You are on page 1of 15

YR 11 BIOLOGY MODULE 0 2006

SCIENTIFIC METHOD
Biologists seek solutions to problems which relate to the living world and employ processes of science which lead to the discovery of new knowledge.
Students of biology, by engaging in scientific investigations, gain an understanding of the nature and limitations of scientific activity.
This theme is introduced here and is to be developed further in all other modules. Therefore, when students have completed Year 11 they should be able
to:
OBLECTIVE TEXT NATURE STUDENT ACTIVITY ASSESSMENTS TIME
OF BIOLOGY MANUAL LINE
(NOB)

YR 11 BIOLOGY 2006 G.WELSH 1


0.1 define ‘biology’ and give specific examples of areas of NB* WK1
study encompassed by that term THIS MODULE
0.2 recall that, in seeking solutions to problems and IS USED ALL WK1
answers to questions biologists use scientific methodology THE WAY THRU
0.3 observe phenomena and describe, measure and record YR11 & YR12 WK1
these as data AND IS
RELEVANT WK1
0.4 distinguish between observations and inferences IN ALL OTHER
MODULES WK1-2
0.5 locate, interpret and summarise information
relevant to an investigation
WK1-2
0.6 formulate hypotheses and make predictions based on WK2
them
WK2
0.7 design, carry out and write a report of a scientific
investigation
WK2

0.8 distinguish between independent and dependent


variables in a controlled experiment
WK2-3

0.9 identify and explain the importance of the controlled and


experimental variables in scientific investigations
COMPLETE PAGES Protocol WK2-3
Skills in Biology. assignment
0.10explain why sample size, randomly selected samples,
replicates and repeat procedures are important in handout
scientific investigations
Pages…16,18-25,28
42-45, 54-59 WK3
0.11 display the relevant motor skills required to carry out
scientific investigations appropriate to subject WK3
objectives
0.12classify, collate and display both first and secondhand
data WK3-4
WK3-4
0.13use diagrams, graphs, flow charts and physical models
as visual representations of phenomena and MOD O TEST WK4 2
YR 11 BIOLOGY 2006 G.WELSH
0.17use internationally accepted names and symbols for MOD 0 WK4
primary and derived units of measurement relevant to PROTOCOL
biology ASSIGNMENT
DUE
0.18.Understand that the use of animals for scientific
purposes has ethical and social implications. WK4

YR 11 BIOLOGY 2006 G.WELSH 3


YR 11 BIOLOGY MODULE 1 2006
DIVERSITY AND CLASSIFICATION
Organisms show great diversity in structure, ways of life, behaviours and habitats. Biologists organise them into groups, using structure, modes of
nutrition and reproduction as a basis for classification, and name them according to international conventions.
OBLECTIVE TEXT STUDENT ASSESSMENTS TIME
MANUAL LINE

YR 11 BIOLOGY 2006 G.WELSH 4


When students have completed this module they should be The Origin and Wk4-5
able to NOB Evolution of Life.
1.1 explain why biologists classify living things and Chapter 2 p. 345-352
describe the general principles forming the basis for modern p. 36-69
biological classifications Wk 5
answer questions
1.2 state that classification systems can be designed at various from
levels to satisfy different needs, and describe some of the
advantages and disadvantages of each type The Principles of
Wk 5
Chapter 2: Classification.
1.3 construct and use simple biological keys Q’s: 1-11, p. 217-223 Wk 6
pp.44-51. Wk 6
1.4 identify unknown organisms using simple biological keys Evolution of
Q’s: 12-23, Australian biota
1.5 list the main classification groups (taxa) used in pp59-66. Pgs 362-364
biology (kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species) and Wk 6-7
recognise that different criteria are used at each level of
classification
Wk 7
1.6 define the concept of a species and describe some of the
problems associated with the use of this concept

1.7 describe and explain the importance of the Linnaean


system of binomial nomenclature

The Principles of Week 8 wk7-11


1.8 recognise and justify the classification of common Classification.
organisms belonging to the following: NATIVE
Phyla or groups * Chapter 3 FLORA &
Pgs 228-230 FAUNA
– Chordata, Arthropoda, bacteria, viruses, Tracheophyta, p. 70-95
algae, Protozoa, Porifera, Cnidaria, Mollusca, Power point
Answer questions assignment
Echinodermata, Annelida, Platyhelminthes, Nematoda,
fungi, Bryophyta.
from handed out

Chapter 3: DUE
Classes – Agnatha, Chondrichthyes, Osteichthyes, Q’s: 1-8, pp. WEEK 1
Amphibia, Reptilia, Aves, Mammalia, Arachnida, Diplopoda, 75-81
Chilopoda, Insecta, Crustacea, Angiospermae, Coniferopsida,
TERM 2
Filicopsida. Q’s: 12-20, MOD 1 TEST
YR 11 BIOLOGY 2006 G.WELSH pp.89-92. 5
Option
• Carry out, and report on, field studies of native Australian
organisms representing at least one animal and one plant
from the groups listed above.
• Explain why some organisms are difficult to classify and
describe how named organisms illustrate some of the
problems.
• Investigate the economic importance of selected groups for
agriculture, medicine, food processing etc.
• Construct and use a dichotomous key to identify a
reference collection of organisms from a local area.
• Develop a field guide to organisms in a local area.
• Visit an herbarium (state or local).
Identify the research and technological employment
opportunities
For areas mentioned in this module

YR 11 BIOLOGY 2006 G.WELSH 6


YR 11 BIOLOGY MODULE 2 2006
THE ORGANISM & ITS ENVIORNMENT
Macro- and micro- organisms occur in a great variety of habitats in which they experience different living and non-living environments. A species
can only survive and reproduce in a habitat in which all of its requirements are met and from which it is not excluded by other species. Organisms with
particular structural, physiological and behavioural features survive and reproduce in their particular habitat.
OBLECTIVE TEXT STUDENT ASSESSMENTS TIME
MANUAL LINE
When students have completed this module they should be Read Environment MOD 1 Term 2
able to: Chapter 4 & Adaptations ASSIGNMENT Wk 1
2.1 define environment and distinguish the abiotic/physical DUE
p. 96-109 P 231-256
factors from the biotic/living factors which may be
p. 117-121 MOD 1 TEST
aspects of the environment of an organism
Chapter 8 Communities.
p. 226-258 Pgs 302-309,315
2.2 list aspects of the abiotic environment; e.g. (Commensalism) --- WK2
temperature, water, light, gases, wave action, water (Competition /
currents, humidity, buoyancy, viscosity, pH, salinity, Answer predator/prey)
mineral salts, wind, soil type, topography questions
from Change in
2.3 define ‘habitat’ and describe abiotic environmental Chapter 4: ecosystems. HAND OUT WK3
factors which may affect survival and/or reproduction IN CLASS
of organisms in aquatic habitats (marine and (2.1)Q’s: 1-11 p. 366,370 ASSESSMENT
freshwater) and in terrestrial habitats pp. 101-108 Gas Exchange. SHEET
(2.2)Q’s: 16-25 p.140-151,167
2.4 describe, and illustrate with examples, how pp. 115-121 (Adaptation) 152- MOD 2 IN CLASS
WK7
WK4
2.7 thedefine theenvironment
biotic term ‘adaptation’,
affectsand distinguish adaptations
survival (2.3)Q: 21, 154,Reproduction
278-278 & ASSIGNMENT
Chapter WK 4
which are
and/or
2.5
mainly structural,
reproduction
define the terms
mainly
of organisms physiological or mainly
in aquatic‘collaboration’,
‘competition’, p. 471 8: Nutrition.
Development &
habitats behavioural
(marine‘commensalism’,
and freshwater) and in (2.4)Q’s: 5-19 p.112-115,119,121- TEST WK7-8
‘mutualism’, ‘pollination’, ‘dispersal’, p. 185-187,190-
2.8 terrestrial
describe habitats
reproductive processes as a ‘predator-prey’,
combination of pp. 233-244 133
‘communication’, ‘herbivore’, 192,195,198,200
structural, physiological
‘saprophyte’ and behavioural adaptations
and ‘parasite’ (2.5)Q’s: 17-21 (Saprophytic/parasitic)
(Pollination & WK8
p. 251
2.9 describe and explain examples of adaptations shown Dispersal) ASSESSMENT WK5
2.6by plants
collect,
anddisplay and
animals analyse
living data from
in aquatic the study
habitats of a
(marine FREE WEEK
natural
and environment
freshwater) to show habitats,
and in terrestrial the interactions and
using a range
ofrelationships
different plantbetween the groups
and animal organisms and their
and using local
YR 11 examples where
2006 possible.
environments
BIOLOGY G.WELSH 7
-------------------------------- MID YEAR EXAM WEEK-------------------------------

YR 11 BIOLOGY 2006 G.WELSH 8


Option
• Carry out and report on a detailed long-term study of an
Australian native animal or plant in its natural ASSESSED ON
environment. BIOLOGY
CAMP
• Set up, maintain and report on classroom aquaria and/or
TERM 3
terraria.
• Identify, observe and report on natural changes in a
local environment e.g. backyard, school yard, park, etc.
• Participate in field trips to environmental study centres.
• Develop a field guide to the habitats in a local area
• Visit an arboretum and write a report on their
observations.
Identify the research and technological
employment opportunities for areas
mentioned in this module.

YR 11 BIOLOGY 2006 G.WELSH 9


YR 11 BIOLOGY MODULE 3 2006
POPULATIONS & COMMUNITIES
Populations differ in their distributions, size, density, composition and organisation. These aspects of a population may be affected by its living and non-
living surroundings and by the activities of members of that population which may change from time to time.
Communities differ in their composition and structure. Within any community, organisms may interact with, and bring about changes in, their non-
living surroundings, organisms of other species and members of their own species. Changes in non-living surroundings can bring about changes within a
community.
OBLECTIVE TEXT STUDENT ASSESSMENTS TIME
MANUAL LINE
When students have completed this module they READ Investigating Populations. TERM 2
should be able to: Chapter 4 p.316-318,326-327 WK 9
3.1 define the term ‘population’ and give p. 109-117
examples of natural and artificial Chapter 5
populations
p. 125-159 Communities. WK10
3.2 define the term ‘environment’ and give
examples of biotic and abiotic factors
Chapter 6 p. 233-247
p. 161-197
3.3 define and distinguish between the terms TERM 3
‘population size’, ‘population density’ and DO WK1
‘population distribution’ Chapter 4: .
Q’s: 12-15 WK2
3.4 list the factors that affect population size, p. 113
density and distribution
Chapter 6: WK3
3.5 define birth rate (b), death rate (d), Q’s1-6 Population Dynamics
immigration rate (i), and emigration rate pp. 161-168 Pg 319-325
(e) as determinants of population growth
rate (r) BIOLOGY WK4
3.6 calculate population growth rates using the CAMP
formula r = (b+i) – (d+e) WED-FRI

YR 11 BIOLOGY 2006 G.WELSH 10


3.7 predict population size, given WK4
growth rate Practical ecology
3.8 estimate population size and population Pgs 328-342 CAMP BOOKLET WK4
density using a variety of sampling methods ASSESSMENT
drawn from the following: quadrats, DUE IN AT END OF
capture-recapture, pit trapping, net CAMP
trawling
Yr 11 biology camp
WK4
3.9 collect and present population data in the
most appropriate form WK5

3.10analyse data on population size, density and WK5


distribution and draw valid inferences from
them
WK6
3.11 interpret population growth curves using
linear graphs

WK6
3.12discuss, using examples, the consequences
of changing population density on a
population and on its environment WK6

WK7
3.13define the term ‘community’ and give
examples of natural and artificial communities
3.14state and use the conventions for naming
communities
3.15estimate quantitative features of a
community including relative species
abundance, species diversity, species
dominance etc.

YR 11 BIOLOGY 2006 G.WELSH 11


YR 11 BIOLOGY MODULE 4 2006
3.16describe and compare components of IN CLASS WK7
different types of communities (e.g. PLANT & ANIMAL STRUCTURE ASSESSMENT
Option
woodland, forest) and
The structural and use these to
functional explain
unit of most organisms is the cell. All cells are derived from previously existing cells by division. Cells become
• Define
how communities
specialised differ of ‘recurring’
forexamples
and give a particular function and groups of specialised cells are organised into the tissues, organs and systems of multicellular organisms.
(daily,
Communities WK7
seasonal, long-term)
3.17describe the types of and interactions
‘non-recurring’
and
(catastrophic, OBLECTIVE
successional)
relationships that changes
occur between in a
organisms TEXT STUDENT ASSESSMENTS TIME
community.
in a community (e.g. feeding relationships, MANUAL LINE
competition
• Describe and symbiosis)
the factors responsible for recurring
and non-recurring changes
3.18describe the roles of producers, in a community
consumers WK7
and explain how
and decay organisms each of these factors can Pgs296
bring about changes. WK7
• Conduct a case study on an animal social
3.19draw food chains and food webs to
group e.g.thesilvergulls,
illustrate rhesus monkeys,
feeding relationships between
magpies, chickens, bees.
organisms in a community in terms of the Pgs 287-293
• Conduct a matter
cycling of detailedand
study on the
transfer effect that
of energy Mod 3 TEST WK8
feral animal populations have had on natural
3.20analyse the relationships of organisms in
communities and evaluate current
food chains and food webs to predict how
management practices to control population
changes in population density of a species
size.
may affect others in that community
• Investigate environmental factors that cause Pgs 300-303
population explosions e.g. mouse plagues,
algal ‘blooms’.
3.21conduct a field study to collect, display and CONDUCTED ON WK4
• Investigate the long term effects of
analyse data from the study of a natural chemicals BIOLOGY CAMP
oncommunity
the control to of animal/plant
show the structurepopulations
of that
e.g. white ants,and
community rabbits,
someskeleton
of the weed.
relationships
• Usebetween its organisms.
semi logarithmic graphing techniques to
display and/or calculate population growth
rates.
Identify the research and technological
employment opportunities for areas mentioned
in this module

YR 11 BIOLOGY 2006 G.WELSH 12


When students have completed this module they Chapter 1 Introduction to cell WK8
should be able to: pp. 23-32 biology.
4.1 describe the development of the cell theory Chapter 12 CELL STRUCTURE
pp. 360-393 p. 60-69 WK9
4.2 identify, from diagrams and micrographs, Chapter 14 DVD / ATOMS ALIVE
the following cell structures: cytoplasm, pp. 421-426
plasma membrane, cell wall, nucleus,
Chapter 1: Pgs. 80-88
nuclear membrane, vacuoles, chloroplasts WK9
Q’s: 23-33
4.3 state briefly the functions of the cell p. 25-31
structures listed in 4.2. PRAC TEST WK10
Chapter 12: MICROSOPES
4.4 use a monocular microscope to observe Q’s: 5-13
cells and estimate their dimensions WK10
p. 373-377 Pgs 73-78, 87-88
4.5 use staining techniques to facilitate Q’s: 18-21 Microscope tech
observation of specific structures in cells e.g.
simple or one step techniques such as I2/KI and
p. 382
Q’s: 22-28 TERM 4
methylene blue
p. 391 WK 1
4.6 describe the basis for classifying cells as
prokaryotic or eukaryotic and give Chapter 14: WK 2
examples of each type Q’s: 1-5
p. 428
4.7 explain the importance of cell division Pgs 86
WK2-3
(not the details of nuclear division) in the
life of an organism
4.8 describe the passive and active processes Cellular Processors
by which substances can move into or out of
cells – diffusion, osmosis, active transport,
Endocytosis (phagocytosis and pinocytosis)
Pgs 103-104 WK3
and exocytosis
Pgs 92-102
4.9 describe the structural differences between
a typical plant and a typical animal cell and IN CLASS WK3
explain their ASSESSMENT
4.10 prepare wet mounts of Cell structure
Pgs 84-85 WK4
appropriate biological materials e.g. animal
tissue/smears, plant sections Cellular processes
YR 11 BIOLOGY 2006 G.WELSH 13
4.12 relate the structure of a specialised TRANSPORT & WK4
cell to its functions EXCRETION
4.13 define, and give examples of, Pgs 157-160 WK5
‘tissues’, ‘organs’ and ‘systems’ in plants
and animals
WK5
4.14 compare the structure and
functioning of transport systems in multicellular
plants and animals (*xylem, *phloem, heart, Pgs 161-164, 166-169
arteries, veins, capillaries, blood, lymph, open GAS EXCHANGE
circulation, closed circulation), using named Pgs146-147
examples to illustrate relevant aspects
*functions at a simple level only

YR 11 BIOLOGY 2006 G.WELSH 14


4.15compare the structures and processes Pgs 140-154 MOD 4 TEST WK5
involved in gas exchange in multicellular ENVIORNMENT &
plants and animals (stomates, air spaces in ADAPTATIONS
leaf tissues, lungs, gills, moist skin, tracheal 278-281
systems, breathing mechanisms, diffusion of
gases) using named examples to illustrate
relevant aspects
Option
• Compare the structure and functioning of the
support systems in multicellular plants and
animals (roots, lignified tissue, turgor,
internal and external skeletons, antagonistic
muscle groups) using named examples to
illustrate relevant aspects.
• Investigate the use of an electron microscope
as a scientific instrument, and its uses and
limitations.
• Use dissection techniques to compare the
transport and gas exchange systems in a
variety of animals e.g. cockroach,
earthworms, snails.
• Investigate the processes involved in cell
specialisation.
• Investigate the applications of tissue culture
techniques in horticulture, medicine etc.
• Research abnormal cell/tissue growth in
plants and animals.
Identify the research and technological
employment opportunities for areas mentioned
in this module.

YR 11 BIOLOGY 2006 G.WELSH 15