining de-mining protection technology is extremely advanced Col.1/focus/smith/smith. Journal of Mine Action. the further services of Andy Smith were retained to gather field data pertaining to deminer injuries. April 2003 (“IMAS and PPE Requirements”. Andy Smith.1. To make this study you must have reliable information about the numbers of deminers and supervisors actually working in mined areas.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 AT: Demining is Dangerous 154 Landmines Aff Demining accidents are extremelt rare.htm) Anyone considering the risks in demining should be aware that demining accidents are rare. demining technology development program endorses both approaches. the hours worked and the accidents suffered.jmu. i.S. development of commercially available PPE for demining organizations and donors who can afford to buy it as well as locally manufactured body armor for countries wishing to establish an indigenous capability. My limited investigation showed that severely disabling accidents occur at the rate of one for each 30+ person-years of actual demining. . it was felt that Smith had an extremely useful insight and perspective on deminer injuries. http://maic. is that both meet minimally acceptable standards of protection.edu/journal/7. The caveat in this endorsement.e.. I believe that this is a worst-case figure—and that accidents in most demining theatres are much rarer than this. I have been able to make a statistical study of the frequency of demining accidents for some theatres in some years. Finally.
the United Nations concluded a contract for the clearance of 2010 kilometres of roads in 1994. Angola” Amanda Pritchard Acting Director of Strategy and Service Development Mine Action Information Journal Volume 3. other less hazardous ordnance items were also uncovered. Four anti-personnel mines.idrc. but it also has the capacity to conduct actual clearance operations.jmu. Ultimately the effect of this work is to improve the ability of the local population to become self-sufficient and regenerate itself.1/profiles/hmd_pritchard/hmd_pritchard. and those areas where mines themselves present the real danger. While there is a very real existence of mines in the region preventing access to water and land and precluding safe travel on road. was deserted for four years because local people had been told it was mined. costing US$40. http://www. which had been the centre of a community of 10 000 people. and to improve the ability of the community to engage in trade through improved access to resources and markets. and the spreading of rumours.html) The ongoing threat created by live land-mines can prevent civilians from living in their homes and using their fields. had been sufficient to depopulate an area for four years.ca/en/ev-68075-201-1-DO_TOPIC. these. Mines survey and mines awareness combined with UXO clearance can open up areas rapidly and effectively by differentiating between those areas where fear alone is the enemy. A mine clearance operation in 1994 took three months and uncovered only four mines. . in addition to actual mines which allows stabilization and self sufficiency Pritchard 99(“An Integrated Approach to Providing Humanitarian Aid: The Humanitarian Demining Development Response Program in Saurimo. resulted in years of fear and tens of thousands of dollars spent. Edited by Jacklyn Cock and Penny Mckenzie. No. research associate at Human Rights Watch. whether they are actually there or not. In Mozambique. Where there is doubt about the presence of mines. there is also a parallel problem created by the fear of mines. HMD Response can still help the local community by clearing safe routes to vital resources. The effect of this work is to improve the ability of the family to feed itself and gain access to clean water. Vines 98 (Alex. yet the clearance produced only 28 mines. or their existence has been positively confirmed. denies land and homes to people who are hesitant to return. and can seriously threaten the ability of an entire country to rebuild long after war has ended. HMD Response has the capability to carry out basic mine surveys and awareness activities.1 Spring 1999 http://maic. before the community felt safe to return. Fear of land-mines. the village of Mapulenge. FROM DEFENCE TO DEVELOPMENT Redirecting Military Resources in South Africa. Many of these roads had been closed for years.htm) One of the consequences of two decades of the haphazard and zealous laying of landmines is confusion and fear. In Mozambique’s Maputo province.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 AT: Number mines small 155 Landmines Aff Demining efforts alleviate the fear of mines. whether present or not.edu/journal/3.
"third-world" armies. or ragtag insurgents. Maslen 2001).Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 AT: Smart Mines Smart mines fail Oppong and Kalipeni 05 156 Landmines Aff [Oppong. Africa Today 52. “The Geography of Landmines and implications for health and disease in Africa. As shown in figure 2. military doctrine (Coupland 1998. Even the much-touted "smart mines" produced by the United States and used in Iraq during the Gulf War have problems: the failure rate of the smart mines to explode on their own after 48 hours of being dropped was extremely high (see Maslen 2001)." whether by "developed" armies.12005. use. the current sole superpower in the world. . 3-25. and/or proliferate landmines have generally assumed that antipersonnel landmines are indispensable as weapons of war. and that their indiscriminateness can be moderated through compliance with military doctrine and the rules of international humanitarian law (Maslen 2001. yet a study that examined the military case for continued use of landmines based on their employment in twenty-six actual conflicts concluded that few instances can be cited where antipersonnel-mine use has been consistent with international law or. an associate professor of Geography at the University of North Texas. Priest 1997. where it exists. associate professor of Geography and African Studies at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Project Muse] Countries that produce. Prokosch 1995). and that their effects cannot be limited so easily as law and doctrine assume. Kalipeni. these countries include the United States. Historical evidence indicates that during hostilities. mines are rarely used "correctly. a political ecology approach”.
It complements existing statebased reporting and compliance mechanisms by producing an annual report. which systematically monitors and documents compliance with the 1997 Mine Ban Treaty and the humanitarian response to the global landmine crisis.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 AT: Landmine Monitor Indicts Oppong and Kalipeni 05 157 Landmines Aff [Oppong. associate professor of Geography and African Studies at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Established in June 1998 by the International Campaign to Ban Landmines. Landmine Monitor is a civil-society–based reporting network. The annual reports released from 1999 to 2003 are vital documents. Project Muse] Perhaps the most dependable information on landmines is that produced by Landmine Monitor.12005. “The Geography of Landmines and implications for health and disease in Africa. an associate professor of Geography at the University of North Texas. . a political ecology approach”. Kalipeni. Africa Today 52. and periodic country reports. 3-25. Data used in this research are corroborated by sources such as the ICRC and other published sources. periodic fact sheets.
1996:7). anti-personnel land-mines had little or no effect on the outcome of hostilities.ca/en/ev-68075201-1-DO_TOPIC. Effective marking and mapping of land-mines is extremely difficult under battlefield conditions. 1997:1-16 http://www. The following conclusions were drawn about land-mines placed in a traditional manner in marked minefields: Establishing. The study argued that it is unwise to justify the continued use of anti-personnel land-mines on the premise that they will be deployed in a carefully controlled manner. IRDC. These minefields have not proved successful in preventing infiltration. and loss of sympathy of the indigenous population is higher than has been generally acknowledged. ‘Mines are rarely used “correctly”.html ) One of the key arguments against a ban on anti-personnel land-mines is that these are weapons of high military value and that the indiscriminate effects can be moderated through compliance with military doctrine and the rules of international humanitarian law. even when used on a massive scale. monitoring and maintaining an extensive border minefield is time-consuming. whether by “developed” armies. The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) surveyed the actual use and effectiveness of these weapons in conflicts. The evidence suggests that.idrc. Human Rights Watch. International Affairs.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 AT: Landmines Good 158 Landmines Aff Landmines don’t work and are strategically unsound for military purposes Vines 97 (“Still killing: Land-mines in Southern Africa” Alex Vines Head of Africa Programme Chatham House. The study concluded that there were few instances where anti-personnel land-mines have been used according to international law. limitations of tactical flexibility. The cost to forces using anti-personnel mines in terms of casualties. . No case was found in which the use of anti-personnel land-mines played a major role in determining the outcome of a conflict. Royal Institute of. expensive and dangerous. “Third World” armies or insurgents and their effects cannot easily be limited as law and doctrine presume’ (ICRC.
Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 159 Landmines Aff ****AT: CPs***** .
asp] Together.htm. Local groups are incapable of demining properly. particularly in the trench and other battle areas. Journal of Mine Action v6.1 http://maic.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 AT: Local CP 160 Landmines Aff The affected countries need money to destroy their landmines. (ENS). Environmental News Services. a significant residual risk remains. http://www. unmarked and unrecorded nuisance mine fields and point targets can be expected outside the trench lines through the conflict area. do not possess the financial means to destroy their stockpiles of antipersonnel mines given pressing needs in other areas.com/ens/dec2004/2004-12-02-03.ens-newswire. 2004 [“Countries Gather to Lighten the World's Burden of Landmines”. Operations Officer for MACC) In addition to the residual threats posed by landmines and UXO from old conflicts. "It should be recognized that while an investment of typically less than US$1 per mine will destroy a stockpile of mines.edu/journal/6. either during the conflict or immediately after it. the recent conflict between Ethiopia and Eritrea (1998—2000) poses a significant threat throughout the conflict area.jmu. UXO has increased the contamination in the conflict area. the five year review acknowledges that some States Parties. particularly developing countries. This threat is primarily confined to the “no man’s land” that runs between the trenches along the confrontation lines (May 1998 and May—June 2000). neither side has the technical means to conduct mine clearance to international humanitarian standards.1/focus/kudyba/kudyba. the costs to clear emplaced mines are hundreds or thousands of times higher. Although large numbers of mines have been reportedly removed or destroyed by both forces. Eritrea and Ethiopia prove Kudyba 02 (Bob. December 2. NAIROBI. Ethiopia and Eritrea Mine Action Coordination Center. In addition. These mine fields contain a mixture of AT and AP mines that are laid mainly in conventional military patterns. Subsequently." the review document says. the Parties have destroyed more than 37 million landmines since the Ottawa Convention took effect. Kenya. From a financial perspective. . Additionally.
like resurgent drug resistant malaria.jstor. the current sole superpower in the world.. But their deployment in Africa has been mainly in the context of civil wars. Historical evidence indicates that during hostilities. use.0. The use of poison gas in warfare was prohibited by the Geneva Protocol of 1925. Even if such a ban37 were enacted this year. 4. yet a study that examined the military case for continued use of landmines based on their employment in twenty-six actual conflicts concluded that few instances can be cited where antipersonnel-mine use has been consistent with international law or. as is the 1980 United Nations Convention on the Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Certain Conventional Weapons which may be Deemed to be Excessively Injurious or to have Indiscriminate Effects. is one of the urgent themes in preventive paediatric medicine. British Medical Journal. Africa Today 52." whether by "developed" armies.. and that their indiscriminateness can be moderated through compliance with military doctrine and the rules of international humanitarian law (Maslen 2001. As shown in figure 2. 1996.bmj. http://links. associate professor of Geography and African Studies at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. a political ecology approach”. “The Geography of Landmines and implications for health and disease in Africa. . Vol.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 AT: Ban Landmines CP – No Solvency 161 Landmines Aff Bans on landmines won’t solve for decades Pearn 97 (John. an associate professor of Geography at the University of North Texas. known as the CCW Convention which addresses land mines in its provisions. and governments have called for a total ban on the sale and use of antipersonnel landmines. No. pp. Prokosch 1995). 3-25. and stockpiling of bacteriologically toxic weapons by the Biological Convention of 1972. Gruhn (“Land Mines: An African Tragedy” The Journal of Modern African Studies. Even the much-touted "smart mines" produced by the United States and used in Iraq during the Gulf War have problems: the failure rate of the smart mines to explode on their own after 48 hours of being dropped was extremely high (see Maslen 2001). Recent advances in paediatrics: II–childhood and adolescence. where it exists.international treaties fails to solve Isebill V. The unanswered threat of antipersonnel landmines. 687-699. Priest 1997. as was the development. it would take many decades for many countries to be rendered safe for children.12005. mines are rarely used "correctly. and that their effects cannot be limited so easily as law and doctrine assume. Landmines are rarely used correctly under conditions of International Law Oppong and Kalipeni 05 [Oppong. production. Dec. and controlling their use among conflicting parties in a sovereign state raises additional obstacles to formulating international agreements. international agencies.com/cgi/content/full/314/7087/1099#Landmines) Medical journals. Maslen 2001). Kalipeni. or ragtag insurgents. military doctrine (Coupland 1998. Project Muse] Countries that produce. these countries include the United States. and arms-control policymakers must grapple with what must be one of the most noxious weapons ever invented.CO%3B2-W) As disputes erupt into wars. "third-world" armies. 34.org/sici?sici=0022278X%28199612%2934%3A4%3C687%3ALMAAT%3E2. and/or proliferate landmines have generally assumed that antipersonnel landmines are indispensable as weapons of war. the multi-dimensional destructive capability of mines spreads like a cancer. Landmines are products of civil wars in Africa. These international treaties are designed to deal with inter-state conflicts. http://www. Professor Department of Paediatrics and Child Health.
many have official export moratoriums or bans in place.000 more landmines are slated for destruction. now that the ban is in place. transfer. and transfer.000 to 18. Second. the Landmine Monitor reports suggest widespread compliance with treaty mandates as to transparency.000 AP landmines have been destroyed in recent years. Second-Best Responses. landmine exports have been almost entirely eliminated. 260 In the last reporting period. there has been "a virtual absence of mines -legitimate or otherwise -. 261 Even such important non-signatories as Israel and Kyrgyzstan did not use landmines in the last reporting period. antitank landmines. the overall use of landmines has been reduced compared to the early 1990s and the trend is toward further reductions. production. 266 Third. . These changes described above also demonstrate a real commitment to the longevity of the Landmine Ban Treaty.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 AT Ban CP – Norm Now 162 Landmines Aff Status Quo solves . 257 Between state parties and signatories. . but their last known significant exports were in 1995. and other possible APM replacements have a greater incentive to aggressively develop those alternatives. JD w/ honors. there have not been any verified shipments of landmines between countries. 258 Only seven state parties have not begun the process. Raising the costs effectively reduces the attractiveness of landmine use. he International Deployment of Shame. While landmines once accompanied security assistance packages. rather they must incur greater political and economic costs to acquire them. 265 The treaty also takes the decision whether to use landmines away from militaries and subjects it to the democratic process. landmine production has been significantly reduced. they must do so covertly. Forty-one states. including "eight of the twelve biggest producers and exporters over the [*593] past thirty years. lexis) While empirical data on the effects of the Landmine Ban Treaty is difficult to acquire. 251 Third. 256 Fourth. and if they are members to the treaty. stockpiles. producers of foam. formally state that they do not export landmines. 264 previous recipients must now invest in self-production. states no longer have easy access to landmines. 249 This early compliance is important as it makes ongoing verification of treaty compliance easier by providing clear baselines of comparison. 255 Russia and China both allow exports as consistent with the CCW. production. 262 Given the extensive use of landmines prior to the treaty.000. Since the Landmine Ban Treaty.at arms shows and military equipment exhibitions this year . The combination of stockpile reductions and export restrictions increase the costs to state parties to break out of the treaty." 253 All nations. In a world with a treaty. Approximately 27. 252 Moreover.000.000. 254 Of non-signatories. and use. 250 This leaves only thirteen producing states. major stockpile reductions are also underway. Arizona Journal of International and Comparative Law. the implementation of the treaty's mandates suggests strong support exists for the development of a norm against landmine use. the overwhelming majority of state parties have complied with initial transparency requirements. The combination of these factors suggest the durability of the Landmine Ban Treaty and the norm against landmines. 248 First. except for Iraq. 263 However. the Landmine Monitor has only confirmed landmine use by one treaty signatory. . establishing a complete and immediate taboo against [*594] their use would be an impossible task. about 16. whereas several states have already completed destruction of their stockpiles. and Norm Entrepreneurship: The Campaign to Ban Landmines and the Landmine Ban Treaty." have completely eliminated the production of APMs. stockpile. even the nonsignatories to the Mine Ban Treaty seem to feel the need to appear politically correct.The Ottawa Treaty has created norms that non-signers already follow Wexler 03 (Lesley. 259 Finally.
and Norm Entrepreneurship: The Campaign to Ban Landmines and the Landmine Ban Treaty. Human Rights Watch debunked the Department of Defense's claim about limited domestic production. 101 ItCBL led a march to the Valsella production facility and held a rally there. Exposing the Source. 98 The stigmatization campaign achieved immediate results. Human Rights Watch simultaneously informed the American public about the relationship between U. The creation of like-minded organizations soon followed with the development of stigmatization campaigns in other countries.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 AT Ban CP – US Signature Not Necessary 163 Landmines Aff Groups are already being pushed towards banning mines. to company heads. submitting shareholder resolutions. also launched the ICBL's "stigmatization" campaign. 92 By exposing the forty-seven companies involved in landmine manufacturing. and holding vigils.S. two more companies ended their landmine production. would be targets of the campaign against landmines. 103 This resulted in the town council in Castenedolo joining the ban campaign. Second-Best Responses. For instance. 95 The report directed supporters to lobby companies by writing letters. 104 This type of internal struggle took on added significance since landmine producers often lobbied the governments to avoid regulation. the ICBL implemented an integrated strategy in regard to landmine manufacturers. letters were sent to each company urging that it immediately renounce any future involvement in the production or assembly of landmines and landmine components. . 97 The United States Campaign to Ban Landmines (USCBL) also issued Stigmatization Campaign Updates identifying specific producers and urging concerted action. he International Deployment of Shame. 99 By the close of 1997. The mere investigation into the companies' practices prompted seventeen producers to immediately renounce any future involvement in the landmine trade. not just states. lexis) The ICBL realized the importance of garnering acceptance for its norms [*573] at every level from landmine component workers. 94 In compiling data about domestic landmine production. and limit the award of demining contracts to non-mine producing companies. 93 The report issued by Human Rights Watch. 100 The stigmatization campaign also sent a strong signal to global producers that [*574] companies. 96 Companies that had already renounced landmine use were encouraged to develop industry-wide codes of conduct opposing landmine production. JD w/ honors. 102 Capitalizing on the theme of children's innocence. which was designed to shame companies into voluntarily ending their involvement in the landmine trade. Unlike some NGOs that had separated raising issue awareness from the support for specific actions. The Italian Campaign to Ban Landmines (ItCBL) persuaded workers from one of the largest global landmine producers to issue a statement of their support for a landmine ban. Arizona Journal of International and Comparative Law. companies and landmine production 91 and prompted many companies into renouncing that relationship. four women at the Valsella plant held a banner declaring that they should not have to produce weapons that kill others' children in order to feed their own. Whether or not the US signs is irrelevant Wexler 03 (Lesley. companies changed their behavior in response to a newly developing norm against landmines. Their wish to avoid being labeled landmine producers suggests the strength of the ICBL's norm promotion. Rather than waiting for possible regulation. pressure non-compliant companies. to heads of states. 105 The stigmatization campaigns demonstrated the power of transnational norm entrepreneurs.
and they last forever. policy is very different. they must be powered by a battery which will exhaust itself in 120 days or less if self-destruction fails. Long before November. regardless of whether they are on foot. or on a tractor.S. self-destructing mine has failed to self-destruct. It bans all mines that are either nonmetallic or persistent. sometime fail to terminate on schedule. policy on land mines addresses the humanitarian problem far more effectively than any alternative. The most humanitarian course for the Nairobi conference would be to discuss how soon the members of the Ottawa Convention can move to the higher standard that the United States has set. Permitted mines must also be self-deactivating — that is.S. International Herald Tribune.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 AT: Ban Mines CP – Doesn’t solve the Aff 164 Landmines Aff The Ottawa treaty is uniquely worse. To illustrate the difference between the two regimes.php. all activated mines will be gone. Vehicle mines are still allowed. But some do it after the battle. Each bans some mines and permits others. They are not. the Ottawa Convention does not. It treats antipersonnel and antivehicle mines alike. Failure of self-deactivation is even less likely. The Ottawa Convention bans antipersonnel mines but permits antivehicle mines without restriction. This is not to say that it is impossible that an activated U. Petritsch speaks of a "mine-free world" and "elimination of antipersonnel mines" as if they were synonymous. mine will not somewhere. Physicist/Chaired the Arms Control and Non-Prolif Adv Board) But the new U. The post-combat threat to civilians is determined not by whether a mine is an antipersonnel mine. They can have antidisturbance features so that they explode if a person walking along accidentally tilts one. . policy draws the line between the two. initiative on antivehicle land mines. But the concept illustrates the difference between the two regimes. and will remain deadly for decades after that. The main difference between antipersonnel mines and antivehicle mines is that the permitted mines are more powerful.com/articles/2004/03/20/edgarwin_ed3_. The states that signed the Ottawa treaty should adopt the U. The U. while I take my lunch next door in a field of U. Within four hours. and then kill several people at once. mines with timing mechanisms that self-destruct the mine in 30 days or less (usually four hours for present U. in a school bus.000 tests under a wide variety of conditions. imagine that two minefields are now laid next to each other on the site of the summit meeting of the Ottawa Convention that Wolfgang Petritsch is scheduled to chair in Nairobi this November. no activated U. It will be deadly the day it is laid. mines permitted under the new policy. But we know that all the persistent antivehicle mines stockpiled by Austria and other members of the Ottawa Convention are designed to sit ready to kill for decades after emplacement.S. They can wait undetected for decades. to evade detection by humanitarian mine-clearance teams. One minefield consists of a representative group of Ottawa-compliant Austrian mines. batteries always die. But such failure is most unlikely. All land mines threaten civilians when they are first laid. most will be gone. I am not challenging Petritsch to hold his meeting in a field where Austrian mines were laid eight months previously.S. equally deadly at the time of the November conference.S. It permits mines that are detectable and not persistent — that is. mines). http://www. In more than 65. Garwin 04 (Richard. they may remain lethal for decades after emplacement.-compliant mines. Ottawa-compliant antivehicle mines can be persistent — that is.S. and some do not. but by whether it is persistent. including the Ottawa Convention. The Ottawa Convention is not a "mine ban treaty." In reality there are two partial bans. The new U.S.iht. The other minefield consists of a representative group of the U. Beyond the Ottawa Treaty.S. They can be made with little or no metal. fully compliant with the Ottawa Convention.S.
the Pact of Paris (the Kellogg-Briand Pact) was signed by America and 14 other leading powers. Anyway it's interesting to note that Miss Williams' highpublicity. Nor will it. The Washington Times. The behavior of the George Soros Foundation is typical. Because I'm sure that if any serious person had told Hitler that what the Wehrmacht was doing in Poland was illegal. in that it has donated $3 million to the ban-the-landmines campaign but will give nothing for landmine clearance as it considers the job hopeless. righteous campaign hasn't saved the life or limbs of one single landmine victim.treaties providing for disarmament but which left the idea of war intact. and her efforts are really redundant.is somewhat baffling. if reserving the right of self-defense. So you see? All we needed was to get together a few responsible people willing to do some serious talking. The Washington Times. Suddenly taken with the idea. 1928.7 million. As you might have noticed before this. people must have been simply forgetful. Also curious is her peculiar shunning of actual land-mine clearance. October 17. Greiner 97 (Richard. and it would be best if we halted all landmine activity now while we're ahead . he would have ordered his army out of Poland immediately. as according to her delirious figures it would take 1. "the outlawry of war" And in August. October 17.although one wonders why she's so steamed up about making landmines illegal as war itself has been illegal since 1927. columnist) The estimate put out by her tiny International Campaign to Ban Landmines is that there are 119 million landmines in the world. Senate.S.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 AT: Ban Mines CP – Doesn’t Solve 165 Landmines Aff Banning landmines is pointless and idealistic. in an address to the American people. and the whole business was taken care of.or rather behind by only 1. and in 1939 when Hitler launched his stunning lightning war in Poland. Why Landmines? Why Not Just Ban War. And so it's encouraging to note that Vermont's own Jody Williams.000 years. When Mussolini invaded Abyssinia.000 years to clear all the world's landmines. Banning landmines doesn’t do anything to clear them Greiner 97 (Richard. and Japan seized huge parts of China. What they should really do was go the whole hog and abolish war itself.while quite ignoring the problem of clearing them away . all of whom officially renounced war as "an instrument of national policy. winner of the latest Nobel Peace Prize. agitators with sublime ideals are often impervious to eighth-grade math. ." The U. Why Landmines? Why Not Just Ban War. whereas my figure for the seven countries where the leading British demining charity works is only 1. The placing of all lobbying emphasis on the "Princess Diana" campaign to ban the manufacture and placing of landmines . Banning them doesn’t help remove them. columnist) And in 1927 high-minded leaders of the age finally decided they'd had enough of this penny ante stuff . is continuing in this grand idealistic tradition . declared France was prepared to enter into an agreement with the United States to outlaw war. approved 85 to one. French Foreign Minister Aristide Briand. The press leapt at the idea.
. Sale or export: In implementing this policy.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 AT: Ban CP . US Dept of State. will develop alternatives to current persistent landmines.gov/t/pm/rls/fs/30047.S. antipersonnel or anti-vehicle. Every landmine we use will meet or exceed the specifications for self-destruction and self-deactivation of the Amended Mines Protocol to the Convention on Conventional Weapons (AMP/CCW).US Policies Solve Mines Current US policies solve Land Mine problems Bureau of Political-Military Affairs 04 (Landmine Policy White Paper. we will seek appropriate limited exceptions for training personnel engaged in demining or countermining operations. the United States will seek an international agreement that prohibits the sale or export of landmines that do not self-destruct. ban the use of non-detectable anti-vehicle landmines. that incorporate enhanced self-destructing/self-deactivating (SD/SDA) technologies.state. by converting non-detectable anti-personnel landmines into detectable ones. Humanitarian Mine Action Program by an additional 50% over FY03 baseline levels to $70 million annually. Consistent with existing U. anti-vehicle or anti-personnel.S. while at the same time protecting our ground forces and the civilians they may be sent to defend. Increase funding for Humanitarian Mine Action: The new policy will increase the funds available to support the State Department’s portion of the U. both anti-personnel and anti-vehicle. In a separate effort. obligations. Alternatives to Persistent Landmines: The U. Every landmine we use will meet or exceed the specifications for detectability in the CCW's Amended Mines Protocol. 166 Landmines Aff http://www. the United States will now implement the following policy: Persistence: After the year 2010 the United States will no longer use persistent landmines of any type. This initiative complements existing provisions in the Amended Mines Protocol that already prohibit the transfer of non-detectable anti-personnel mines as well as remotely delivered mines that do not self-destruct and self-deactivate. among other things. we are pursuing a protocol in the CCW that would. Non-detectable mines: After one year the United States will no longer use non-metallic or lowmetallic landmines of any type.htm) To reduce these humanitarian hazards to the lowest possible level. This completes a process the United States started years earlier.S.
Production and Transfer of Anti-Personnel Mines and on their Destruction" (otherwise known as the Ottawa Treaty). This is an incredibly difficult job in an area where central authority lies very lightly on the land. As a result. Feb 9. rogue regimes or irregular forces will always acquire and use them if they feel they need them. These Taliban infiltrators are exactly those who will be engaging and killing Canadian troops in Afghanistan later this year.t_0.com/articles/1997/08/22/edfred. But the answer is clear on the "Convention on the Prohibition of the Use. "channelize" enemy movement from hard-to-observe or attack routes into areas where they could be seen.iht. But Mr. MacKay objects to the Pakistanis attempting to secure their border against Taliban terrorists seeking to enter Afghanistan. and reduce the number of your forces necessary to secure terrain and defend routes of attack. Banning Land Mines Is Not A Good Idea. positions would still have to be held in combat. chemical or biological weapons. protect antitank mine fields. they were laid in more recent conflicts — in Bosnia. which require scientific and technical knowledge and capabilities. Antipersonnel mines were not created to blow the feet off "poster children.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 AT: Ban Mines CP 167 Landmines Aff Rogue forces will always use landmines. secure fortifications and guard posts. Bonnart 97 (Frederick. Canadians could be blithe when we Americans were doing the dying.php) Land mines are a highly effective defensive weapon. Stockpiling. Let us make Mr. as well as large-scale manufacturing and storage facilities. No major conflicts are on the horizon. But nations still spend a significant part of annual income on defense. Pakistan. In effectiveness. the hypocrisy is usually somewhat less obvious and the effects longer term. MacKay's position perfectly clear: He has been urging Islamabad to suppress terrorists in sanctuaries just inside Pakistan and secure the border.S. India. if it happened to hinder our ability to defend ourselves or other allies. . Although modern warfare is increasingly mobile. http://www. China. when the Canadian landmine treaty diplomatic effort was in full swing. The treaty was primarily signed by countries with no serious military capability or security responsibilities." nor to provide photo-ops for the late Princess Di. The treaty was driven by the federal government during its "soft power" infatuation under former foreign minister Lloyd Axworthy. in the Falklands. Mines provide a powerful means for troops to protect themselves rapidly. But that was then. However. International Herald Tribune. Regular forces of law-abiding nations bound by a treaty would be deprived of them. and mine fields have no application in peacekeeping operations. but inter alia to prevent infiltration. and the Koreas) doubtless have larger armed forces than the sum total of all the signatories combined. It would be illogical to exclude land mines. I recall making the point with Canadian diplomats that antipersonnel landmines were of real military value. easily transported and concealed. They are light. In addition to the former battlefields where their widespread use now causes such spectacular damage to innocent by-standers. Covered by gun fire. The routes being mined are not being used by little old ladies planning a day trip to see grandchildren in Kandahar. quickly laid and difficult to detect. lexis) On the national level. in the early 1990s. particularly to the U. basic land mines are easy and cheap to manufacture. in defending South Korea from attack across the Korean demilitarized zone. Unlike nuclear. tough luck on the U. for which they continue to acquire lethal equipment. in the Gulf War. there were no Canadian soldiers at risk and hence no need for Canadians to benefit from antipersonnel mines. Land mines are necessary force multipliers for effective defense Ottawa Citizen 07 (The Benefits Of Landmines. Sorry. it is akin to a covey of doves declaring that eagles should be declawed. So it is not surprising that military establishments responsible for the defense of such countries advocate their retention. And now we have Foreign Minister Peter MacKay recently remonstrating with the Pakistanis for employing mines and barbed wire in key infiltration corridors on the Pakistani border. they can create a formidable obstacle. The major non-signatories (the United States. Regardless of any ban. Russia. it may not be possible to obtain an agreed treaty.S. and this "now" is the Pakistan-Afghanistan border.
without the additional selfdeactivation capability -. or to recover mine explosives and fuses to employ in improvised explosive devices. All U. US mines are detectable and easy to clear Bureau of Political-Military Affairs 04 (Landmine Policy White Paper. these methods are difficult and costly. Thus.S. The CCW Amended Mines Protocol already prohibits use of non-detectable mines.exceeds this standard. systems will continue to meet or exceed this standard.New US Mines Safe US Mine persistence policies are fail safe Bureau of Political-Military Affairs 04 (Landmine Policy White Paper.state. US Dept of State.S. Persistency. So as a back-up to the selfdestruct feature of U. This policy will provide further safeguards to ensure that this will continue to be the case.S. SD mines. Such mines pose special challenges for humanitarian mine clearance.htm) It is possible to make a mine of wood. landmines rely on the combination of two features: Selfdestruction (SD) uses a timing device to explode the mine after a period of time. SD mines self-destruct between four hours and fifteen days.S. The U.S. SD/SDA mines contain batteries that have been designed with a limited life span of 90 days. forces already take extensive measures to ensure their use of landmines does not contribute to the global landmine problem.htm) Ending the use of persistent landmines of all types is the most significant component of the new policy. Mines that remain active long after their military use is finished pose an unnecessary risk to civilians -. This new policy ensures that the United States addresses this issue directly and comprehensively. landmines already incorporate both SD and SDA. 168 Landmines Aff http://www. SD reliability alone -. and exposure to chemicals including salt and sulfuric acid. it is not a specific mechanism. plastic. To achieve this. is working hard to gain worldwide acceptance of the existing CCW treaty and the new proposal. This time can be a fixed time period incorporated into the design of the mine itself or it can be set to any of several options before the mines are emplaced. the self-destruct mechanism has not failed. U. US Dept of State. and other nonmetallic materials so that standard metal-sensing detectors cannot reliably detect it. This 90-day limit is well within the 120-day requirement specified by the CCW’s Amended Mines Protocol. While techniques do exist to find so-called minimum metal mines.S. since the battery will die. U.state. to end the use of non-detectable landmines of all types within one year. Self-deactivation (SDA) is a backup process that would occur in the unlikely event that an activated mine failed to self-destruct. vibration.S. After 2010 all U. A proposal to extend this to cover anti-vehicle mines is under discussion in CCW meetings. U. Many mines around the world are so constructed.S.S. It is impossible that an activated U.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 AT. unreliability of self-destruction of activated U.S. http://www. well within the specified limits set by the CCW's Amended Mines Protocol. Also. The vast majority of U. and has been endorsed by fifteen nations. Note that the United Nations standard for humanitarian mine clearance is 99.gov/t/pm/rls/fs/30047. Future U. The key point with respect to detectability is that the new policy represents a permanent commitment on the part of the U.000 SD/SDA mines have been tested under a wide range of conditions including shock. It becomes much more so if the mines are essentially invisible to standard metal detectors.S. Current U. 90 days after emplacement the mines' batteries are completely exhausted. More than 67.S. Rather. it is an inevitable and deliberate result of the design of the batteries' electric charge. is what creates humanitarian risk. . Unlike SD. 100% of the electronics of every mine are nondestructively tested before it is accepted. rendering them incapable of detonation.and the longer they linger. expensive. not size or weight. self-destructing landmines defeat enemy attempts to recover these mines to use against us.gov/t/pm/rls/fs/30047. unlike persistent mines. Ban Mines CP . SDA mine would not self-deactivate. landmines is extremely reliable. Humanitarian mine clearance is inherently time-consuming. and hazardous.S.6%. high and low temperature. Selfdestruction of U. The humanitarian danger posed by any landmine is directly proportional to its persistence. the greater the risk. landmines will incorporate both features.S. Although persistent landmines fulfill a unique military requirement on the battlefield. high and low humidity. mines is statistically too low to measure. self-destructing landmines provide the valuable capability of allowing our own forces greater freedom of maneuver. Throughout these tests.
Through detailed planning.S. the cumulative effect appears to be de minimus--each country has developed methods to enable it to continue to engage in joint operations with U. this article analyzed the operational effects of the Ottawa Convention on joint operations involving U. By dividing the concept of "joint operations" into eleven factors. taking into consideration the national differences identified in this article. lexis) The Ottawa Convention represents an attempt by the international community to eliminate the catastrophic consequences caused by the indiscriminate use of APL through an outright ban on APL.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 Ban Mines CP . While varying in minor respects. Great Britain and Canada. These methods take the form of narrow interpretations of key provisions within the Ottawa Convention. Major. as described in national implementing legislation and policy pronouncements. Joint operations have been affected due to the additional constraints placed on allied forces for the use of landmines. the United States was unable to sign or accede to the convention because the convention failed to account for two issues indispensable to the United States' ability to satisfy its security obligations. and Canada. forces and forces of the three named countries. The provisions are. This article focused on three such nations: Australia. interpreted in such a manner that the prohibited conduct is either rendered permissible. Taking the Next Step: An Analysis of the Effects the Ottawa Convention May Have on the Interoperability of United States Forces with the Armed Forces of Australia. The operational effects were slightly different for each studied nation. to include every member of NATO. or is acknowledged without assent. . however. Most allies of the United States. for the most part. the United States will be able to continue to operate successfully with its Allies in joint operations.S. forces. In spite of the prohibitions of the Ottawa Convention. Great Britain.AT Hurts Joint Operations 169 Landmines Aff Failure to sign doesn’t undermine joint operations Jacobs 04 (Christopher. Military Law Review. While supporting the humanitarian ideals behind the Ottawa Convention. The differences were due to the manner in which each country interpreted key provisions of the Ottawa Convention. have ratified or acceded to the convention. the United States has continued to engage in joint operations with its allies.
Consequently. there is much to recommend this account. no less. liberalinspired development discourses spoken from the privileged and authoritative North over and against voices in the South. it can be read as a progressive rhetoric yielding tangible practical improvements in the lived realities of people in mine-affected areas. That is to say.2 To be sure. The basis of such optimism is. of their more parochial interests. for example. While there is little room seriously to question the pivotal role played by civil society-based actors in the campaign to ban landmines. the prevailing view of the ban has found its origins not in the traditional workings of diplomacy but in the co-ordinated efforts of a range of civil society actors who first brought the humanitarian crisis wrought by these weapons fully to light and then worked to propel the issue onto government agendas. In this way the Ottawa Convention reaffirms the authoritative and exclusive voice of civilization against the voice uncivilized. Of course. In particular. ongoing efforts to universalise the ban. the only people who can participate in this liberal hope are those who can access it via extensive networking. enabling them to seize the initiative and lead the process toward a mine ban in new political spaces transcendent of state borders and relatively free from the fetters of conventional diplomatic practice. no ulterior motive on the part of the actual signatories to the Ottawa Convention can reasonably be linked to the founding moment of the ban. questions about the ethics of mine action turn vitally on the rendering of the ban as an initiative rooted in an emergent global civil society transcendent of states and. This origins narrative has invested considerable moral authority in the movement to ban landmines.3 Accordingly. since most states actually came quite late to the process that saw the treaty inaugurated with 122 initial signatories in December 1997. Inasmuch as reference to global civil society has therefore been a vital enabling factor in the movement's successes to date. legitimacy inheres in the idea that in its founding the landmines prohibition derived not from the foreign policy imperatives of some state(s). such that a full range of voices can be raised through them irrespective of whether they speak from sites of privilege or margin. to widely held principles of humanitarian justice. but in civil society--in particular. the rather less modest claim to the effect that the campaign is best understood as an initiative of global civil society may not as easily withstand critical scrutiny. Instead. the expectation that transnationalised civil society networks are broadly accessible. more broadly. the liberal-inspired hopes bound up in the idea of global civil society imbue it with a decidedly emancipatory flavour--it bespeaks an open. Beier 03 (Marshall. its apparently global franchise seems to have insulated ongoing mine action from charges of incipient neocolonialism of the sort levelled against. . activists and NGOs built a transnational network of advocacy and engagement. the Ottawa Convention itself and. all have been at least rhetorically marked apart from whatever suspicions might otherwise be aroused by cynicism regarding the underlying aims of self-interested states. The dissemination of campaign information via the internet also helped in moving governments to act to the extent that it helped forge broad popular consensus that the humanitarian crisis wrought by AP landmines outweighed any military utility that might be claimed for them. More generally.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 AT: Ban Mines CP – Neo-Colonialism 170 Landmines Aff The underlying ideal of the Ottawa Convention is that it has as its foundation the support of a global civil society and humanitarian justice that is open to all. The most serious implications of this reside in the legitimising function performed by the global civil society rhetoric that has been such a central element of the origins narrative of the Ottawa Convention and the mine ban movement more generally. with committed activists and interested non-governmental organisations (NGOs). of course. Teaches in Dept of Pol Sci McMaster University) The stock narrative of what has come to be known generically as the Ottawa Convention banning antipersonnel (AP) landmines has it that the convention's origins reside not in any state action or initiative.4 Taking full advantage not only of personal mobility but also of the possibilities unlocked by new real-time information and communications technologies. but from actors untainted by allegiances other than to mine victims themselves and. And it is in this view and the sense of broad franchise to which it gives rise that the legitimacy of the campaign to ban landmines inheres most fundamentally. Third World Quarterly v24 n5 2003. Emailed Applications Are Preferred. Moreover. therefore. democratic space wherein the aspirations of the globally disempowered might hope to find meaningful expression in concrete political action.
speak English. a writing sample and a list of references to the ICBL at a Washington.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 AT: Ban Mines CP – Neo-Colonialism 171 Landmines Aff The global civil society of the Ottawa Convention asks us to transform in the name of humanity. The job postings. But notice how the only people who get to participate in this society are the people who have a high level of education. the postings concluded parenthetically with the following advice: 'Emailed applications are preferred'. Teaches in Dept of Pol Sci McMaster University) The 1997 Ottawa Convention banning the use. In late 2000 the International Campaign to Ban Landmines (ICBL) announced that it was seeking applicants to fill two paid positions. letter of application. stockpiling and production of anti-personnel landmines has been widely hailed as a triumph of an emergent global civil society--a claim that has done much to underwrite the legitimacy of the ban. implying broad franchise. efforts to extend it and ongoing mine action more generally. While the centrality of civil society actors to this process is beyond dispute. More particularly. DC address. that access to email and the Internet can least be taken for granted. and know how to use computers? Civil society doesn’t represent the world. this aspect of the postings begs to be read as an allegory of the effective inaudibility of some voices (notably from many of the world's most mine-affected areas) in the realm of mine action. Applicants were invited to forward their curriculum vitae. . strong oral and written communication skills in English. Emailed Applications Are Preferred. This. for example. both the required qualifications and the preference for electronic submission of application documents were quite revealing of the relative privilege of the sites from which candidates for positions such as these were likely to be drawn. It is precisely in many of the world's most mine-affected areas. in turn. Beier 03 (Marshall. and a high degree of computer literacy.1 Although it might easily have escaped the notice of any who applied for these jobs. it only serves as the legitimization for the actions of the North and the exclusion of the South from political space. Significantly. the global civil society rhetoric of the larger mine action movement may ring rather hollow. is suggestive of the potential for ethical dilemmas to be masked by uncritical acceptance of the widespread idea that the ICBL is an expression of global civil society--a claim that. then. has done much to underwrite the legitimacy of the movement to ban landmines and of ongoing mine action. listed among the required qualifications a university degree. even though its rhetorical weight might turn out considerably to exceed its material foundations in some important respects. Third World Quarterly v24 n5 2003. To the extent that majority populations in these locales are effectively excluded from equal participation in its transnational networks. It is argued that this circumstance poses a serious challenge not only to ethical practices in mine action but to the notion of global civil society as well. the idea that the campaign is appropriately regarded as an initiative of global civil society may not as easily withstand scrutiny. one for an Advocacy Co-ordinator and the other for a Government Relations Co-ordinator. Transcending limitations of space. a watershed aspect of the mine ban movement was its use of new information and communications technologies to forge a transnational activist network and raise a global groundswell of popular sentiment pushing states to accede to the ban.
While this has sometimes been cast quite broadly. then. but what does it replace them with? Global civil society isn’t the elimination of all boundaries.10 Similar claims abound. whatever its centrality to the process. and international agencies concerned about the social and economic devastation caused by AP mines..8 Celina Tuttle concurs. 'Canada's initiative would not have been possible without a civil society movement of global reach'.. working closely with like-minded governments'. What.. it is the central role of NGOs in particular that has most often been emphasised. It is the transcendence of precisely these boundaries. but is focused on the self-conscious constructions of networks of knowledge and action. it remained essential to its successes even after interested states like Canada took up the cause in earnest. she continues. Lipschutz argues. NGOs played a 'critical role . local actors. Emailed Applications Are Preferred. what we are witness to is 'the emergence of a parallel arrangement of political action. These political spaces are delineated by networks of economic. Rather. according to Cameron. the networks themselves extend over levels of analysis and state borders. social and cultural relations. each containing its own civil society. renderings of the landmine ban as the product of an emergent or already functioning global civil society have characterised much of the popular. While the participants in the networks of global civil society interact with states and governments over particular policy issues.12 Moreover. the only people who can participate are those who already share our ideals about development and civilization. but the creation of new political spaces based upon similar social and cultural relationships. Beier 03 (Marshall. for instance. one that does not take anarchy or self-help as central organising principles. that gives concrete expression to the idea of a global civil society: The spatial boundaries of global civil society are different. by decentred. strongly supported by the will of people around the world'.. 'it is a disarmament treaty whose very existence is rooted in an intensive. the origins story of the movement to ban landmines has met with precious little in the way of critical scrutiny. who link themselves together in networks for particular political and social purposes . global grass-roots effort.14 It should be understood that these global civil society networks do not replace nation-states as important sites of political action. in instigating and facilitating the landmine ban'. According to Stefan Brem and Ken Rutherford. Third World Quarterly v24 n5 2003. describing the content of the Ottawa Convention as having been 'arrived at by the sustained and concerted efforts of non-governmental organizations .. Teaches in Dept of Pol Sci McMaster University) In general. that cross the reified boundaries of space as though they were not there'.11 Maxwell A Cameron concurs. situating the origins of the Ottawa Convention in 'a grassroots campaign n that originated in global civil society'. in physically separated locations. In Lipschutz's view. invoked even as empirical evidence in studies concerned with the oftproclaimed changing nature of global governance more generally. activist and even scholarly literature on the subject.. Ronnie D Lipschutz contrasts global civil society with the sharply delineated and discrete political spaces long marked out by separate nation-states.15 . Although it allows us to act under the pretence of humanity. In one such study Craig Warkentin and Karen Mingst characterise the campaign to ban landmines as a 'victory' of global civil society.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 AT: Ban Mines CP – Neo-Colonialism 172 Landmines Aff The civil society of the Ottawa Convention may represent the transcendence of the boundaries drawn by states. is this emergent or extant (the extent of the claim varying from one narrative to another) global civil society that has figured so prominently in dominant accounts of the campaign to ban landmines even as the latter has been invoked as evidence of its very existence? In an influential and pioneering analysis of what are increasingly regarded as important changes in the nature of local and global governance. they signal an enlarged political terrain populated by a wider range of meaningful actors than is suggested by the traditional preoccupation with the conduct of selfinterested states. Indeed.13 From this perspective global civil society was not only vital to the founding of the mine ban movement.9 What is more. because its autonomy from the constructed knowledges of the state system also allows for the construction of new political spaces. and they are being occupied by the conscious association of actors. and are not constrained by the state system itself.
Third World Quarterly v24 n5 2003. the spread of liberal norms and values-. the remarkable achievements of the campaign to ban landmines must be the result of more than just the willingness of NGOs to become actively engaged in the cause. that allows all kinds of political and social transactions to take place outside of the purview or control of governments. The ability to communicate effortlessly and inexpensively in real time as well as to distribute (email) or make available (websites) vast amounts of information to an international audience unlocked the potential of transnational activist networks as a potent force in global political processes..20 Richard Price notes that this also endowed civil society actors with a 'surveillance capability'. the internet opened up interactive channels of communication through which virtual communities of activists and supporters could be forged around shared objectives. The vital infrastructures of these civil society-based networks are expressed in technologies that produced the late-twentieth century revolutions in personal mobility. According to Warkentin and Mingst. is not a new phenomenon--than by a confluence of transformative trends that include the diminished inclination and/or ability of national governments to provide public goods and social welfare.21 Indeed. The same neocolonialism conducted by modern governments is replaced by NGOs and transnational organizations which function under the purview of “humanity as whole. That is to say. then. In the case of the campaign to ban landmines members of the engaged NGO community lobbied state diplomats directly in the corridors of international arms-control and disarmament fora.'19 In this sense it is a critical infrastructure of global civil society. it is a process of knowledge exchange . as noted above.and sub-national institutions. Although the mobility of key members of the campaign was important. an important effect of new communications technologies. Equally significant are the practical bases upon which transnational networks of political action are built and sustained. facilitating the construction of transnational communities and the maintenance of civil society-based networks unbounded by the rigid territoriality of states. making them audible in realms that were once the exclusive preserve of those appointed to speak on the state's behalf. Beier 03 (Marshall.which find the locus of sovereignty in individuals rather than states--has undermined the state's claim to be sole mediator between the 'secured' inside and 'dangerous' outside of the domestic/international dichotomy of human sociopolitical interaction.. personal mobility has proved indispensable to the sort of transnational political activism enabled by these networks to the extent that members of civil society-based groups are empowered to make their presence felt at key sites of international decision making at decisive moments.” This only recreates the export of acceptable western norms under the guise of an open global society. Of course. 'is more than just a means of getting about. This has occurred at a time when the unprecedented destructive potential of weapons technology has made traditional military solutions to the problem of security seem less viable. 'the nature and possibilities of the World Wide Web combined with those of an emergent global civil society to create a new international political environment. was the unprecedented capacity to mobilise and co-ordinate a large transnational movement by making use of new information and communications technologies. carving out a role for them in the monitoring of state 'compliance with desired norms of behaviour'. And more particularly. Much more than a mere conduit through which an essentially passive audience might receive information. one that was quite unmistakable in the campaign to ban landmines. Emailed Applications Are Preferred. Lipschutz argues that the emergence of global civil society has been occasioned less by large-scale political activism--which. these too are necessary but not sufficient causes of the new possibilities for global governance seen in the campaign to ban landmines. cyberspace furnished a new realm for political action wherein neither the fixity of territorial boundaries nor the privileged speaking positions of governments and diplomats could contain civil society-based networks of activism. however. 'Travel'. Arguably of even greater significance to the campaign to ban landmines. is that they have 'collapsed political time' by accelerating the pace at which transnational mobilisations can be made.18 The result has been an opening up of political spaces such that both legitimacy and discursive authority have been conferred upon civil society voices. while these developments are all significant. they tell us more about why it is that voices from civil society can now be heard than how it has become possible for them to speak. communications and information handling. they argue. Lipschutz places the emphasis on the mobility made possible by the advent of relatively inexpensive commercial air travel that has accompanied the dramatic expansion of carrier capacity since the middle of the last century. Mobility also played a part in the ICBL's coalition-building efforts as it worked to broaden its own membership base. one in which state sovereignty was constrained and NGOs--as key actors in civil society--were able to work in novel and notably effective ways'. Teaches in Dept of Pol Sci McMaster University) Clearly. in his view.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 AT: Ban Mines CP – Neo-Colonialism 173 Landmines Aff Civil Society is simply the dissemination of state power onto the individual. the raising and co-ordination of a mass movement was enabled more by the emergent 'wired world' of the mid-1990s.17 In combination with these developments. Writing on the eve of the boom in personal computing and widespread internet connectivity.23 . mounting NGO conferences around the world and establishing a presence in mine-affected areas.22 Moreover. as well as the 'leaking away of sovereignty from the state' towards both supra.
this representation must be meaningful in comprehensiveness. from the liberal-inspired institutions of global governance to radical development discourses. seems not to be in serious question. Here. family. Similarly. enduring structures of inequality frustrate emancipatory designs by authorising and enabling privileged voices whose universalist discourses subject marginal voices to erasure. This threatens to suppress the voices of those whom we believe we are trying to help in the name of a vision of the world which they may not necessarily support Beier 03 (Marshall. as with other liberal discourses. it is to draw attention to the unfortunate circumstance that even the most well intended and thoughtfully conceived emancipatory projects become ethically problematic when largely spoken into a given locale from without. Elisabeth J Friedman and Kathryn Hochstetler have argued. to the extent that such discourses bear pretensions of universality.. in particular. Teaches in Dept of Pol Sci McMaster University) The sort of transnational activism exemplified in the campaign to ban landmines is aptly characterised as an instance of what Paul Wapner calls 'world civic politics'.27 Obviously. the market. The last of these. the Achilles heel of the more optimistic renderings of global civil society lies in the apparent assumption that the formal right to speak is one with the practical ability to raise a voice. Moreover. Particularly instructive in this regard is Chandra Talpade Mohanty's celebrated critique of some strands of Western feminism that stand on universalised claims about the sources of women's oppression in ways that are profoundly disempowering of 'Third World' women. As Ann Marie Clark. there is a danger that emancipatory designs spoken from sites of relative privilege will work violence of their own by dictating the terms of emancipation over and against less audible voices speaking from the margins. the mine ban movement originated from and was articulated through the realm of social life known as 'civil society': the 'complex network of economic. Rather. since the global civil society rhetoric from which mine action derives some measure of its legitimacy professes universality.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 AT: Ban Mines CP – Neo-Colonialism 174 Landmines Aff Movements by civil society to ban land mines justify their actions by their “open and universal nature. then. after all. mines themselves have nevertheless long been a near-ubiquitous staple of states' military arsenals.25 That the campaign to ban landmines is rightly regarded (at least in its origins) as a civil society-based movement. is not to be overlooked--the relative (in)ability of those speaking from sites of margin to participate fully in the fashioning of political praxis is.. Under these circumstances. Emailed Applications Are Preferred. global civil society is widespread enough that actors from all over the world are involved in the interactions'. the litmus test by which the validity of the global civil society rhetoric must ultimately be judged. . the 'global' nature of the particular political problem to which the movement addressed itself is not at issue--after all. they note. despite the fact that the latter's well-being may be most directly at stake. however. To concede that the campaign to ban landmines is identifiable as a civil society-based initiative in world politics is not. however. however. Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak reveals how even a radically emancipatory politics can have the effect of suppressing marginal voices in its very midst.28 In a similar vein. But. The fact that those in the third world have not dissented must mean that they are in-line with our goals. to make the more extravagant claim that it is appropriately rendered as an initiative of global civil society.29 More broadly. social. a more stringent test is in order: one that is signalled by the legitimising effect of the notion of broad franchise imparted in the global civil society rhetoric of the mine ban movement's origins story.30 This is something that ought to be taken seriously vis-à-vis ethical practices in mine action.26 Globality. 'raises the stakes considerably' because it implies 'geographically diverse' representation in the transnational processes of civic politics. however. The best hopes and intentions of formal equality. even if the pernicious effects of AP landmine use are not universally felt. that to raise this point is not to question the humanitarian motives of those engaged in mine action from sites of relative privilege. are too often subverted by the exigencies of real inequality. Third World Quarterly v24 n5 2003. Thus.” The premise. and voluntary association'. in depth and in terms of the practical possibilities for affecting the mine action agenda. 'to describe the social relations among nongovernmental actors as global is to assume that . in order for the global civil society rhetoric discussed above to contribute to the legitimacy of mine action.24 Taking on what is undeniably an issue belonging to the ambit of 'world politics'. they perpetuate the inaudibility of dissenters in marginal locales who might imagine the needs of their own salvation in terms different from or even contrary to those used without. It should be empahasised. is that everyone who wants to speak CAN speak. and cultural practices based on friendship. only the voices of the North are allowed to define what the world should look like.
35 Nevertheless. 'large-scale expansion of the campaign throughout Asia and Africa did not occur until the ICBL network had been consolidated in the North and political momentum had begun to build'. . is the reality that 'telecommunications are more reliable and often cheaper in more industrialized regions and transport to and from these places far more convenient. yields a different sense of the situation because.36 While there is no disputing this. as internet connectivity has enabled ordinary people in the more developed parts of the world to reach beyond local contexts to communicate with and even participate directly in transnational groups and movements. as noted above. however. voices of influence and authority still issue from more or less the same locales of privilege. leaving the same dichotomy of North/South intact.43 That those whose daily lived experiences are most intimately tied to the landmines issue are effectively excluded from full participation in the broader political mobilisation that it has brought about is also illustrative of the problems of unequal power and material relations imposed by the legacy of colonialism and ongoing conditions of dependency--all of which poses a serious challenge not only to ethical practices in mine action but to the notion of a global civil society as well. after all. with the result that theirs are the privileged voices of mine action--a fact reflected in their increasingly close partnering with the United Nations on mine action initiatives. none of which are mine-affected. Warkentin and Mingst call attention to the collapsing of political time made possible by new information and communications technologies. In other words. from here. the idea of global civil society is destabilised by the confirmation that. accessible air travel and.41 Proceeding from the claim that the internet has enabled ordinary people to become informed about issues such as landmines and to make their views known instantly to their governments. although the disproportionate basing in cities like London and New York 'in part reflects global inequalities . thus facilitating transnational organization'. even to the extent of developing direct internet access. very good practical reasons for the leading role of Northern NGOs. overwhelmingly favours urban centres over the rural areas where so many of the world's estimated 100 million mines are sown. without a doubt. The ICBL is. while political time might have been compressed. In the case of the landmines campaign. with the ICBL itself headquartered in the USA. variously. the very fact of unequal access to mobility and new information and communications technologies calls into some question the idea of a meaningfully global civil society. It is the co-ordinating body of the ICBL and some of the larger Northern member NGOs. Moreover. Beier 03 (Marshall.39 ordinary people in many mine-affected areas are more likely to be left on the disadvantaged side of the so-called 'digital divide'. but it is noteworthy that theirs is typically a local role: implementing humanitarian de-mining and victim rehabilitation 'on the ground' and.. though impressive. the political space still remains unchanged. lobbying their own governments to support the ban. access to the internet were essential to the forging of a transnational activist movement.33 Certainly. the preferred means of application further restricts the pool of potential candidates: the majority of those living in most of the world's mine-affected areas are. much less likely to have access to email. operating across many national contexts. global civil society only recreates the same neocolonialist authority that existed before. It is primarily in the developing South. Ironically. residing as they do beyond the pale of the internet-based outreach efforts of the campaign. remains relatively unchanged. Moreover. member NGOs that are based in mineaffected countries have been indispensable to the campaign and to mine action in general. Third World Quarterly v24 n5 2003.34 As campaign organisers Jody Williams and Stephen Goose recall. it also results from strategic organizational choices'. They are thus characterised by a vertical insertion between their own local contexts and the larger campaign. But somewhat belying this apparently global franchise. The only people who can communicate within the new global community are those of privilege. Catherine Frost points out that while internet connectivity is a possibility wherever telephony is available. transnational coalitions of related organisations are themselves networks through which 'information-poor' groups receive support from those who are more privileged. that reach out horizontally across the global. political space. or at least the unequal division of it. that these requisites of effective civil society mobilisation are not as readily available to majority populations. the rhetorical connection of the movement to ban landmines with the idea of an emergent global civil society is most profoundly unsettled by the ICBL's own job postings. marginal voices cannot be heard. In the light of this and taking account of the 'local' experience of the landmines issue in mine-affected areas. 'it should be remembered that there are still plenty of places where you can't take basic telephone service for granted'.. According to Manuel Castells. Emailed Applications Are Preferred. there are. There are important senses in which they cannot 'hear' either. as we have seen.38 But in a world where the global poor tend also to be the 'information-poor'. which means that people living in many of the world's most mine-affected areas are effectively disenfranchised from equal participation in transnational networks of mine action. neither are they cut off from it entirely. If the voices of the marginalized cannot be heard. Since the 1990s activist communities have seen important changes in both the breadth and depth of their membership bases. according to Smith.37 Although activist organisations in the developing world do not enjoy the same quality and degree of access to the internet as their counterparts in the developed North. more importantly. Even leaving aside the qualifications sought in applicants. Teaches in Dept of Pol Sci McMaster University) Equally significant is the matter of where the various member organisations of the ICBL are based geographically and how this maps with the specific roles that they play in the campaign to extend the ban and in ongoing mine action more generally. the point should not be missed that these practical realities also reflect global inequalities.42 Asking who these ordinary people are. however. Jackie Smith suggests that.40 the diffusion of internet access. its founding members are all based in Northern countries. able to boast a membership list made up of NGOs from over 90 countries.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 AT: Ban Mines CP – Neo-Colonialism 175 Landmines Aff Although civil society may collapse the control of the state over politics. Among the important considerations.
consequently. As they are most commonly articulated. civil society networks of activism have shown themselves to be a potent force in contemporary global governance. To be sure. In the light of these significant implications. and applications could still have been forwarded by regular post. whatever its sources. The importance of distinctions such as these is that they highlight whose voices can be heard in the new political spaces opened up by. it is a preference that is indicated here. But while this clearly bespeaks a compression of political time. Emailed Applications Are Preferred. Unfortunately.suggest a universal wherewithal to engage directly in political action and. there is an exclusionary effect that calls for some reflection upon its potential implications for ethical practices in mine action. for example.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 AT: Ban Mines CP – Neo-Colonialism 176 Landmines Aff Civil Society legitimizes the same colonialist action against the third world that existed before under the guise of global humanism. we would do well not to allow a preoccupation with what is new in global governance to obscure from view the enduring influence of those things that remain essentially unchanged. enabling them to lead the political agenda well enough to bring over a hundred states to a binding AP landmine prohibition in the remarkably short span of just a few years. it excludes those who do not already share similar Western ideals from shaping the world themselves. the global civil society origins narrative of the campaign to ban landmines has worked to great practical effect. such wherewithal is not evenly apportioned. information and communications technologies. the online job postings themselves would never have been seen in the first place by persons lacking internet connectivity. Underscoring this. whether implicit or explicit. A more nuanced understanding of transnational civil society initiatives and the inequality of opportunity for their meaningful engagement by people occupying different political spaces both unsettles this rhetoric and yields a repoliticised account of mine action. this is to suggest neither that the ICBL's jobs might easily have been less exclusive nor that they were deliberately so. Besides conferring legitimacy. However. Teaches in Dept of Pol Sci McMaster University) Just as there are good organisational and strategic reasons for the basing of NGOs in major cites of the North. But. But because civil society fails to equalize political power. These are the sorts of imperative self-reflective questions that are obviated by the claim that the mine ban movement and ongoing mine action are appropriately read as an initiative of global civil society. But. privileged voices find their relative advantage not through the formal exclusion of marginal ones but because of structural inequalities that limit access to audible speaking positions. the progressive and emancipatory hopes bound up in the idea of global civil society-those of political liberalism-. This does not mean that ethical practices of mine action are a chimera. it calls into question the extent to which the mine ban movement is itself appropriately taken as unproblematic evidence of a functioning global civil society. Admittedly. and this should move us to sustain critical inquiry into whose emancipation is at stake and according to whom. Indeed. should not be allowed to escape critical interrogation in deference to political expediency. Arguably. be fluent in English. Again. But it is the advice that 'emailed applications are preferred' that most clearly highlights how sites of privilege are reflected and unwittingly reproduced through the campaign to ban landmines.perhaps globalising elements of Northern civil society. however. the requirement for a university degree is a more arbitrary measure (especially in the light of the fact that no particular discipline was specified). and one that is likely to have had greater exclusionary effect beyond the North. the global civil society rhetoric of the mine ban movement has a tendency to depoliticise mine action. the foundational claims bound up in it. As a discourse of legitimation. a franchise that is potentially boundless. Rather. it enjoins us always to bear well in mind that even the best-conceived practices must be implemented across contexts that are shot through with persistent structures of inequality that can work to frustrate their aims. This is something that must be selfconsciously problematised and resisted inasmuch as the realities of deep structural inequality in the global political economy are such that opportunities for meaningful participation in transnational civil society-based networks and practices are not at all equally apportioned across geopolitical space. so too does the list of desired qualifications identified in the ICBL's job postings issue from practical considerations that are not easily ignored. Third World Quarterly v24 n5 2003. Most unprecedented in this regard is the demonstrated ability of ICBL activists to make effective use of new information and communication technologies. the duties listed for each position and the very fact that the ICBL interfaces with states and with the United Nations clearly necessitated that applicants should possess good computer skills. . as argued above. and so forth. and the experience of the mine ban movement stands as a compelling expression of this. It turns out that what we are witness to might more rightly be characterised as transnationalised elements of civil society-. Beier 03 (Marshall. It is this enduring reality that is most profoundly mystified by the unqualified invocation of global civil society rhetoric. the disposition of political space remains largely unaltered. At the same time.
October 17. near where Seoul . Why Landmines? Why Not Just Ban War. even aside from countries like China and India which have declined to sign the ban. we'd know in our hearts that they were quite wrong. unstable Stalinist regime with a million-man army? But I'm forgetting. And then. there's doubtless not a single signatory that would hesitate for a second to violate the ban if it were ever in its national interest.S. if they stormed into the South once again.was stormed and taken by force of arms four times during the Korean War. twice in each direction. desperate. troops we have deployed south of the DMZ against still another invasion from what's now a starving. how are we to protect the 37.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 AT: Ban Mines CP – No Compliance 177 Landmines Aff Countries that ban mines only comply when it’s convenient Greiner 97 (Richard. columnist) Another detail apparently too subtle for Miss Williams is that. And I invite Miss Williams to come with me to the demilitarized zone between North and South Korea. Without landmines. We could simply notify the North Koreans that an invasion would be completely illegal.a few miles to the south .000 U. . The Washington Times.
This observation is supported by results from a field study conducted last year in collaboration with the European project.S. there has been very limited introduction and integration of new mechanical technologies into common demining practices in the field. European Union in Humanitarian Demining 2 (EUDEM2). .Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 AT: International $ CP – US tech key 178 Landmines Aff US money isn’t enough. while sensors are considered part of equipment assigned to personnel and therefore each deminer has one.htm) There is a common understanding that research into humanitarian demining technology has not yet provided the positive results initially expected. the number of machines employed by each organization was generally very low. usually between zero and two items.edu/Journal/10. Journal of Mine Action. Power Tillers and Snails for Demining in Sri Lanka. We must send demining technology Cepolina 06 (Professor University of Genova Italy. dollars1 have been spent on research. In the last 10–15 years. Aug.jmu. hundreds of millions of U.081. while the total number of sensor technologies in use by the same organizations was 1.1/notes/cepolina/cepolina. We found 16 demining machines in use by nine organizations working in the four countries we visited. Our research focused on collecting information about machines and technologies created for use in the field of humanitarian demining. One exception was a single organisation that was using nine different machines. http://maic. of which I was a part. In fact.2 Such a discrepancy in the number of machines and sensors employed by demining organizations is surprising. as well as the efficiency of these tools and end-users’ feedback about them. However. and promising technologies have been developed and tested.
Mozambique. In March an outside report was sharply critical of around $9 million that foreign donors spend each year on 60 advisers whom it dubbed "inefficient" and "extremely cost-ineffective. even though they often lack the authority to control the activity of those demining groups they do not fund.N. and eye protection. with SOPs. which the national government can take over as soon as it is able. such as roads. the UN has not been effective at agreeing on (never mind establishing) standards across the industry. especially after the high priority areas. 2001 [Mine-clearance support designer/technician/trainer. "He is an honest. simple gentleman. face. . Aid agencies. That statement could be justified with examples of the discrepancy between any UN recommended demining standard and the field practice of UN teams.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 AT: UN CP 179 Landmines Aff The UN only funds for a short period of time. In this context. Vol. 2001 [Mine-clearance support designer/technician/trainer.” The Journal of Humanitarian Demining." So who is more guilty of waste . The UN has never been able to enforce standards before.com/asiaweek/magazine/99/0917/cambodia. Vol 25. 2] Most observers would agree that it should be the UN’s role to impose minimum standards in humanitarian demining activity. donors will be putting heavy pressure on the U. “An International Minefield: A scandal blows up under the demining agency. Andy Smith.asiaweek. CMACmust move beyond mutual recriminations Nobody disputes that the body is fundamentally worthwhile and desperately needed by ordinary Cambodians. Those governments may have another agenda. whose heart appears to be in the right place. http://www. Andy Smith. and insurance. to institute a properly consolidated budget with oversight mechanisms. other NGOs and the UN may all move into an area without any coordination or long-term strategy. Vol. There will also doubtless be a review of the role played by foreign technical advisers. They seek to establish a working system. The challenge now will be to forge a fresh collaborative spirit . 13 July 2007) The government has done some housecleaning. 17 September 1999.” The Journal of Humanitarian Demining. No 37.html. Angola and Afghanistan. CMAC director-general Sam Sotha has made way for threestar general Khem Sophoan. “Current Situation and Perceived Needs for Head and Face Protection in Humanitarian Demining.” Asiaweek Magazine. I will limit my discussion to the UN published standards for head. it has become the UN’s role to act as coordinator. As the general struggles to win back confidence." says a CMAC adviser. “Current Situation and Perceived Needs for Head and Face Protection in Humanitarian Demining. In Cambodia. Development Program. UN Programs are considered inefficient and ineffective Faulder 99 (Dominic Faulder. so protecting the impoverished recruit to demining from unnecessary dangers or exploitation. power lines and industrial areas have been made safe. which coordinates foreign involvement. The ability or willingness of national governments to take over demining with largely humanitarian aims cannot be guaranteed.the Cambodians or the donors? Whatever the answer. Unfortunately.and get back to what CMAC was all about in the first place. 2] Having started in most areas as a response to a humanitarian emergency. conditions of employment. staff writer. and has no control over NGO’s anyway. demining is often only funded in the short term.
there have been many violations and only a limited number of the violations have been reported to the Joint Commission. Since the signing of the cease-fire agreement and the deployment of the AU mission. specilalists in international Relations. regional organizations. particularly with respect to making Africa a landmine-free zone. 13 July 2007) The limited mandate of the AU force. 22 October 2004. “Sudan: The Darfur Crisis and the Status of the North-South Negotiations. 20 January 2007 [Director of Peace and Security of the Africa Union Commission. Thus the AU is relying on the support of the international community to meet its obligations to its citizens and to the international community itself. Moreover. Foreign Affairs. partner governments. The mandate does not have any enforcement mechanisms aside from reporting the violations to the Joint Commission. Geofrey Mugumya. Moreover. no corrective measures have been taken by the AU to end these violations.reliefweb. Defense. Secretary General Kofi Annan reported that “It is clear that the ceasefire is not holding in many parts of Darfur. Clashes were reported from 8-12 September in Sayyah. and we are well aware that we cannot do this alone. In September. albeit small.int/rw/lib.org/man/crs/RL32643. The deployment of the AU force. The AU is an inefficient agency and lacks proper infrastructure to solve for the landmines issue Dagne and Everett 04 (Ted and Bathsheaba. took more than four months after the signing of the agreement.nsf/db900SID/AMMF72JH22/$FILE/au-landmines-jan2007. CSOs and Non state actors .” .Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 AT: AU CP 180 Landmines Aff The AU cannot de-mine Africa by itself.pdf?OpenElement] The challenges facing the AU in the area of landmines and small arms proliferation are enormous. Presentation to the AU-EU Security Dialogue: Towards a Common Agenda For De-mining and Disarmament. and Trade Division.pdf.” CRS Report for Congress. and the size of the force have made the AU mission inefficient. http://www.fas. and needs the cooperation and resources of other nations.is absolutely necessary if we are to meet our goals. especially those in the European Union. north of El Fasher. even the limited mandate of monitoring of the cease-fire agreement has not been effective. Cooperation with all stakeholders – the UN. “The Problems of Landmines and Small Arms. http://www. according to many observers. logistical and financial troubles of the organization. and Government aligned militia attacked the SLA in Abu Dalek on 7 September.
international-alert. demobilisation and reintegration are areas that have long been identified as pertinent to the implementation of peace agreements. http://www.” 2003. yet there are areas.org/pdfs/euafricarome. This calls for peace programmes that are bold in character and effective in impact.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 A2: EU CP 181 Landmines Aff The EU is currently ineffective in demining Italian Presse Agency 03 (“EU Conflict Prevention. An element that has understandably received inadequate support is that of de-mining in conflict situations. which enjoy relative stability that can also benefit from de-mining programmes. Financial and technical assistance especially in disarmament.The moral of the story in this respect is that responding to conflicts sometimes requires breaking new frontiers.pdf. . Management and Resolution in Africa.The de-mining programme in Southern Sudan is one such example. 13 July 2007) The EU should continue to work with the AU in putting in place effective mechanisms for the monitoring of peace agreements including support for peacekeeping.
ndu. support. however. military ensures relevance. and services. military ensures relevance. In the final analysis. DOD is judged on its ability to win war.html) The suitability of Humanitarian Mine Clearing in an era of constrained resources is debated in DOD. even as Capitol Hill reflects a reluctance to risk U. DOD is judged on its ability to win war. technical expertise and safety. August 1998 Jr. . This arrangement provides diplomacy. Private contractors or NGOs could be used to provide mine clearing instruction. soldier's lives unnecessarily. In the final analysis. leadership. August 1998 Jr.edu/inss/strforum/SF143/forum143. and promotes stability and peace through economic development. defense attaches. even as Capitol Hill reflects a reluctance to risk U. the DOD provides critical components that boost solvency Sahlin 98(“Global Mine Clearance: An Achievable Goal?” Carl T. notably special operations forces. technical expertise and safety. Senior Military Fellow at INSS Number 143. notably special operations forces. not by how many hectares of foreign soil have been cleared. defense attaches. support.ndu.S.edu/inss/strforum/SF143/forum143. Conduct of actual mine clearance could be further outsourced in this manner. DOD could continue its support. This would provide certain Army elements. providing quality control through spot checks of cleared areas.S. with U. Private contractors or NGOs could be used to provide mine clearing instruction.html) The suitability of Humanitarian Mine Clearing in an era of constrained resources is debated in DOD. Advocates of mine clearing point out that such a new role for the U.S. This would provide certain Army elements. While NGOs can solve.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 A2: NGO CP 182 Landmines Aff While NGOs can solve. leadership. not by how many hectares of foreign soil have been cleared. with exposure to foreign languages and culture. with U. Conduct of actual mine clearance could be further outsourced in this manner. SF Banner http://www. DOD could continue its support. and services.S. Senior Military Fellow at INSS Number 143. Sahlin.S. however. Sahlin. soldier's lives unnecessarily. providing quality control through spot checks of cleared areas. This arrangement provides diplomacy. Advocates of mine clearing point out that such a new role for the U. augmented by Army engineer experts. with exposure to foreign languages and culture. and promotes stability and peace through economic development. augmented by Army engineer experts. the DOD provides critical components that boost solvency Sahlin 98(“Global Mine Clearance: An Achievable Goal?” Carl T.S. SF Banner http://www.
Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 183 Landmines Aff *****AT: Disadvantages***** .
September 1st 1997.000 people a year.(4) The problem grows progressively more acute with between two and five million more landmines being deployed annually. "Land mines are a significant cause of the harmful effects of global militarism and therefore a significant piece of the larger picture of military contracts.(5) Landmines are both a cause and effect of global militarism Social Funds 2000 [No Author Cited. Director of the Militarism and Violence program at the Interfaith Center on Corporate Responsibility (ICCR). more than 400 million antipersonnel mines have been sown. February 29th 200. Most of these people are civilians. “Anti-personnel landmines” a modern day scourge”. ICCR is a coalition of religious. Since the onset of the Second World War. Highbeam] The worldwide preoccupation with militarism is perhaps no better exemplified than by the trade in antipersonnel landmines. Conservative estimates suggest that there are 110 million landmines currently infesting 64 countries. with approximately 100 million stockpiled and awaiting future use.socialfunds." said Regina Murphy. of which an estimated 65 million plus have been deployed since the 1980 Convention on Conventional Weapons.com/news/article.cgi/175. mostly in the developing world. Policy Analyst for the New Zealand International Review. http://www. or possibly later. institutional. living in countries trying to rebuild their society after the horrors of war. and individual investors committed to promoting corporate responsibility through shareholder activism. up to 40 percent of them children. .html] Landmines maim or kill 26. “GE Shareholder asks company to renounce landmines”. and has refused to join a Human Rights Watch initiative to renounce further involvement in landmine production. General Electric was a supplier of integrated circuit components and other parts from 1989 through 1993.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 Militarism Nothing symbolizes militarism so much as landmines do Faulkner 97 184 Landmines Aff [Frank.
or left by some patrol making camp for the night. several million more are being added each year. Jan 24. 17) War is always terrible. biological. the aff should always prevail over the impact they are claiming Anderson 95(“Clearing The Fields Solutions to the Global Land Mines Crisis” Kenneth Anderson director of the Arms Project of Human Rights Watch Published by Basicbooks and The Council on Foreign Relations New York. and loses a leg in a landmine explosion. And the most common types of mines in use today remain active and ready to kill for decades. Land mines are weapons of mass destruction in slow motion. With ~oo. Tens of millions of these silent killers have been left as military litter in more than 80 countries. “The Geography of Landmines and implications for health and disease in Africa. JSTOR) An individual woman peasant farmer seeks to prepare her field for planting .ooo." 1 Every time they go off the known "safe" path or into their fields. or deliberately placed by armies in order to drive civilians out of the area years before. adding an extra dimension to terror and instability. Anti-personnel landmines. Of the sixty-five countries reporting new landmine casualties from January 2002 through June 2003. silent sentinels lying in near permanent ambush. ends up in a hospital and requires prosthetic assistance. In too many African nations. http://www. including thousands of children. Journal of Public Health Policy 1998 (“Removing Landmines: One Limb at a Time?” Journal of Public Health Policy. . Mines daily threaten innocent civilians. 261-266. .html) Bush has pledged to combat the spread of weapons of mass destruction. biological. easily held in one hand and scattered by various means.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 Landmines Outweigh Disadvantage 185 Landmines Aff Landmines kill more people than nuclear. it would take eleven hundred years and $33 billion to clear. co-founder and executive director of the Washington-based Landmine Survivors Network. or chemical weapons combined Oppong and Kalipeni 05 [Oppong. Landmines have killed more people than all the cold war weapons of mass destruction combined. Land mines are aptly described as weapons that cannot distinguish between the boot of a soldier and the footfall of a child. at least not for the civilians— the agriculturalists. Africa Today 52. . associate professor of Geography and African Studies at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Landmines are slow motion WMD – o/w DA White 02 (Jerry. 1995. 3-25. A mine clearance expert. Between 1941 and 1996.000 per year casualties worldwide is composed of such individual cases. risking his life to help stop the carnage. chemical and biological weapons combined. forty-one were at peace. A United Nations report projected that if the use of landmines were stopped immediately.dren.banminesusa. Kalipeni. pastoralists. and peasants— who must live in the midst of these "explosive remnants of war. Their prey all too frequently turns out to be civilians gathering firewood or plowing a field. These wars never really end. Landmines are the continuance of war. and chemical weapons combined (ICRC 1996). those already in place. The statistic of 25. not war.12005. at current rates. San Diego Tribune. They have killed more people than nuclear. nearly everyone knows a victim or a survivor of such unnecessary tragedy. pp. questia pg. landmines caused more deaths and injuries than nuclear. and 85 percent of reported casualties were civilians (Landmine Monitor 2003). a political ecology approach”. these people risk losing life or limb to injuries caused by mines—left and forgotten from some long ago battle.ooo landmines yet to be removed. but the use of antipersonnel land mines in many of the international and internal conflicts prevalent in the world today adds an extra dimension of terror and instability. A couple of chil. have killed more people than all the cold war weapons of mass destruction combined.org/news/983_afghan/982_afghan. Issue 19. Ninety percent of the survivors of land mines do not receive medical care or rehabilitation.3. lose their lives as their game takes them into an area of landmines. playing. an associate professor of Geography at the University of North Texas. Project Muse] Most of these victims are civilians killed or injured after hostilities have ended.
the roads to many Jerichos have become minefields. Mines daily threaten innocent civilians." But globally. "Where there is suffering. All of us are diminished when any are hopeless.html) In his inaugural address. President Bush said. there is duty. Tens of millions of these silent killers have been left as military litter in more than 80 countries. chemical and biological weapons combined. 2002 San Diego Union Tribune http://www.org/news/983_afghan/982_afghan. They have killed more people than nuclear. including thousands of children.banminesusa. Land mines are weapons of mass destruction in slow motion. And I can pledge our nation to a goal: When we see that wounded traveler on the road to Jericho. Ninety percent of the survivors of land mines do not receive medical care or rehabilitation. we will not pass to the other side. Bush has pledged to combat the spread of weapons of mass destruction.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 Landmines Outweigh Disadvantage 186 Landmines Aff Landmines should be evaluated on the same level as all other WMDs White 02(“Ridding The World of Landmines” Jerry White co-founder and executive director of the Washingtonbased Landmine Survivors Network January 24. .
an entomologist at the University of Montana. Finally. Once the dogs identify the contaminated areas. USA Today 2000 (Tracking Land Mines with Honeybees . http://findarticles. A common method of detecting explosives is through trained dogs. and the concentration of the substance they detect. Dogs can reliably detect 10. Results indicating a mined area are confirmed by a free running dog (a dog roaming the suspected mined area). We do not know whether dogs use senses other than the olfactory sense.. Aug. Wherever they go. Figure 6 and Figure 7 illustrate MEDDS (Mechem Explosives and Drug Detection System) long used to verify whether a given area contains mines. Missoula. they cannot determine a mine’s precise location. Several dogs inspect each batch of filters.1/bruschini. they will pick up traces of the chemicals found in explosives that leak from land mines into soil and water. Dogs accurately detect the general mined areas within these stretches. the dogs’ quickness to tire. The filters shown on a stand represent 2. have modified commercially available radio-frequency tags for bees to "wear" so they can be identified. mine detection with dogs poses obstacles such as time and money costs for training dogs. Wash.” http://maic. and other samples. who is coordinating the project. Using dogs to find landmines is ineffective. then take them to the dogs for evaluation. as shown in Figure 7." explains Jerry Bromenshenk. Although somewhat effective. Researchers hope that. Exactly how dogs detect explosives remains a mystery. Feb 1998 [“A Survey of Research on Sensor Technology for Landmine Detection. To this respect.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 AT: Dogs DA 187 Landmines Aff Bees can be used to seek out specific landmine sites. . Claudio Bruschini and Bertrand Gros. however. Deminers collect samples (possibly filtered to increase the concentration of any explosive material). vapors or trace particles. "Bees are like flying dust mops. Special electronics and software designed by Pacific Northwest are mounted on man-made beehives to "read" the identification of each bee from the tiny tags. a mine’s vapor-release rate changes significantly over time. while the bees are out foraging for pollen. the ability to track the insects and analyze their hives could help pinpoint land mines or unexploded ammunition on firing ranges or old battlefields. Engineers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. filled along a road. Also unclear is the substance that dogs detect. which is funded by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency. The Journal of Humanitarian Demining. Another hindrance to locating mines with dogs is the scattering of race explosive particles far from the actual mine. the central research and development organization for the Department of Defense. they pick up dust.com/p/articles/mi_m1272/is_2663_129/ai_63986743/pg_1) The latest in fashion for bees this summer--a high-tech tracking backpack--may help find millions of land mines scattered throughout the world.using honeybees to seek out explosives. deminers can concentrate on those areas with technologies that locate individual mines. and their sensitivity to environmental conditions. Although dogs effectively detect the presence of mines.4 km of roads. 2] One way to identify mines is to detect the explosive material within them. Richland.edu/journal/2. Identifying the precise location of mines is not necessary for vast stretches of land. airborne chemicals. If honeybees can be trained to seek out the chemical components of explosives.htm. One way to compensate for these hindrances is to cover an area with several different dogs.jmu. In Figure 6 dogs assess MEDDS vapor absorbent filters.12 to 10-13 g of explosives. He has pooled resources from three Federal agencies and three national laboratories to conduct the research. Vol. The odor of an explosive penetrates the ground and the vegetation up to 10 meters from the actual mine.
This method allows de-miners to cover 5 kilometers a day. Instead of taking the mine dogs to the minefield. Using a vapor suction method.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 AT: Dogs DA 188 Landmines Aff MEDDS allows dog sample sniffing to happen in laboratories. The dogs can detect vapor and particles from landmines and unexploded ordinance by sniffing the samples. Teams with dogs go back to manually de-mine the areas which are shown to be contaminated. whereas manual demining covers one square kilometer a day. samples from the contaminated area are brought to the dogs who work in a laboratory.html) A new technology in de-mining called the Mechanical Explosive Dog Detection System (MEDDS) is being used in Afghanistan. your arguments are wrong Stone 03(Wand United Nations Report Lane Stone Education Fund Chair Wand UN July 18. samples are collected from the surface of the ground and sent to a laboratory in Kabul. Sampled areas are marked using GPS to record where the sample is from.wand. . 2003 Delegate http://www.org/issuesact/un-rpt-july18-03.
qualify as "human" under these criteria.which they oppose. or compose symphonies. bone.and that requires an elevated consciousness.pulpless. 4) Being observed as engaging in inductive and deductive reasoning processes. and eat. ranch. and the nature of animals. then we may not ethically use them for our own selfish purposes. Even though I personally believe we were created by God. Do we have a moral obligation not to use animals for human utilitarian purposes. is it? The issue is ranching minks to skin them for fur. than the animals we hunt. http://www. or induce mathematical equations. we are told to treat others as we would wish to be treated. all of them are based on observable effects of intelligence and self-consciousness. but we should not grant animals an equal stature that nature has not given them. butcher. The wildebeest has no ethical recourse against the lion. because if animals have rights then we are not morally entitled to put them to utilitarian use. The chicken has no right not to be eaten by the fox. Which leaves us esthetics. no other animal has any ethical standing to complain against the human animal for eating them or wearing their skins. Animal rights would mean animals would be immune from being used to fulfill any human purpose. Some "animal rights" activists. which exists only in individual humans. ducks. That can be done merely by an appeal to our consciences. animal testing for beauty products) or eating animals. saying that we are all share a divine consciousness. trap. which is another way of asking whether animals have the right not to be treated as objects to be exploited for their usefulness? The idea of a right means that which has rights may not be treated as a utilitarian object for the fulfillment of the purposes of others. 5) Being observed as engaging in nonutilitarian artistic activity unique to that species. It is the individual human right to control our private spheres of action -. 2) Being observed as able to communicate from one generation to the next by a recorded language unique to that species." If animals have rights then we need not make any distinction between an unnecessarily cruel use of animals (pick one: cock.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 AT: Animal Rights 189 Landmines Aff Animals are on the same level as humans.. hunting and shooting deer. It's only human action to which animal rights activists object. By the "survival of the fittest" which is the law of raw nature. fish. and do not deserve rights. farm. My point is that the interests of those who assert that the lower animals have rights is not to protect animals against cruel Those who assert that animals or even "habitats" have rights do so to destroy individual human rights to control what I term the anthroposphere: the human habitat. If animals have rights. None of them speculates about the unobservable functioning of a neural network. and we are better. So where do we find ethics here? If we look to nature.and we are obviously the master of all other animals by that standard.if our nature is of a different kind than other animals -.then why should we grant rights to species who can not talk. I'm sure there are other criteria we could use. This is. PETA has it exactly correct. no animal has rights: only the tools to survive as best it can. stronger. equate humans with the rest of nature by treatment.com/jneil/aniright. But. This is an argument that could only work on a being capable of empathy -.our individual habitats -. smarter. and elks. such criteria being neither necessarily anthropocentric nor even terracentric. but these are obvious ones that come to mind immediately. people throwing . Those who argue in favor of animal rights are causing dehumanization and self-hatred in humans Schulman 95 (J. experiment. by scientific means -. including the higher apes. But equating humankind as no more divine than inanimate objects or other animals isn't raising nature but lowering humankind. castrating and slaughtering steers to eat them. the logical conclusion of "animal rights. We do not observe these significations of intelligence and self-consciousness in any other species we know. we see only that the strong use the weak for their own purposes -.fighting. Since lower animals don't have rights. Pantheists believe that everything is sacred.html) "Animal rights" do not exist in either case. unlike advocates of the JudeoChristian tradition I do not rely upon the question of whether humans have a "soul" to distinguish humans from animals. or build satellites which send back television pictures of other planets? Why shouldn't we humans simply regard lower animals as things which may become our property? We may be kind to animals if it is pleasing to us to do so. But. Conclusively. Like secular rationalists. and the debate of paradigms. testing cosmetics on animals.. There is no organization called Porpoises for the Ethical Treatment of Animals. we humans need to make judgments on humane versus cruel treatment of lower animals not by treating animals as if they have rights but instead must rely on our esthetic values -. It is true that animals can feel pain. in fact. burning trees and killing wildlife. for they are just animals. Respect for nature requires a respect for the nature of what things are . If we are merely animals. period. we are of a different nature than other animals we know. Nor are any "animal rights" activists themselves merely animals. It is People who make those demands of other People. Well published author against animal rights. Neil. no matter how necessary we think that use or how humanely we assert we do it to them. after seeing treespikers. If we look to the center of all human ethics.observation. Helen's volcano for spewing its lava. I don't notice them picketing Mount St. that therefore nature gives them a right not to be treated cruelly. if we are superior to other animals . The Illogic of Animal Rights. basing their thinking on pantheism. Each of these criteria is simply a proof of intelligence and self-consciousness: 1) Being observed as producing or having produced technological artifacts unique to that species. 3) Being observed as basing action on abstract reasoning. But what others? Animals can't treat us as we wish to be treated because they don't have the wit to entertain ethics at all. I'm content to resolve the issue of the nature of human beings. the Golden Rule. doing medical experiments on animals to advance medical knowledge. skin. They certainly have no ethics about us. Yet. Neither cetaceans nor other higher mammals.our consciences. Those who argue for animal rights argue that since animals are living and feel pain. including the inanimate. and that esthetically requires that we not be cruel in our treatment of them. But what is cruelty? Beating a horse that won't pull a wagon? Making animals fight each other for sport? That's no longer the issue. Let me make it clear: I am not questioning the humaneness or cruelty of any particular practice.
not less cruel. and Kentucky Fried Chicken being equated with Auschwitz. it's now apparent that the effect of trying to give animals the same ethical immunities as humans is that all esthetic distinction between cock-fighting and eating meat is lost. "Animal rights" activists use the tools of rationality which are uniquely available to the human species in order to deny the distinct nature of their own rational faculties. The effect of "all or nothing" in our uses of animals is to blunt our consciences. Those people among us who would give lower animals human rights do not do it because they love other animals. which makes us crueler to animals. They hate the fact that their own superior nature as intellectual beings gives them superior challenges which they shrink from by attempting to deny the superiority of their human nature. It is the logical tactic of those who hate the individual creative ability and wish it replaced by the anti-human jackboots of collectivism. They do it because they hate humankind. . They raise up animals in an attempt to lower humankind. "Animal rights" is just one more diabolic scheme for promoting government control over human lives by destroying our right to private property.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 AT: Animal Rights 190 Landmines Aff paint on fur coats.
we need to declare against whom. and how it is being waged. p. Naturally. sounds nothing short of ludicrous when this world contains individuals worth more than $100 billion. that is. Arguing that it is too expensive to treat MDRTB among prisoners in Russia. and that intellectual recognition is only a necessary first step toward pragmatic solidarity. Arguing that nominal civil and political rights are the best we can hope for means that members of the healing professions will have their hands tied. The argument of this book has been that it is time to take health rights as seriously as other human rights. toward taking a stand by the side of those who suffer most from an increasingly harsh “new world order. ” . Guatemala. forced to stand by as the rights and dignity of the poor and marginalized undergo further sustained and deadly assault in what is essentially an undeclared war on the poor. say. 245 . Pathologies of Power: Health. or Rwanda are unrelated to our surfeit in the rich world requires that we erase history and turn a blind eye to the pathologies of power that transcend all borders. desocialized analyses that mask—whether through naïveté or fecklessness or complicity—the origins and consequences of structural violence. Because it is undeclared.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 AT: Econ DA 191 Landmines Aff Farmer 03 (Paul. Questia) Claims that we live in an era of limited resources fail to mention that these resources happen to be less limited now than ever before in human history. ” Passivity and shortsightedness are invaluable to those who would keep the war undeclared. 77 Arguments against treating HIV disease in precisely those areas in which it exacts its greatest toll warn us that misguided notions of cost-effectiveness have already trumped equity.46. Perpetuating such fictions requires dishonest. for whose benefit. and the New War on the Poor. Professor of Medical Anthropology at Harvard. To argue that human rights abuses occurring in Haiti. Human Rights. prosecuting such a stealthy war requires a considerable investment in propaganda and “psy ops.
demining program should not expect benefits to exceed costs within 30 years. Losers of the program could include the American taxpayer. http://maic. Intangible benefits outweigh the costs Litzelman 02 (Michael.2/focus/michaellitzelman/michaellistzelman.e./HN demining program. non-quantifiable benefits. In terms of these lives. The data and analysis indicate that demining is not an appropriate subject for benefit and cost study. this humanitarian benefit should be enough for the United States to contribute a demining program to these countries. .S.S. vital interests were at stake.htm) This study was only able to quantify selective primary and secondary benefits. Costs saved due to eliminating deaths are what actually drive the costs of the landmines. lives and injuries of HN personnel. benefits only exceed costs in two situations. especially if one takes into account the primary and secondary benefits of Ethiopia. In terms of benefits and costs. If one were to take into account the U. For a demining operation. For the HN.jmu. quantifiable benefits. which is typical for B/C analysis. Although costs have come early. if one were to just count the U. Benefits do not exceed costs in Ethiopia and Eritrea at any point in this study. The following table lists the benefits and costs of the U.2. One unforeseen benefit from American assistance to Ethiopia was support from the country at a crucial time when U.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 AT: Econ DA 192 Landmines Aff Mines can’t be fiscally valued. one could determine the winners and losers. Journal of Mine Action 6. The non-quantifiable benefits for the United States appear to vastly outweigh the costs ($6 million) of the demining program. something should be done in order to prevent the potential loss of life and limb. After the United States supported communist Ethiopia during their devastating droughts in the 1980s..S.S. the U. However. and other benefits that are non-quantifiable were considered. Ethiopia in turn voted for a critical American resolution in the UN Security Council to support a military build-up after the invasion of Kuwait by Iraq in 1990.S. indicates that benefits do not exceed costs in either country regardless of the discount rate or years in operation (one to 30 years).edu/journal/6. Benefit/Cost Analysis of US Demining In Ethiopia and Eritrea. quantifiable and non-quantifiable benefits far outweigh the costs. Using the present value methods of comparing future costs and benefits (primary and secondary). i. if human lives and quality of life are to be taken seriously. The United States may eventually be able to gain many of these benefits while only supporting the start-up of the program. the American taxpayer would be a winner (see above list).
is.wayne. and because it is the worst imaginable outcome of nuclear war (actually I find it hard to imagine at all-no people walking this earth-forever).Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 AT: Nuclear War = Extinction 193 Landmines Aff No risk extinction Moti Nissani. Extinction? Extinction of humankind is often mentioned in this context. it should be rendered even more improbable by reducing the risk of nuclear war. extinction is highly improbable: under any likely set of assumptions.html ) VIII. based on what we know now of the effects of nuclear war.edu/mnissani/PAGEPUB/CH2. However. . http://www. it seems that some of our kind will be able to pull through the hardships and survive. 1945-1991. But because extinction cannot be completely ruled out. 1992 (Lives in the Balance: the Cold War and American Politics. writer who has examined the reception new scientific discoveries have received in history.
but Need Some Reassessment”.items/d04521. security-related programs. Asia.gov/search?q=cache:V6UeWHyAMkIJ:www. Counterterrorism Engagement with Allies.pdf&access=p&output=xml_no_dtd&ie=utf8&lr=lang_en&client=stategov_front end&site=stategov%7Coig%7Cfpc%7Cbmena%7Cusawc%7Cmepi%7Ctravel%7Cexchanges%7Ccareers%7Cfoia %7Caiep%7Cpepfar&proxystylesheet=stategov_frontend&oe=UTF-8) The NADR account also supports a comprehensive approach to preventing and countering terrorist attacks on U.S. efforts to sustain and further the counterterrorism agenda in the international arena NADR is key to anti-terrorism efforts Department of State. and biological weapons.gov/new. regional stability. Senate: Department of State: Nonproliferation. and humanitarian assistance. The NADR account supports U.NADR Key to Anti-Terrorism 194 Landmines Aff NADR funds all anti-terrorism programs—it is critical to sustain and further the counterrorism agenda Department of State.state. missiles. In addition to these two major programs. (“Report to the Chairman. Demining. national interests by funding critical. efforts to reduce threats posed by international terrorist activities. as well as to mitigate local threats that cause regional instabilities and humanitarian tragedies.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 AT: Aid Trade Off . anti-terrorism.pdf) The Department of State’s anti-terrorism programs funded through the NADR account are designed to help achieve U. U. efforts to promote reconciliation and stability in the Middle East.S. and Related Programs (NADR) account supports a broad range of U. new TIP countries’ efforts to interdict terrorists. NADR funds are key to anti-terrorism programs GAO. 2004 (“Non Proliferation. and infrastructure.pdf+docu ments%2Forganization%2F28971.gov/documents/organization/28971. and the Pacific Rim.S.state. The success or failure of the United States in dealing with problems in each of these areas will have implications for maintaining U.state. national security interests by providing foreign countries with training and technical capabilities that enhance their ability to prevent terrorist activities. NADR programs serve as an important tool for working with foreign nations to reduce transnational threats to America’s security. and prevent the use of financial institutions. http://www. and Related Programs Follow Legal Authority. .S. The FY 2005 request will support ongoing core ATA programs and the development of new courses and activities to meet the evolving terrorist threat. Anti-terrorism. and their associated technologies.gao. and stockpiles of excess weapons. businesses. Terrorist Interdiction Program (TIP). Anti-Terrorism. NADR funds the Anti-terrorism Assistance (ATA) program. chemical.S.pdf+docu ments%2Forganization%2F28971. and access to critical resources and markets. The TIP improves countries’ capabilities to prevent the transit of terrorists and their materials between borders. http://search.pdf&access=p&output=xml_no_dtd&ie=utf8&lr=lang_en&client=stategov_front end&site=stategov%7Coig%7Cfpc%7Cbmena%7Cusawc%7Cmepi%7Ctravel%7Cexchanges%7Ccareers%7Cfoia %7Caiep%7Cpepfar&proxystylesheet=stategov_frontend&oe=UTF-8) The Nonproliferation.gov/search?q=cache:V6UeWHyAMkIJ:www. as well as by nuclear. Demining. Counterterrorism Financing assists foreign countries’ efforts to identify. whether at home or abroad. freeze. Committee on Foreign Relations.gov/documents/organization/28971. Anti-Terrorism. and Related Programs”. security and military superiority. There are two major anti-terrorism programs funded through the NADR account: the Antiterrorism Assistance Program and the Terrorist Interdiction Program. citizens and interests and to minimize the impact of any attacks that may occur. efforts in four areas: nonproliferation.state. landmines. The FY 2005 request reflects the funding needed to support U. and charitable organizations as conduits for money to terrorist organizations. http://search. and Counterterrorism Financing. the NADR account also includes funding for additional anti-terrorism activities that are more narrowly focused. CT Engagement programs build international political will leading to concrete steps in the war on terrorism and enable senior level foreign officials to develop plans in the event of an actual incident.S. Demining. and Related Programs”. 2004 (“Non Proliferation. Anti-Terrorism. and U. ATA provides technical training and equipment to assist foreign countries in protecting facilities. individuals. Demining.S.S. April 2004.
share for the ongoing development and implementation of the International Monitoring System. When compared to the US. the Philippines and Colombia. • $18. Pakistan. 2007 (“Fiscal Year 2008 Budget Request”.0 million for the Nonproliferation and Disarmament Fund to halt the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD). and security. and humanitarian demining (HD). Yemen and Kenya.) Non-proliferation activities -. Specifically this includes anti-terrorism assistance (ATA). and Related (NADR) programs. Indonesia. http://nie. The FY 2008 request includes new in-country programs in Iraq and continues funding for programs in Afghanistan. • $41.3 million for the global Export Control and Related Border Security program. Institute for Intelligence Studies.0 million• $124. safety. Anti-terrorism. Anti -Terrorism Programs -. but rather primarily from general cardiovascular disease (CVD). please refer to the tables at the back of this volume.3 million to expand and strengthen the Terrorist Interdiction Program (TIP) in highest priority countries such as Iraq. which is designed to help prevent and interdict the proliferation of WMD.com/Middle+East+North+Africa+key+Interests) Infectious and chronic disease is likely to have a marginal impact (2. The biggest risk to the US strategic interest of support for the global war on terrorism comes not from diseases like HIV/AIDS or Malaria.5 million for Global Threat Reduction Program (formerly the Nonproliferation of WMD Expertise program) to support specialized programs aimed at reducing the threat of terrorist or proliferant state acquisition of WMD materials. the US grants its support to the MENA region by way of Non-proliferation.37) on the US strategic interest of support for the global war on terrorism in 80 percent (8 out of 10) of the countries in the MENA region over the next 10-15 years.$150. operational. . and advanced conventional weapons systems. counterterrorism financing assistance (CTF). all are near or just below western standards.3 million for the Anti-Terrorism Assistance program to support the global campaign against terrorism by providing strategic. missile delivery systems. To prevent the loss of valued expertise in the fighting of terrorism as the leaders are replaced by a younger population. • $50. Demining. • $18. many of the leaders of antiterrorism forces and security forces are likely to be forced into retirement within the next 10-15 years.0 million for voluntary contributions to the International Atomic Energy Agency to support programs in nuclear safeguards.usaid. http://www. Funds alsosupport the destruction of existing weapons. with particular emphasis on denying such weapons to terrorists. Pakistan. their delivery systems. export control and related border security (EXBS) assistance. With such a high risk from CVD. Kenya. The healthcare systems of these countries.pdf) NADR funding snapshot (For a complete list of all programs funded under this account.S. all seven of the eight countries with interests in the global war on terrorism have CVD rates far greater than that of the US.0 million for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Preparatory Commission to pay the U. 2007 (“Middle East/North Africa (MENA) Regional Key Findings”. • $30. terrorism interdiction program (TIP) assitance. and advanced conventional weapons.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 AT: Aid Trade Off NADR Key to Anti-Terrorism 195 Landmines Aff NADR funding is key to the global war on terrorism—prevents leaders of antiterrorism forces from being forced into retirment. when looked at collectively.$192. and technical training and equipment.gov/policy/budget/cbj2008/fy2008cbj_highlights. Continued NADR funding in FY 2008 is key to future global war on terrorism efforts International Affairs. Afghanistan. and expertise.8 million• $53.wikispaces. equipment.
policy toward southeast asia. NADR ATA program is likely to be cut if budget pressures continue Daley 03 (Mathew P. AND RELATED PROGRAMS APPROPRIATION BILL The Committee notes that several country recipients of demining funds from the NADR account also receive large amounts of assistance from the ESF. and Related Programs (NADR) account.related criminal investigations. We are concerned that conference report language in the FY 03 budget assigning all ESF monies to AID could eliminate our critical police training program. http://www. Once established. SEED. thus undercutting our highest priority effort to improve police human rights performance and their ability to deal with terrorism. Anti-Terrorism. bureau of east asian and pacific affairs. this unit will substantially enhance the Indonesian Government’s capability to neutralize terrorist cells and conduct terrorism. department of state.s. funded through the Non-Proliferation. EXPORT FINANCING. Demining.pdf) As part of our Anti-Terrorism Training Assistance Program. We are examining the problem to see if there is any way out and may well approach the Congress again .house.s.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 AT: Aid Trade Off -NADR Budget Terror Module 196 Landmines Aff Congress is putting pressure on the NADR budget MCCONNELL 05 (Mitch. FOREIGN OPERATIONS. or FSA accounts. we are assisting the Indonesian National Police (INP) in the formation of a counterterrorism unit. u. u.foreignaffairs. The Committee is concerned with pressures on the NADR budget which contains a limited amount of humanitarian demining funds and believes that demining programs in these countries should be funded jointly from both NADR and these other accounts. Senator from Kentucky.gov/archives/108/86081. Report to the Appropriations Committee. assistant secretary.
. The human rights framework does not inhibit legitimate and effective efforts to respond to terrorist attacks.g. Harris & Hoffman LLP.6 Also. are discussed. Sometimes this tradeoff comes in the form of mass murder or genocide. is even more relevant and important today than it was on 10 September 2001. no matter how powerful. Without adherence to [End Page 935] international human rights standards. national. minorities and other marginalized groups pay the price through violation of their human rights. to obtain at the international.4. perpetuating the violence that led to terrorist acts in the first place and undermining the international cooperation necessary for effective anti-terrorism efforts. most often they get neither. Paul Hoffman. if not impossible. 26. a state's failure to adhere to fundamental human rights norms makes it more likely that terrorist organizations will find it easier to recruit adherents among the discontented and disenfranchised and among the family and friends of those whose human rights have been violated. In Section III. and local levels. millions of lives have been destroyed in the last sixty years when human rights norms have not been observed. Human Rights Quarterly. it undermines the international cooperation and public support so crucial to developing effective antiterrorism efforts.8 Section II considers briefly the definitional problems that plague discussion and action on these issues." and also because its actions have been used to justify a variety of antiterrorism measures around the world that also pose a threat to the human rights framework. .4 History shows that when societies trade human rights for security. The limits that international human rights law places on certain forms of executive power (e. and the peril of ignoring it. Human rights violations in the name of fighting terrorism undermine efforts to respond to the threats of terrorism. Seplow. and the body of human rights norms it spawned. DeSimone. 2004 (“Human Rights and Terrorism”. In Section IV. The fulfillment of universal human rights is essential to building a world in which terrorism will not undermine our freedom and security. such cooperation will be more difficult. civil rights and human rights lawyer with the Venice-based law firm of Schonbrun. the relevance of the human rights framework. This article examines the threat to the human rights framework posed by the "war on terrorism. or the suppression of speech or religion. can solve the problem of terrorism on its own.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 197 Landmines Aff AT: Aid Trade Off -War On Terrorism Bad—Leads to Terrorism The “war on terrorism” has sacraficed human rights for security. the human rights consequences of the way in which the "war on terrorism" is being waged are surveyed."7 The focus is primarily on actions taken or initiated by the United States because of its leadership role in the "war on terrorism. Chair of the International Executive Committee of Amnesty International. professor of human rights law at USC Law School and Oxford U. No nation. making us less rather than more secure in both the short and long run. Project Muse) The human rights vision of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. other times in the form of arbitrary arrest and imprisonment. Instead. All governments need the voluntary cooperation of every segment of its society to be effective in preventing acts of terrorism.5 Undermining the strength of [End Page 934] international human rights law and institutions will only facilitate such human rights violations in the future and confound efforts to bring violators to justice. pp. 932-955. Failure to respect universal human rights norms not only undermines our shared values. the prohibition against torture) embody profound agreements about the values the international community in all of its diversity accepts as fundamental. Indeed.
Chair of the International Executive Committee of Amnesty International. Harris & Hoffman LLP. 2004 (“Human Rights and Terrorism”. pp. Human Rights Quarterly.War on Terrorism Bad—Undermines Security Bush’s war on terrorism is worse than terrorism itself—its deviation from human rights law threatens human security Paul Hoffman. The international community needs new tools and strategies.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 198 Landmines Aff AT: Aid Trade Off . the "war on terrorism" is being waged on its own imperatives regardless of existing norms. professor of human rights law at USC Law School and Oxford U. perhaps a new normative structure. It is time to restore the balance between liberty and security provided by existing international human rights and humanitarian standards.4. to deal with these dire threats to the world's security. By challenging the framework of international human rights and humanitarian law. The [End Page 933] horror of the September 11 attacks understandably overshadows the human rights consequences of the "war on terrorism" in the public's consciousness. and norms. DeSimone. civil rights and human rights lawyer with the Venice-based law firm of Schonbrun. the "war on terrorism" undermines our security more than any terrorist bombing. 26.3 In the absence of international agreement about the new tools. strategies. Project Muse) The United States-led "war on terrorism" is premised on the notion that the events of September 11 should be seen as a wake-up call that the world has changed. The way this "war" is being waged is itself a threat to human security. . 932-955. Seplow. so painstakingly developed over the last several decades.
continues to this day.org/un/chr59/counter-terrorism-bck. Seplow. . The police have claimed success in cracking down on terrorists. available at www. civil rights and human rights lawyer with the Venice-based law firm of Schonbrun. to eliminate "separatism. DeSimone. 2004 (“Human Rights and Terrorism”. These actions are documented by Amnesty International and many other human rights groups. and possession of "suspicious" literature. IN THE NAME OF COUNTER-TERRORISM: HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSES WORLDWIDE: A HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH BRIEFING PAPER FOR THE 59TH SESSION OF THE UNITED NATIONS COMMISSION ON HUMAN RIGHTS 10-11 (2003). This cycle of abuse. . it has produced vast civilian casualties. Human Rights Quarterly." glossing over the political aspects of the conflict. well established before September 11.16 Bush’s war on terrorism has justified human rights abuses in China.4. China has sought to blur the distinctions between terrorism and calls for independence by the ethnic Uighur community in the Xinjiang-Uighur Autonomous Region (XUAR) in order to enlist international cooperation for its own campaign. and Egypt. .hrw. at 12. Seplow. Id. 2001. 932-955.pdf. execute targeted individuals. arresting over 100 of the more than 1. Paul Hoffman. in which masked troops raid particular homes. civil rights and human rights lawyer with the Venice-based law firm of Schonbrun. 2004 (“Human Rights and Terrorism”. DeSimone. Hundreds of people have "disappeared" since that date after being taken into Russian custody. Human Rights Quarterly. 26. with the support of many governments. . begun years earlier. Increasingly. a banned but non-violent group. pp.4. Harris & Hoffman LLP. have been referred to military courts or to emergency and regular state security courts whose procedures do not meet international fair trial standards." . pp. Russian President Vladimir Putin declared that America and Russia had a "common foe" because "Bin Laden's people are connected with the events currently taking place in our Chechnya. HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH. 2001. [the government] has arrested hundreds of suspected government opponents. 932-955. . Russia. has waged a "war on terrorism. Chair of the International Executive Committee of Amnesty International. On September 12.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 199 Landmines Aff AT: Aid Trade Off -War On Terrorism Bad—Human Rights Abuses “War on terrorism” methods violate human rights in the name of security Paul Hoffman. Some methods used in detaining and interrogating suspects violate international human rights and humanitarian norms in the name of security. governments have used the post. While Russia has described its actions in Chechnya as a tightly focused counter-terrorism operation. . professor of human rights law at USC Law School and Oxford U.000 Chinese Muslim Uighurs identified by authorities as having fought with the Taliban. professor of human rights law at USC Law School and Oxford U. medical doctors. the United States. Harris & Hoffman LLP. The same trends are happening in Egypt: Since September 11. After September 11. Many of those arrested. Throughout the world."15 This "war" puts the human rights gains of the last several decades and the international human rights framework at risk." and on September 24 said that the events in Chechnya "could not be considered outside the context of counter-terrorism. including professors. 26. never to be seen again. Chair of the International Executive Committee of Amnesty International. and other professionals. Russia went to great lengths to link the war in Chechnya to the global campaign against terrorism. . . many for alleged membership in the Muslim Brotherhood. or take them away.September 11 antiterrorism campaign to crack down on dissidents and to suppress human rights. . Russian forces conduct targeted night operations. Project Muse) Since the September 11 attacks. Project Muse) Since the September 11 attacks.
have been harassed and threatened when seeking information. distressed about the lack of information on the whereabouts and fate of their loved ones. which prohibits people being sent to countries where they face serious human rights abuses. Some were transferred to US custody and have ended up in the US Naval Base at Guantánamo Bay (Cuba). extrajudicial executions of criminal suspects are frequent. Pakistan’s actions in the "war on terror" have added a further layer of violations. The right to habeas corpus has been systematically undermined as state agents have refused to comply with court directions or have lied in court. men and some women. They include the right to life and the security of the person. reportedly after being warned to keep quiet about their experience. arbitrary and unlawful arrest and detention are a growing problem.amnesty. Scores have become victims of enforced disappearance (for a definition see section 6). To this dismal human rights record. while some have been found dead. others have been released without charge. However. some of these have been unlawfully transferred (sometimes in return for money) to the custody of other countries.(2) Irrespective of the "war on terror". where they may be at risk of further abuse. many have been unlawfully transferred to other countries. Discriminatory laws deny the basic human rights of women and of minority groups. to be free from torture and other cruel.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 200 Landmines Aff AT: Aid Trade Off -War On Terrorism Bad—Human Rights Abuses US Led war on terrorism justifies innumerable human rights abuses in Pakistan. The fate of some of the victims of arbitrary arrest. September 29. notably the USA. Victims of human rights violations in the "war on terror" include Pakistani and non-Pakistani terror suspects. Amnesty International. many remain unaccounted for – their fate and whereabouts are unknown. children of terror suspects. Bagram airbase (Afghanistan) or secret detention centres elsewhere. detention and enforced disappearance has been disclosed – some have been charged with criminal offences unrelated to terrorism. 2006 (“Pakistan: Human Rights Ignored in the “War on Terror”. In Pakistan.org/library/index/engasa330362006) In its pursuit of the US-led "war on terror". sometimes held as hostages. the people of Pakistan suffer widespread violations of their civil and political rights. Others have been unlawfully returned to their countries of origin. and in violation of the principle of non-refoulement. without any judicial or other procedures.000 people are on death row and there has recently been a wave of executions. journalists who have reported on the "war on terror" and medical personnel who allegedly treated terror suspects. . Many people have been detained incommunicado in undisclosed places of detention and tortured or ill-treated. Their families. torture and illtreatment are endemic. http://web. the Pakistani government has committed numerous violations of human rights protected in the Constitution of Pakistan and in international human rights law. inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment (ill-treatment). well over 7. to be free from enforced disappearance and to challenge the lawfulness of detention. Hundreds of people suspected of links to al-Qa’ida or the Taleban have been arbitrarily arrested and detained. However.
according to the Director of the US Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). The USA continues to hold detainees in Afghanistan. interrogation and transfer of Bisher Al-Rawi and Jamil Al-Banna flouted international human rights law.amnesty. The exact number of detainees at the base is not known but it is thought to be between 40 and 60. in January 2003. . In an article in December 2002. before being transferred to the US airbase in Bagram.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 201 Landmines Aff AT: Aid Trade Off . The detention. AI has repeatedly raised with the US government allegations that it has transferred suspects for interrogation in third countries with less stringent safeguards against torture or ill-treatment than exist in the USA. Gambia.org/wire/March2003/usa) Bisher Al-Rawi and Jamil Al-Banna were arrested on 8 November 2002 with two other men on suspicion of links with al-Qa'ida when they arrived in Banjul.War On Terrorism Bad—Human Rights Abuses Bush’s War on terrorism upholds human rights abuses such as torture. more than 3. Countries mentioned in this regard include Jordan and Egypt. http://web. but was quickly taken over by US agents. such as hooding. At least one of the men was alleged to have been threatened by the US agents that if he did not cooperate he would be handed over to the Gambian police who would rape and torture him. 24-hour lighting and sleep deprivation. All are held without charge and with no opportunity to challenge the basis of their detention. Gambian and US officials refused to confirm their whereabouts or the reason for their detention. The two men were held incommunicado in undisclosed locations in Banjul for about two months. one an Iraqi and one a Jordanian with refugee status. March 2003 (“Human Rights Abuses Forgotten in USA’s War on Terrorism”. blindfolding. Questioning was initially conducted by Gambian security agents. Amnesty International. They were denied access to defence counsel or the courts to challenge the legality of their detention and subsequent transfer into US custody. Since the attacks in the USA on 11 September 2001. forced prolonged standing or kneeling. Over the past 18 months. Afghanistan. The Washington Post alleged that certain detainees in the US airbase in Bagram were subject to CIA "stress and duress" techniques.000 people who are alleged to be al-Qa'ida "operatives and associates" have been arrested in over 100 countries. The two men. had travelled from the UK where they were resident. The USA is likely to have had some involvement in many of those detentions.
In the aftermath of September 11. Chair of the International Executive Committee of Amnesty International. There is a growing recognition of the harms caused by discrimination in the social fabric of our communities. and co-religionists? In this sense. exacerbating feelings of exclusion and anger. 932-955. Human Rights Quarterly. but it is necessary to enlist the entire community in the effort to achieve greater security for everyone. Paul Hoffman. 26. Additionally. and the government opposed bail for post-September 11 detainees as a matter of course. pp. Human Rights Quarterly." International norms clearly prohibit discrimination on the basis of ethnicity. the government continues to arrest and detain persons from these cultural backgrounds. 2004 (“Human Rights and Terrorism”. And. DeSimone. presumably undertaken for the benefit of society as a whole. thousands of Arab nationals and Muslims have been rounded up and detained in the United States in a massive form of preventive detention. often with those charged with criminal offenses. Paul Hoffman. The statistics showing that such dragnet arrests and detentions have produced virtually no terrorists indicate the extremely limited utility of using such tactics in the fight against terrorism. the government conducted a special registration program limited to nationals of only certain backgrounds and has engaged in other activities considered viably to be racial profiling.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 202 Landmines Aff AT: Aid Trade Off -War On Terrorism Bad—Racial Profiling War on terrorism upholds racial profiling—thousands of Arab nationals and Muslims have been detained for no reason other than their backgrounds. it has been demonstrated that such tactics create enmity between law enforcement authorities and the affected communities.40 In addition to detainees picked up in the immediate aftermath of September 11. Seplow.41 Yet. the focus is again on US examples. indicating the ineffectiveness of such strategies. Contacts with family and lawyers were heavily circumscribed. friends. 26. or religion. civil rights and human rights lawyer with the Venice-based law firm of Schonbrun. This racial profiling seriously undermines human rights efforts and is counterproductive to antiterrorism efforts. which ordinarily would not warrant detention or deportation. thus. Project Muse) Discrimination is also counterproductive in the fight against terrorism.39 Government investigative reports confirm that widespread abuses of noncitizens were perpetrated during the course of these activities. [End Page 946] Almost all of the detainees have been held on minor immigration law violations. One commentator reports that only three of the estimated 5.000 noncitizens detained by these efforts have been charged with any offense remotely related to terrorism. the racial profiling doesn’t work—it decreases the cooperation necessary to prevent terrorism. but there are examples in many other contexts which could be cited. making it all the more difficult to engender understanding and cooperation between communities in the fight against terrorism. adherence to human rights standards is not only the right thing to do. By targeting immigrant communities. In this section. Chair of the International Executive Committee of Amnesty International. it is corrosive to legitimate security efforts. professor of human rights law at USC Law School and Oxford U. Seplow. These detentions were undertaken in secret. The voluntary cooperation so essential to uncovering and to preventing terrorist actions is now less likely to occur. Detainees were kept in harsh conditions. Harris & Hoffman LLP. Harris & Hoffman LLP. these activities make life within the United States insecure for thousands of vulnerable noncitizens based on their national or religious background.4.4. professor of human rights law at USC Law School and Oxford U. 932-955. DeSimone. Instead. These transgressions on immigrant communities are just a part of the "collateral damage" of the "war on terrorism. nationality. . pp. 2004 (“Human Rights and Terrorism”. Why would Arab nationals or Muslims in the United States or targeted minority groups in any country voluntarily assist the same governmental authorities who take arbitrary action against their innocent relatives. the government fosters the discrimination and exclusion that human rights law has struggled so hard to eradicate. Such discrimination is not only unfair. civil rights and human rights lawyer with the Venice-based law firm of Schonbrun. Project Muse) One of the features of the "war on terrorism" so far is that minority groups have paid most of the cost for antiterrorism efforts.
org/essay2006/essay_nr_2006. 2006 (“Security or Survival”. the use of racial and ethnic profiling. it has been prevalent for decades. ineffective. http://www. Although combating terrorism and crime are goals worthy of government attention. ineffective. . in an attempt to solve social ills and prevent catastrophe. the “Global War on Terrorism” has exacerbated the existing divisions within our society and enflamed the passions of leaders on every side of the issue.Org. generates fear.pdf) The issue of profiling is not new. and alienates the very communities whose cooperation is needed for any lasting solvency.sikhcoalition. Sikh Coalition. and counterproductive.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 203 Landmines Aff AT: Aid Trade Off -War on Terrorism Bad—Racial Profiling The war on terrorism’s use of racial profiling is dehuminizing. is inherently dehumanizing. and counterproductive: profiling reifies stereotypes.
we now trade their liberties for our safety. The logic becomes circular: violations of the human rights of members of society is justified in order to defend those same rights.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 204 Landmines Aff AT: Aid Trade Off -Racial Profiling Bad—No Value to Life Racial profiling kills the value to life by trading one ethnicity’s rights for another’s.sikhcoalition. 2006 (“Security or Survival”. and if questioned regarding what makes society worth defending at such cost. Christian) rights in an effort to secure us. Black. it violates their (Middle Eastern. Hispanic. would leave us deserving of neither. that discrimination based on ethnicity is justified in the context of security. Every atrocity ever committed has been the result of dehumanization. etc) rights. but to deliver ours. This seemingly paradoxical reasoning becomes clear when brought into context: ethnic profiling does not violate our (white. the answer is surely to be the “liberties and freedoms” of its members. Hindu. which as Benjamin Franklin once said. Sikh Coalition.Org. This outlook values the lives of some over those of others based on ethnic characteristics and thus is inherently racist whatever its goals.pdf) The second assumption.org/essay2006/essay_nr_2006. not to secure their freedoms. http://www. Asian. It is an infinitely more simple decision to sacrifice the rights of others for personal gain than it is to sacrifice equally. We are no longer facing a question of trading our liberty for safety. is a symptom of a worldview in which life has no value. Even if racial profiling were proven to be successful in preventing terrorism any potential “greater good” would be mooted by its racist means. . Profiling violates rights in order to secure them. Sikh. Muslim.
Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 205 Landmines Aff ****AT: K’s**** .
growing inequality. That we can study. and to teach. ” 40 This context defines our research agenda and directs our praxis. nor will medical ethics. provide a unique and privileged space for conducting research and engaging in critical assessment. in theory. A university does not have the same entanglements or constraints as an international institution such as the United Nations or an organization such as Amnesty International or Physicians for Human Rights. Questia) Exposing such constrictions calls for critical scholarship. and health care. and pervasive transnational media influence (which both exposes and exacerbates such inequality) that the new field of health and human rights emerges. tracts. it was possible to collect a bookful of such commentary. usually. it is not entirely unlike that of the clinician researcher. as an observer. that these centers are fine places from which to conduct research. p. Universities could. government has decided to pass its aid (and influence) through nongovernmental channels. both are bound to relieve it. however. ongoing abuses of human rights is to be faced with a moral dilemma: does one's action help the sufferers or does it not? As Chapter 8 argued. Agency for International Development (USAID) or as part of the same bureaucracy that shored up dictators. addressed as they were to the various Duvalierist military juntas. rather than endure. S. songs. we stand revealed as the hypocrites that our critics in many parts of the world have not hesitated to call us. have recently had a crash course. research and critical assessment are insufficient. and broadsides on the subject. A hit record album in Haiti called International Organizations has a title cut that includes the following lines: “International organizations are not on our side. They're there to help the thieves rob and devour…. demonstrations. such “aid” helped to arm murderous bands and line the pockets of their leaders. education. 37 Subsequent patterns of giving. however. as Steiner and Alston point out: “An examination of the concept of the right to development and its implications in the 1990s cannot avoid consideration of the effects of the globalization of the economy and the consequences of the near-universal embrace of the market economy. Indeed. In human rights work. Anthropologists have long been familiar with these critiques. of cost-effectiveness. 35 It is possible. the nature and distribution of assaults on dignity. the U. Pathologies of Power: Health. and the New War on the Poor. Such critiques are not specific to Haiti. No more adequate. rather than challenging. Both study suffering. Ivory-tower engagement with health and human rights can reduce us to seminar-room warriors. S. then. Context is particularly salient when we think about social and economic rights. to document. of researchers and health care professionals? What should be the role of students and others lucky enough to be among the “winners” in the global era? We can agree. ” 36 In the context of longstanding international support for sundry Haitian dictatorships. . Yet it is difficult merely to study human rights abuses.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 AT: K – Must Act 206 Landmines Aff Farmer 03 (Paul. Haitians saw international health “aid” either as originating from within institutions such as the U. Professor of Medical Anthropology at Harvard. What. Now that there is at long last a democratically elected government. International health stays on the sidelines of our struggle. so often restricted to the quandary ethics of the individual. for all their virtues. We know with certainty that rights are being abused at this moment. But international health? The international community's extraordinary largesse to the Duvalier regime has certainly been well documented. too. But certain models of engagement are relevant. did nothing to improve the reputation of U. whether in the form of press conferences or reports or harangues directed at students. We are leaving behind the terra firma of double-blinded. Their accusations have been echoed and amplified throughout what some are beginning to call the global geoculture. to drown out the voices of those demanding that we stop studying them. these abuses is a reminder that we too are implicated in and benefit from the increasingly global structures that determine. including AIDS researchers. placebocontrolled studies. Both the human rights specialist and the clinician researcher have blind spots. inequality. human rights organizations have had nothing to say about the hypocrisy and disregard for rights apparent in such decisions—there is widespread awareness within Haiti of what it means to be so generous to dictators and military juntas and to subsequently block a series of loans for clean water. 224-26. specialists in international health. Although few outside Haiti seem to be paying attention—notably. 38 A full decade before the recent debates over AIDS research in poor countries. If the university-based human rights worker is in a peculiar position. neither is in possession of a tried-and-true remedy. although Haitians have pronounced them with exceptional frankness and richness of detail. Human Rights. foreign aid or the international organizations. The Bush administration has exercised its authority to veto already approved aid loans from the InterAmerican Development Bank. even when they go to great lengths to make sure we get the message. should be the role of the First World university. one could readily see the gripe with international organizations in general. to an important extent. 39 It is in this context of globalization. At worst. many of these concepts end up looking more like strategies for managing. are denunciation and exhortation. But social scientists with more acute hearing have documented a rich trove of graffiti. and of sustainability. perhaps. To confront. S. the increasingly baroque codes of research ethics generated by institutional review boards will not help us out of this dilemma.
political parties. then surely its more tangible forms are better still. But it is possible. Adding the material dimension to the equation—pragmatic solidarity—responds to the needs expressed by the people and communities who are living. Pathologies of Power: Health. How can we build an agenda for action that moves beyond good analysis? If solidarity is among the most noble of human sentiments. to rub shoulders with those who are engaged in providing services. . universities. Human Rights. their contributions are diluted when they become ensnarled in institutions—foundations. that students often seek opportunities to play a part in diminishing structural violence or its symptoms. who recognize the fundamentally conservative nature of such institutions and see themselves as too good. to link lofty ideals to sound analysis. we must engage in combineing theory and praxis in responding to health crisis Farmer 03 (Paul. for example. clearly. aid agencies. we of course incur risks. really. and these deter many. Professor of Medical Anthropology at Harvard. and often dying. I know.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 AT: K’s – General Perm 207 Landmines Aff Even in the face of risks. Sometimes it's posed in a way calculated to discourage discussion. When we move beyond sentiments to action. Too often. Questia) What is to be done? It's the oldest question around. On the other side of the ledger are the purists. on the edge. But even more often the question is asked by people of good will. the subtext being that misery and unfairness are so ubiquitous that only hopeless romantics would discern opportunities for effective intervention. 230. and the New War on the Poor. government-affiliated groups. p. even organized labor—that put sharp limits on activism.
canadianlandmine.org 06 (Impact of Landmines. survivors are often stigmatized. medical supplies.org. Medical care is expensive and often unavailable. Such countries often become dependent on external aid. and families often cannot afford to pay for necessary treatment. Tourism markets. One of the long-term consequences of landmines is that mine-affected countries become heavily dependent on the international community for humanitarian and development assistance. these physical impacts can induce severe psychological distress including depression. Farmers and peasants are unable to safely cultivate their land and livestock feeding off the land are frequently killed by mines. Furthermore. mine clearance programs divert financial resources from critical development and reconstruction projects. and dangerous. The inability to provide adequate food. Many landmine survivors are unable to make it to medical facilities. Landmine clearance is expensive. landmine injuries drastically affect the lives of victims and their communities. make countries dependant on foreign aid. They may be unable to resume their previous tasks. In the social sphere. the presence of mines in agricultural fields renders large tracts of fertile soil unusable. and create financial burdens for communities King 01 (Elizabeth. constituting grave economic losses for their owners.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 AT: Development K 208 Landmines Aff Landmines stop agriculture and development. The direct and indirect costs of landmine accidents also have a profound economic toll on most mine-affected countries. including roads and bridges. 2/14) Most mine-affected countries are agrarian societies whose economies are predominantly defined by the quality and quantity of their agricultural production. The peoples of these largely developing countries rely on the land for their food and livelihood.landmines. However. many are poorly done.php. However. Those that do make it usually require amputations. Mine contamination causes local and national economies to suffer and entire populations to become dependent on external food aid and other forms of international assistance. The amputations. The medical impacts of landmines are also far-reaching. And because many landmine victims are unable to return to work after their accidents.uk/268. and other farm animals are often villagers' only possessions. relief organizations are frequently unable to reach their intended destinations because infrastructures. and as such. Worse. Mines destroy national infrastructures and impede economic development and reconstruction efforts. The earth becomes not a provider. prostheses. subsistence agriculturists are the most common victims of landmines. where funds or aid are available.org/greenteacherarticle. as they are too far. Furthermore. The Canadian Landmine Foundation. and suicidal tendencies. landmines make fields unsafe for farming . and other healthcare required for a landmine survivor are extremely costly and needed for a lifetime.cfm) At the same time. doctors require special training. and die before reaching help. again hitting the economy of a mine-affected country. women amputees are considered "unmarriable". The work and play of amputees are oftentimes forever changed. prosthetics. http://www. This threat also discourages tourism and foreign investment. goats. Of course. an important source of income in many countries. Mines hurt agriculture. and the risk of infections is high. In many countries. a life of fear. to different extents. and medical infrastructure need be improved. lack of confidence. and patients thus require a second amputation. Many materials need be imported. economic necessity often forces farmers to return to their fields despite the peril. It is important to remember that all those that live in a mine-affected society share.a problem since most of the most mine-affected countries rely heavily on agriculture. survivors frequently become dependent on others. and become financial burdens on their families. difficult. they frequently become a financial burden on their families and communities. Much blood is needed. shelter. and prevent access to health services LandMines. and water resources are damaged and inaccessible. power lines. http://www. for example. suffer greatly. The production and distribution of fundamental goods and services is disrupted. have been mined. Danger in the Earth. such as working in agrarian societies. The problem is not easy to solve. and psychosocial rehabilitation deplete a country's already scarce resources. The costs of surgery. These cattle. In addition. . Transportation networks. funding for international aid projects is not always adequate or evenly distributed among needy countries. and government services perpetuates the cycle of despair endured daily by millions of people worldwide. Due to their lack of mobility. create economic drains on communities and countries. There is unfortunately a lack of psychological help available in most mine-affected countries. especially for a wartorn country. but a danger.
where resources to respond to these problems are scarce. in which case the affected communities would be left to fend for themselves. Harpviken (2000) and Millard (2000) also reported similar events where de-mined communities have been accused of laying new mines in order to attract other mine action programmes to their areas.S. 2000).wiley. Okun and Vance 95(“Clearing The Fields Solutions to the Global Land Mines Crisis” Herbert S. UCB. the international community will continue to bear the costs of demining and rebuilding these countries. 22 pg. the presence of land mines causes loss of manpower. The Contribution of Landmines to Land Degradation. and loss of agricultural land. if it is to be done at all. environmental damage. In addition to impeding the return of refugees and displaced persons. while efforts were made by communities in Cambodia in an attempt to delay the departure of de-mining teams. questia pg. Since most land mines are found in the developing world.interscience. Cyrus Vance former U. Ecosystem Science Division. subsistence populations are forced to live with aid from different humanitarian institutions (Harpviken. Okun former ambassador to the United Nations. Harpviken and Millard.com/cgi-bin/abstract/112748670/ABSTRACT?CRETRY=1&SRETRY=0) Aid Dependency.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 AT: Development K 209 Landmines Aff Mines create dependency on foreign aid Berhe 06 (AA. Fear of returning to previously mined areas along with an unhealthy dose of aid dependency created problems of underreporting in Mozambique. even after the fighting has stopped and troops have gone home. secretary of state Published by Basicbooks and The Council on Foreign Relations New York. land mines remain a major obstacle to postconflict peace and reconstruction. http://www3. 200) Moreover. When the land becomes off-limits or disrupted and its productivity is reduced the rural. International aid for landmine assistance is critical. exhaustion of medical and rehabilitation services. . 1999. Landmines prevent reconstruction keeping “developing” countries undeveloped. 1995. but when it is ineffectively handled it has the capacity to inadvertently cause more harm than good by undermining local strengths and endorsing aid dependency (Anderson. destruction of infrastructure. 1999). It is plausible to point out that repeated problems of such kind can lead to donor fatigue.
MB: So does that mean there’s donor fatigue? IM: Actually. At the moment. it didn’t start very high on a list of donor priorities – when Afghanistan appealed for money in 1988. The other thing was that in the early days. To be honest. most donor countries didn’t know much about mine action. Now it’s nearly 30. so they’d put their contributions in a Trust Fund and let the UN use it. . Along with the Ottawa Treaty and factors like the involvement of Princess Diana. in the early 1990s. there’s been a corresponding increase in bilateral funding. the number of countries that contribute to the UN mine action efforts stands around 24. In the mid 1990s.edu/journal/6. the other side of the problem is that the list of countries seeking assistance has increased faster then the list of donors.jmu.1 210 Landmines Aff http://maic.Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 AT: Compassion Fatigue K Increased support doesn’t result in donor fatigue Mansfield 02 (Ian. Kuwait. Unfortunately. Now though. The Role of the United Nations in Mine Action.htm) IM: All the figures indicate that global funding for mine action has grown slowly over the past few years. Cambodia and Afghanistan and the like.1/focus/buse/buse. although only about 15 of them are regular donors. I think if you have a well-run programme. and you can demonstrate a need. you will get funding. Some donors feel that they get more visibility this way. "Fatigue" will only set in if there’s mismanagement or you can’t demonstrate that the work you’re doing is useful. world attention became more focused on the issue and donor consciousness was raised. I don’t agree with the notion of donor fatigue – it is such a negative concept to talk about. the UN was assisting six countries with mine action. it’s hard to sustain interest in a programme or country if conflict continues or mines are still being laid. and the Nobel prize. In some cases too. But then. many donors believed that demining should be a military issue and that the army should clean up after a war. as interest and knowledge of the issue increased. Journal of Mine Action v6. awareness of the huge impact of landmines was raised due to the situations in Angola.
Gonzaga Debate Institute 2007 211 Landmines Aff .
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