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Name: NG KOK CHUAN (JOHN) Student No.: 0803H66891 Subject: ENGLISH 102 Assignment: Final Research Paper Lecturer: MISS PREMA
Throughout the years, sportswear has become part of fashion trend because of the variety of choices in style compared to the olden days. The younger generations today tend to consume only one or two brands only. The objective of this study is to examine to what extent is there a positive relationship between the factors and brand loyalty on consumer sportswear. The purpose of this research is to investigate how the respondents are influenced by factors of brand loyalty towards sportswear brands. Previous research adopted three factors to test the Malaysian environment. The three factors are brand name, product quality and style. In order to increase customer satisfaction and drive them to be brand loyalists, marketers are encouraged to develop aggressive marketing programs. The questionnaires consist of three sections. Section A is Demographic, Section B is Brand Loyalty, and Section C is factors of influencing Brand Loyalty. There are nine closed-ended questions, one open-ended question and three likert scale questions. Questionnaires were distributed and self-administered to 30 respondents. Descriptive analysis and one-way ANOVA were used in this research. The research results showed that there is positive and significant relationship between the three factors and brand loyalty. Brand name has more influence on the brand loyalty compared to the other two factors. In future study, a research can be done according to different races, cultural backgrounds which are more appropriate to the Malaysian environment is recommended in order to obtain more accurate information.
Keywords: Brand loyalty, Sportswear, Consumer Satisfaction
To our friends. for their selfless cooperation and sharing their precious time. Subang Jaya. who never cease in loving us and for the continued guidance and protection. who have been unselfishly extending their efforts and understanding. who. And above all. The Researchers 3 . to the Almighty God. To our parents who have always been very understanding and supportive both financially and emotionally. in any way have contributed and inspired the researchers to the overall success of the undertaking: To Miss Prema for her guidance and support in the duration of the study. To the respondents of this survey in Sunway Pyramid.ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The researchers wish to express their deepest gratitude and warmest appreciation to the following people.
0 Research Methodology Page No.0 11.0 Background of the research Purpose of Research Research question and Research Hypotheses Literature review Brand Loyalty Brand Name Product Quality Style Research Framework 3.0 5.2 1.4 2.1 Quantitative Research Findings Analysis Conclusion References Appendix 6 6-10 10-11 11-12 13-14 - 4 .2 2. 1 1-2 2 3 3 3 4 4-5 5 5 6 3.1 4.Content S.3 2.1 2.1 1.0 3.No 1.5 3.0 12.0 Introduction 1.3 2.0 2.0 10.
Puma and Fila are popular among sportswear consumers. Brand Loyalty also influenced by the customer attitude towards the brand. Reebok. Adidas. sportswear brands such as Nike. In the West. Brand loyalty is a consumer‟s conscious or unconscious decision that is expressed through the intention or behavior to repurchase a particular brand continually. This has prompted manufacturers like Nike and Adidas to start expanding their business particularly in Asia as it has the potential to give them higher volume of sales for their products . greater versatility and comfort.Many companies. In marketing.1 Background of the research In Malaysia. This indicates that the repurchase decision very much depends on trust and quality performance of the product or service (Chaudhuriand Holbrook. Sportswear has become a common and popular category among young people as it identifies them with a more relaxed lifestyle. behavior and customer experience Two ways to think of brand loyalty:a) Brand Loyalty as Behavior b) Brand Loyalty as an Attitude (Jagdish N. so the competition is fierce in the sportswear market. 2001). Well-established 5 . 2004) In Brand loyalty as behavior see a customer consistent to repurchase of brand. 1991). However.1. there are fewer but more powerful retailers in the sportswear market. brand loyalty consists of a consumer‟s commitment to repurchase the brand through repeated buying of a product or a service or other positive behaviors such as word of mouth. especially those in the sportswear industry try to enhance brand loyalty among their customers. brand loyalty is recognized as an asset and consumers are willing to pay more for a brand (Wernerfelt. Sheth.0 Introduction Research Influence of Brand Loyalty on Consumer Sportswear in Malaysia 1.
Questionnaires were distributed and self-administered to 30 respondents. Marketing managers realize the rising trends of brand switching and recognize customer retention as an easier and more reliable source of superior performance (Reichheld & Sasser. preserving brand loyalty and developing new sports products lines so as to occupy more market share. to study what factors influence the brand loyalty and to learn more about the concept of brand loyalty in retail industry. it is important for marketers to acquire more knowledge in brand loyalty. The research helped the fashion industry to know more about the consumer behavior and carry a better marketing plan in the future. product quality and style..brand names continue to contribute investment and time in upholding brand identity.2 Purpose of Research The purpose of this research is to investigate how the respondents are influenced by factors of brand loyalty towards sportswear brands. promotion. Quantitative research method is used in this research. 1990). product quality. 2006). 1. marketers are encouraged to develop aggressive marketing programs. This research will focus on three factors which are brand name. The intention of research is to figure out the reasons that the brand loyalty is the key role in sport wear selection. Brand name has shown strong correlation with brand loyalty. and service quality and store environment. 6 . Descriptive analysis and one-way ANOVA were used in this research. In order to increase customer satisfaction and drive them to be brand loyalists. Therefore. Previous research adopted seven factors to test in different countries (Lau e al. The seven factors of brand loyalty are brand name. style. price.
promotion and service quality. product quality and style—and brand loyalty on consumer sportswear? 2. 2. 2.1. 3) expressed over time. This is often measured in terms of repeat purchase behavior or price sensitivity (Brandchannel. which brand prefer more. (2006) in his article mentioned that there were seven factors that influenced consumers‟ brand loyalty towards certain sportswear brands.e.0 Literature review FACTORS OF BRAND LOYALTY Lau et al.3 Research question and Research Hypotheses This study focuses on the factors that influence consumers‟ brand loyalty towards a particular brand.com. Based on the factors that influence brand loyalty. 4) by some decision-making unit. 2006). 7 . and 6) a function of psychological processes. However. brand loyalty can be defined as the strength of preference for a brand compared to other similar available options.1 Brand Loyalty There are many operational definitions of brand loyalty. 2) behavioral response (i. It can be measure by asking customer to rank various brands in terms of how they like it. What are the factors influencing brand loyalty in sport wear industry? To what extent is there a positive relationship between the three factors—brand name. purchase). In general. the following hypotheses are derived.e. product quality. price. style. 1. Bloemer and Kasper (1995) defined true brand loyalty as having six necessary conditions which are: 1) the biased (i. non-random). 5) with respect to one or more alternative brands out of a set of such brands. store environment. The factors were: brand name.
Further. 2006). Material is important in product quality because it affects the hand feel. The development of a brand name is an essential part of the process since the name is the basis of a brand‟s image. consumers relate personally to color. This is important for brands which have only minor physical differences and are consumed in a social setting where the brand can create a visible image about the consumer itself. texture and other performance aspects of the product. associating with brand name all the attributes and satisfaction experienced by the purchase and use of the product. product quality is defined as “fitness for use” or „conformance to requirement‟ (Russell and Taylor.2. 2. According to Kohli and Thakor (1997). In other words. There are many unfamiliar brand names and alternatives available in the market place. Brand name is important for the firm to attract customers to purchase the product and influence repeat purchasing behavior. These prestigious brand names and their images attract consumers to purchase the brand and bring about repeat purchasing behavior and reduce price related switching behaviors (Cadogan and Foster. Consumer tend to perceive the products from an overall perspective. and could 8 . brand name is the creation of an image or the development of a brand identity and is an expensive and time consuming process. brand personality provides links to the brand‟s emotional and self-expressive benefits for differentiation. Consumers may prefer to trust major famous brand names. Furthermore.3 Product Quality Product Quality encompasses the features and characteristics of a product or service that bears on its ability to satisfy stated or implied needs. 2000). 2003).2 Brand Name Famous brand names can disseminate product benefits and lead to higher recall of advertised benefits than non-famous brand names (Keller.
They gain satisfaction from wearing the latest fashion and style which also satisfies their ego. a composite list of apparel attributes has been generated and one of the conceptual categories is style. they will reject the fashion (Frings. If the color does not appeal to them or flatter their own color. Consumers‟ judgment depends on the consumers‟ level of fashion consciousness. 2. According to Abraham and Littrell (1995). 2. which includes line.5 Research Framework Brand Loyalty Brand Name Product Quality Style 9 . Fashion leaders or followers usually purchase or continue to repeatedly purchase their fashion garments in stores that are highly fashionable.4 Style Style is visual appearance. 2005). This indicates that quality characteristics are also related to performance. 2005). Brands that supply stylish sportswear attract loyal consumers who are fashion conscious.select or reject a fashion because of color. silhouette and details affecting consumer perception towards a brand (Frings. so judgment will be conditioned by their opinion of what is currently fashionable.
10 .1 Quantitative Research Respondents of multiple ethnicities. The questionnaires consist of three sections. Chinese. one open-ended question and three likert scale questions. 15 males and 15 females will be selected as respondents to avoid gender biased. This mall was selected because it represents the largest mall in that area.3. In Subang Jaya. Section B is Brand Loyalty. Questionnaires were distributed and self-administered to 30 respondents at a big shopping mall in Malaysia. a biggest and most famous shopping mall was selected—Sunway Pyramid—to conduct the survey. Different type of questions used such as closed-ended question. and Section C is factors of influencing Brand Loyalty. were selected from Subang Jaya. quantitative research method was used to answer the question. The ideal research results will show that there is positive and significant relationship between factors of brand loyalty with sportswear brand loyalty. 4. to obtain the result in this research.0 Research Methodology In this research. There are nine closed-ended questions. Tables and graphs will be used to show the research date clearly. Section A is Demographic. Respondents must be aged between 18 to 24 years old. namely Malay. 3. Descriptive analysis.0 Findings Descriptive analysis is used to analysis is used to analyze the background as well as the respondents‟ profiles pertaining to their evaluation of brand loyalty. one-way ANOVA and Pearson Correlation were used in this study. open-ended question and etc. Indian and other races.
3 3.3 13.0 26.0 27.7 53.66 11 .0 34.0 56.3 20.6 13.33 6.0 10.33 6.0 66. Male: 15 Female: 15 Races Malay: 15 Chinese: 9 Indian: 8 Age 16-19: 8 20-23: 16 24 and above: 6 Occupation Students: 20 Private Sector: 4 Government Sector: 4 Self-employed: 1 Education Level PhD: 1 Master: 3 Degree: 17 Diploma: 6 SPM/SPTM: 3 Income: Less than RM1000: 12 RM1001-RM2000: 10 RM2001-RM3000: 2 RM3001-RM4000: 4 RM4000 and above: 2 Percentage (%) 50.0 40.0 50.3 10.3 3.0 50.0 33.6 20.Table 1: Profile of the Sample Demographic Factor Gender Valid no.66 13.
Table 2: Reliability Analysis of Factor of Brand Loyalty Variables Brand Name Product Quality Style Alpha 0.Table 1 lists all the profile to show a clear picture of the respondents‟ background such as age. As show in the table.7882 Table 3 shows that there are three independent variable factors of brand loyalty that were tested by the researcher through the questionnaires distributed to respondents. 2 indicate disagree.7% respondents are between 16 to 19 years old and 53. 12 . income. Those two groups of respondents are mostly students. and occupation. The result is derived from the highest mean score of factors of brand loyalty based on the respondents‟ answers. 40% of the respondents have an RM1000 or less income level because most of the respondents are students.6628 0. 3 indicate agree and 4 indicate strongly agree. 26.6472 0. In the Malaysian environment respondents particularly choose brand name as the main factor that influences them to be brand loyal customers. The Likert scale was used in the questionnaire: 1 indicates strongly disagree. Table 2 lists the Cronbach‟s Alpha (coefficient alpha) of each variable. The overall result shows that brand name is the most important factor. All the variables show a high degree of reliability.3% respondents are between 20 to 23 years old.
76 3. The materials used by the brand are comfortable. Q2. Q4.61 1 Mean Average: 2 3 Mean Average: Table 4 shows the result of one-way ANOVA which helps to analyze the factors of brand loyalty and income level was executed. The brand has good functional quality. Q2. The brand has sufficient color. Table 4: Income Level versus Factors of Brand Loyalty Brand Name Sig.71 3. Product Quality Q1.82 3. Rank Mean 3.009 Style . Styles of the brand of sportswear have distinctive features. Q3. The size of sportswear fits me very much.038 13 . The brand is reputable.42 3. product quality (. Q4.38) are significant. Q2.78 3.009). The overall results show that Malaysia‟s youngsters prefer brand name. and style (0.01 3. Q3.85 3.81 Mean Average: 3. style and product quality as factors of brand loyalty. The brand of sportswear provides wide variety of styles for me to choose. . The prestigious brand name and image attract me to purchase from the brand. Style Q1. All three variables which are brand name (. The objective of the analysis is to find out whether is there a positive relationship between the three factors—brand name.000 Product Quality .72 3.000). product quality and style—and brand loyalty on consumer sportswear. Q3. Styles of the brand of sportswear are suitable for me. Styles of the brand of sportswear are trendy and fashionable.Table 3: Ranking Factor of Brand Loyalty Factor of Brand Loyalty Brand Name Q1.The brand reflects my own personality. The brand name is selected regardless of price.44 3.73 3.84 3.85 3.70 4. Q4.
002 .5500 15.0196 13.5500 11. 14 .0000 15.5000 11.5000 14. The correlation is considered a moderate correlation (r=0.0980 15.01 level Pearson Correlation .3000 14. brand name was found to have significant positive relationship with brand loyalty. This finding indicates that product quality is significant in the consumer decision making process.0 Analysis Table 6: Significance of brand loyalty factors with brand loyalty Variables Brand Name Product Quality Style *Significant at 0.0980 14.2500 17.7896 5.001 As shown in table 6.302) based on Cohen‟s (1988) guidelines.7896 12.562 .3000 17. The results showed that consumers favored brand image when they perceive positive benefits or function from the product. have positive reaction on the price premium and are willing to accept brand extensions to other product categories within the same brand.302 . (2-tailed)* .3000 3001-4000 >RM 4000 18.331 Sig.Mean: < RM 1000 1001.2000 2001. Product quality was shown to have positive relationship with brand loyalty. They would then recommend the brand.8627 13.000 .8750 13.
6. To begin with. From the study conducted. it seem that female respondents are willing to spend more time reading magazine to know more about the fashion trend. Choosing suitable style helps to maintain good self-image. Subang Jaya. The following conclusions can be drawn from the study. They are in the period of expressing individuality and beauty and wear up-to-date and trendy apparel. Style was considered as one of the most important factors in determining a consumers‟ brand loyalty. As long as the consumers are satisfied with the reputation of the brand. Brand name was an important consideration for the consumer in Malaysia. As mentioned earlier in the introduction. The results also showed that style and brand loyalty were positively related. so the young consumers are willing to spend more on their favor brands. they will repurchase the same brand again. the consumers considered the style as the second important factor before purchasing because 15 .The research findings showed that brand name and brand loyalty had a positive relationship. the purpose of this study was to investigate how the respondents are influenced by factors of brand loyalty towards sportswear brands in Malaysia. Primary data were collected by distributing questionnaires to 30 respondents in Sunway Pyramid Shopping Mall. They are also the big spenders in the sporting goods market. They might also probably think that their personality fit with brand personality.0 Conclusion This research has investigated on influence of brand loyalty towards sportswear brands. In addition. this study has shown that brand name is the number one factor which influenced consumers the most on brand loyalty on sportswear because „early twenties‟ has the highest interest in branded clothing.
product quality is the least important factor in this research because brand name reputation leads to good quality belief. However. these findings only focus more on the „early twenties‟ consumer without considering different ethnic group in Malaysia. The same study needs to be conducted with specific ethnic group to see if there are any similarities with the factors that will influence the relationship between the three factors and brand loyalty on sportswear in Malaysia.good looking and self-image are very important in today‟s world. 16 . style and product quality are the most important factors that will influence „early twenties‟ choices when purchasing sportswear. Lastly. The results of this study indicate that brand name.
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Appendix 19 .
Name: NG KOK CHUAN Student No: 0803H66891 Research Topic: Influence of Brand Loyalty on Consumer Sportswear in Malaysia Research Purpose: To find out what factor actually influence brand loyalty in Sportswear. Section A: Demographic 1. Occupation Students Private Sector Government Sector Self-employed 20 . All responses are strictly confidential and for research purpose only. This research is for academic purpose only. Races Malay Chinese Indian Other (Specify:_____________) 3. Age Age 16-19 20-23 24 and above 4. Gender Male Female 2.
Have you purchased any sportswear during the past year? Yes No 8. 7. Income Less than RM1000 RM1001-RM2000 RM2000-RM3000 RM3001-RM4000 RM4000 and above Section B: Brand Loyalty Please answer all the questions. Are you especially loyal to a brand of sportswear? Yes No 9.5. Please list the brands of 3 items of sportswear you purchased lately. Which brand of sportswear in the following list do you prefer most? a) Nike b) Reebok c) Fila d) Adidas 10. Education Level PhD Master Degree Diploma SPM/STPM 6. __________________________________________________________________________ 21 .
Style Strongly Disagree The brand of sportswear provides wide variety of styles for me to choose. Strongly Disagree = 4) 11. 12. odourresistant. Product Quality Strongly Disagree The size measurement of the sportswear fits me very much. The materials used by the brand of sportswear are comfortable.Section C: Factors of influencing Brand Loyalty Please tick to indicate your level of agreement with the statements that best describe your feelings towards your favourite brand. Sportswear of the brand has good functional quality (e. Sportswear of brand is durable. Thank you!! Have a great day. The brand reflects my own personality. The brand name is selected regardless of price. (Strongly Disagree = 1. Disagree = 2. Styles of the brand of sportswear are suitable for me. The prestigious brand name and image attract me to purchase from the brand. Styles of the brand of sportswear have distinctive features. Agree = 3. The brand has sufficient colour choice of sportswear I need. waterproof. light weight). 13. Styles of the brand of sportswear are trendy and fashionable.g. Disagree Agree Strongly Agree Disagree Agree Strongly Agree Disagree Agree Strongly Agree 22 . Brand Name Strongly Disagree The brand is reputable. breathable.
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