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Eco systems
An ecosystem is a natural unit consisting of all plants, animals and micro-organisms (biotic factors) in an area functioning together with all of the non-living physical (abiotic) factors of the environment. It is an interacting system of biotic community together with abiotic environment The interactions between biotic with abiotic is inevitable Various kinds of life supporting systems like forests, grasslands, oceans, lakes, rivers, maintains, deserts and estuaries show wide variations in their structural composition and functions They differ by type of their flora and fauna (biotic), food chain /web (energy components) and nutrients (abiotic). Each system has its own biotic and abiotic factors, these systems are called eco-system, ex. forests, grasslands, oceans eco-systems Eco-system may differ by size, structure and composition Earth is a giant eco-system, where forests, grasslands, oceans eco-systems are independent ecosystems

Ecology: Ecology is the study of eco system The term ecosystem was coined in 1930 by Roy Clapham, and later refined by British ecologist Arthur Tansley The term, describing it as the interactive system established between a group of living creatures the environment in which they live. Biomes Biosphere: It is the whole portion of earth colonized by living being and it is the sum of all the ecosystems established on Earth. Natural ecosystem Natural ecosystem operates themselves and giving many ecological services to us. Ex.1. Soil do the infiltrations by which we are getting usable water 2. plants trap the air pollutants and decreasing the CO2 level 1.Terrestrial ecosystem: grassland, forest, desert ecosystems 2. Aquatic ecosystem The large region with set of ecosystems characterized by distinct climate and specific life forms adapted to it. They are identified by factors like temperature, rainfall, soil type and altitude. Biomes are broadly classified as 1) Terrestrial or land 2) Aquatic or water ecosystem Terrestrial biome consists of forest, grass land, desert ecosytems Aquatic biome consists of lakes, ponds, rivers, estuaries, marine ecosystems

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i. Fresh water ecosystem: rivers, streams a. Running water (lotic) b. Standing water (lentic) ii. Estuarine ecosystem: sea shores- it is a semienclosed coastal area where one or more rivers or streams flowing into it and with a free connection to the open sea. --> more fertile ----> good agricultural practices iii. Marine ecosystem: sea Artificial ecosystem: croplands, gardens Open eco-system exchanging energy and matter from outside Closed eco-system --- isolated from outside

Ecotone:
An ecotone is a transition area between two adjacent but different plant and animal communities.; Ecotone has a mixture species found in both in addition species which is not found in other ecosystems. The phenomenon of increased variety of plants as well as animals at the community junction is called the "edge effect" Ex. Coastal and estuary regions ECO SYSTEM CHARACTERISTIC Eco system characterized by 1. Structural features 2. Functional features Structural features (or) components of ecosystem I. Biotic structure 2. Abiotic structure

I. Biotic structure Classified based on feeding (how do they get their food) A. producers Photo autotrophs---plants--photosynthesis chemo autotrophs---micro organismproduce org. matter thro. Oxid. Of chemicals in the absence of sunlight In deep ocean, H2S and CO2 + microorganism +heat (produced by the radio active decay in earth crest) -- org. matter B. consumers Primary consumer - Herbivores - rabbit, insect, man Secondary consumers-Carnivores snake, big fish Tertiary consumers - Omnivores rat. Fox, human Detritivores (saprotrophs- feed on dead organism) termites, ants, earthwarm C. decomposers

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Bacteria Fungi In forest eco system -primary producers predominate In deep ocean decomposers predominate

I. Abiotic structure Physical and chemical components of the eco system i. Physical factors: aver. Rain fall, temp., soil type, average temp., Ii. Chemical factors: C, N, O,P, K, Salinity, salt content Micro components of eco-system 1. temperature rate of bio-chemical reaction increases with T below minimum T inactive Above certain T b.c.reaction stopped 2. light level-important for photo synthesis 3. water required 1. hydrophytes in fresh water, unable to withstand at drought season 2. xerophytes in desert 3. halophytes able to survive in water-logged saline water 4. Mesophytes not able to withstand in drought or water logged required moderate conditions Functions of an ecosystem Synthesis of food (photosynthesis and chemosynthesis), distribution of energy in the form of food chain & development and regulation of eco system Functional features The major functional attributes of eco-system are i. food chain, food web and trophic structure ii. Energy flow iii. Cycling of nutrients iv. Primary and secondary production v. Eco system development and regulation Trophic structure The producers and the consumers are arranged in a definite manner and their interaction along with population size are expressed together as trophic structure Trophic levels (or feeding levels)--- each feeding levels in the food chain Standing crop or standing biomass: The amount of living or organic matter at each trophic level at a given time. It is expressed in terms of either fresh or dry weight Parasites and omnivorous organism like human beings do not have fixed trophic level Trophic organization for grassland eco system

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Environmental Science and Engineering > Producer- First Trophic level, T1

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-----------------

Grass

Herbivores- second trophic level, T2 ---------------- Grasshopper Primary Carnivores- Third trophic level, T3 ------- frog Secondary Carnivores- Fourth trophic level, T4 --- snake Top carnivores- Fifth trophic level, T5 Matter and energy flow in the ecosystem: Matter and energy flow: Every organism is a chemical factory that capture matter and energy from its environment During photosynthesis autotrophs convert solar energy into chemical energy of org. compounds The organic compounds synthesized by the producers are utilized by all for their body building and liberation of energy for various activities The flow of energy and matter is mediated through food chain Food chain A food chain is a single series of organisms in which each plant or animal depends on the organism above or below it. As an example, a food chain might consist of garden plants, such as lettuce and carrots, fed upon by rabbits which, in turn, are fed upon by owls which, in turn, are fed upon by hawks. The sequence of eating and being eaten in an ecosystem Grass grasshopper frog snake hawk (grassland eco system) Phytoplankton water fleas small fish birds (pond eco system) Lichens -- reindeer - man (Arctic tundra) ---------hawk

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In nature there are two major types of food chains

leaf litter Food web

algae

crabs

small fish

big fish

birds

man

FOOD WEB: A food web is a network of food chains where different types of organisms are connected at different trophic levels, so that there are a number of options of eating and being eaten at each trophic levels It includes all the organisms whose feeding habits are related in some way or another to those of other organisms

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Significance of food chain and food web 1. Maintaining Energy flow & 2. Nutrient cycling Food chain and food web play a very significant role as the two most important functions of energy flow and nutrients cycling takes place through them. 3. Ecological balance - by maintaining and regulating the population size: Food chains help in maintaining and regulating the population size of different animals and thus help to maintain ecological balance 4. Biological magnification Biomagnifications Non biodegradable chemicals are not decomposed by micro-organism and they keep on passing from one trophic level to another and at each successive trophic level their concentration keep on increasing. This phenomenon is known as biomagnifications or biological magnification that can have harmful effects on animals. For example, suppose that a farmer sprays his or her fields with a pesticide designed to control insects that destroy pests. A small amount of that pesticide will be washed off into rivers, streams, and lakes near the field. The pesticide will be ingested by fish living in those bodies of water. Those fish, in turn, may be eaten by larger fish, by birds, by bears, by humans, and by higher-level carnivores. In one study of a food web in Lake Ontario, scientists found a concentration of pesticide 630 times greater in herring gulls than in primary consumers, such as zooplankton found in the lake. Case study: A build-up of DDT conc; Birds like osprey were found to suffer a sharp decline in their population. The young ones of these birds were found to catch out premature due to the thinning birds eggs cell, leading to their death. DDT sprayed for pest control was in very low conc, but its conc magnified thousand times along the food chain through phytoplankton to zooplankton and finally the bird. The animals occupying the higher level are at greater risk.

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In order for a pollutant to biomagnify, the following conditions must be met: The pollutant must be long-lived. The pollutant must be concentrated by the producers. The pollutant must be fat-soluble.

Ecological pyramids
Graphic representation of trophic structure and functions of an eco-system, starting with producers at the base and successive trophic levels forming the apex An ecological pyramid is constructed based on one of three types of data acquired from each feeding level - the number of organisms, the amount of biomass or the amount of energy. i. pyramid of numbers Ii. pyramid of biomass Iii. pyramid of energy

i. Pyramid of numbers Upright, inverted and broad middle pyramids Upright pyramids: the grassland and pond ecosystem The producer in the grassland is grass and pond is phytoplankton, which are minimum in size and very large in number. So the producers form a broad base

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The number of the successive tropic levels are decreasing The pyramid apex becomes gradually narrower forming an upright pyramids Inverted pyramids: parasitic ecosystem Big tree birds lice, bugs fleas, microbes broad middle pyramids: forest ecosystem Trees birds, insects fox, snakes lion, tiger ii. Pyramid of biomass It is based upon the total biomass at each trophic level in each chain The pyramid of biomass can also be upright ex. Forest and grass land ecosystem or inverted ex. pond ecosystem iii. Pyramid of energy The amount of energy is accounted at each trophic level. The best representation of trophic relationship. Always upright pyramid since it takes total energy trapped at each trophic level. A pyramid of energy cannot be inverted due to loss of energy between trophic levels Only a portion of energy in each level is available to create biomass in next level Great deal of energy dissipates as kinetic energy and heat energy Only about 10% of energy at consumer level can be transformed at the next level and huge loss of energy (90%) in the form of heat, respiration, etc., Pyramid of energy is always upright pyramids.

Energy flow in an ecosystem


The movement of energy in the eco-system from env. through series of organism and back to the external envt. Fundamental process Energy flow in the ecosystem is unidirectional or one way flow through food chain. The energy is not reversed in the food chain. It takes place through the food chain and keeps the eco system going It follows Laws of thermodynamics 1st law of thermodynamics Energy can neither created nor be destroyed but can be transformed from one form to another 2nd law of thermodynamics Energy dissipates as it is used The loss of energy in each trophic level is taking place through respiration, loss of energy in locomotion and other activities At every level there is about 90% loss of energy and the energy transferred from one trophic level to another

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Each feeding (trophic) level passes at 10% of its stored energy to the next level. Therefore, if the producers had 10,000 units (calories) of available energy, the herbivores would receive 1000 units, the primary carnivores 100 units and the secondary carnivores 10 units. Heat energy (sun) photosynthesis producers primary consumers sec. consumers Lettuce and carrots, like other green plants, have the ability to capture solar energy from sunlight and convert it into the stored chemical energy of starches and other chemical compounds. When rabbits eat lettuce and carrots, they take in that stored energy. At the next level, owls that eat rabbits take in the energy stored in the bodies of their prey. No organism ever collects 100 percent of the energy stored in the plant or animal it eats, however. In fact, studies have shown that only about 10 The lowest level consists of producers, the next higher level of first-order consumers, the next higher level of second-order consumers, and so on. Note that the total number of organisms found in any one level decreases as one goes up the pyramid The energy flow models can be used to explain the energy though different trophic levels 1. Universal energy flow model Input energy NU PRODUCER NA (excretion) tertairy consumers respiration Production

assimilation sec.

Primary

2. Single Channel energy model PRODUCER Solar light Heat loss I NU respiration Production (1) (NPP)

assimilation (GPP)

NA (excretion)

Primary consumers Production (1) (NPP) NU assimilation (GPP) respiration Production (NPP) (2) sec. consumers Production (2) (NPP) NU assimilation (GPP) respiration Production (NPP) (3) tertairy (top carnivores) Production (3) (NPP) NU assimilation (GPP) respiration Production (NPP) (4)

NA (excretion)

NA (excretion)

NA (excretion)

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Primary production and secondary production


Productivity: The rate of organic matter or biomass production Two types : Primary and secondary Primary Production (PP): The rate at which radiant (solar) energy is converted into organic substances which can be used as food substances by photosynthesis or chemosynthesis by the primary producers. Primary production is distinguished as either net or gross, the former account the loss of energy for the processes such as cellular respiration, the latter not. Gross primary productivity is the total rate of photosynthesis including organic matter used up in respiration during the measurement period Net primary production (NPP) is the rate of storage of energy as food matter i.e. excluding the energy dissipated as respiration by plants or respiratory loss (R) NPP = GPP-R Secondary production: The energy or organic matter stored at consumer level for use by the next trophic level.

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Ecosystems vary in productivity 1. Rates of productivity are influenced by environmental factors like solar radiations, availability of water, nutrients and upon the type of the plant and their chlorophyll content 2. Tropical rain forests are the most productive terrestrial ecosystems. This is because trophical forest have abundant rainfall, warm temp for growth, abundant sunlight and rich diversity of species 3. Estuaries are the most productive aquatic ecosystems as they get energy subsidies in the form of wave currents that bring along with them nutrients required for production 4. Deserts have inadequate water supply and tundra have very low temp and hence show primary production

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Ecological succession or Ecological development


Ecological succession, a process by which organism occupy a bare site and establish a stable community The change of living (Biotic) community in an orderly sequence in an area, resulting in establishment of stable or climax community. It refers to more or less predictable and orderly changes in the structural composition of an ecological community. The community estabilishing first of all in the area is called a pioneer community The whole sequence of communities which are transitory are known as seral stages or seres. A climax community does not evolve further because it is in perfect harmony with the environment of the area. It can live and reproduce successfully in the area Important Terms Pioneer community : The first community establishing first of all in a bare area is called a pioneer community It has very little diversity and takes longest time to change the environment for invasion of the next community. Seral or Transitional community: The intermediate communities between pioneer and climax. In any succession, each seral stage is temporary community. It may remain for a very short period or it may continue for yrs together Climax or Climatic climax Community: The last and stable community in an area. It has maximum diversity. A climax community does not evolve further because it is in perfect harmony with the environment of the area. It can live and reproduce successfully in the area Reaction: The interaction of living communities slowly changes the physical and chemical nature of the environment. It includes weathering of rocky substratum, binding of soil particles, holding of water, decreasing the effect of wind, etc., Types of Succession Based on nudity Primary Succession: If the development begins on an area that has not been previously occupied by a community, such as a newly exposed rock or sand surface, a lava flow, glacial tills, or a newly formed lake, the process is known as primary succession. Succession that begins in areas where no soil is initially present is called primary succession

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Exposure of rocks due to retreat of glaciers Lichens-Mosses Fern/grass Pioneer community Seral community

large plants Climax

Secondary Succession: Sequential development of new biotic community after the complete or partial destruction of an existing community by some form of disturbance (e.g. fire, severe wind throw, logging, disasters) of an existing community. whereas succession that begins in areas where soil is already present is called secondary succession. The destruction may be due to natural events like volcanic eruptions, floods, droughts, fires, storms or human intervention mining, agricultural internal flooding, dam constructions Secondary succession is usually more rapid as the colonizing area is rich in leftover soil, organic matter and seeds of the previous vegetation.

Micro succession /Serule: Succession of microorganisms like fungi, bacteria, etc occurring within a microhabitat is known as micro succession or serule. This type of succession occurs within communities, for example in dead trees, animal droppings In general, communities in early succession will be dominated by fast-growing, well-dispersed species (r-selected life-histories). Traits that are thought to be characteristic of r-selection include: the ability to fast reproduction, small body size, early maturity onset, short generation time, and the ability to disperse offspring widely. r-selected traits range from bacteria and diatoms, through insects and weeds, to various cephalopods and mammals, especially small rodents. As succession proceeds, these species will tend to be replaced by more competitive (k-selected) species. Traits that are thought to be characteristic of K-selection include: large body size, long life expectancy, and the production of fewer offspring that require extensive parental care until they mature. Organisms with K-selected traits include large organisms such as elephants, trees, humans and whales, but also smaller, long-lived organisms such as Arctic Terns.

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Mechanism of Succession
1) Clement's theory of succession/Mechanisms of succession F.E. Clement (1916) developed a descriptive theory of succession and advanced it as a general ecological concept. According to Clement, succession is a process involving several phases: 2) Sequential steps of primary Succession 1. Nudation: Succession begins with the development of a bare site, called Nudation (disturbance). 2. Migration (Dispersal): The seeds , spores or other propagules of organisms reach the bare area. It is brought by air, water, animals and man. The first arrivals in a bare are called pioneers or pioneer colonizers 3) Establishment: After migration, seeds germinate, seeds grow and adult start to reproduce. Only few of them capable of doing this harsh conditions and most of them disappear. Individual species become established in the area 4) Aggregation: The increase in the no of colonizing individual 5). Invasion: From time to time pioneer of new species continue to reach the area under colonization. If they are more aggressive than the colonizers, they establish in the area. This process is called invasion and the new organisms are called invaders 6). Competition and co-action: As vegetation became well established, grew, and spread, various species began to compete for space, light and nutrients. The species if unable to compete with other species would be discarded 7) Reaction: Changes in soil, water, light condition, temp etc. of the environment brought about by colonisers in the habitats. Due to all these the environment is modified, becoming unsuitable for the existing community which sooner or later is replaced by another community-seral communities 8) Stabilization (Climax): After long interval some individuals arise which are in complete harmony with the climate of the area. They become dominant and create conditions favourable for the growth of other plants below them. The latter cannot live without the presence of dominants.

Characteristics of Succession Progress from unstable to stable biotic community Seral stages are regular and directional that an ecologist can often predict the future communities In each stage, increase in species diversity, total biomass, humus content of the soil Progress from simple food chain to food web The habitat tends modify from aquatic to dry or wet conditions Succession of plant and animal communities occur side by side but plant succession is easily visible Major Types of ecological succession Different type of area where ecological successions are starting 1. Hydrarch : succession start in watery area like pond, lakes, marshes etc., 2. Mesarch : succession Area of adequate moisture

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Depending on the substratum and climate, a seral community can be one of the following: Hydrosere Community in water Lithosere Community on rock Psammosere Community on sand Xerosere Community in dry area Halosere Community in saline body (e.g. a marsh) Xerarch Succession of bare rock: The bare rock is deficient of water, hence the sequence of seral stages of succession is called xerosere 1) Lichen stage: They are slow growers and can withstand extreme desiccation. The lichens produce acids which corrode rock surface and release mineral required for proper growth of them. The biomass of lichens retain more water, accumulate more soil particle as well as organic matter. Fine layer of soil develops on the rock surface 2) Moss stage: The substratum remains moisture for longer period favor moisture loving mosses. The mosses accumulate soil and organic matter. 3) Herb stage: The death and decay of older mosses produce a mat on the partially fragmented rock which is suitable for the germination of seeds of grass. The roots of these grass accelerate the process of rock disintegration. 4) Shrub stage: Due to further weathering of the rock favours shrub. Roots of the shrub reach greater depth of , causing further crack resulting in more soil formation. The shrubs shade area make it more moist and invites several type of animals 5) Climax Community: Many light demanding, stunted and hardy trees invade the area occupied by shrubs. A steady state is reached between the environment and community. The type of climax community depends upon the climate. It is a rain forest in moist tropical area and coniferous or deciduous forest in temp area, or grassland in area with less rain fall.

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Xerarch

Hydrarch or hydrosere

Ecosystem regulation
Self regulating mechanism The ecosystem by itself tries to resist the change, environmental stress which disturb its normal function and maintain itself in equilibrium with the environment Homeostasis: any self-regulating process by which biological systems tend to maintain stability while adjusting to conditions that are optimal for survival. Inherent property of all living systems to resist change. It is also a range of tolerance Negative feed back mechanism The range of tolerance within which any stress tries to cause any deviation can be counteracted by the system by its own mechanism. The system has its own mechanisms to counteract these deviations, which are known as Negative feed back mechanism This deviation counteracting mechanism brings back to its ideal conditions Positive feedback mechanism:

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The positive feedback mech. add to the stress conditions and tend to take the system away from the optimal conditions. Deviation accelerating mechanism These mechanism add stress conditions and tend to take the system away from optimal conditions Human beings should try to keep the ecosystem within the homeostatic plateau The ecosystem will collapse

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Nutrient cycling
Nutrients like C,N,S,O,H and P move in circular paths through biotic and abiotic components known as biogeochemical cycles The nutrients move through food chain and ultimately reach the detritus compartment for mineralization Various organically bound nutrients of dead plants and animals are converted into inorganic substances by microbial decomposition that are readily used by plants and cycle starts afresh

Carbon Cycle

Carbon Cycle
Plant respiration Animal respiration Fissile fuel burning CO2 (atm) Industries direct ocean abs. Automobiles Photosyn. Aquatic plants Aquatic plants plants Aquatic animals Human beings Dead org. Decompose CO2 (ATM)

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The atm is a minor reservoir of CO2 and ocean are major reservoir (50 times higher) The Oceanic Part of the Carbon Cycle Carbon dioxide dissolves into cold ocean water at high latitudes Phytoplankton in the ocean use CO2, sunlight, water, and nutrients and produce carbohydrates and oxygen. Animals in the ocean use carbohydrates and oxygen and emit CO2 CO2 is in the form of bicarbonate mineral deposits on the ocean floor Ocean is sink of CO2 and regulate CO2 in the atm.

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Nitrogen cycle

Nitrogen cycle
Volcanic eroption Industries exhaust NO2, NO3, acid rain N2 (atm) Bio-fixn electic. fixn Soil (nitrites, nitrates) plants syn. Amino acid , proteins animals, human beings dead decom. By ammonifing & nitrifying bacteria NH3, N2 (ATM)

78% in the atm - But most organisms cannot use nitrogen in this form. Plants must secure their nitrogen in "fixed" form, i.e., incorporated in compounds such as: nitrate ions (NO3) , ammonia (NH3) , urea (NH2)2CO

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Fixation of nitrogen Atmospheric fixation by lightning -The enormous energy of lightning breaks nitrogen molecules and enables their atoms to combine with oxygen in the air forming nitrogen oxides. These dissolve in rain, forming nitrates, that are carried to the earth. Biological fixation by certain microbes alone or in a symbioticc relationship with some plants and animals plants of the legume family (e.g., soybeans, alfalfa). Nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria (a blue-green algae) Industrial Fixation : Fertilizers Biological importance: Plants metabolism amino acids, proteins, vitamins animals and human beings Cycling: After death org. nitrogen- by ammonifying and nitrifying bacteria- nitrates, molecular nitrogen- atm Nitrification Dinitrification.cycle

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Phosphorous Cycle

Reservoir: Rocks and fossils Biological importance: Component of nucleotides Strength of bone, CaPO3 Phospholipids-biological membrane Bone and teeth, CaPO3, Phospholipids-biological membrane, Phosphate rocks & Fertilizers -- Decomposition of org. phos. & erosion of rocks & agri. Run off -- soil plants animals dead - decomposer ocean or water bodies -- fish - birds -- excreta phosphate deposits P-cyclic to acyclic: Limited supply of P in the phosphate rock is overexploited by man and large part is taken out of normal cycle due to loss into ocean Return of P on the land: Sea birds eat sea fishes which are P-rich and dropping excreta on the land called Guana deposits (P-rich) (rich in coastal area of Peru) P-cyclic to acyclic: Limited supply of P in the phosphate rock is overexploited by man and large part is taken out of normal cycle due to loss into ocean Return of P on the land: Sea birds eat sea fishes which are P-rich and dropping excreta on the land

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Major Ecosystems
Terrestrial Biome- Forest, grassland, desert ecosystems Aquatic Biome- Ponds, lakes, Rivers, Estuaries, Marine ecosystems

Forest eco system


Types: Based on the prevailing climatic condition Tropical rain forest Temperate rain forest Tropical deciduous forest Temperate deciduous forest Tropical scrub forest Evergreen coniferous forest Tropical rain forest Tropical rain forests are evergreen broad leaf forest occur near the equator and are characterized by the greatest diversity of species. The tropical rainforest is earth's most complex biome in terms of both structure and species diversity. It occurs under optimal growing conditions: abundant precipitation and year round warmth. Characteristics Abiotic Precipitation is evenly distributed throughout the year, with annual rainfall exceeding 2000 mm. High temp through out the year Soil is nutrient-poor and acidic. Decomposition is rapid and soils are subject to heavy leaching. Over the years the rain has washed minerals include calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus these out of the soil, so all the nutrients are actually in the living plants and animals. Biotic Flora is highly diverse: one square kilometer may contain as many as 100 different tree species. Trees are 25-35 m tall, with buttressed trunks and shallow roots, mostly evergreen, with large dark green leaves. Plants such as orchids, bromeliads, vines (lianas), ferns, mosses, and palms are present in tropical forests. Fauna include numerous birds, bats, small mammals, and insects. Special insects pollinate special kinds of orchids, for instance. Rafflesia arnoldi, the biggest flower is known to smell like rotton meat which attracts flies and beetles, help in pollination

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Strata of the Tropical rain forest Different animals and plants live in different parts of the rainforest depending upon the their need for food, sunlight, water ,nutrient, etc., Starting at the top, the strata are: EMERGENTS: Giant tall trees with broad leaf . It houses many birds and insects. These trees get a lot of light, but they also have to deal with the wind. They make good perches for eagles and other predatory birds. CANOPY: The top branches of short trees form an umbrella like cover. Their branches touch, their leaves seem to fill every space where light may fall. This leafy environment is full of life in a tropical rainforest and includes: insects, birds, reptiles, mammals, and more. UNDERSTORY: Consists of small trees, shrubs, and bushes. These plants are adapted to low light levels, and their large, tender leaves capture as much light energy as they can. The shrubs support vines, mosses, and fragile amphibians, such a frogs, which enjoy the humid atmosphere. Monkeys, toad, snakes, chameleons keep on moving up and down in sunny and darker layer. Epiphytes: ( air plants) grow on branches high in the trees, using the limbs merely for support and extracting moisture from the air and trapping the constant leaf-fall and wind-blown dust. Some large epiphytes can hold large amount of water and they act as mini-pond. They usually receive very dim sunlight. They develop dark green leaves with high chlorophyll content so that they can use diffused sun light for photosynthesis Lianas (woody climbers): woody vines grow rapidly up the tree trunks when there is a temporary gap in the canopy and flower and fruit in the tree tops FOREST FLOOR:

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The forest floor receives only about 2% of the light that falls onto the trees of the canopy. There are few plants down here. The floor is littered with dead leaves, twigs, animals and fallen fruit, all of which are being digested byt insects and other detritivores. A few animals also live here, including wild pigs. They eat whatever has fallen from the rich communities above them. Teeming with animal life, especially insects, the largest animals in the rainforest generally live here. Heterotrophs: non-photosynthetic plants can live on the forest floor. Parasites derive their nutrients by tapping into the roots or stems of photosynthetic species. Rafflesia arnoldi, a root parasite of a liana, has the world's largest flower, more than three feet in diameter. It produces an odor similar to rotting flesh to attract pollinating insects. Saprophytes derive their nutrients from decaying organic matter. Some orchids employ this strategy common to fungi and bacteria.

Biotic Components Producers: big trees, shrubs and ground vegetation Primary consumers: Insects like ants, flies, beetles, spider, deer, squirels etc., Secondary: Snakes, lizards, fox, birds, etc., Tertiary: Tiger, lion. Etc., Decomposer: bacteria and fungi Food Chain: Plants rabbit fox lion

The tropical rain forest- Functions Function:

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Rainforests are extremely important in the ecology of the Earth. Have greatest diversity of species The plants of the rainforest generate much of the Earth's oxygen. These plants are used in new drugs that fight disease and illness

The most productive Ecosystem The abundant sunlight, warm temperatures, and daily rain lead to a fast turnover of nutrients by decomposition of the dropped leaves, and hence plant growth is rapid. This is a land without winter, so the growing season lasts all year. There are flowers and fruit all year round. More than half of the different kinds animals and plants in the world live in the tropical rain forests Ex. Silent valley in Kerela Temperate rain forests Between tropical region and polar region Temperate forests have four distinct seasons: winter, spring, summer, and fall. Each season has different temperatures and weather patterns Moderate temp Adequate rain fall Mostly coniferous trees (needle shaped leaves) and broad leaves (olive, holy) Found on the western edge of North and South America, where moist air from the Pacific Ocean drops between 60 and 200 inches of rain a year. Unlike the tropical rain forest, the temperate rain forest has seasonal variation, with hot summer and very cold winter( temperatures dropping to near freezing). Although this rain forest has layers of tall, medium, and low growing vegetation, the cool winters limit the numbers and kinds of life forms that live here. Compared to the tropical rain forest, the temperate rain forest has a less complex ecology. The topmost layer of the temperate rain forest on is dominated by tall coniferous trees.

Tropical deciduous forest They are found little away from equator Climate Precipitation in the temperate deciduous forest is spread throughout the year. However, during the winter months it is usually frozen and unavailable to animals Plants As the seasons change, so do the colors of the leaves of the deciduous.

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During the winter months water is generally not available to keep the leaves of some plants alive. Therefore, the leaves of some plants fall off and grow back in the spring. Those plants, like evergreens, keep their leaves during the winter have special adaptations to stay alive. Animals Animals living within this ecosystem must adjust to cold winters and hot summers. Leaves generally fall off in the fall, leaving animals with less cover to hide themselves from predators. Temperate deciduous forest Temperature: Moderate temp, long summer and too severe winter for survival. Precipitation: Rainfall throughout the year Vegetation: Broadleaf trees (oaks, maples, beeches), shrubs, perennial herbs, and mosses Location: Eastern United States, Canada, Europe, China, and Japan Other: Temperate deciduous forests are most notable because they go through four seasons. Leaves change color in autumn, fall off in the winter, and grow back in the spring; this adaptation allows plants to survive cold winters. Evergreen Coniferous Forest South in south of Arctic tundra Winters are long and cold. Soil become permafrost. Permafrost is the term given to frozen soil. Sunlight is available only for few hours Plants: Pines, cedar, spruce, fir, - They usually have needle-shaped or scale-like leaves with thick wax coating to withstand at sever cold. Conifers have shallow root system that allows the trees to take in the water as soon as the surface ice/snow melts Species diversity is very less The plants at the base of these trees are usually ferns, lichens and mosses. In the very cold places of the world, survival isn't easy. The soil is frozen, its top surface thawing only during summer, and no trees can grow. Yet plants and animals that are adapted for the harsh conditions thrive. This ecosystem, or biome, is called tundra. Most of the world's tundra is found in the Arctic, is called Arctic tundra Tundra is found on mountains at high altitudes and is called alpine tundra.

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Exploitation of Forest As forests have a global climate-buffering capacity, their destruction may cause large-scale changes in global climate. Logging has depleted many old-growth temperate forests. The increased demand for homes, paper, and other wood products have not allowed for much conservation. Wiser use of the forests and efforts to replant trees have helped to slow down the depletion of these communities. Tropical forests have fallen victim to timber exploitation, slash and burn farming, and clear felling for industrial use or cattle ranching. Our increasing demand for meat products has spurred these events.

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Grassland Ecosystem
Grassland is an area where the annual rainfall is insufficient to support a luxuriant growth of trees, but is still high enough so that deserts are not formed. Several grassland types form either clearings in different forest types or are located on hill slopes with patches of forests Himalayan pastures, in scrublands of the Deccan Plateau and in the Shola forests of the Western Ghats, Nilgiri and Annamalai ranges. Depending on the quantity of rain, there are tall, medium and short grasses Types Tropical grass land Temperate grassland Polar grassland

Tropical grass land Ecosystem (Savannas)


Found near the border of tropical rain forest in the regions of high temp and low to moderate rainfall In Africa these are typically known as Savannas

Characteristics: Abiotic Structure: Savannas are always found in warm or hot climates, the rainfall is concentrated in six or eight months of the year, followed by a long period of drought . The soil of the savanna is porous, with rapid drainage of water. It has only a thin layer of humus (the organic portion of the soil created by partial decomposition of plant or animal matter), which provides vegetation with nutrients. They have high efficient system (grass) of photosynthesis Most of the carbon assimilated by them in the form of carbohydrate in the perennating bulbs, rhizomes,,etc., which are present underground. During dry seasons, fires are quite common and burning of these grasslands can release huge quantities of CO2 Biotic Structure: Plants: Tall grasses with scattered shrubs and stunted trees

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Animals: Zebras, giraffe, antelopes. Termite mounds are common. Termites gather detritus (dead org matter) containing lot of cellulose and build up a mound. On the top of the mound fungi are found to grow which feed upon this dead matter and release methane, a green house gas Functions: Producers: grass, herb, shrub and few scattered trees Primary consumers: grass hopper,cow, sheep, deer, horse etc Secondary: Fox , jackals, snakes, lizards Tertiary: Hawks Decomposers: bacteria, moulds, fungi Food Chain Grass grasshopper lizard hawk

Temperate grassland

Characteristics found on flat, gentle sloped hills Temperatures vary more from summer to winter, and the amount of rainfall is less in temperate grasslands than in savannas Temperate grasslands have hot summers and cold winters. Rainfall is moderate. The amount of annual rainfall influences the height of grassland vegetation, with taller grasses in wetter regions. The soil of the temperate grasslands is deep and dark, with fertile upper layers. It is nutrient-rich from the growth and decay of deep, many-branched grass roots. The rotted roots hold the soil together and provide a food source for living plants As in the savanna, seasonal drought and occasional fires are very important to biodiversity.

Biotic Structure

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Grasses as the dominant vegetation. Trees and large shrubs are absent. The seasonal drought, occasional fires, and grazing by large mammals all prevent woody shrubs and trees from invading and becoming established. The fauna include gazelles, zebras, rhinoceroses, wild horses, lions, wolves, prairie dogs, jack rabbits, deer, mice, coyotes, foxes, skunks, badgers, blackbirds, grouses, meadowlarks, quails, sparrows, hawks, owls, snakes, grasshoppers, leafhoppers, and spiders. Polar Grass land Found in arctic polar region Severe cold and strong winds along with ice and snow create too harsh climate for trees to grow In summer the sun-shine is almost round the clock and hence several small annual plants grow in the summer During summer shallow lakes, marsh appear and so mosquitoes, different type of insects and migratory birds appear Animals: wolf, weasel arctic fox, reindeer Grass land ecosystem- Functions The rotted roots hold the soil together and provide a food source for living plants They prevent soil erosion Fires during dry seasons, release huge quantities of CO2 Fungi found on the top of the termite mound which feed upon this dead matter and release methane, a green house gas

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Desert ecosystem
Occur in region where evaporation exceeds precipitation. Precipitation is less than 25cm per year Types 1)Tropical Deserts: The seasons are generally warm throughout the year and very hot in the summer. The winters usually bring little rainfall. Wind blown sand dunes are very common Ex. Sahara and Namib in Africa, Thar desert in Rajasthan. 2) Temperate deserts: Day time temp is very hot in summer but cool in winter Ex. Mojave in South California 3) Cold Deserts: Cold winters with snowfall and high overall rainfall throughout the winter and occasionally over the summer. They have short, moist, and moderately warm summers with fairly long, cold winters. They occur in the Antarctic, Greenland and the Nearctic realm. Gobi deserts in China Characteristics Abiotic: Soils have abundant nutrients, they need only water to become very productive and have little or no organic matter. Disturbances are common in the form of occasional fires or cold weather, and sudden, infrequent, but intense rains that cause flooding. Biotic structure: Most deserts have a considerable amount of specialized vegetation, as well as specialized vertebrate and invertebrate animals. The dominant animals of warm deserts are non mammalian vertebrates, such as reptiles. Mammals are usually small, like the kangaroo, mice. Desert plants and animals They have most typical adaptation for conservation of water Plants have reduced scaly leaves so as to cut down loss of water due to transpiration or succulent leaves to store water Their stems get flattened and develop chlorophyll so that they can take up the function of photosynthesis Some plants have very deep roots to tap ground water Many plants have a waxy thick cuticle over the leaf to reduce loss of water through transpiration Desert animals like insects and reptiles have thick outer coverings to minimise loss of water Animals live in a burrow where humidity is better and heat is less Desert Ecosystem

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Producers: Shrubs, bushes, some tree, low plants, lichens, mosses Primary: rabbit get water from succulant plants, Camel, rodents, rats Secondary: Carnivores, reptiles Tertiary: Birds-red tailed hawk, Gambel, squil -conserve water by excreting solid uric acid Decomposers: Bacteria and fungi Food Chain Shrubs rodents snake fox

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Aquatic Biome
Dealing with water bodies and the biotic communities present in them Freshwater is defined as having a low salt concentration usually less than 1%. Marine: The water is the saltiest with mineral content of 3.5% Estuary and Wetland: Mixture of salt and fresh an average water Aquatic Ecosystem

Fresh water

Marine

Estuary (Wetland)

Lentic (standing Type) Ponds, lakes

Lotic (Free flowing type) Stream, rivers

Organism in water bodies Planktons: Float on the surface of the water. ex., Phyto plankton like algae and zooplankaton like rotifers Nektons: That swim eg., fishes Neustons: Rest or swim on the surface ex., beetles, protozoas, bacteria and spiders. Benthos: Attached to the bottom sediments, snails Periphytons: Attached or clinging to other plants or any other surface. ex., crustaceans Ponds and Lakes Ponds: ponds are shallow water bodies with a depth of 12-15 feet in which the sun rays can penetrate to the bottom permitting the growth of plants there. May be seasonal in nature, receiving enough water during rainy season. They contain several types of algae, aquatic plants and animals insects Always under anthropogenic pressure Polluted by washing, bathing, The abiotic substances of Pond ecosystem are formed as a result of the mixture of some organic and inorganic materials. The basic components are water, oxygen, carbon dioxide, salts of calcium and nitrogen etc. The rate of release of reserve nutrients, pH, the solar input and the cycle of temperature ,day length and other climatic conditions regulate the function of the Pond ecosystem.

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Lakes : Permanent standing water, maintaining an open water surface of greater than 0.1 km2. They are basins of deposited materials and detained water They have interactions of the surrounding environment, which provides support, nutrients and energy, and by living organisms, which are interconnected by flows of energy and cycling of nutrients. Watersheds and the atmosphere are sources of new materials to lakes. The solar energy and the winds generated by lakes provide the physical energy to keep the biological system operating. Lakes and ponds are always sinks for energy and almost always sinks for suspended materials and nutrients. Stratification or Zonation in ponds and lakes 1) Based on the depth and distance from the shoreline. 2) Based on temperature 1) Based on depth and distance from the shoreline Littoral zone: The shallow, near shore part of a lake or pond characterized by light penetration to the bottom. Production at the sedimentation side is high. Aquatic organisms found in this zone are bacteria, phytoplankton, periphytic algae, protozoa, macrophytes, macro invertebrates, zooplankton, and fish. Limnatic zone (Photic Zone): The open water part of a lake or pond where light availability is high enough to allow photosynthesis. It is dominated by plankton, both phytoplankton and zooplankton like bacteria,, protozoa and fish. Profundal zone (Aphotic Zone): : Little light penetrates all the way through the limnetic zone into the profundal zone and productivity is less This zone is much colder and denser than the other two. The fauna are heterotrophs, decomposers that they eat dead organisms. They use oxygen for cellular respiration The amount of oxygen produced by photosynthesis is equal that consumed by respiration Benthic Zone: Lowest level of lake, including the sediment surface and some sub-surface layers. Organisms living in this zone are called benthos.

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Zonation due to Temperature variation Temperature varies in ponds and lakes seasonally. During the summer, the temperature can range from 4 C near the bottom to 22 C at the top. During summer the top layer become warmer than bottom water. Therefore the warm top layer circulates without mixing with bottom colder layer and forming distinct zonation. This mixing circulates oxygen.. Epilimnion: Warm, lighter, circulating surface layer Hypolimnion: Cold, viscous non-circulating bottom layer Thermocline or metalimnion: Narrow zone in between these two layers where a sharp drop in temp is. Many lakes and ponds that do not freeze during the summer, thus the top layer would be a little warmer. During the winter, the temperature at the bottom can be 4 C while the top is 0 C (ice). During the spring and fall seasons, there is a mixing of the top and bottom layers, usually due to winds, which results in a uniform water temperature of around 4C. Lake types Holomictic lake: at some time during the year, the water in holomictic lakes will have a uniform temperature and density from top to bottom, allowing the lake waters to completely mix . Monomictic lake: that mix from top to bottom during one mixing period each year. Dimictic lake: that mix from top to bottom during two mixing periods each year. Polymictic lake: that mix from top to bottom during many mixing periods each year Meromictic lake has layers of water that do not intermix , ex. Amictic lake: Amictic lakes are permanently ice-covered. They are restricted to very cold climates (Arctic, Antarctic, and alpine).

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Food chain: phytoplankton-

Zooplanktons -

small fish

large fish

birds -

human

Ecological pyramid: pyramid of numbers: upright pyramid of biomass: inverted pyramid of energy: upright

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Biotic Structure: Food chain

Streams and rivers


These are bodies of flowing water moving in one direction The characteristics of a river or stream change during the journey from the source to the mouth. At the source: The temperature is cooler at the source than it is at the mouth. The water is also clearer, has higher dissolved oxygen levels, and freshwater fish such as trout and hetero trophs can be found there. The plants are attached to rocks (periphytons) Middle part of the stream/river: Towards the middle part of the stream/river, the width increases, as does species diversity numerous aquatic green plants and algae can be found. Mouth of the river/stream: Toward the mouth of the river/stream, the water becomes murky from all the sediments rich in nutrients that it has picked up upstream, decreasing the amount of light that can penetrate through the water. Since there is less light, there is less diversity of flora, and because of the lower oxygen levels, fish that require less oxygen, such as catfish and carp, can be found

Characteristics of stream and river Water current and temp: Stream organism have to face more extreme of temp and action of water currents Oxygen and nutrient: More uniform as land water exchange is extensive. Organism do not have to face oxygen deficiency as the streams are shallow, have a large surface is exposed to air and constant motion which turns the water and provide abundant oxygen.

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Much less no of green plants in stream and river even though the dissolved oxygen is higher than that of ponds. This is because the green plants in stream and river have very narrow tolerance to O2, they are very susceptible to any organic pollution which depletes dissolved O2 and so they are worst victims of industrial development.

Wetlands (Estuaries)
Wetlands are areas of standing water that support aquatic plants. Marshes, swamps, and bogs are all considered wetlands. Hydrophytes : Plant species adapted to the very moist and humid conditions inhabit wetlands. These include pond lilies, cattails, sedges, tamarack, and black spruce. Marsh flora also includes such species as cypress and gum. Wetlands have the highest species diversity. Many species of amphibians, reptiles, birds (such as ducks and waders), and furbearers can be found in the wetlands. Wetlands are not considered freshwater ecosystems as there are some, such as salt marshes, that have high salt concentrations these support different species of animals, such as shrimp, shellfish, and various grasses.

Estuaries
An estuary is a partly enclosed coastal body of water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea. Estuaries are places where freshwater (stream) interfaces with seawater. Organisms having tolerance to both temperature (eurythermal) and salinity (euryhaline) Estuaries are important to humans because they provide a rich food supply as well as transport and waste removal. Estuaries are characterized by strong often fluctuating gradients. 1) salinity gradient : The most common gradient as freshwater dilutes salt water. 2) Nutrients gradient:. Rivers are formed as water drains large areas of land and, compared to oceans, are relatively rich in nutrients, especially if the drainage area is large or if the drainage area is agricultural. Salinity and nutrient gradients exist primarily horizontally in an estuary as freshwater flows away from the land into the sea. 1) oxygen gradient: This gradient exists vertically in the water column and, even more importantly, in the sediments of estuaries. 2) Tidal currents: As they are partially enclosed coastal area or transition zone, they are strongly affected by tidal action. Wide variation in stream flow and the tidal currents at any given location diurnally, monthly and seasonally These gradients determine what organisms can succeed in estuaries and are extremely important to the functioning of estuaries overall. Estuary Organism Eurythermal or euryhaline: Mixing of waters with such different salt concentrations creates a very interesting and unique ecosystem and the organism which present in the estuaries

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show a wide range of tolerance to temp and salinity certain types of plantsthose that can flourish in the physical conditions peculiar to estuaries Microflora like algae, and macroflora, such as seaweeds, marsh grasses, and mangrove trees (only in the tropics), can be found here. Estuaries support a diverse fauna, including a variety of worms, oysters, crabs, and waterfowl food web that begins with conversion of the suns energy into food energy by marsh plants Rich in biodiversity. There are many migratory species of fishes like eels and salmons in which half of the life is spent in fresh water and half in salty water. For them estuaries are ideal places for resting during migration where they get abundant food On of the most biologically productive ecosystems on Earth: The river flow and tidal action provide energy subsidies for estuary and thereby enhancing productivity. An ecotone is a transition area between two adjacent but different plant and animal communities.; Ecotone has a mixture species found in both in addition species which is not found in other eco-systems. The phenomenon of increased variety of plants as well as animals at the community junction is called the "edge effect" Ex. Coastal and estuary regions Mangrove forests thrive near the mouths of large rivers where river deltas provide lots of sediment (sand and mud). Mangrove roots collect sediments and slow the water's flow, helping to protect the coastline and preventing erosion.

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Why estuaries are unique? Why do plants flourish in estuaries? Salinity Certain kinds of plants can tolerate high levels of salt, getting rid of the salt they take up by releasing it through special salt pores on their leaf surfaces. Other plants do not like even a moderate amount of salt and can grow only in areas of the estuary where seawater cannot reach. In between are plants that can tolerate moderate amounts of salt and hence can survive in brackish (or slightly salty) areas of the estuary. Flooding and Oxygen: The longer and deeper an area is flooded with water, the less oxygen is available in the soil. As plant roots need oxygen to grow and survive, the plants that grow in areas that are usually under water need to be adapted to an oxygen shortage, some of them transporting oxygen from special storage cells in their leaves and stems to their roots. One marine plant that flourishes in estuaries is eelgrass. This plant can tolerate only brief exposure to air and therefore grows in large submerged beds near and below the lowest tide level. Plants that grow on land covered by seawater for brief periods each day include salttolerant species such as the salt worts and salt grasses on all three coasts, cord grasses on the Atlantic coast, and alkali grasses in the Arctic Estuaries food chain

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Marine Ecosystem
Marine regions cover about three-fourths of the Earth's surface and include oceans, coral reefs, and estuaries. Oceans Coral reefs Estuaries Ocean-Zonation The largest of all the ecosystems, oceans are very large bodies of water that dominate the Earth's surface. Like ponds and lakes, the ocean regions are separated into separate zones: intertidal, limnetic, bathyl(benthic), abyssal and hadal zone All zones have a great diversity of species. 1) The littoral zone is where the ocean meets the land sometimes it is submerged and at other times exposed, as waves and tides come in and out. Because of this, the communities are constantly changing. There is a more diverse array of algae and small animals, such as herbivorous snails, crabs, sea stars, include worms, clams, small fishes, predatory crustaceans, crabs, and shorebirds. 2) The limnetic or pelagic zone includes those waters further from the land, basically the open ocean. The pelagic zone is generally cold like ponds and lakes, there is thermal stratification with a constant mixing of warm and cold ocean currents. The flora in the pelagic zone include surface seaweeds. The fauna include many species of fish and some mammals, such as whales and dolphins. Many feed on the abundant plankton. 3) Bathyl zone The bottom of the zone consists of sand, slit, and/or dead organisms. Here temperature decreases as depth increases toward the abyssal zone, since light cannot penetrate through the deeper water. Flora are represented primarily by seaweed while the fauna, since it is very nutrient-rich, include all sorts of bacteria, fungi, sponges, sea anemones, worms, sea stars, and fishes 4) The deep ocean is the abyssal and hadal zone. The water in this region is very cold (around 3 C), highly pressured, high in oxygen content, but low in nutritional content. The abyssal zone supports many species of invertebrates and fishes.. Chemosynthetic bacteria thrive near these vents because of the large amounts of hydrogen sulfide and other minerals they emit. These bacteria are thus the start of the food web as they are eaten by invertebrates and fishes.

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Food Chain in Ocean Phytoplankton is the first level of our food chain, followed by the zooplankton, which feeds on the phytoplankton. The zooplankton are then eaten by krill, fish and other crustaceans, which all go on to be eaten by big fish, penguins, seals, walruses and whales. The food chain continues when these are eaten by mammals like polar bears All animals in the ocean depend on plankton for survival.

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Coral reefs Coral reefs are widely distributed in warm shallow waters. The dominant organisms in coral reefs are corals. . Coral reefs are formed by precipitation of CaCO3 (limestone) from the water by small anthozoans Corals are marine organisms from the class Anthozoa and exist as small sea anemonelike polyps Since reef waters tend to be nutritionally poor, these animals obtain most of their nutrients from symbiotic unicellular algae called zooxanthellae.. via photosynthesis and also by extending tentacles to obtain plankton from the water. Besides corals, the fauna include several species of microorganisms, invertebrates, fishes, sea urchins, octopuses, and sea stars Functions These ecosystems are particularly important to humans because they support abundant fisheriescommercial, subsistence and recreationaland they generate a large tourism industry The reefs themselves protect coastal areas from erosion. From a biological perspective, coral reefs are more productive and support more species than any other marine ecosystem. Impact of pollution on Aquatic Biome Freshwater biomes have suffered mainly from pollution. Eutrophication: Runoff containing fertilizer and other wastes and industrial dumpings enter into rivers, ponds, and lakes and tend to promote abnormally rapid algae growth due to over nourishment. When these algae die, dead organic matter accumulates in the water. For decomposition of algea needs lot of dissolved O2 present in the lake. This makes the water unusable and it kills many of the organisms living in the habitat. Overfishing and pollution have threatened to make oceans into ecological disaster areas. Industrial pollutants that are dumped upstream of estuaries have rendered many marine habitats unsuitable for life.

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Role of ocean Functions of Aquatic biome The water bodies have an even greater effect on global climate than forests do. They play important role in all nutrient cycle. Nitrogen Cycle: Dinitrification: Aquatic Bacteria play an important role in completion of the nitrogen cycle. Denitrifying bacteria detoxifies fish waste (ammonia) aerobically (with oxygen). Next, anaerobic (without oxygen) bacteria denitrify nitrate into a gas that is dispersed back to the atmosphere Carbon Cycle: The oceans influence the climate by absorbing and storing carbon dioxide. Freshwater biomes supply us with our drinking water and water for crop irrigation. Climate-buffering capacity : Water has a high capacity for heat, and because the Earth is mostly covered with water, the temperature of the atmosphere is kept fairly constant and able to support life. The evaporation of the seawater provides rainwater for the land (hydrologic cycle). Plankton create a chemical substance called dimethylsulfide (DMS) that may promote the formation of clouds over the oceans Marine algae supply much of the world's oxygen supply and take in a huge amount of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Ocean provide us iron, P, Mg, oil, natural gas, sand and gravel Ocean serve food for humans and other organism, give a huge variety of sea-products and drugs

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Bio-diversity
The variety of life on earth The variety and variability among all groups of living organism and ecosystem complexes in which they occur. Levels of bio-diversity Bio-diversity is the variety of life on earth, Due to the diversity of genetic materials within species, the variation among species in a community and the variety of species in different eco-systems Bio-diversity exists in three different levels Genetic diversity Species diversity Eco system diversity 1. Genetic diversity It is the basic sources of bio-diversity In same kind of species, different combination of genes gives rise to some variations Different versions due to new combination of genes called genetic variation Ex. Oryza sativa (rice)- different varieties differ by their color, size, shape and nutrient content 2. Species diversity Diff. species in single community Ex: birds cock, hen , peacock Animals dog, cat, tiger The number of species in a region- its species richness can be referred from Simpson index and Shannon-wiener index 3. Eco-system diversity Variation in ecological processes like trophical structure, food chain and web and nutrient cycles and the diversity of habitats Ecosystems show variation with respect to physical parameters such as temp, moisture, altitude, precipitate, this variation leads to great diversity within the ecosystem In Terrestrial ecosystem The forest ecosystem shows variation in biotic and abiotic factors among the tropical rain forest, temperate rain forest and arctic tundra forest by the physical factors Aquatic ecosystem: variation among pond, stream, estuarine and marine ecosystem by the physical factors

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The importance of bio-diversity Sustain human life by its services Ex: produce O2, maintaining CO2, nutrients cycle Providing raw materials For enjoyment and recreation, spiritual fulfillment Medicinal value The value of diversity Each organism has its own significance Vital for healthy biosphere 1. consumptive values 2. productive values 3. social values 4. ethical values 5. aesthetic values 6. optional values 7. eco-system service values 1. Consumptive value These are direct use values For the essential needs, natural products can be harvested and directly consumed Gathering, harvesting and hunting for food, medicine, clothing, sheltering and fuel Converting a forest to grazing land and draining a wet land to build a road 2. Productive values Commercially harvested for markets Forestry, fisheries and use of fossil fuels Plant -- wood, fruits, vegetables and rubber, cotton, medicines like quinine, penicillin, morphine Animals silk silk worm, Wool- sheep, Musk musk deer, Tusk elephants, corals, natural pearls The major drugs produced from plants are cost for $ 200 million per yr Out of top 150 medicines in US, 118 are from traditional plants Loosing one medicinal plant species make loss of 3 to 4 medicines and which cost some $ million per yr 3. Social values Values associated with the social, religion, spiritual aspects of life Holy plants tulsi, lotus Holy animals cow, snake, peacock River ganga, kaveri & vembu, tulsi for its holyness

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4. Ethical values Bio-diversity is rooted in the understanding that humanity is part of nature and one among the other species All life must be preserved Live and let live 5. Aesthetic values The beauty of the nature has aesthetic values Can be enjoyed and preserved for future generation Eco-tourism facilitating the enjoyment of nature, which may generate many forms of income and employment in the tourism sector, often referred to as ecotourims earning 10 billion dollars income/year May or may not useful to human but they should be preserved -- existence gives pleasure Flowers, plants and animals like Zebra, peacock for pleasure Some animals have great value of contribution to tourism department - lion, elephant, gorilla in zoo, whale watching and under water tourism ---- 12-7 billion dollar profit. Tourism to Great Barrier Reef in Australia earns 2 billion dollar per year 6. Optional values Potentials of bio-diversity presently unknown and need to be known and useful in future The possibility of a natural resources having some values in future 7. Eco-system service values Services provided by the eco-system to control global warming, soil erosion and nutrients cycle Causes of bio-diversity loss 1. Deforestation & mining: Tropical forests are rich bio-diversitycontinuously degrading the bio-diversity 2. High rate of human population growth and consumption 3. Due to modern agriculturalhybrid seeds- natural species 4. Poor awareness in saving our bio-diversity 5. Improper handling and consumption

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Global bio-diversity The estimation of number of species on this biosphere was given by Wilson in 1992 The total living species in a range of 10 million to 50 million Till now only 1.5 million species and 30,000 fossil species have been found and given scientific names. A large fraction may become extinct even before they are discovered Appr. 61 % of the known species are insects Each taxonomic group has large number of species. Ex. In higher plants 2,70,000 diff. species And in mammals -4650 species are known to scientists 1. Terrestrial biome Tropical forest rich in bio-diversity 50-67% global bio-diversity are here Medicinal plants - 25% drugs 70% medicines for cancer institutes Temperate forest - less 2. Marine biome Much greater than terrestrial Out of 35 phyla animals 34 in sea Bio-diversity in India 12 % of global flowering plants and 7 % of total animal species in the world In plant richness and mammals, India is at the 10th place. In endemic species richness, India is at the 11th place. Flower plants and animal species are rich in north east Himalayan region and silent valley kerala Biodiversity in Tamilnadu Tamilnadu is rich in biodiversity 20 wild life sanctuaries Mudumalai, Anaimalai, Parambikulam and Kalakkadu wild life, Vedanthangal birds, Viralimalai peacock, 2 bio-sphere reserves - Gulf of mannar marine and Nilgiri reserve forest 5 national parks- Guindy, Mukkurti and Chennai crocodile park are some national parks Biodiversity at local level Bio-diversity is in species richness at regional level can be categorized into four types 1. Point richness refers to the no. of species that can be found at a single point in a given space 2. Alpha richness refers to the no. of species that can be found in a small homogeneous area 3. Beta richness refers to the rate of change in species composition across different habitats 4. Gamma richness refers to the rate of change in species across large landscape gradients

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India mega diversity nation One among the 12 mega diversity countries in the world, but the number of mega diversity countries increased to 18 One among the 25 hot spots Endemism: Many endemic species are found only in India Ex. Royal Bengal tiger, the Indian elephant, asian lion of Gir, the white tiger of Rewa, Neem trees Center of origin: 5000 spicies of flowering and 166 species of crop plants and 320 species of wild relative crop products Marine diversity: Mangroves, estuaries (93 major wet lands) and coral reefs (340 species of corals) 7 % of bio-diversity 47,000 plants, 81,000 animals 89 national park and 497 sanctuaries and 13 bio-spheres (Nilgiri, Nandadevi, Sunderbans and Agasthiyamalai Kanchenjanga reserve forest)

The bio geographic classification of India India has different types of climate and topography in different parts of the country 10 different bio-geographical region Variability in flora and fauna Classified into biogeographically zones-area-flora and fauna Classified into biogeographically zones-area-flora and fauna 1. Trans Himalayan region - This area is very cold and arid (4,500 to 6,000 mts. above sl). The only vegetation is a sparse alpine steppe. 5.7 % of countrys land mass. - wild sheep and goats, snow leopard, marbled cat, and black-necked crane. 2. The Himalayan region- north-west, east and central Himalayan, the tremendous biodiversity - tropical rainforests in the Eastern Himalayas and dense subtropical and alpine forests in the Central and Western Himalayas. pine, corktree, sikkim stag, musk deer, 3. The Indian desert- Gujarat desert, Himalayan cold desert, Thar, Ladakh- 43 reptile species and moderate bird endemism are found Acacia, date palm, camel, desert cat ,mice, fox 4. The semi arid region -between desert and deccan plateau- The semi-arid region in the west of India includes the arid desert areas of Thar and Rajasthan extending to the Gulf of Kutch and Cambay and the whole Kathiawar peninsula. - Aravalli hills 5. The western ghats- mountain range along the western coast of India- Gujarat to Kanyakumari-1,60,000 km2. They cover only 5% of India's land surface but are home to more than about 4,000 of the country's plant species of which 1800 are endemic. 6.The Deccan Peninsula is a large area of raised land covering about 43% of India's total land surface. Satpura mountain covers the north side, western ghats west side, eastern ghats east side 7. The Gangetic Plain- is one of India's most fertile regions. The soil of this region is formed by the alluvial deposits of the Ganges and its tributaries. , 600 mm average rain fall, Sunderban forests

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8. The coastal region- East and western coastal area. The natural vegetation consists of mangroves. 9. The North-east: Biological resources are rich in this zone. The tropical vegetation of northeast India is rich in evergreen and semi evergreen rain forests, moist deciduous monsoon forests, swamps and grasslands. Mammalian fauna includes 390 species of which 63% are found in Assam 10. The Indian island -It is a group of 325 islands: Andaman to the north and Nicobar to the south with high bio-diversity. About 2,200 species of higher plants are found here of which 200 are endemic. Hot spots A particular area or region where the species concentration is rich The term hotspots was introduced in the year 1988 by the ecologist Norman Myer Hotspots are regions that harbour a great diversity of endemic and endangered species and also threatened by human activities Areas that support rich bio-diversity because of geologic formations and endemic flora and fauna and exhibit scientific interest Global biological hot spots 25 bio-diversity hot spots are found globally The combined area of 25 hot spots cover only 2 % of the earth surface having 50% of the terrestrial bio-diversity. Contain 44 % of all plant species and 35 % of all terrestrial vertebrate To qualify as a hot spot, a region must support 1,500 or 0.5 % endemic plant species Many are islands Tropical rain forests Mountain ranges Marine. Malaysian forests, S. America, New-Zealand, Western Amazon, North East Australia, Indo Burma eastern Himalayas, Western ghats- and Brazillian Atlantic forests, Hottest hot-spots The priority factors for hot spots are The number of plants and animals & the number of endemic plants and animal species per unit area By considering these factors some are considered as the hottest of hot spot They are Indian ocean islands, Sunderland, the Philippines, the Atlantic forests, Madagascar, and the Caribbean top ten hot spots These are at risk of losing its unique bio-diversity, in the absence of immediate and effective conservation action. Hot spots in India 1. Eastern Himalayas 1. Eastern Himalayas They show ultra-varied topography forests species diversity and endemism Area bounded north by Tibat and the south by Bengal -Sikkim to upper Assam

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Species diversity- 9000 plant species 39 % are endemic plants Out of the world recorded flora 30 % are endemic to India of which 35,000 are in Himalayas Endemism: Genetically diverged species of tea species, taxol a species provides drug against cancer, golden langur and Namdapha -flying squirrel. Endemic species in amphibians, reptiles, beetles and flies Sikkim7300 km24250 plant species Burma & China provinces active centre of (60% of) endemic plants and the cradle of flowering plants 2. Western ghats 17000 km2 strip of forests in M.P, T.N, K.N, Kerala (40 %) endemic plants 62 % amphibians and 50% lizards are endemic Major centers of bio-diversity Agastyamalai hills, Silent valley - New amambalam reserve basin This is only 6.8 % of original forest Endemic species Species which are highly restricted or confined in a particular area are referred as endemic species because they are unique to a specific region They are found only on a single island or mountain top, in a single river or lake species endemic to a hot spot are found exclusively within the boundaries of the hot spot 7000 plant species and many endemic animal species are endemic in India. Extinct species The species that are no longer known to exist in wild, the last individual has died Endangered species Rare and restricted species are in risk of extinction in the near future are referred as endangered species Critically endangered species species are facing extremely high risk of extinction in immediate future Their ecological requirements are only met over a small area Not capable of dispersing great distances to other suitable habitats In India, 450 plant species, 150 mammals and 150 birds Indian wolf, lion, tiger, red panda Vulnerable Species believed to move into the endangered category in future Rare speciesless populated, not endangered but at risk Population & habitats are seriously depleted Threats to bio-diversity Extinction or elimination of a species is a natural process of evolution. The process of extinction become fast in the recent years Extinction: the elimination of a species. Extinction process shall be natural disease or human caused Ecologist, E. O. Wilson puts the finger of extinction at 10000 species per year or 27 per day!

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If the present trend continuous , 1/3 to 2/3 rd of our current bio-diversity will be lost by the middle of twenty first century. Recent estimate, at least 120 out of 620 living primate species will become extinct in the next 10 to 20 years Rate of loss is 10 times greater than the rate of regrowth

Human causes (factors) threats Deforestation Habitat loss-compels them to move out of forests Habitat fragmentation-into small and scattered patches Destruction of wet land - loss of mangrove forests Introduced species Over-exploitation of plants and animals Hunting and fishing Pollution of soil, water and atmosphere Global climate Hunting and fishering Poaching of major wild animals Development activities 1. Constructions of dams 2. Industries development Habitat loss Due to Deforestation Over grazing Billions of hectares of forests and grasslands are cleared over the past 10000 years Argi. Developments, dam constructions, settlement areas and destruction of wet lands Habitat fragmentation A rapid loss of tropic forest in our country is at about 0.6 % Poaching of wild life Illegal trade of wildlife products by killing prohibited animals 1. subsistence poaching killing animals for food 2. commercial poaching hunting and killing for selling their products Factors 1. Human population 2. Commercial activities Wild life products furs, horns and herbal products Exporters: developing countries in asia, latin america, africa rich in b.d Importers rich countries

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Man-wild life conflicts When wild-life starts causing damage & danger to man Man maintains his supremacy & try to conquer nature and animals Man catch and keep the animals in zoos for his pleasure and enjoyment- induce anger, provocation-leads to conflicts Examples Sambalpur Orissa 5 years back -195 human killed by elephants Kota-chamaraja nagar several elephants killed by farmer- since they caused damage to sugarcane and cotton fields Kathmandu royal chitwan (national park) 2004 16 human +one 4 years child was killed by man-eating tiger Powai (Mumbai) 2 men killed by leopards Causes for Man-wild life conflicts Habitat loss-compels them to move out of forests Human encroachment - Dwindling habitats of wild animal shrinking forests- move outside Ill, weak and sick animals attack man Females of many animals attack to secure their babies During hot summer for water destruction of animal foods bamboo- -elephant farmers put electric wire injured animals turns violent Human Settlements area in the migratory routs Cash compensation by government is not proper- the affected farmers gets revengeful and kill animals Remedial measures to curb conflicts The forest guards should be made well equipped Animal conservation projects providing vehicles, tranquilizer guns, binoculars and phone to forest officers to monitor the animal life and to tactfully deal animals Adequate crop compensation to affected farmers Providing adequate food and water for wild animals Wildlife corridors should be provided for its mass migration Cropping pattern near forest borders can be changed Threatened animals in India 23 animals (cheetah)- be come extinct 37% of birds-Peacock, great Indian Hornbill, Wood pigeon, White winged wood duck, Bengal florican 34% of mammals-leopard, red panda, Indian wolf, golden cat, desert cat, striped hyena Reptile fauna - green sea turtle, tortoise Fishes - 4 out of 79 found endangered Plants-Orchids, medicinal plants, Economic plants and edible plants

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Red data book the book dealing with list of threatened animals and plants published by international union of conservation of nature and natural resources (IUCN) Red data symbolizes the warning signal for the species threatened Blue data book endangered species Green data book rare plants growing in a protected area

Conservation of bio-diversity
The management of human use of the biosphere so that it may give maximum benefit to the present generation while maintaining its potential to meet the needs and aspirations of the future generations Essential to adopt several different approaches for conserving our forests and bio-diversity The ecological processes that have maintained the areas bio-diversity Such as predation, pollination, seed dispersal and herbivory, involving complex interactions between several species of plants and animals, need to be ensured Conservation strategies The Convention on Biological Diversity is an international treaty to sustain the diversity of life on Earth. The main objectives of the convention of biodiversity (CBD) are; conservation of biological diversity, sustainable use of the components of biodiversity and Fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising out of the utilization of genetic resources. The main implementation measures for the CBD are through national strategies, legislation, and administrative instruments. Major central acts relevant to biodiversity include Forest Act, 1927, Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972, Forest (Conservation) Act, 1980, and Environment (Protection) Act, 1986. The various central Acts are supported by a number of state laws concerning forests and other natural resources. In India, the Botanical Survey of India (BSI) established in 1890 and Zoological Survey of India (ZSI) established in 1916, respectively surveyed approximately 65 per cent of the total geographical area. The Forest Survey of India established in 1981 assess the forest cover to develop an accurate database for planning and monitoring purposes. In the strategies for conservation and sustainable utilization of biodiversity - rich areas are declared as national parks, wildlife sanctuaries, biosphere reserves, ecologically fragile and sensitive areas. Other strategies include offloading pressure from reserve forests by alternative measures of fuel wood and fodder need

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Functions Expansion of the protected area network Population surveys and assessments and database creation Mapping the forest types, protected areas and natural forests Improved protection efforts In-situ Conservation ex-situ Conservation In-situ (on site) Conservation Maintaining and managing the endangered and vulnerable species in its natural habitats (wild) itself through the protection of total eco-system Facilitates, Gene flow through the creation of corridors Introduction of new genetic stock In-situ is more secure and financially efficient In-situ is preferred it is cheaper to protect populations in their natural habitat than to reintroduce 4.2 per cent of the total geographical area of the country has been marked for extensive in-situ conservation of habitats and ecosystems. A protected area network of 89 national parks, and 13 bio-spheres and 448 wildlife sanctuaries has been created. This network have been significant in restoring population of large mammals such as tiger, lion, rhinoceros, crocodiles and elephants. A national park is a reserve of natural or semi-natural land, declared or owned by a government, set aside for human recreation and enjoyment, animal and environmental protection and restricted from most development. National parks- an area dedicated for the conservation along with its environment and activities such as forestry, grazing and cultivation are strictly not allowed Gir - gujarat, Bandipur - Karnataka, periyar- Kerala, Guindy, and Chennai crocodile parktamilnadu are some national parks A wildlife sanctuary may refer to a protected area, a geographic territory within which wildlife is protected, or it may be a naturally-occurring sanctuary, such as an island, that provides protection for species from hunting, predation or competition Wild life sanctuaries in Tamilnadu Mudumalai, Anamalai, Parambikulam and Kalakkadu wild life, Vedanthangal birds, Viralimalai peacock Bio-sphere reserves Protected area wherein people are an integral part Biosphere reserves are areas of terrestrial and coastal ecosystems promoting solutions to conserve the biodiversity with its sustainable use.

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They are internationally recognized, nominated by national governments and remain under sovereign jurisdiction of the states where they are located. Biosphere reserves serve in some ways as 'living laboratories' for testing out and demonstrating integrated management of land, water and biodiversity. Role of bio-sphere reserves 1.Conservation: of landscapes, eco-systems, species and genetic resources 2. Development: promote culturally, socially and ecologically sustainable economical development 3. Scientific research, monitoring and education: provide support Gulf of mannar marine, Nilgiri reserve forest Tamilnadu, Manas Assam, Sunderbanwestbengal and great nicobar Ex-situ (off-site) Conservation The conservation of bio-diversity at places away from their natural habitat under human care Reintroduce of species into the wild at a later stage Species conservation in botanical gardens, zoos, gene banks, seed banks and captive breeding programs. A botanical garden is a place where plants, especially ferns, conifers and flowering plants, are grown and displayed for the purposes of research and education, not only for recreation. Endangered plants may also be preserved in part through seed banks or germplasm banks. For plants that cannot be preserved in seed banks, the only other option for preserving germ plasm is in-vitro (is performed not in a living organism but in a controlled environment ) storage, where cuttings of plants are kept under strict conditions in glass tubes and vessels. The genetic information needed in the future to reproduce endangered animal species can be preserved in gene banks, which consist of cryogenic facilities (in liquid nitrogen at -196 o C) used to store living sperm, eggs, or embryos. For example, the Tura Range in Garo Hills of Meghalaya is a gene sanctuary for preserving the rich native diversity of wild citrus and musa species. National bureau of plant generic resources (NBPGR)-Cryopreservation: storage of germ plasm at very low temp. for long period at germ plasm banks National bureau of ANIMAL generic resources (NBAGR) it preserves the semen of animals National facilities for plant tissue culture repository (nfptcr) conservation of crop plants and trees. Limitations of space, finances and facilities in the institutions that undertake ex-situ conservation can have species priority

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91% of animals kept in Indian zoos are non threatened. Instead, can focus on endangered and endemic species Significance of conservation of bio-diversity Provide ready source for genetic material of rare species Provide restock for depleted populations Preserve the bio-diversity from extinction

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University questions
Part A 1. State the significance and scope of environmental education. 2. what is the need for public awareness for solving environmental problems 3. Define Biodiversity. Mention its various levels. 4. What is an ecosystem? 5. Why biodiversity is rich in tropics? 6. Name 2 endangered and endemic species of India 7. Define bio-geochemical cycle and state its importance. 8. Define food web with suitable example 9. What are the characteristics of desert eco-system? 10. India is a mega diversity nation-Account. 11. What do you understand by the terms flora and fauna? 12. How a biome does differ from an eco- system? 13. Define genetic diversity and species diversity with example. 14. What are the classifications of biotic components of ecosystems? 15. What is food chain and food web? 16. Explain endangered species. 17. What is meant by biosphere? 18. Distinguish between primary and secondary consumer. 19. Why world environment day is observed on 5th June every year Part- B 19. Discuss in detail the characteristics, structure and function of forest ecosystem 20. Discuss in detail the characteristics, structure and function of aquatic forest ecosystem 21. Write notes on hot spots of India 22. How do you justify India as mega diverse nation? 23. Briefly explain the values of biodiversity. 24. Explain in detail in different methods of conservation of bio-diversity 25. Discuss in detail the energy flow in ecosystem. 26. Discuss in detail the various threats to biodiversity 27. Discuss in detail Biogeographical classification of India 28. Write short note on ecological pyramids and their types. 29. What are the various hotspots of Bio-Diversity in India? 30. Discuss the endangered and endemic species of India 31. Explain how fat soluble pollutants like DDT get biomagnified. 32. With a neat sketch explain the flow of energy through the various components of the ceosystem. (Producers, consumers and decomposers)

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