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(Second law of thermodynamics and Entropy)

1. State the limitations of first law of thermodynamics.
2. Prove that efficiency of an engine working on reversible cycle depends only on
the temperature of source and sink and is independent of working fluid.
3. What is meant by high grade and low grade energy?
4. Show that constant volume line on TS diagram is steeper than a constant pressure
line between same temperature limits.
5. A heat pump is used to maintain an auditorium hall at 25ºC when the atmospheric
temperature is -5ºC. The heat load of the hall is 2400 KJ/min. calculate the power
required to run the actual heat pump if the COP of the actual heat pump is 25% of
the Carnot heat pump working between the same temperature limit.
(Ans. 16.1KW)
6. A reversible heat engine receives heat from two thermal reservoirs at 870 K and
580 K and rejects 50 KW of heat to a sink at 290 K. If the engine output is 85
KW, make calculations for the engine efficiency and heat supplied by each
(Ans. 62.96%, 105 KW, 30 KW)
7. Three Carnot engines A, B, C working between temperature limits of 1000K and
300K are in series combination. The works produced by these engines are in the
ratio of 5:4:3. Make calculations of temperature for the intermediate reservoir.
(Ans. 708K, 475K)
8. 0.2 Kg of air at 1.5 bar pressure and 300 K temperature is compressed to 15 bar
pressure according to PV1.25 = C. Make calculations for (1) initial and final
parameters (2) Work done or by the air (3) Heat flow to or from the air and (4)
change of entropy. Take R=0.287 KJ/Kg K and Cv = 0.718 KJ/Kg K
(Ans V1=0.115 m³, V2= 0.0182 m³, T2= 475.5 K, W= -40.25 KW, Q= -15 KJ
and dS=-0.04 KJ/K)
9. 0.5 m³ of air at 200ºC and 6 bar expands to 1 bar according to law (1) PV =C (2)
PV1.2 = C and (3) adiabatically. Make calculations for change in entropy for each
of the process. Take γ = 1.4 and Cv = 0.715 KJ/ Kg K
(Ans. 1.13 KJ/K, 0.4723 KJ/K, zero)
10. A steel piece of mass 8 kg at 727ºC is dropped in 80 Kg of oil at 27ºC. Calculate
entropy changes of steel, oil and the universe. Take specific heat of steel 0.5
KJ/Kg K and specific heat of oil 3.5 KJ/Kg K.
(Ans. -4.686 KJ/K, 9.055 KJ/K, 4.369 KJ/K)
11. A closed system contains air at pressure 1 bar, temperature 27ºC and volume 0.02
m³. This system undergoes a thermodynamic cycle consisting of following three
processes in series.
Process 1-2: Constant volume heat addition till pressure becomes 4 bar
Process 2-3: Constant pressure cooling
Process 3-1: Isothermal heating to initial state
Draw TS and PV diagrams. Calculate change in entropy for each process.
(Ans. 0.0239 KJ/K, -0.0334 KJ/K, 0.0095 KJ/K)