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A modern integrated approach to plant safety. MARTYN A. BOWEN.IEEE. COSSÉ. and temperature measurement sensing and control. DONALD G. 3) Safety is improved—switching operations do not require a person in the substation.. and system response was more reliable. & ALAN PILCHER IEEE INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS MAGAZINE • MAR|APR 2005 • WWW. and production BY ROY E. HARRISON T.ORG/IAS W HAT IS A smart industrial substation? Does it Utility companies embraced the full power of digital microprocessors. reliability. JAMES E. Some SCADA benefits are as follows. 12 1077-2618/05/$20. 4) Data was accessed remotely “on demand.” The smart industrial substation is a “best fit” integration of traditional and modern substation devices with local/remote human–machine interfaces (HMIs). utility substation protection. 1) Notification is prompt— remote operators are notified immediately of © EYEWIRE enhance plant safety? Does it improve process reliability? Does it increase profits? How do I design a smart industrial substation? Do I already have most of the devices and components for retrofitting existing equipment? Background During the 1980s and 1990s. HILDRETH. pagers. DUNN. flow. COMBS. 2) Cost is reduced—elect- ricians do not go to remote substations. Industrially “hardened” microprocessor control and communications technologies became standard. although microprocessor protection and metering was accepted for local devices. JR. any substation change. With supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA). plant process control hardware evolved for pressure. The industrial substation maintained a constant design.00©2005 IEEE . control.

trips. two or three trips to the substation are required before the appropriate person is notified. faster operator response can be provided. operator dispatch to the substation may result in a response time of hours. substation alarm response time was dependent on the distributed control system (DCS) console operator.IEEE. graphical HMI interface for prompt and more thorough understanding of the substation configuration and “health” 4) substation control operations via a local or remote HMI.” Based on one author’s experience. 1) the capability of intelligent electronic devices (IEDs) to inform technicians of alarms. and shutdown tasks. Transformer fault Loss of control power Fire alarm Ground fault on high-resistance ground system The smart industrial substation concept enables realtime monitoring of switchgear. These are tools the process and utility industries have adopted for monitoring. operations must recognize that online circuit breakers may not trip if breaker “exercising” is not performed according to manufacturer’s instructions. For the smart industrial substation method to be considered by operating companies. HVAC failure Switchgear heater failure Nitrogen purge pressure low Multi-function relay failure Circuit breaker trip coil failure Standby generator failure Standby power automatic transfer switch failure Battery system failure HMI failure UPS failure 13 . Occasionally. These types of prolonged response times can be improved by modern alarm technologies. MCC. not minutes. It also improves communication to electricians before shift change or end-of-shift departure. This article justifies these requirements. As this technology evolves. With modern “right sizing. the smart industrial substation automates substation activities and refines process and electrical control actions. Traditionally. Why Consider a Smart Industrial Substation? Smart industrial substations provide the following enhancements to existing plant operations.ORG/IAS TABLE 2. Although this is an ambitious goal. control. Tables 1–3 indicate examples of real-time monitoring and alarm parameters. When fully implemented. or substation ancillaries 3) a user-friendly. This significantly improves the notification method because a DCS console operator is not required to dispatch a process unit operator to go to the substation. NEW ALARM EXAMPLES. TRADITIONAL ALARM EXAMPLES. methods will be developed to achieve the modern goal of five to eight year maintenance intervals. and have increased operator safety. Online/Offline Testing and Trending Online testing is a recent technology advancement. motor control center (MCC). intuitive. proposes three system configurations. and critical substation actions 2) real-time monitoring and instant data access to switchgear. and substation ancillary quantities and annunciation of traditional and new alarms. Based on alarm priority of a substation common trouble alarm. it must be cost effective. Industry acceptance and standardization will reduce the TABLE 1. REAL-TIME MONITORING EXAMPLES. and reviews basic equipment types.” plant operators may not recognize an electrical condition requiring immediate attention. Annunciation electrical supervisors via an alphanumeric pager or a detailed cell-phone voice message indicating the substation number and failure type. With more informative data and alarm notification for critical systems. Alarms can instantly notify TABLE 3. The smart industrial substation shifts electrical technician functions from time-consuming tasks in front of substation equipment to time-saving tasks away from the substation. alarm notification was a substation common trouble alarm to a process main control room HMI or an electrician viewing equipment indicating lights and local annunciator status during “substation rounds.and cell phones. Table 4 shows several available online testing modules. such as closing/tripping circuit breakers outside the arc-flash zone 5) online testing and trending for early impending failure detection to reduce unscheduled plant shutdowns 6) online documentation retrieval of the most recent document revisions from the substation 7) online instructional documents for equipment procedural review before performing an equipment task. Switchgear heater ampacity Transformer heater ampacity Bus duct temperature Bus duct ampacity Bus duct ampacity Switchgear temperature Switchgear ampacity Thermostat temperature Switchgear critical temperature differences IEEE INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS MAGAZINE • MAR|APR 2005 • WWW.

ONLINE DOCUMENTATION. This documentation method significantly improves efficiency and reduces cost because pertinent data is accessible from a local HMI rather than going to a central plant library. trends should not require complex analysis. Tier 1 (Figure 1) provides fundamental communication within the substation to a local HMI. an automatically generated trend report could notify when equipment repair should be scheduled. both new and existing facilities can have an enhanced electrical system. standard references. Typically.TABLE 4. has minimal flexibility. rather than filling in hardcopy forms for database entry at a later time by a nontechnical person. This provides a more accurate and less time-consuming archival method. Similarly. when supplied IEEE INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS MAGAZINE • MAR|APR 2005 • WWW. and is the least costly. the most recent drawing revisions are available. after offline testing is performed. and instructional materials. Table 5 provides examples of online documentation. One beneficial example is archiving equipment infrared scans for future review and trending. rather than repairing unannounced failures. the infrared scan and report. Three communication tiers are envisioned. including electric “racking” fitting and operation. an equipment trend may be as simple as a trend line with annual occurrences and previous maintenance dates. manual data entry could be performed at the local substation. Neither the company nor the electrical technician can accept the liability of not being prepared and informed of technical matters. can be immediately retrieved. such as. thereby avoiding an unscheduled shutdown and resulting loss of plant revenue. breaker “racking” operation video. . (b) Tier 1B communication system example. PROPOSED ONLINE TESTING MODULES. System one lines Equipment drawings Breaker data Instruction manuals Device “cut sheets. not from connecting to communicate.” Proper permit guidance Required PPE Short video tutorials. Another advantage of database trending is the capability of manual data entry. Reviewing trending events is also helpful in scheduling maintenance. Documentation to traditional drawings. With an online archive. Also. Tier 2 (Figure 2) increases communica- The smart industrial substation HMI documentation provides archival capabilities previously available only at the plant library. Each electrical system must be evaluated to determine which communication configuration best fits the communicating devices and operational philosophy. This applies to both new and existing installations. typically submitted for management review. Significant cost is incurred by procuring microprocessor devices. For a small incremental cost. instead of working from outdated substation “stick file” prints.IEEE. substations can have ready access SMART SUB HMI Touchpanel LAN/Serial Communications SMART SUB HMI IED IED IED (a) PLC IED IED IED IED IED IED (b) PLC 14 1 (a) Tier 1A communication system example. manufacturer’s data. Breaker timing Trip/close coil Transformer gas analysis Battery system Switchgear heaters Automated megger systems Switchgear partial discharge Switchgear acoustic emission Thermography (infrared) TABLE 5. Proposed Communications Configurations (Tiers) If industries are to obtain the full benefit of microprocessor devices. When online and offline testing is coupled with HMI database trending capabilities. online communications must be implemented. Now.ORG/IAS cost of this technology and operational losses from unscheduled shutdowns.

making analog meter for the past ten years. Motor starting and stopping is performed SCADA Electrical through the main control room Bridge Electrical Distributed DCS (or HMI) data highway to LAN I/O intelligent MCC contactors and circuit breakers.” SMART SUB LAN/Serial Communications HMI Again. trending. While the use of local substation data readily and conveniently available at microprocessor-based electronic protection and metering the substation HMI (touchpanel. mentation can also be performed by the HMI.ORG/IAS 15 .the communication capabilities. and docu. rather than making “substation rounds. MCC to marshalling cabinet wiring. and other pertinent data is graphically portrayed. One author experiIED IED PLC enced a savings of approximately 25% when connecting smart IED IED 3 MCCs to the DCS via a commuTier 3 communications system example. graphical HMI screens provide system overall “health” and system specifics. Tier 2 configurations are inplant and do IED IED not impose security concerns because they are not integrated IED PLC IED with other systems. breaker posiElectrical LAN tion. where status lights. The digital protective relay and digital metering device Tier 1—All communications remain within the substa. IEEE INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS MAGAZINE • MAR|APR 2005 • WWW. with DCS integration Relays and Meters and automation. Tier 3 should be the goal of every plant facility. control. and more economical than traditional hardDCS LAN wired methods. Tier 1 moves substation monitoring and control from SCADA the front of each switchgear or MCC cubicle to a local HMI.tions capabilities outside the substation to a remote HMI.have been replacing the electromechanical relay and the tion building (Figure 1). Tier 3 (Figure 3) is the most complex and flexible. and is more costly. Monitoring. because it DCS is safer. Tier 2—Communication is expanded to an HMI in the main Other Other control room (Figure 2). laptop. more efficient. Expensive and Other Other space consuming substation interSystems Systems posing relay cabinets. making Systems Systems local substation data readily available to operating personnel at the Switch “process unit command center. one overlooked area is hardened PC). Tier 3—Communication is IED IED again expanded and integrates a 2 standalone HMI system with the Tier 2 communications system example. nications highway.IEEE. All IEDs communicate. The cost jusSMART tification for the modern approach LAN/Serial Communications SUB HMI is the improvement in process efficiency and the reduction in IED IED operator time.” Overall electrical conditions are efficiently reviewed from a central location. DCS or other HOST devices (Figure 3). Intelligent Electronic Devices has increased flexibility. and Switch multiconductor wiring to the DCS are eliminated. or industrial devices are now widely accepted.

Gone are the days of having to trace back through control circuits and rerout wiring to make the logic change. An industrial touchscreen computer expands the touchpanel HMI concept. versatile. most touchpanel software provides multiple level password protection at the screen or object level. manufacturing and process industries have used PLCs for the unique combination of industrial ruggedness and flexible computing capability. Current. or connecting remote racking devices for switching. the engineer can make a few keystrokes to implement changes in the control scheme and then test the logic prior to putting the PLC back online. Touchpanel technology has been used for many years. power and power factor readings. analog data gathering. the ease of making program changes simplifies the engineer’s task. providing cost savings. Because of reliability and industrial “hardness. Implementing simple. PLCs are capable of troubleshooting potential problems. To prevent inadvertent operation of certain controls.ORG/IAS Programmable Logic Controllers 16 The programmable logic controller (PLC) has been in existence since the 1960s. Some of the more common devices that can cause concern at the industrial substation level are battery chargers. thereby adding operating system and application software flexibility. Protocol Converter With individual IEDs. Nonrelay and Meter IEDs With modern PLC communications.The majority of electronic devices have the ability to communicate. In other words. more catastrophic failures may occur. could be extracted and displayed on demand from the individual devices. of these devices have the ability to communicate useful data to a central location for display. This brings the PLC into the realm of the industrial computer. Initially. Through the years. In most cases. HVAC systems. communications typically occurred over shielded. Modern PLCs are much more than a control relay replacement. or a “call out” to maintenance personnel pagers or cell phones could be initiated for manual correction. PLCs. packaged as a touchpanel. In conjunction with providing their primary functions. Besides displaying specific system parameters obtained from individual devices. It allows a third-party HMI to operate on a PC Windows-based platform. and HMI possibilities are limited only by the imagination. Simple status indications for various circuit breakers protected by the individual relays could be displayed at a central location. such as “racking in and out” of medium voltage breakers or breaker close/trip operations. Most. All control functions could be initiated from a localized touchpanel a safe distance from energized equipment. more functions and features are included.. thereby showing contact status or metering information. and transfer schemes. Substation HMI With the evolution of microprocessor IEDs. It is common for PLCs to be used in turbine control schemes. the fault may go undetected for extended periods of time. Traditionally. This can make IEDs both confusing and mysterious to plant operations. currents. the touchpanel can perform control actions. IEEE INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS MAGAZINE • MAR|APR 2005 • WWW. this is either a standard or optional feature. secondary selective residual bus transfer schemes. and HMIs available at the substation. such as a plant DCS. one port could communicate with a PLC and another port could communicate with a multidrop “daisy chain” string of protective relays. and multichannel communication capabilities have been added. allow simultaneous communication to multiple control systems. with TCP/IP Ethernet communication for newer devices. To circumvent the misunderstanding between plant operations and IEDs. complete with controls and metering devices. By ignoring some of these faults. these devices alarm a fault condition locally. and well adapted to industrial applications. sequencing.IEEE. RS232/RS485 serial communications is used. unless a substation visit is performed. copper wires. Both hardware methods and common “languages” are necessary for a functioning integrated system. load shedding and motor re-acceleration schemes. Instead of hardwiring status indications to an annunciator. Touchpanels have been used for years in this type of application. intuitive graphical interfaces for both operators and technicians promotes safer conditions and more efficient operations. a simple graphical HMI is proposed—the touchpanel.” the PLC is used in many applications at the industrial substation level. . etc. UPS systems. if not all. through the use of multiple drivers (communication protocols). For many years. fire alarm systems. but. Most touchpanel manufacturers have graphic capabilities that allow displays to show electrical single-line diagrams or switchgear doors. the next step is to establish communications between the local devices. Performing these operations from the touchpanel eliminates the need to have someone physically standing in front of the equipment. and other electrical system parameters may be displayed by linking screen objects to specific device input/output (I/O) points. If a logic change is required. they were developed for the automotive industry to replace hard-wired relay control logic that required modification every model year. Size has been reduced from large clumsy boxes to modern shoeboxsized models. In industrial applications. voltage. Modern PLCs are small. proportional integral derivative (PID) control. such as circuit breaker close or trip commands. the data could be routed through the communications channel electronically. adding to the device complexity. high-level math calculations. The touchpanel HMI approach provides safety enhancements by automating normal manual operations. data could be obtained from other IEDs and placed in PLC memory locations for access by plant-wide data gathering systems. Some touchpanel manufacturers. Manual override can be implemented for maintenance or failure modes. Voltage. multi-axis control. An abnormal condition could be automatically corrected. Using a laptop computer. twisted-pair.

. The most adapt- Address Function Code Data Error Check 4 Modbus RTU serial protocol example. Ethernet/Industrial Protocol (Ethernet/IP) is a modern communication system suitable for use in industrial environments. A reporting tool should be incorporated to allow the user to produce graphical images of the historical data available within the system. 2) Use a protocol converter to allow connection of different protocols to a master system. but. The HMI should depict an easily recognizable and navigable image such as an aerial view of the plant or an electrical one-line diagram. are not always truly “open. This prevents the integrator from incorporating these devices into one common system.e. Figures 1–3 show system examples using a protocol converter. A protocol is a set of rules. such as sensors/actuators. Why hasn’t SCADA been better utilized within the electrical industry? Previously. Protocols. If SCADA screens (HMIs) are presented in a user-friendly and reliable way. who used the data and previous experiences to diagnose a potential system problem. Prewritten or developed communications drivers allow the flexibility of multiplexing several dissimilar devices into one common system. Profibus. Figure 4 shows an example of the commonly used serial protocol.ORG/IAS Protocol conversion has been available for many years. more importantly. In data communications. Substation SCADA SCADA is commonplace within the process industry today. and the electrical engineer is quickly provided with real-time data and diagnostic capability. and process controllers. the engineer could promptly dispatch technicians to prevent potential downtime and loss of production. The gathered data was submitted to the plant electrical engineer. Modern Protocol Examples able solutions are ones that allow the flexibility to configure the communications medium (i. The provided graphic is dependant on the complexity of the electrical system. voltage.Overview With many different industrial communications systems available today.” Today. observing electrical equipment status indications and obtaining meter readings. 3) Use several different protocol converters. a team of technicians walked the plant once or twice a day. The SCADA approach can achieve a staffing reduction. Modbus RTU. which enables the receiving device to understand the transmitting device. or 32 characters (bits). It is the author’s viewpoint that until the electronics and computer industries agree on a communications standard. the electrical technician can be alerted in advance of an impending pump failure. and complex control devices. the engineer will embrace it without reservation. Modbus RTU. there are numerous widely accepted protocols for sending and receiving data. conditions exist where two or more IEDs with the same protocol cannot communicate with one another. Early warning alarms and shutdown trips can also be included. such as PLCs. when the devices communicate differently. The basic communications protocol consists of a binary string of eight. This can be achieved by an electrical SCADA system with complete plant one-line diagram and status of each circuit breaker and electrical parameters. a translation must occur for each device to understand the other device. its value and use are well proven and documented. Data can then be stored within an internal database. Depending on the protocol structure. Some manufactures utilize either an industrially hardened PC or a dedicated single-board microprocessor. The basic premise of communicating to two or more system devices remains the same. They may have “open” or “closed” proprietary communication protocols.IEEE. and Ethernet/IP must be translated. Devicenet and Profibus are fieldbus types. personnel are removed from the switchgear area. This excludes integrating other manufacturers devices. the binary string contains data. 1) Utilize one manufacture with a common integrated communications architecture. such as. This permits predictive maintenance scheduling. The electrical technician does not have to wait for the process operator to inform him of equipment failures. 16. and power consumption. However. which governs how data is sent from one point to another. making it available for interrogation by other master systems. A historical time-and-date-stamped alarm page should be made available to permit the analysis of cascaded alarms. there are many communication formats or protocols. IEEE INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS MAGAZINE • MAR|APR 2005 • WWW. again increasing the efficiency of the process. Hardware Microprocessor hardware systems are available to integrate different protocols into one integrated system. serial Ethernet or fiber-optic solutions). each having a specific protocol. A Modbus RTU message consists of four parts: 1) address location 2) function code that indicates to the server the action to perform 3) a data field that may contain additional function code data 4) error checking. most have been developed and supported by specific PLC manufacturers. The primary purpose of a protocol converter is to act as a translator. there appears to be three options. These include simple I/O devices. however. even “open” protocol systems. 17 . such as DeviceNET. If it were possible to reliably inform a plant electrical engineer of the entire electrical system status from his office. Ethernet/IP allows industrial devices to exchange time-critical application information. current. When the equipment is monitored frequently. “Hot spots” or “hot keys” should be incorporated within the image to permit the user to page down through the system and gain further detail and diagnostic information. Fieldbus includes many different industrial network protocols.

when a hub is used in an Ethernet network. and software to encapsulate serial data into TCP packets. however. Typically. making it possible to connect many serial communicating devices to an Ethernet network with minimal effort.e. The computer link module interfaces with any device or network regardless of the configuration or communication protocol. The local control network is primarily used to control the process network. Each method has advantages and disadvantages based on the type and data quantity required to transfer.ORG/IAS 18 The Open System Interconnection (OSI) Reference Model (7-Layer) is a generic model for all network types and is the basis for TCP/IP. such as a history module. the DCS has three basic interface methods. greater bandwidth.IEEE. Most DCS systems are configured as a process network and a local control network. This is the significance of the intelligent system. The PLC gateway and computer link are not limited in the quantity of data or the data direction moving across network modules. This communication method directly informs electrical personnel of system changes. As more IEDs are connected to a hub.. both strictly reading data from the substation network and writing data to the network impacts the interface type. integers) is moving across the networks? 8) Will data be imported and exported? Modern Ethernet Network— Hardware and Software Basics Previous discussions provide the essentials for a rudimentary communications system. can provide text messages to pagers or voice/text notification to cell phones. whereas RS-422/485 protocol is supported to 1. such as an Ethernet configuration. Additionally. The serial interface requires less configuration time and is primarily intended as input for efficiently importing large data quantities. Today’s HMI packages. a computer link module. hub. the process network contains the plant I/O. switch and router. Switch. but what happens when the engineer is away from the office? Operator Notification In addition to HMI or DCS alarms. Hub. a modern approach. as the name implies. modern communication advances enable plant personnel to be immediately informed of equipment status changes and trips.” Likewise.000 ft). . the local network has other modules. etc. therefore. Many PLC and IED manufactures are selecting Ethernet/TCP communications as the standard communications protocol. The industrial sector has been slow to follow the IT lead. When determining the DCS interface method. as the price of fiber and fiber terminations decrease. data collisions occur frequently. Serial device servers have RS-232 or RS485 ports. When only serial communications connections are available. a CPU with embedded operating system. Typically. the typical serial interface has firmware for running diagnostic routines that monitor and report communications time-outs or errors between the module and the interfaced slave device. is best utilized for a PLC interface. a PLC gateway module. Typically. Most serial interfaces use Modbus RTU protocol with extensions for real numbers and string support. These two methods are primarily intended as input or output vehicles that can efficiently import or export large quantities of data. operator intervention is not always required and results in improved plant awareness and responsiveness. Distributed Control System Selecting the most effective interface method between a DCS and a substation monitoring system depends on the data type and quantity viewed. Ethernet is the “backbone” of modern IT digital communications. The TCP packets are sent via an Ethernet connection. 1) a serial interface card fits into one of the process manager I/O slots 2) a PLC gateway requires module(s) to link to the local control network 3) a computer link requires module(s) to link to the local control network. However. each IED competes for the same amount of bandwidth. Many serial device types and configurations are available. and electromagnetic interferrence (EMI) protection. These two interface types require a greater amount of time to configure the interface and individual data points. These module types enable the DCS to provide different functionality for varies applications. limits are based on the type of overall system architecture employed at the substation level. Layer 1: Physical Layer (Figure 5)—A hub (repeater) receives data packets on one port and forwards the data to all ports. Therefore. communications to a field device is by EIA RS-232D or EIA RS485 standards. serial device servers and protocol converters are readily available. Fiber Ethernet solutions provide longer distances. should be utilized. The RS-232D communication distance limit is 15 m (50 ft). i.Providing useful information to operators allows them to perform their function with greater efficiency. A PLC gateway. or string of hubs. through modem connections. future expansion capabilities. the following criteria should be considered: 1) Has the substation monitoring system configuration been thoroughly reviewed? 2) Will one server be used for all substations or one server per substation? 3) How is the data structured in the implemented system? 4) Is the data sequential per node or each individual device? 5) What is the communication protocol? 6) What is the distance to each server? 7) What type of data (status bits. industry is moving towards using Ethernet and industrial Ethernet as the overall plant communications “backbone. fiber Ethernet solutions are becoming an even more viable industrial communications link. Examples of the first three layers are introduced with commonly used network devices. When implementing a Tier 2 or 3 system. and Router IEEE INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS MAGAZINE • MAR|APR 2005 • WWW. In addition. In addition to the operator workstations.2 km (4.

and application. If a laptop computer is connected on one side of a router it will not be able to communicate on the other side unless it is assigned a new IP address. A switch directs data packets from a receiving port to a destination port by comparing the MAC address in the data packet header with the MAC address in the switch’s “learned” database. The ability to learn and update the address database is convenient for reorganizing automation equipment during commissioning or troubleshooting.ORG/IAS 1 1 2 3 4 2 3 4 Data In Data Out Data Out Data Out Data In Switch example. Star topology is ideal for data acquisition and control systems when long distances are not required. Network Topologies topologies are “ring” and “star.” Ring topology (Figure 8) is used when long distances are required between switches and it is cost prohibitive to make a “home run” for each switch. Implementing ring or star networks in a redundant configuration increases the networks fault tolerance for critical applications. OPC is the industry standard. device-specific software interfaces. Layer 3: Network Layer (Figure 7)—A router is used to divide different networks or subnets. Data Out 6 5 Hub example. 8 19 . A major asset of star topology is a single point failure only affects the failed device. Software Network topologies vary depending on plant philosophy. However. thus limiting the installation bandwidth.IEEE. this data control method significantly reduces packet collisions. All traffic must travel on the ring. Switches are ideal to control and monitor Ethernet network applications.Layer 2: Data Link Layer (Figure 6)—A switch is more complex than a hub with “built-in” intelligence and memory to remember the physical medium access control (MAC) address of nodes on the network. Ring topology example. Routers maintain knowledge of the “IP network” by using detailed user defined routing tables. Star network topology (Figure 9) directly connects each IED to a centralized location. the two sides of a router will be on different networks. many vendor and third-party HMI packages use object linking and embedding (OLE) for process control (OPC). This makes Level 3 routing unfriendly to maintenance personal who might need to move from one part of a plant to another. configuration. From the collaboration of Microsoft Corporation and significant hardware and automation suppliers. improving bandwidth over ring topology. Typically. Two typical network Host software varies because many hardware vendors have developed unique. and business and office Learned MAC Address IEEE INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS MAGAZINE • MAR|APR 2005 • WWW. HMI Ring IP Address Table Ring Manager 4 1 2 3 Switch Data In Data Out IED Switch Switch IED IED 7 Router example. By increasing the network bandwidth. field systems and devices. The OPC standard interface makes possible interoperability between automation and control applications. not the entire network.

HMI Star IED Switch IED PLC IED PLC 9 Star topology example. Texas. Hildreth is with Areva T&D Inc. and Alan Pilcher are with Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company in Houson. b) Provides immediate alarm warnings to authorized users via cells phones.. touchpanels. interposing relays. Cossé. fundamental concepts will not change. Available: http://www. Available: http://www. Bowen. Martyn A. James E. Part II).tcpipprimer. DCS. Available: http:// www. 2) Facilities with existing IEDs can be economically and effectively connected to a fully communicating system. 3) New “grass roots” sites designed with IEDs. historical data.org [4] Charles Spurgeon's Ethernet Web Site [Online]. Available: http://www. Texas. The new OPC Data Exchange (DX) standard will provide interoperable data exchange and server-to-server (OPC-to-OPC) communications across Ethernet networks. and tracking messages.org [2] OPC Foundation home page [Online]. application engineers must remain informed of modern advances in these areas. Summary 1) The smart industrial substation enhances plant electrical personnel safety by physically removing the operator from the arc flash zone (NFPA70E. SCADA or DCS systems). Dunn is with Equistar Channelview in Channelview.com/pdf/Ring_vs_Star. Available: http://www. It can be justified from safety.ethernet. it is time to advance the industrial substation into the world of smart interactive communications. OPC server data obtained from IEDs. com [11] PLCopen home page [Online]. PLCs. commissioned.asp [8] Differences between industrial ethernet fiber optic backbone. and made operational.itp-journals. pagers. Available: http://www. 4) By using existing. c) Provides stable operation time and reduces time of repair.com/opc/intro.ORG/IAS applications. This article first appeared in its original form at the 2003 IEEE/IAS Petroleum and Chemical Industry Technical Committee Conference.htm IEEE INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS MAGAZINE • MAR|APR 2005 • WWW. Implementation is inexpensive because the significant cost was incurred when the IEDs were procured. Jr.ethermanage. thus.org/tg2k/ [10] Daryl’s TCP/IP Primer {Online]. e) The system is quickly and easily upgradeable from local only (Tier 1) to a SCADA interface (Tier 2) or DCS interface (Tier 3). trending data. PLCs. in Houston. Texas. multivendor systems seamlessly share real-time and historical data. etc. With a straightforward.dnp.com/ learning/tutorials/index. Although the details presented above will change. With a client-server relationship.org [3] DNP home page {Online]. d) The system is password protected with unique password levels. operations and maintenance viewpoints.unh. operator. operator actions. IEDs. For More Information [1] Modbus-IDA Web page [Online]. 20 . Alarms and event notifications are provided on demand. Available: http://www.modbus. including process alarms.opcfoundation. Available: http://www. installed. Cossé.lantronix.e. (rcosse@powl.edu [6] Lantronix home page [Online]. ring.IEEE. Combs. drawings and documentation enables plant personnel to perform more effectively and efficiently. The OPC DX standard extends the existing OPC data access specification during run-time. OPC standards eliminate writing custom drivers for data exchange with field devices. maintenance. a) The ability to readily and easily access real-time data. Harrison T. offer a substantial cost reduction by eliminating the need for hardwiring.com).iol. and the plant intranet. “industrially hardened” devices. Bowen.pdf [9] Alliance for Telecommunications Industry Solutions (ATIS) Telecom Glossary [Online]. and protocols are evolving daily. SCADA. the smart industrial substation concept provides the following inherent electrical system enhancements. Available: http://www. HMIs. and Dunn are Senior Members of the IEEE. common-sense approach. This provides operating. engineer. Available: http://www. i. independent of the real-time application protocol being used. etc. and star topologies [Online]. Donald G..n-tron. informational messages. hence.plcopen. it is intuitive that this is the time to interconnect existing and new communicating devices.org [12] TCP/IP Tutorial [Online]. Available: http://www. communications devices. and DCS I/O. Conclusion From the above discussions. OPC is the technology of choice in the central control room and is proposed as the technology of choice for the smart industrial substation.com/ c04100.atis. and remote I/O can be shared with clients (HMI. Available: http://www. maintenance and diagnostics capabilities to local and remote locations.com [5] InterOperability Laboratory home page [Online]. HMIs.html [7] OPC Technology [Online].industrialnetworking. on-line testing. Roy E.