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This calculation deals with the sizing of an AC uninterruptible power supply (UPS) system (i.e. rectifier, battery bank and inverter). In this calculation, it is assumed that the AC UPS is a double conversion type with a basic system topology as shown in Figure 1.
Figure 1 - AC UPS basic system topology
An external maintenance bypass switch and galvanic isolation transformers are other common additions to the basic topology, but these have been omitted from the system as they are irrelevant for the sizing calculation.
Why do the calculation?
An AC UPS system is used to support critical / sensitive AC loads. It is typically a batterybacked system which will continue to operate for a specified amount of time (called the autonomy) after a main power supply interruption. AC UPS systems are also used as stable power supplies that provide a reasonably constant voltage and frequency output, independent of voltage input. This is particularly useful for sensitive electrical equipment on main power supplies that are prone to voltage / frequency fluctuations or instability. The AC UPS sizing calculation determines the ratings for the main AC UPS system components: 1) rectifier, 2) battery banks and 3) inverter. In some cases, the manufacturer will independently size the system and it is only necessary to construct the AC UPS load schedule and load profile. However the calculation results will
When to do the calculation? The AC UPS sizing calculation can be done when the following prerequisite information is known: • • • • UPS loads that need to be supported Input / Output AC voltage Autonomy time(s) Battery type Calculation Methodology The calculation procedure has four main steps: 1) Determine and collect the prospective AC UPS loads 2) Construct a load profile and determine the UPS design load (VA) and design energy (VAh) 3) Calculate the size of the stationary battery (number of cells in series and Ah capacity) 4) Determine the size of the inverter. IEEE 446. Alternatively.g. calculate the design load ( ) and design energy ( ). For commercial facilities. The necessary load data should be available from the instrumentation and control engineers. Step 2: Load Profile. rectifier/ charger and static switch Step 1: Collect the AC UPS Loads The first step is to determine the type and quantity of loads that the AC UPS system will be expected to support.also help determine the indicative dimensions of the equipment (e. "IEEE Recommended Practice for Emergency and Standby Power Systems for Industrial and Commercial Applications" has some guidance (particularly Table 3-2) for autonomy times. which obviously makes the construction of the load profile easier to compute. data / network and telecommunications hardware. For industrial facilities. this will typically be critical instrumentation and control loads such as the DCS and ESD processor and marshalling hardware. Sometimes a single autonomy time is used for the entire AC UPS load. Design Load and Design Energy Refer to the Load Profile Calculation for details on how to construct a load profile. UPS loads will mainly be server. in their standards). telecommunications equipment and sensitive electronics. . The autonomy time is often specified by the Client (i.e. critical workstations and HMI's. The "Autonomy method" for constructing load profiles is typically used for AC UPS systems. size of battery banks) for preliminary layout purposes.
Obviously the smaller the better. the following factors need to be considered: DC output voltage range of the rectifier – the rectifier must be able to output the specified DC link voltage • DC input voltage range of the inverter – the DC link voltage must be within the input voltage tolerances of the inverter. if required to be selected. However. Note that the battery end of discharge voltage should be within these tolerances.Step 3: Battery Sizing Refer to the Battery Sizing Calculation for details on how to size the battery for the AC UPS system. the DC link voltage is usually selected to be close to the nominal output voltage. If physical space is a constraint.max is the inverter maximum input voltage tolerance (%) Vi. Nominal Battery (or DC Link) Voltage The nominal battery / DC link voltage is often selected by the AC UPS manufacturer. The following sections provide additional information specific to battery sizing for AC UPS applications. then less batteries in series would be preferable. • Total DC link current (at full load) – this will affect the sizing of the DC cables and inter-cell battery links. • Number of battery cells required in series – this will affect the overall dimensions and size of the battery rack.min is the inverter minimum input voltage tolerance (%) Vf is the nominal cell float (or boost) voltage (Vdc) Veod is the cell end of discharge voltage (Vdc) . • In general. Number of Cells in Series The number of battery cells required to be connected in series must be between the two following limits: (1) (2) where Nmax is the maximum number of battery cells Nmin is the minimum number of battery cells Vdc is the nominal battery / DC link voltage (Vdc) Vi.
15kVA UPS) would be selected. The design DC load current can be calculated by: where IL. Rectifier / Charger Sizing The rectifier / charger should be sized to supply the inverter at full load and also charge the batteries (at the maximum charge current). Step 4: UPS Sizing Overall UPS Sizing Most of the time. Likewise as a minimum. Vendors typically have standard UPS ratings. For example. the battery at its end of discharge voltage must be within the minimum input voltage range of the inverter.1) (pu) tc is the minimum battery recharge time (hours) The total minimum DC rectifier / charger current is therefore: . select an overall UPS rating that exceeds the design load. all you need to provide is the overall UPS kVA rating and the UPS vendor will do the rest. As a maximum.The limits are based on the input voltage tolerance of the inverter.g. Given the design load ( in VA or kVA) calculated in Step 2. if the design load 12kVA. then the next size unit (e. Select the number of cells in between these two limits (more or less arbitrary. the battery at float voltage (or boost if applicable) needs to be within the maximum input voltage range of the inverter. so it is possible to simply select the first standard rating that exceeds the design load. though somewhere in the middle of the min/max values would be appropriate).dc is the design DC load current (full load) (A) S is the selected UPS rating (kVA) Vdc is the nominal battery / DC link voltage (Vdc) The maximum battery charging current can be computed as follows: where Ic is the maximum DC charge current (A) C is the selected battery capacity (Ah) kl is the battery recharge efficiency / loss factor (typically 1.
the static switch must be rated to continuously supply the UPS loads.Select the next standard rectifier / charger rating that exceeds the total minimum DC current above. the static switch can be sized using the design AC load current (as above for the inverter sizing). Therefore. the inverter can be sized using the design AC load current (based on the selected UPS kVA rating). Static Switch Sizing Like the inverter. For a three-phase UPS: For a single-phase UPS: where IL is the design AC load current (full load) (A) S is the selected UPS rating (kVA) Vo is the nominal output voltage (line-to-line voltage for a three phase UPS) (Vac) Select the next standard inverter rating that exceeds the design AC load current. Inverter Sizing The inverter must be rated to continuously supply the UPS loads. Therefore. Worked Example Step 1 and 2: Collect the AC UPS Loads and Construct Load Profile .
Rectifier Sizing Given a nominal dc link voltage of 120Vdc.4 Ah. we shall use the same battery sizes calculated in the Battery Sizing Calculation worked example. then a 1 kVA UPS would be appropriate. The load profile is shown in the figure right and the following quantities were calculated: • • Design load Sd = 768 VA Design energy demand Ed = 3. we shall use the same loads and load profile detailed in the Energy Load Profile Calculation example. A battery capacity of 50 Ah is selected.Load profile for this example For this example.216 VAh Step 3: Battery Sizing For this example. The selected number of cells in series is 62 cells and the minimum battery capacity is 44. the design DC load current is: A . Step 4: UPS Sizing Overall Sizing Given the design load of 768 VA.
The maximum battery charging current is: A Therefore the total minimum DC rectifier / charger current is: A A DC rectifier rating of 40A is selected. Inverter and Static Switch Sizing Suppose the nominal output voltage is 240Vac. rectifier. The template is based on the calculation procedure described in this page and includes the following features: • • • Load schedule and automatic load profile generation Battery sizing UPS component sizing (e. inverter.g. etc) Screenshots from AC UPS Template . Template A professional. The design AC load current is: A An inverter and static switch rating of 5A is selected.Suppose the minimum battery recharge time is 2 hours and a recharge efficiency factor of 1.1 is used. fully customisable Excel spreadsheet template of the AC UPS calculation can be purchased from Tradebit or Lulu.
UPS Configuration Load Profile Battery Sizing Computer Software Preliminary sizing is normally done manually. see the APC online UPS selector tool). This will assist in developing the equipment / room layouts. What next? Using the results of the UPS sizing calculation. Notwithstanding this. the approximate dimensions of the batteries and UPS cabinet can be estimated based on typical vendor information. many AC UPS manufacturers provide sizing tools as part of their service package (for example. Preliminary budget pricing can also be estimated based on the calculation results. .