This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
OF ELECTRONIC/ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING
DESIGN & CONSTRUCTION OF A SOLAR-POWERED STREETLIGHT
By Morakinyo Ayodeji, Amusan Olusola, Sekoni Seun & Adebunmi Femi
January 12, 2011.
LAUTECH's Web Address
[In this project, a solar panel is used to convert sunlight into direct current electricity which charges a battery during the day. At night, a dark detector employing a photoconductive cell senses darkness and this activates the rectifier circuit. The rectifier circuit then powers the load (lamps) to give required illumination.]
This is to certify that this project work was carried out by the following students: MORAKINYO, Ayodeji James (051217); AMUSAN, Olusola Samson (050976); SEKONI, Oluwaseun Adeyemi (053652); ADEBUNMI, Oluwafemi Solomon (050736) in the Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso.
This publication is a scholastic property of Morakinyo A.J, Amusan O.S, Sekoni, et al. ©2011
This project work is dedicated to the Almighty God, the giver of life and talent for every academic work. Without him, this project could not have been a success. We also dedicate this work to every great legend in the field of electrical and electronic engineering. We have only succeeded in this work because we built on the foundations they have laid.
This publication is a scholastic property of Morakinyo A.J, Amusan O.S, Sekoni, et al. ©2011
5 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Firstly, we acknowledge our heavenly father and creator. It is by Him that we are enabled, equipped and empowered to reach this point in our academic journey. With great joy, true respect and deep gratitude, we appreciate our supervisor Engr. I. A. Adeyemo, for every piece of advice, each session of counsel and every other form of support he gave us during the project process. Finally, we would also like to express our gratitude to our parents (Mr & Mrs S.O Morakinyo, Mrs Amusan, Mr & Mrs Sekoni and Mr & Mrs Adebunmi) for their financial, emotional and spiritual support. But for them, we would not be here today.
MORAKINYO A.J AMUSAN O.S SEKONI O.A ADEBUNMI O.S January, 2011.
This publication is a scholastic property of Morakinyo A.J, Amusan O.S, Sekoni, et al. ©2011
et al.2 SOLAR PANEL 2.7 BIPOLAR JUNCTION TRANSISTOR 2. Sekoni.J.3 SIMILAR WORK 1. ©2011 . Amusan O.2 AIMS & OBJECTIVES 1.3LIGHT DEPENDENT RESISTOR 2.5 SCOPE OF STUDY 1 1 2 2 2 CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW 2.S.9 BATTERY 4 5 7 7 10 12 12 13 14 This publication is a scholastic property of Morakinyo A.4 RESISTORS & LIGHT EMITTING DIODES 2.8 RELAYS 2.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY 1.1 SOLAR ENERGY 2.6 CONSTANT VOLTAGE REGULATOR 2.5 OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS 2.6 TABLE OF CONTENTS TITLE PAGE CERTIFICATION DEDICATION ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS LIST OF FIGURES TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES ABSTRACT i ii iii iv v vi viii ix CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 1.1 PREAMBLE 1.
4 PARAMETERS FOR CHOOSING A BATTERY 3.7 PRECAUTIONS 4.1 METAL FRAMEWORK 4. et al. Amusan O.1 CONCLUSION 5.3 SCREWING 4.5 TESTING 4. ©2011 .2 WELDING 4.J. Sekoni.5 DARK OPERATED SENSOR AND SWITCHING CIRCUIT 16 17 19 19 20 CHAPTER FOUR: DESIGN IMPLEMENTATION & INSTALLATION 4.8 BILL OF QUANTITY 23 26 27 27 29 30 30 31 CHAPTER FIVE: CONCLUSION & RECOMMENDATION 5.3 CHOOSING SOLAR PANEL 3.1 BASIC DESIGN 3.2 CHARGE CONTROLLER 3.6 OBSERVATIONS 4.4 INSTALLATION 4.S.7 CHAPTER THREE: DESIGN & CONSTRUCTION 3.2 RECOMMENDATION 33 33 This publication is a scholastic property of Morakinyo A.
2 Block Diagram of Charge Controller Unit Circuit Diagram of a Charge Controller Sensor and Switching Circuit Solar-powered Street Light Wiring Block Diagram of Automatic Solar-powered Street Light 17 18 21 24 29 This publication is a scholastic property of Morakinyo A.4 4. Sekoni.7 3.5 2.3 2.2 3.S.1 Title Schematic Symbol for a Photovoltaic Cell Array of Photovoltaic Cells Circuit Symbol of a Photo-resistor Circuit Symbols for Fixed and Variable Resistors Non-inverting Amplifier Schematic Diagram of LM324N OP-AMP Circuit Symbol of a Relay Switch Block Diagram of a Solar-powered Street Light (Automatic) Page 5 6 7 8 10 11 14 16 3.2 2.4 2.8 LIST OF FIGURES Figure 2.3 3.6 2.1 2. ©2011 .J. et al.1 4. Amusan O.
Amusan O.1 2.3 Title Resistor Tolerance Band Values Tolerance Colour Band Values LM324N Pins and their Functions Page 8 8 11 This publication is a scholastic property of Morakinyo A. et al.9 LIST OF TABLES Table 2.2 2.S. ©2011 . Sekoni.J.
a solar panel is used to convert sunlight into direct current electricity which charges a battery during the day.S.10 ABSTRACT This project work is concerned with the design and construction of an automatic solar-powered street light. Sekoni. This lightening system is highly suitable in Nigeria where power supply is erratic. The rectifier circuit then powers the load (lamps) to give required illumination. This publication is a scholastic property of Morakinyo A. it thus offers the advantage of reliability compared to the lightening system powered by electricity received from utility company. In this project. a dark detector employing a photoconductive cell senses darkness and this activates the rectifier circuit. Amusan O. At night. et al.J. the system is easy to maintain since the original source of power (sunlight) is free. ©2011 . Except for the initial high cost of installation.
Solar street lights are beneficial in that the day to day running and maintenance costs are reduced (Solar Street Lightning. meaning that while solar power is not available at all times. This publication is a scholastic property of Morakinyo A. From plants to animals. 2010). Solar power is a predictably intermittent energy source. 2010). ©2011 . from human beings to domestic insects. an equipment that is paramount to meeting the security needs of every community in the 21st century. Sekoni. Solar power is the generation of electricity from sunlight. nothing seems to maximise its existence without the availability of light. This sunlight can serve as a source of solar power which is converted to electric power for both household and industrial utilization. from technology to science. One area of application of solar energy is found in the construction of solar-powered street lights. This vital use of light gives rise to the idea of using solar energy to power street lights as an alternative to electricity.S. These solar-powered street lights can then be used for the provision of illumination on roads at night to enhance security and prevent accidents that may otherwise occur due to poor visibility. Light from the sun is natural and it is called sunlight. making use of power generated by the utility company.11 CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.J. it is interesting that lead-acid battery and photovoltaic cells or solar modules can be used as the power source for the street lightning system. Instead of the manually operated street lights. This can be direct as with photovoltaic (PV) or indirect as with concentrating solar power (CSP) where the sun’s energy is focused to boil water which is then used to provide energy. et al. we can predict with a very good degree of accuracy when it will not be available (Wikipedia. 2010).1 PREAMBLE Light is crucial in everyday activity for the continuity of normal life. automatic control can be included in the equipment. Even the human eye requires some amount of light to function well (Blurtit. And with the use of a Light Dependent Resistor (LDR). Amusan O.
Amusan O. Ogbomoso. But.2 AIM & OBJECTIVES The aim is to design. “Automatic Solarpowered Street Lightning System” Unpublished B. To eliminate the necessity for manual switching in the operation of community street light 3. street lights powered by electricity from utility companies have repeatedly failed to provide consistent illumination but the proposed project seeks to amend this inadequacy. In a country such as Nigeria where the availability of uninterrupted power supply remains a major challenge. 4. The lightning system operates through the This publication is a scholastic property of Morakinyo A. a Solar-powered Street Lightning System was discussed by Akinola A. without the need for a utility power source. under the Department of Electronic/Electrical Engineering at the Ladoke Akintola University of Technology. Sekoni.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY The use of solar modules with Lead acid battery to serve as power source for energy saving appliances is efficient and most reliable where there is erratic power supply. the renewable property of energy makes it easier to use solar as a natural source of power through energy conversion process.3 SIMILAR WORK Previously. they did not specify whether or not their work included installation of the equipment. 1.S.S & Odubola A. Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering. To design a workable solar powered street light that does not utilize an inverter circuit 2.Tech thesis. (2004). To design and construct a charge controller for the battery To install the solar-powered street light with two wings providing illumination 1. In their dissertation.12 1. Ladoke Akintola University of Technology. Therefore. Ogbomoso. et al.. ©2011 .J. construct and install a street light that charges in daytime. they indicated that their work involved design and construction. and discharges in the evening. OBJECTIVES 1.
et al.S.5 SCOPE OF STUDY This project is focused at using a Light Dependent Resistor (LDR) which responds resistively to light for the automatic control process. Amusan O. The LDR senses light and differentiates daytime from night time.13 combination of a dark operated automatic switching circuit and the energy saving lamp made from LED array to give a stress-free operation and save more energy. ©2011 . A comparator is used in the charge controlling circuit to sense the charging voltage of the battery so as to prevent it from overcharging. This is planted on the equipment at a position where it is exposed to light from the atmosphere.J. Sekoni. 1. and then the sensor circuit triggers the switching circuit. This publication is a scholastic property of Morakinyo A.
central power generation. and many industrial heat requirements. Approximately 30 percent of the solar power reaching the Earth is consumed by the continuous circulation of water. the day of the year." Microsoft® Student 2008 DVD]. Since just a little amount of the Sun’s energy reaches the Earth’s surface. The first type which is called the Flat plate collector is made of typically flat. Sekoni. a system called the water cycle or hydrologic [Holladay.14 CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 2.S. for example. ©2011 . et al. The total radiation power (1. or energy that is generated by moving electric charges).J. and the latitude at that point. The Sun heats a blackened metal plate inside the box. Earth's atmosphere. thin boxes with a transparent cover that are mounted on rooftops facing the Sun. For applications such as air conditioning. the amount of cloud cover. Energy from the sun can be directly or indirectly collected. called the solar constant) varies only slightly. both types of collectors require large surface areas exposed to the Sun. and plant life. There are two main types of artificial collectors to directly capture and utilize solar energy: flat plate collectors and concentrating collectors. about 0.1 SOLAR ENERGY Solar energy (energy from the sun) travels to Earth through space in discrete packets of energy called photons (which are particles of light energy. "Solar Energy. more complex and expensive This publication is a scholastic property of Morakinyo A. flat plate collectors cannot provide carrier fluids at temperatures high enough to be effective so. The oceans also collect and store solar energy while radiant energy from the Sun is transformed to the potential energy of water in streams and rivers.2 percent every 30 years. The solar intensity varies with the time of day. called an absorber plate. peaking at solar noon and declining to a minimum at sunset. Amusan O. April. oceans. collect solar energy that can be extracted to power technology. Power produced in this way is called hydroelectric power. The power stored in the water cycle can be tapped by directing the flowing waters through modern turbines. The amount of light that reaches any particular point on the ground depends on the time of day.4 Kilowatts per square meter. that in turn heats fluid (air or water) running through tubes within the collector.
Fig 2. 2. When cells are connected in parallel.1 Schematic Symbol for a Photovoltaic Cell Solar cells are often electrically connected and encumbered as a module. 1996). blackened receiving area. 1999).2 SOLAR PANEL A Solar panel or photovoltaic cell is a type of photo electric cell that uses the photovoltaic effect to generate electrical energy using the potential difference that arises between materials when the surface of the cell is exposed to electromagnetic radiation. et al. Power output is measured in watts or kilowatts. Concentrating solar energy is the least expensive way to generate large-scale electrical power from the Sun’s energy and therefore has the potential to make solar power available at a competitive rate. Solar cells are usually connected in series in modules. Sekoni. Kilowatt-hours or Kilowatt-hours per day is often used. they yield an additional current. An example is the popularly known solar panel. a measurement in Watt-hours. hail.J. Illumination of the materials results in the creation of an electric current as excited electrons and the remaining holes are swept in different directions by the built-in electric field of the depletion region. allowing the light from the sun to pass while protecting the semiconductor wafers from the elements. ©2011 . Photovoltaic effect is simply the creation of a voltage in a material upon exposure to electromagnetic radiation. Concentrating collector types reflect the Sun’s rays from a large area and focus it onto a small. creating an additional voltage of 12Volts. rain.15 concentrating collectors must be used (John Perlin. Maloney. Photovoltaic modules often have a sheet of glass on the front facing the sun. In order to calculate the typical energy needs of the application.S. etc (Timothy J. Amusan O. Average power according to the rule of thumb is that average power equals 20% of This publication is a scholastic property of Morakinyo A.
but the Monocrystalline silicon cells have been found to be the most efficient of the three. Multicrystalline silicon cells are less efficient. Monocrystalline silicon cells Multicrystalline silicon cells Amorphous silicon cells Monocrystalline silicon cells are the most efficient. et al. with a very high cost of production. so that each peak kilowatt of solar array output power yields energy of 4. This publication is a scholastic property of Morakinyo A.8KWh per day (24hours x 1kw x 20% = 4. ©2011 .S.16 peak power.8KWh).2 Array of Photovoltaic Cells A solar cell’s energy conversion efficiency is the percentage of power converted from absorbed light to electrical energy and collected when a solar cell is connected to an electric circuit. compared to the Monocrystalline silicon cells. Amusan O. They have a relatively less cost of production compared to the Monocrystalline silicon cells.J. Sekoni. Amorphous silicon cells are also very efficient. There are three types of solar cells. Fig 2.
They can also be referred to as electronic components that offer resistance to the flow of electric current in a circuit. LDRs are very useful especially in light/dark activated circuits when coupled with a variable resistor such that the LDR’s sensitiveness can be adjusted by this variable resistance. 2. In bright light it is low. On each side is a metal film which is connected to the terminal leads (A. 2005). In the dark. when the light dependent resistor and a variable resistor are used to form a voltage divider with bias applied to a transistor. “photo”) because to operate as desired. typically around 1M ohm. Fig 2. Amusan O.J. a connected relay can be automatically activated. To cause a voltage drop or voltage divider This publication is a scholastic property of Morakinyo A. it requires the presence or absence of light. They are always applied in circuits for the following reasons: 1. To limit current 2. It is also called a photo-resistor (from the Greek word.L. Theraja. et al. typically 1K ohm. For instance. The continuous power dissipation is 80mW and the maximum voltage which can be applied to it is 100V.3 Circuit Symbol of a Photo-resistor (LDR) The LDR needs an external voltage source to produce current which is controlled by the variable resistance of a photosensitive material that it is made of (Cadmium compounds as Cadmium sulphide and Cadmium Selenide).4 RESISTORS & LIGHT EMITTING DIODES (LEDs) RESISTORS: are passive circuit components which are bilateral in function.3 LIGHT DEPENDENT RESISTOR (LDR) This is a special type of resistor whose resistance value depends on the brightness of light which is falling on it.S. ©2011 .17 2. Theraja & B. The snake like track on the face of the LDR is a Cadmium Sulphide (CdS) film. the resistance of the LDR is very high.K. Sekoni.
B is the second band value and C. Amusan O. Resistor values: the resistance values of a resistor is either stamped on it or determined by colour codes. To dissipate heat Types of Resistors (i) (ii) Fixed resistors which have fixed values Variable resistors whose values can be varied. The last of the four colour bands indicates the tolerance values of the resistor. Band Colour Black Brown Red Orange Yellow Code 0 1 2 3 4 This publication is a scholastic property of Morakinyo A.J. resistor value = AB x 10c. Where A is the first band value. ©2011 . Fig.1 Tolerance Value ±5% ±10% ±20% Resistor Tolerance Band Values Note that the third band colour indicates the value of the multiplier. Colour Gold Silver No colour Table 2. the third band value. Sekoni.18 3. 2. For example.S.4 Circuit Symbols for Fixed and Variable Resistors. et al.
LED lamps offer long life and high efficiency. ©2011 . The colour is characteristic of the energy band gap of the semiconductor material used in manufacturing it. Amusan O. The following are the characteristics of LED lamps: Long life expectancy. Good reflection of lights with small reflectors or lenses. since they are energy-saving bulbs.2 Resistor Colour Band Values LAMPS: are lamps made from semiconductor materials in the similitude of light emitting diodes such that several light emitting diodes are combined to yield an LED lamp. vibration. the brand of bulbs to be used. However. 5watts rated DC bulbs is the specification for the project. Sekoni.19 Green Blue Violet/purple Grey White 5 6 7 8 9 Table 2. Since the output of an individual unit in terms of power is small compared to incandescent and compact fluorescent lamps. They are dimmable over a wide range of voltage for AC transmission 85V and 240V. 12V. Relatively low energy consumption. However.J. making them resistant to impact.S. The only major shortcoming with LED bulb is the high cost of manufacture. thereby producing strongly coloured lights. but with initial high costs compared to fluorescent tubes or lamps. and all other forms of mechanical stress. et al. the most recent of these lamps possess internal circuits that make them operate from standard AC voltage. for the sake of this project. LED units naturally emit light in a very small band of wavelengths. This publication is a scholastic property of Morakinyo A. DC lamps are to be used. while internal parts are rigidly supported. They do not have glass tubes that can break. Creating white light from LED units require the use of a phosphor to convert some of the light to other colours.
2. If the non-inverting input (+) is more positive than the inverting input voltage (-). They are always incorporated in circuits meant for This publication is a scholastic property of Morakinyo A.The output voltage changes in phase as that of the non-inverting input. Also. Where. If it is more negative in value than the inverting input. A very high input impedance A large common mode reflection ratio A low output impedance The typical LM324N OP-AMP used in this project is a quad comparator of two inputs with an output each. ©2011 . The output voltage is simply the difference between the inverting and non-inverting inputs multiplied by the gain. They are also called differential voltage amplifiers due to their ability to amplify the difference in the voltage between the two inputs. LED screw-in bulbs offer either low levels of light at a moderate cost or moderate levels of light at a high cost. 1996). the output will be positive. RA and RB are Resistances. then output becomes more negative (Jones L.J. Amusan O.S.20 One of the major advantages of LED bulbs is that it is good for spotlighting or floodlighting because it tends to be directional. Characteristics of Op-Amp It has a very high open loop voltage gain. Sekoni.5 OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER (LM324N) Operational amplifiers are popularly known as OP-AMP. et al.
9. 15.21 sequential switching or voltage comparison. or 24) provides up to 1A load current and has on-chip circuitry to shut down the This publication is a scholastic property of Morakinyo A. 05. 10.e. 14 2. 8. Sekoni.S. It offers a fixed output despite the amount of voltage supplied to its input.6 CONSTANT VOLTAGE REGULATOR (LM 7808) The linear LM7808 is an integrated circuit linear positive regulator with three terminals.6 Schematic Diagram of the LM324N OP-AMP PINs 1. either by using a zener diode. They can be used for amplifying signals in different modes.J. care must be taken not to supply excessive voltage to its input terminals otherwise. The minimum input voltage must be 3Volts higher than the regulated output voltage.3 LM324N Pins and their Functions 2. 12 4 11 Function Output Inverting Input Non-inverting Input Vcc+ GND Table 2. The general arrangement is to fix or reference one of the input voltages. ©2011 . 13 3. the IC would be damaged. The 7800 series (i. 18. Amusan O. a regulator or a potential divider network. 12. 10. 5. 08. However. 06. Fig 2. et al. 6.
can be made to perform as “solid state" devices.J. the solution is to let the chip cool down and then attach the heat sink. In PNP type. This publication is a scholastic property of Morakinyo A.S. Amusan O. Silicon has very few free electrons but if "impurities" such as Arsenic are introduced in a controlled manner then the free electrons or conductivity is increased. the holes encourage conductivity and the material is called a semi-conductor. By adding other impurities such as Gallium. an electron deficiency or hole is created. it has revolutionised the way we live. such as Silicon. Any material is only conductive in proportion to the number of "free" electrons that are available.5A Output voltage tolerance of 5% Internal thermal overload protection Operating voltage range: 10. The reverse is the case for the NPN type. Sekoni. ©2011 .7 BIPOLAR JUNCTION TRANSISTOR (BJT) This is a three layered.5 volts – 23 volts No external component Output voltage of 8Volts Also offered in plastic package of TO – 220 Its applications are found in post regulator for switching DC/DC converter and in bias supply for analog circuits. There are two types of BJTs: the more common NPN type and the PNP type. It was invented by Schockley. As with free electrons. et al. Semiconductor material which conducts by free electrons is called n-type material while material which conducts by virtue of electron deficiency is called p-type material.22 regulator if any attempt is made to operate it outside its safe operating area. the emitter is made positive with respect to both the collector and base and the collector is made negative with respect to both the emitter and base in normal operation. Bardeen and Brattain at Bell Labs in 1947 and today. A BJT works based on the principle that certain materials. Its features include: Output current of 1. 2. But if this happens. three terminal semiconductor device which is used in electronic circuits either as a switch or for amplification purpose.
Amusan O. the CB circuit is seldom used. Pick-Up Voltage: the voltage on an un-operated device is increased. The input signal is applied to the emitter and the amplified output is taken from the collector. This circuit is also called an emitter follower. the value at or above which all contacts must function. For this reason. Nominal Operating Current: the current flow in the coil when nominal voltage is impressed on the coil. It has high input at the base as a load for the preceding circuit and low output impedance at the emitter as a signal source for the next circuit. This name means that the output signal voltage at the emitter follows the input signal at the base with the same phase but less amplitude. such as transistors which switch from one point to another. Sekoni. Relay Terminologies: Nominal Coil Voltage (Rated Coil Voltage): the voltage intended by design to be applied to the coil to operate it.23 The bipolar junction transistor can also function in 3 different configurations: a) The common emitter (CE) circuit uses emitter as its common electrode. The input signal is applied to the base and the amplified output is taken from the emitter. This is the one generally use because it has the best combination of current gain and voltage gain. et al. ©2011 . DC coils (watts). The voltage gain is less than 1 and is usually used for impedance matching.J. This publication is a scholastic property of Morakinyo A. Nominal Operating Power: the power used by the coil at nominal voltage. b) The common base (CB) circuit uses base as its common electrode. The input signal is applied to the base and the amplified output is taken from the collector. Drop-Out Voltage: the voltage on an operated device is decreased. Maximum Continuous Voltage: the maximum voltage that can be applied continuously to the coil.S. The relatively high emitter current compared to the base current results in very low input impedance value. They could also be used as electromagnetic switches that are triggered by an electronic switch. c) The common collector (CC) circuit uses collector as its common electrode.8 RELAYS They are electromechanical switches which operate based on electromagnetic principles. AC coils (VA). 2. the value at or below which all contacts must revert to their un-operated position.
which consists of three or six cells connected in series. which can be recharged by reversing the chemical reaction. Batteries in which the chemicals cannot be reconstituted into their original form once the energy has been converted (that is. an electrical current flows. etc. When the electrodes are connected to a device to be powered. and other vehicles. trucks. It consists of two or more cells connected in series or parallel. rechargeable cells. They range from 5Amps. All cells consist of a liquid. or accumulators. or solid electrolyte and a positive electrode. Sekoni. 15Amps. storage cells. 2. 20Amps. aircraft. Common contact ( C ) Normally open contact ( NO ) Normally closed contact ( NC ) There are various ranges of relay ratings. paste. is used in automobiles. Its chief advantage is that it This publication is a scholastic property of Morakinyo A. was invented in 1859 by the French physicist Gaston Planté.S. called a load. Batteries in which the chemicals can be reconstituted by passing an electric current through them in the direction opposite that of normal cell operation are called secondary cells. The electrolyte is an ionic conductor. The lead-acid battery. Fig. and a negative electrode. 10Amps.7 Circuit Symbol of a Relay Switch 2. Namely. but the term is also used for single cells.J. one of the electrodes will react.9 BATTERY A Battery is an electric cell or a device that converts chemical energy into electricity. while the other will accept electrons.24 Relays usually consist of three contacts of connection. 30Amps. or secondary cell. ©2011 . The storage battery. batteries that have been discharged) are called primary cells or voltaic cells. et al. producing electrons. Amusan O.
The electrons travel through the external electric circuit. Prakash. According to H. The electrolyte is a dilute solution of sulphuric acid. et al. repeated failure to reach full charge leads to stratification of electrolyte. When the cell is being recharged. the negative electrode consists of lead.J. This publication is a scholastic property of Morakinyo A. ©2011 . it is a good practice to utilize along with the battery. A lead-acid storage cell runs down as the sulphuric acid gradually is converted into water and the electrodes are converted into lead sulphate. there is a need of charge regulators/controllers to optimize the battery life. the chemical reactions described above are reversed until the chemicals have been restored to their original condition. and the positive lead ions combine with the sulphate ions in the electrolyte to form lead sulphate. as this will help the battery perform better and last longer. plate growth and loss of active material from the plates. But. A lead-acid battery has a useful life of about four years. In operation. another chemical reaction occurs. and the positive electrode of lead dioxide. corrosion. however. Amusan O.S. releasing lead ions in the electrolyte to form additional lead sulphate. Also. The lead dioxide combines with the hydrogen ions in the electrolyte and with the returning electrons to form water. it runs down quickly. a suitable charge controller.25 can deliver a strong current of electricity for starting an engine. Thus. the negative lead electrode dissociates into free electrons and positive lead ions. overcharging of some batteries results in loss of electrolyte. Sekoni.P. When the electrons re-enter the cell at the positive lead-dioxide electrode. Garg and J. causing reduction in battery life.
©2011 .1 BASIC DESIGN The design is such that the solar panel will be installed on the galvanized pole considering some specifications like angle of tilt and direction of sunlight. Amusan O. 3. This publication is a scholastic property of Morakinyo A.S. et al. The pole will be constructed such that it will have two wings with each wing carrying one LED bulb or lamp. Fig. After erections have been made on the erected pole of about 18ft. The 12V dc battery that will power the LED bulbs will be connected to the solar panel via the charge controller for charging purpose. relay. The automatic switching of the lamp (ON or OFF) will be performed by the light sensor circuit which consists of the light dependent resistor (LDR).J.26 CHAPTER THREE DESIGN & CONSTRUCTION 3. The photovoltaic cells on the solar panel would generate voltage when it is well illuminated by light. The sun rises at the east and sets at the west and illumination is directed towards the geographical north. Sekoni. The fabricated pole will be bolted on a flat slab and its uprightness will be checked using a plum. transistor and some other electronic components.1 Block Diagram of a Solar-powered Street Light (Automatic) The solar panel is tilted at an angle in the range of 15°≤x≤30° facing the geographical south. This is because Nigeria (wherein this project is being executed) is situated in the geographical north of the globe. the panel would be tightened up using bolts and nuts. opamp.
©2011 .S.27 3. The charge controller is an electronic circuit comprising an operational amplifier (connected in comparator mode).2 CHARGE CONTROLLER The charge controller serves as an interface between the current generated by the module and the battery charging during the day. The battery is prevented from over-current or over-charging by the charge controller. an electronic switch (transistor) and an electromechanical switch (relay). Sekoni.J. Amusan O. et al.2 Block Diagram of Charge Controller Unit This publication is a scholastic property of Morakinyo A. The block diagram of a charge controller is shown on figure below: Fig 3.
Amusan O. ©2011 . But R2 must be obtained: This publication is a scholastic property of Morakinyo A. Choosing VP = 9V for us to have a high output.J.S. a variable resistor will be ideal for R2.28 Fig 3. et al. VP = 7V (which is less than the reference voltage). R1 = 1K . VCC = 14V. Sekoni.3 Circuit Diagram of a Charge Controller When When VCC = 14V. Hence.
©2011 . et al.g.3 CHOOSING SOLAR PANEL (RATINGS) Using four of the 5W LED bulbs amounts to 20W of electrical power being dissipated at 12V rating. from 7p. 3. 3. Preferred value is 4. While current needed from the solar panel is: Hence.J. The comparator (LM 324) IC compares the non-inverting input voltage VP and the non-inverting input voltage VN. R2 = 5K variable.4 PARAMETERS FOR CHOOSING A BATTERY Ampere-hour of the battery needed = Amp-hr needed per day x number of days of autonomy /Depth of discharge. (e.2A per 50W panel. There is usually a high output from the OP-AMP if VP>VN which will switch on the transistor that will trigger the relay once the +VCC on the battery rises to 14V in order to cut off the battery from charging throughout the photovoltaic supply.m (12hours)) becomes: (1. Sekoni. Ampere hour needed per day (i.67A.67 x 12) this yields approximately 20Ah. A freewheeling diode is connected across the coil terminals of the relay to protect the components from back emf from the inductive coil. Autonomy number is the number of days that could be cloudy that you want the system to work effectively.29 14R2 = 9 + 9R2 5R2 = 9 Preferred value.m till 7a.S.e. Amusan O. a panel that could supply a current of 4A is needed. 2days) This publication is a scholastic property of Morakinyo A. PSH = 5hrs (time of maximum illumination) Current consumption of the 20W load = Power/Voltage = 20/12. IL = 1. Hence.
) of a battery is a measure of how much energy has been taken away from a battery. The incorporated sensor and switching circuit is shown in the next page: This publication is a scholastic property of Morakinyo A.5 DARK OPERATED SENSOR AND SWITCHING CIRCUIT The light dependent resistor (LDR) senses the dark and daytime and responds correspondingly to changes in the weather by causing the resistance of the resistor to vary from about 1K to 100K and vice versa. ©2011 . With the lead-acid dry cell battery in use for this project.J. Amusan O.O.D.5 is allowed for it without damage caused to it. a discharge of 50% or 0. 3. Therefore. et al.S. Sekoni. : Preferred value for battery is 60Ah to allow for losses.30 Depth of discharge (D.
(daytime).S.J. which in turn equals 10K . Here. we assume that R1 = R2. 3. This publication is a scholastic property of Morakinyo A. it is seen that VP < VN. Amusan O. V 3 2 4 © Amusan Olusola 2011 T D N 1 11 V © Amusan Olusola 2011 Fig.31 . implying that there is low output. Sekoni. Assuming that VN is being regulated constantly by the voltage divider between R1 and R2. Then. When LDR is at 1K . ©2011 . et al.4 Sensor and Switching Circuit This change in resistance causes a change in the voltage levels or the value of the non-inverting input (VP).
Sekoni. Amusan O. The maximum current of the LED is 10mA which is IF. The high output of the comparator would switch on the transistor and it conducts to trigger the relay which will switch on the LED bulbs at the dark time.32 When the LDR (Rλ) is at 100K . The 1K resistor is used to tune up the sensitivity of the dark resistor connected in series with the LED indicator for the output serves as a current limiter for the light emitting diode. et al. .S.f. Then VP is Here.J. ©2011 . VP>VN which in turn fulfills the condition for high output of the comparator. The variable 10K operated sensor. This publication is a scholastic property of Morakinyo A. This has a value of 12V. (Dark time). The output voltage VCC is also known as the LED operating voltage (VLED).m. A freewheeling diode is connected across the coil terminals of the relay for protection against back e.
2002).1 METAL FRAMEWORK The metal framework upon which the circuitry. The two main types of metallic materials utilized are discussed in the following paragraphs. Galvanized steel is a form of steel that has gone through a chemical process to keep it from corroding. and this prevents the rust from getting to the pure steel.S. mechanical design utilizes mathematics. Because zinc is anodic to iron. As such. galvanized means zinc plated. Hosford (2005). the zinc part of it gets corroded first. Zinc protects the steel by acting as a sacrificial layer. battery and circuit container as well as a variety of suitable fasteners.33 CHAPTER FOUR DESIGN IMPLEMENTATION & INSTALLATION 4. the material science and the engineering mechanics science (Charles R. During the process. The major method of preventing steel from corrosion is by alloying it with another metal such as zinc. This comprises a galvanized steel column. This publication is a scholastic property of Morakinyo A. et al. the steel gets coated in layers of zinc to prevent rust. Mechanical design means the design of things and systems of a mechanical nature. Galvanized Steel According to William F. mild steel solar tray guide. For the most part. if rust occurs on the surface of galvanized steel. The chemical reactions between the two metals cause a bonding to occur. since zinc is resistant to rust. battery and luminaries will be installed requires a suitable mechanical engineering design. Galvanized steel is an essential fabrication component for outdoor applications as well as industrial marine use. galvanizing protects the steel from corrosion. Sekoni. light brace support. base plate. it becomes part of it on a permanent basis.J. Instead. Amusan O. This action does not make zinc a paint or coat. Mischke. ©2011 .
as it is the most common form of steel. Galvanized steel is very practicable in applications where this is high proximity to rust. The galvanic process was discovered by Luigi Galvani in the 1700s when he invented the galvanic cell.34 Galvanization process is termed hot dip galvanization.S. Mild Steel Also referred to as low carbon steel. It is used where large amount of steel has to be formed such as structural steel. mild steel is weldable and hard. Carbon steels that have about 0. because it is not an electrochemical process. It has got a relatively low price while it has properties that are acceptable for many useful applications.3%). Steel in galvanized form can be found everywhere as it has wide applications. and as such can be forged. Sekoni. and rust resistance is required. It has a low content of carbon. availability of wide variety with different properties. et al. It is malleable when heated. And above all. It is the process of coating iron. ©2011 .J. An advantage of this form of steel is its effectiveness. it can be recycled and re-used multiple times. Hot dip galvanized steel can be referred to as galvanized iron. The use of galvanized steel at temperatures above this will result in peeling of the zinc at inter-metallic layer.3% require This publication is a scholastic property of Morakinyo A. though the result remains the same. steel or aluminium with a thin layer of zinc. by passing the metal through a molten bath of zinc at a temperature of around 460˚C. Galvanization is the name given to the electrochemical processes in his honour. This however should not be confused with galvanizing steel. up to (0. and is neither extremely brittle nor ductile. Galvanized steel is also suitable for high temperature applications of up to 200˚C. high degree of stiffness and magnetic property. It is used in heating and cooling duct systems in building. Amusan O. These properties are due to the presence of minute quantity of carbon content for hardening. Other advantages of using mild steel include relative cheapness. Mild steel also has wide applications.
implying that it rusts easily. Relative to stainless steel. whereas aluminium.35 special precautions. zinc and tin need special preparation to be able to weld them. the surface-cleaning process which is becomes necessary when aluminium is used can be easily avoided. 1997). Steel that is plated can be assumed to take the characteristics of its coating. et al. thereby melting the metal at the welding point. ©2011 .S. The molten materials cool quickly and the two metals are permanently bonded. This method of welding is widely used because of its low capital and running cost. Higher content or alloy steels tend to form hard welds that are brittle and could crack. 4. Welding may be considered to be a fabrication technique. This unsuitable tendency can be reduced by tempering. Nickel and chrome plate steels are relatively easy to weld by spot welding. Sekoni. Callister. Welding of Galvanized Steel This publication is a scholastic property of Morakinyo A. When low carbon steel is used. Hence. there are fewer problems associated when welding mild steel. two or more parts are joined to form a single piece when one-part fabrication is expensive or inconvenient (William D. Materials that are similar in composition cannot be welded by spot welding method due to different melting properties and terminal conductivities. In welding. They use either direct current or alternating current consumable or non-consumable electrodes. Amusan O. It has poor corrosion resistance. The welding region is sometimes protected by some type of inert gas known as a shielding gas. Arc welding This is a type of welding that uses a welding power supply to create an electric arc between an electrode and the base material.2 WELDING It is a process of permanently joining two or more metal parts by melting both materials.J. it should not be used in corrosive environment unless a provision for protective coating is made. preventing further cost.
and this is known as the core diameter. In screwing work together. Weld toughness. 4.S.C. shape of head metal and length under head. screws can be identified by their diameter standard. and then using the appropriate joining pieces. This enables the work to be drawn tightly together. half round and counter sunk combined. ©2011 .4 INSTALLATION The automatic solar-powered street light is installed with a twin arm lighting kit to operate in a dusk-to-dawn operation mode using an automatic ON/OFF feature. The lighting kit does not utilize an inverter circuit but instead. which distinguishes them from screws used for wood. etc are much more complex that the strength of the weld. porosity control. bulbs powered by D.C. It consists of proper cleaning of the parts to be joined. Amusan O. This publication is a scholastic property of Morakinyo A. Also.36 The welding of galvanized steel is done in the same way as the welding of base steel of the same composition. half-round heads. cheese heads. brass.3 SCREWING Screwing is another method of joining metals. supply from the battery are employed. The difference between welding galvanized steel and uncoated steel is a result of low vaporization temperature of the zinc coating. They are made of iron. The successful welding of galvanized steel is so widely accepted that there is little mechanical property that compares uncoated and galvanized weld. counter sunk heads. All screws used for metals are known as tapped screws or metal thread screws. corrosion resistance. 4. bronze or steel and have heads of various shapes. the part that takes the head of the screw has a clearing hole in it. et al. while the other part has to have a tapping hole. Sekoni. Screws are made in various pitches.J. The pitch of screw is the distance it will move in the direction of its axis in one revolution through a fixed nut. four 15Watt D.
put the battery in the box attached to the erected pole. Installation/Erection of Pole An anti-skid unloaded metal pole having a square base is erected on a concreted square-shaped foundation. both units are installed on the same electronic board and planted in the same enclosure together with the battery. Consequently. ©2011 .S. et al. lighting lamps and the solar panel are connected This publication is a scholastic property of Morakinyo A. the pole is made to stand uprightly. black for negative (labelled –ve) and red for positive (labelled +ve). Also. Then connect the wires to the controller as shown in the associated wiring diagram of this project.e. Installation of the Charge Controller of the Automatic Switch Since circuitry of this design incorporates both a charge controller unit and a dark-operated sensor switch together as a kit. Ensure that the standard polarities are observed i. This base of the pole then fastened to the foundation by means of rag bolts.37 Installation of Solar Panel Attach the solar panel tray guide or carrier upon the pole and slightly fasten its bolts and nuts. The battery. Installation of the Lighting Kits & the Battery Carefully secure the lighting kits into the lamp holders and fix the luminaries. Amusan O. Connect the 6mm cables from the panel terminals to the battery and also. and fasten the bolts and nuts tightly. ensuring appropriate connection of cables unto it with battery clips. from the battery to the electronic circuit unit. Fix the solar panel into the tray guide and tighten the appropriate screws effectively.J. Sekoni. Adjust the solar panel’s direction and angle to obtain optimal performance.
©2011 .38 appropriately to the charge controller/automatic switch as shown in the block wiring diagram as shown below.2 Wiring Block Diagram of Automatic Solar-powered Street Light 4. Amusan O. R LA SO L NE PA 4.J. Sekoni.S.5 TESTING This publication is a scholastic property of Morakinyo A. et al.
J. since this street light is meant to work without the need for manual switching. switching on the luminaries and by dusk. the characteristics of the equipment were normal and there is no need for further changes. Testing is the act of examining of the normal working operation. the charging rate is directly proportional to the illumination received from the sun. a troubleshooting session must be executed. ©2011 .39 After the installation process has been completed. This project has been tested ok. Sekoni.S. et al. Therefore. On the other hand. In other words. Lastly. troubleshooting is the art of isolating problem areas and using a variety of techniques and experience to solve it. At the testing stage. If any performance deviation is observed. These are done to ensure that the fabricated lightning equipment is in optimal working condition. seeking to know the characteristics of the equipment and noting where appropriate changes can be made. Also. the proper charging of the battery from the solar panel was checked and noticed to be appropriate. At night. 4. an act of testing and if necessary. the operation of the equipment must be troubleshooted in order to isolate the problem and fix the fault. • Measured charging current and optimal or average output voltage of PV cell were respectively. Amusan O. it was observed to have worked from dusk to the early hours of the morning.6 OBSERVATIONS The following observations were made: • To enhance the sensitivity of the LDR and hence. it switched off the lamps by itself. it was noticed that the charging current increases with illumination received by the panel from the sun. the streetlight operated by itself. the potentiometer was removed from inside the circuitry’s container and be put on the outside the casing. improve the performance of the streetlight. This publication is a scholastic property of Morakinyo A.
et al. Also. Factors such as cost and quality of materials. The following should be considered when executing this project work: • The materials used for the project must be carefully selected to ensure a balance between cost and quality thereby making finished product affordable and reproducible. It itemizes the raw materials. and even the intangibles that contribute to the costs of manufacturing a product. ©2011 . environmental condition of installation location and affordability of finished product must be checked when planning. certain cautions must be taken at the fabrication stage. When implementing this kind of project on a commercial scale. subassemblies. cost and quality must be well balanced to ensure that finished equipment does not become too expensive or be of poor quality. 4.C.S.40 4. D.7 PRECAUTIONS Considering the socio-economic and quality control factors involved in this project work. • The battery should be connected first to the circuit unit to prevent unwanted oscillation of the relay. fabricating and criticizing the work done. • The LDR must be well exposed to an atmosphere where light intensity can be properly sensed. This publication is a scholastic property of Morakinyo A. bulbs were utilized instead of the more common LED array lamps to ensure that high cost of production does not hinder the successful completion of the project. High quality galvanized steel (expensive) was coupled with moderate quality mild steel (relatively inexpensive) in fabricating this project work.J. Sekoni. Amusan O. See next page for the associated BEME.8 BILL OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS & EVALUATION (BEME) It is the bill of materials identifying and listing the components of a finished engineering product.
Sekoni. ©2011 .J. 12V Relay Soldering Lead Veroboard Jumper Wire LDR LM 7808 Battery Clip IC Socket 10mm Copper Wire 5mm Copper Wire Casing Cement Bricklayer's Labour Cost MAKE/BUY Make Buy Buy Buy Make Buy Make Make Make N/A Buy Buy Buy N/A Buy Buy Buy Buy Buy Buy Buy Buy Buy Buy Buy Buy Buy Buy Buy Buy Buy Buy Buy Buy Buy Buy N/A UNIT PRICE QUANTITY 1 4 1 2 1 2 2 1 1 N/A 1 4 1 N/A 3 2 6 6 2 2 3 2 2 2 2 3 1 2 1 2 2 1 6 6 1 1 N/A Overall Cost 41 AMOUNT (Naira) This publication is a scholastic property of Morakinyo A. Amusan O.S.BILL OF ENGINEERING MATERIAL AND EVALUATION S/N 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 2 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 DESCRIPTION Base Plate Stud & Rag Bolt Steel Column Positioner Locknut Split Positioner Bulb Holder Light Brace Suppport Battery & Circuit Container Solar Panel Tray Guide Weldering Cost Battery Bulbs Solar Panel Logistics & Transport 10KΩ Resistor 470µF Capacitor C945 Transistor 1KΩ Resistor 10KΩ Variable Resistor 5KΩ Variable Resistor 92XX Series Diode Red LED Green LED LM 324N 30A. et al.
et al. quality and durability of the metal framework and the concrete slab.J. It should however be noted that the use of such lamps implies a higher cost of production for the project implementers. 5. This is to ensure proper balance between the cost. The main improvement of this project has been the elimination of a dc to ac inverter unit. ©2011 . Also. Also. Amusan O. Sekoni.2 RECOMMENDATION It is recommended that LED array lamps be utilized instead of DC bulbs in order to achieve greater efficiency and luminosity.S. This publication is a scholastic property of Morakinyo A. the services of skilled and seasoned labourers should be employed for the mechanical and civil aspects of this project. the equipment can be fabricated along with a switching circuit and charge controller unit that prevents the battery from overcharging.42 CHAPTER FIVE CONCLUSION & RECOMMENDATION 5.1 CONCLUSION A solar-powered streetlight can be designed and constructed such that the conventional need for inverter or utility power source is eliminated.
solar-street-lighting. Available at: http://www.” 2010. WA: Microsoft Corporation. Wikipedia.html. 2007. 8. Physical Metallurgy. 2009.com This publication is a scholastic property of Morakinyo A. 5.S. 2007. Redmond. Solar L. Microsoft Student 2008 [DVD]. April. William. [Electronic Article]. New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Ltd. 9. 1996. USA: McGraw-Hill Inc. 2000. Modern Industrial electronics (3rd Edition). "Solar Energy.43 REFERENCES 1. Perlin. Canada: John Wiley & Sons Inc. Solar Street Lightning “Solar Street Lights. Shigley. 7. Solar Energy: Fundamentals and Applications. 2. Fall 1997. William. No. Redmond. 6. Timothy. Maloney. Mischke & J. C. Available at: http://www. 2005 10. ©2011 . R.com/q856738." Microsoft® Student 2008 [DVD]. Vol 32. Florida: CRC Press.blurtit. Callister. H. Garg & J. Reliable and Cost Effective Solutions. Available at: http://www. Prakash. USA: Prentice-Hall Inc. Materials Science and Engineering: an Introduction. CIRAS News.wikipedia.com 4. 1997. 2002. From Space to Earth: The Story of Solar Electricity. Array of Photovoltaic Cells. 1999.J. WA: Microsoft Corporation. Hosford. Sekoni.1.E.P. John. E.ciras. Available at: http://www. 3.iastate.edu/publications/CIRASNews/fall97/bom. USA: Aatec. et al. 11. Amusan O.html 12. Mechanical Engineering Design. Holladay. Blurtit.D bulbs. “Why is Light Important to the Earth?” 2010.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.