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I NSTITUTE OF E NERGY T ECHNOLOGY

VECTOR CONTROL OF PMSG FOR GRID-CONNECTED WIND TURBINE APPLICATIONS

C ONDUCTED BY GROUP W PS4 1050 S PRING S EMESTER , 2009

Institute of Energy Technology Pontoppidanstrde 101 Phone number 96 35 92 40 Fax 98 15 14 11 http://www.iet.aau.dk/

Title: Vector control of PMSG for gridconnected wind turbine applications Semester: 4th Semester, Spring 2009 Semester Theme: Masters thesis Project period: 02.02.09 to 03.06.09 ECTS: 30 Project group: W PS4 1050 Members:

Abstract:

Daryoush Mehrzad

Javier Luque

Marc Capella Cuenca

Supervisor: Mihai Ciobotaru / Florin Iov Number of prints: 6 Number of pages: 87 Finished: 03.06.2009

Nowadays, wind energy is a promising alternative to the traditional energy sources. Due to the increasing wind power penetration, the improvements of the control strategies become a new challenge for the manufacturers in order to comply with the grid interconnection requirements. This project focuses on the control of the grid side converter which let the full controllability of the DC-link voltage and the reactive power delivered to the grid. Synchronous and stationary reference frame control strategies are implemented to control the power converter. Modeling and simulation of the grid side of the wind turbine system are performed. MATLAB/Simulink has been used to implement the models. Different tests have been done in order to analyze the control system. In addition, a small scale version of the system has been implemented for the laboratory. Two different control strategies are compared and the results are veried in the laboratory.

By signing this document, each member of the group conrms that all participated in the project work and thereby all members are collectively liable for the content of the report.

Preface
This 10th semester report is conducted at The Institute of Energy Technology in Aalborg University. It is written by group WPS4-1050 during the period from 2nd of February to 3rd of June 2009. The project theme with the title "Vector control of PMSG for grid-connected wind turbine applications" is the continuation of the 9th semester project which was proposed by SIEMENS Wind Power. The motivation of choosing this project is the increasing wind energy penetration into the power networks and therefore the necessity to implement proper control systems. The authors are especially grateful to Mihai Ciobotaru, the supervisor of this project, which provided great help to the development of this work. Furthermore the help of Florin Iov is appreciated. We also acknowledge the help of our college Anca Maria Julean.

Nomenclature
List of symbols

Vdc C Da , Db and Dc vab , vbc and vca ia , ib and ic iDC ha (t), hb (t) and hc (t) vre f v1 and v2 SA , SB and SC Lfi Rfi Lfg Rfg Cf Rd Vi VPCC ii ig VH VL IH IL NH NL k Lm P Q Pt Pg

DC-link voltage DC-link Capacitance switching status of inverter Line to line voltages of the power inverter Line output currents of the power inverter DC current signal gates Voltage reference Adjacent voltages of vre f Duty cycles Filter inductance inverter side Filter resistance inverter side Filter inductance grid side Filter resistance grid side Filter Capacitance Capacitor resistance Per phase voltage of inverter Voltage at the PCC Inverter current Grid current Voltage at high side of the transformer Voltage at low side of the transformer Current at high side of the transformer Current at low side of the transformer Number of turns at high side of the transformer Number of turns at low side of the transformer transformation ratio of the transformer mutual inductance between primary and secondary sides of transformer Active power Reactive power Wind turbine side power Grid side power

[V] [F] [0 1] [V] [V] [A] [0 1] [V] [V] [] [H] [ohm] [H] [ohm] [F] [ohm] [V] [V] [A] [A] [V] [V] [A] [A] [] [] [] [H] [W] [W] [W] [W]

III

vd vq id iq grid Kp Ti Ka e(t) Kpv Kpc Tsw m Ts Tpwm fs

dq-axis voltages dq-axis currents PLL output angle grid angle grid angular frequency Proportional gain Integral time Anti-windup gain error in time domain Proportional gain of voltage controller Proportional gain of current controller Switching period Modulation index Period of the sampling frequency Period of the switching frequency of the PWM Sampling frequency

[V] [A] [rad] [rad] [rad/s] [] [] [] [] [] [] [s] [] [s] [s] [Hz]

IV

Abbreviations
PMSG DC SV M V SC AC IGBT PCC p.u. PW M PI PID B2B PS UHF ULF PLL PR DPGS GUI Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator Direct Current Space Vector Modulation Voltage Source Converter Alternative Current Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor Point Common Coupling per unit value Pulse Width Modulation Proportional Integral controller Proportional Integral Derivative controller Back to Back Phase shift Upper limit full load Lower limit full load Phase Locked Loop Proportional Resonant Distributed Power Generation Systems Graphical User Interface

Contents
1 Introduction 1.1 Background . . . . 1.2 Problem denition 1.3 Project goals . . . . 1.4 Project limitations . 1.5 Project outline . . . 1 1 2 2 2 3 5 5 5 7 10 14 14 19 19 20 23 25 26 27 39 39 60 81 81 83 87 90 90 91 92 93 94 VII

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System description and implementation 2.1 Premise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2 Power converter . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3 Space Vector Modulation . . . . . . 2.4 Grid Connection . . . . . . . . . . . 2.5 Wind turbine system . . . . . . . . 2.6 Grid Requirements . . . . . . . . . Control of the system 3.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . 3.2 Grid side converter control 3.3 Phase Locked Loop. . . . . 3.4 PI controllers . . . . . . . 3.5 PR controllers . . . . . . . 3.6 Tuning of the controllers .

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Simulation and analysis 4.1 Simulation and analysis of 2.4 MW model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2 Analysis and comparison of 11 kW model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Experimental setup 5.1 Setup description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2 Study cases and results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Conclusions

A Matlab models A.1 Voltage Source Converter model A.2 Space Vector Modulation model A.3 Grid model . . . . . . . . . . . A.4 PLL tuning model . . . . . . . . A.5 dq and control models . . . .

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CONTENTS

A.6 Complete model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B Project proposal

96 97

VIII

CONTENTS

Introduction
In this chapter, the background gives to the reader a general vision of the project. The problem is dened, the goals are listed, project limitations are mentioned and nally the project outline summarizes the structure and content of the report.

1.1

Background

The renewable energy sources are one of the biggest concerns of our times. High prices of oil and global warming make the fossil fuels less and less attractive solutions. Wind power is a very important renewable energy source. It is free and not polluter unlike the traditional fossil energy sources. It obtains clean energy from the kinetic energy of the wind by means of the wind turbine. The wind turbine transforms the kinetic wind energy into mechanical energy through the drive train and then into electrical energy by means of the generator. Although the principles of wind turbines are simple, there are still big challenges regarding the efciency, control and costs of production and maintenance.Wind power is growing and most of the wind turbine manufactures are developing new larger wind turbines. The power of wind turbines built in 1980 was 50 kW and the rotor diameter was 15 m long. In 2003 they had the power of 5 MW and the size of the rotor diameter was 124 m [7]. There are different wind turbine congurations. They can have or not gearbox, the generator can be synchronous or asynchronous and nally the connection with the grid can be through a power converter or be directly connected. Different modes of operation can be used depending on the wind turbine conguration. They are classied in variable-speed and xed-speed. For xed-speed operation, the system is very simple and thus the cost is usually low. As a drawback, the conversion efciency is far from optimal. Normally an asynchronous generator is used and it is directly connected to the grid. For the variable-speed operation, maximum efciency is obtained; the system is controlled to maximize the power extracted from the wind. Normally they are connected to the grid by means of a power converter. It increases the cost of the whole system but allows full controllability of the system. Among all these congurations, the trend is to use variable-speed wind turbines because they offer more efciency and control exibility which is becoming very important to comply with the grid requirements. Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator, (PMSG), is an interesting solution which is based on variable-speed operation. Since the speed of wind turbine is variable, the generator is controlled by power electronic devices. With permanent magnets there is no need for a DC excitation system. With a multipole synchronous generator it is possible to operate at low speeds and without gearbox. Therefore the losses and maintenance of the gearbox are avoided. The generator is directly connected to the grid through a full scale back-to-back power converter. The power converter decouples the generator from the grid. With a full scale power converter, there are more losses which may be a drawback but it allows a full controllability of the system. With the use of the power converter it is possible to comply with the grid connection requirements. 1

1.2 Problem denition

The full scale back-to-back converter can be divided in two parts: the generator side converter and the grid side converter. The generator side converter is mainly used to control the speed of the generator in order to maximize the output power at low wind speeds. The grid side converter is mainly used to keep the voltage in the DC-link capacitor constant and also to control the reactive power delivered to the grid. Nowadays different techniques are used to control the grid side converters. In this project vector control has been used.

1.2

Problem denition

The amount of wind energy supplied to the electrical network is considerably increasing, therefore having an efcient and a reliable control system is very important. Modeling the power system and performing the simulation helps to have a better understanding of the system. Furthermore in this way is possible to avoid any damage to the equipment. In the rst part of the project, 9th semester, the focus was on the speed control of the PMSG and to maximize the obtained power. In this project, 10th semester, the focus is on the control of the grid side converter, in order to control the power delivered to the grid and to comply with the grid requirements. PMSG studied in the previous project works in variable speed range and it is connected to a full scale power converter. The power converter is controlled so that the output power is maximized and the power delivered to the grid complies with the interconnection requirements. Consequently it is clear the importance of an efcient control strategy. This is very much important especially in the case of wind power applications in which the wind varies quickly and in an unpredictable way. With a full scale back-to-back power converter is possible to have the generator running at any speed within some certain range and to have a xed frequency on the grid side.

1.3

Project goals

The main goals of this project are described below. Implementation of the grid side converter control strategies and the analysis and comparison between dq and reference frame; Analysis of the behavior of the grid side of the wind turbine system under different grid conditions considering the grid connection requirements; The implementation in the laboratory and the analysis and verication of the results by scaling down of the wind turbine system.

1.4

Project limitations

The most important limitations of this project are described below. The exact parameters of some of the components of the 2.4 MW system, such as the lter, transformer and grid were estimated due to the fact that no data was available. The laboratory work cannot be carried out in the same power range. Only the power ow study cases have been analyzed in the laboratory. In the modeling and simulations, some components such as converter, transformer are considered as ideal. 2 1. Introduction

1.5 Project outline

1.5

Project outline

This project studies the grid side connection of a large wind power system. All of the components of the systems are implemented by MATLAB/Simulink software. Finally the the model is scaled down for the laboratory tests. The system implementation chapter describes the components of the system. The generator is connected to the grid through a back-to-back converter, a lter and a transformer. The basics of each one are explained by means of the main equations and schemes. Finally this chapter ends with an overview of the Danish grid codes. The control system chapter describes the two main control strategies used in the project. Later the method used to synchronize the grid voltage with the control is explained and tested. Finally, the procedure to tune the controllers in both strategies is explained and the obtained results are shown. The analysis and simulation chapter is composed of a 2.4 MW model which is analyzed according to grid requirements. Next, it will be shown the analysis and comparison of the two control strategies for a 11 kW model, ending with a table which shows which strategy suits better in each study case. The experimental setup chapter, shows the implementation of the control strategies in the laboratory setup and the analysis of the obtained results. Finally, the project ends with the conclusions and future work.

1. Introduction

1.5 Project outline

1. Introduction

System description

and implementation
In this chapter the main components of the system together with equations and schemes are explained. The system description contains the power converter, the Space Vector Modulation (SVM) and the components of the grid connection. Finally the chapter ends with the explanation of some grid requirements based on Danish grid codes.

2.1

Premise

The vector control of PMSG is divided in two parts, the generator side control and the grid side control by considering a constant value for the DC-link voltage. The scheme of the wind turbine system is shown in Fig. 2.1.
Wind Turbine Generator Side
Generator Side Converter Grid Side Converter

Grid Side
Grid Transformer Filter Voltage source

wind PMSG

AC

DC

PCC

Impedance

DC

AC

Pitch Control

Generator Side Control

Grid Side Control

Figure 2.1: Block diagram of PMSG based wind turbine.

In the rst semester of this academic year, the rst part, which includes is the generator side control, has been treated. The DC-link voltage has been considered constant [13]. In the second semester the grid side control is treated.

2.2

Power converter

Nowadays the Back-to-Back (B2B) converter is widely used in wind turbine applications. The B2B converter is composed by two identical Voltage Source Converters (VSC) and a capacitor which is connected in between them. The Fig. 2.2 depicts the B2B converter layout. As it can be seen in Fig. 2.2 the power ow can be bidirectional, either it can go to the generator or to the grid. Therefore the VSC can work as a rectier or as an inverter. At rst step the AC is converted to DC through the generator side converter. Next, the DC is converted to AC through the grid side converter. Therefore in this case the generator side converter works as a rectier and the grid side converter works as an inverter. The DC-link voltage must be higher than the peak main voltage and it is regulated by controlling the power ow to the AC grid. In fact one important 5

2.2 Power converter

Generator side converter AC Cdc + Vdc AC DC

Grid side converter AC

DC

AC

Figure 2.2: Back-to-Back converter.

property of the back-to-back converter is the possibility of fast control of the power ow [15]. With the generator side converter it is possible to control the torque and the speed of the generator, while the grid side converter keeps the DC-link voltage constant. The capacitor acts as lter for the voltage variations or ripple produced by the VSCs [3]. The equivalent circuit of a VSC is shown in Fig. 2.3. In the circuit there is a full-bridge converter having ideal IGBTs as devices switches. The switching status variable D can have two values, either 1 or 0. Conventionally in the conduction state the value of the switching function is 1 and in the block state its value is 0. Based on the state of the switches, the VSC can assume eight different congurations.

Grid side converter iDC +


DA DB DC ia B C -DA -DB -DC ib ic

Generator side converter AC CDC

Grid Filter Transformer Y impedance V. source


A

VDC

VON

Figure 2.3: Grid side VSC IGBTs.

Based on the equivalent circuit in Fig. 2.3, for a star connected transformer in the low voltage side, the line-to-line voltages are described by the equations 2.1-2.3. vAB = vAN vBN vBC = vBN vCN 6 (2.1) (2.2)

2. System description and implementation

2.3 Space Vector Modulation

vCA = vCN vAN vAN + vBN + vCN = 0

(2.3) (2.4)

The equation 2.4 is based on the assumption that the system is balanced. Next, the equation 2.5 shows the relation between phase voltages and the DC-link voltage. vAN DA (2.5) vBN = vDC DB vCN DC where vAN , vBN and vCN are the average phase voltages and DA , DB and DC are the switches status at each leg respectively. The voltage between the star connection point N and the neutral point 0 is dened as in the following: vDC 1 (vAN + vBN + vCN ) = (DA + DB + DC ) 3 3 Regarding the equations 2.1-2.3, the phase voltages can be written as follows [11]: vAN 1 0 1 vAB 1 0 vBC vBN = 1 1 3 vCN 0 1 1 vCA v0N = The current iDC is expressed in function of phase currents: iDC = (DA ia + DB ib + DC ic ) (2.8) (2.6)

(2.7)

Regarding the simulations in MATLAB/Simulink, the model of the converter has been taken from the Wind Turbine Blockset in MATLAB/Simulink [9]. In Fig. 2.4 it can be seen the black box of the VSC with its inputs and outputs. In order to complete a back-to-back converter, two VSC are put together through a DC-link. However, for the purpose of this project only the grid side converter is considered. The MATLAB/simulink model and the mask of the converter is represented

Dabc v DC iabc
VSC

i DC
v abc

Figure 2.4: Black box of VSC.

in appendix A.1. The modulation strategy used in this project is Space Vector Modulation (SVM) with Pulse-Width Modulation (PWM) which is explained in the following section.

2.3

Space Vector Modulation

The VSC requires switching status DA , DB and DC applied to the IGBT gates in order to control the power ow through the converter. SVM represents three-phase quantities as vectors in 2. System description and implementation 7

2.3 Space Vector Modulation

a two-dimensional - plane providing the duty cycles necessary for the control of the power ow through the converter. SVM is very suitable for eld-oriented control, since provides accurate control of voltage amplitude, frequency and phase within every switching period. Furthermore does not require separate modulators and calculation of zero-sequence signals as in third harmonic PWM and it has higher utilization of the DC voltage than the sinusoidal PWM method [12]. With SVM all three-phase waveforms are generated simultaneously which is a good advantage compared with when the phases are considered separately. The reference voltage vector is shown in the following equation: V re f = 2 0 van + 1 vbn + 2 vcn 3 (2.9)

3 where is - 1 +j 2 and van , vbn and vcn are the phase reference voltages. 2

Figure 2.5: State voltage vectors and V re f represented in sector 1 [9].

As mentioned in the previous section there are eight possible congurations for a three-leg VSC. Six of them produce a non-zero output voltage and the other two produce zero output voltage [16]. The six non-zero voltage vectors can be represented as shown in Fig. 2.5. Each voltage vector corresponds to a switch combination of the three switching status DA , DB and DC explained previously. In Fig. 2.5 are depicted the six state voltage vectors with the needed switching status to perform them. The areas between two state vectors are sectors, hence six sectors are present. In this way the output voltage of the converter could be represented by an equivalent rotating vector V re f with a counter clockwise direction, whose angle is represented by [16]. Fig. 2.6 shows the switching pattern for the rst sector. where Tsw is the switching period. T0 is the time period left from a half switching period used by the null voltage vectors. In sector 1 The pattern used is [0 0 0],[1 0 0], [1 1 0], [1 1 1] which reduces the number of switching commutations in each transition. The time duration equation is shown as follows: 8 2. System description and implementation

2.3 Space Vector Modulation

Figure 2.6: Switching pattern for the rst sector [9].

T0 Tsw = T1 T2 (2.10) 2 2 This reference voltage vector can be considered constant, for each switching period, if there is a high switching frequency. Finally, in Fig. 2.7 can be seen the three duty cycles a,b,c, in a complete period. The black box shows the inputs as voltages in - reference frame and vDC as well as the duty cycles as the outputs.

v* v DC

S abc
SVM

Duty cycles

v *

1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 0.8

0.81

0.82 Time [s]

0.83

0.84

Figure 2.7: Black box and the provided duty cycles from the SVM.

In order to obtain the switching functions necessary to feed the VSC gates, PWM is necessary. PWM produces the gate signals or switching functions, by comparing the duty cycles with a carrier signal. In Fig 2.8 can be seen the black box of the PWM and the signal gates to apply the VSC.

1.5 Gate Signal leg A 1 0.5 0 -0.5 -1 -1.5 0.6 0.602 0.604 Time [s] 0.606 0.608 0.61

S abc
PWM

H abc

Figure 2.8: Black box and signal gates supplied by the PWM.

The Models of SVM and PWM are taken from the Wind Turbine Blockset in MATLAB/Simulink [9]. The subsystems of the models and the masks are shown in the Appendix A.2. 2. System description and implementation 9

2.4 Grid Connection

2.4

Grid Connection

When a considerable part of the electrical power is coming from the wind turbines, the network operators will have many technical and economical problems to manage the system. Therefore it is clear that one of the important aspects of research must be concentrated on the grid interaction of the wind turbines. One of the main concerns of the network operators is the power quality which depends on what kind of sources are connected to the grid. The wind energy has to be grid compatible, because in any power system the operator has to control the frequency and the voltage. These are the most important grid connection requirements [9]. The scheme of the plant which represents the connection of the wind turbine to the grid starting from the grid side converter as shown in Fig. 2.9.
Grid Side Converter Grid Transformer Filter PCC Impedance Voltage source

DC

AC

Figure 2.9: The scheme of the plant.

The output currents of the grid side converter contain the ripple caused by the switching. Therefore, it has to pass through a lter in order to have a lower current THD (Total Harmonic Distortion). After the lter a transformer brings the voltage to a proper value for the connection to the transmission line.

2.4.1
L-lter

Filter

In case of a simple L-lter, it will be represented by an inductance and a small resistance which takes into account the losses of the inductance. The lter is shown in Fig. 2.10.
Grid Side Converter

DC

Lf

Rf If

VPCC

AC

Vf

PCC

Figure 2.10: The representation of the lter.

The phasorial equation is as the following: V f (t) = I f (t)( jL f + R f ) In s-domain the following expression is valid: V f (s) = I f (s)(sL f + R f ) The transfer function has the following expression: 10 2. System description and implementation (2.12) (2.11)

2.4 Grid Connection

F(s) =

1 (sL f + R f )

(2.13)

LCL-lter The lter scheme used to lter the grid currents is shown in Fig. 2.11.
Grid Side Converter

DC

Lfi

Rfi Ii Ig

Lfg

Rfg

VPCC

AC
Rd Vi Cf

PCC

Figure 2.11: LCL lter scheme.

Based on the Kirchhoff laws, the following equations can be written: Ii sL f i + R f i + Rd + 1 sC f 1 sC f Ig Rd + 1 sC f 1 sC f = Vi =0 (2.14) (2.15)

Ig sL f g + R f g + Rd +

Ii Rd +

The transfer function of the lter is obtained by operating with the equations 2.14 and 2.15 in I order to obtain H = out put = Vgi . The resulting transfer function is as follows: input
H= sRd C f + 1 R f g + Rd + s C f R f g R f i + R f g Rd + Rd R f i + L f g + L f i + R f g + R f i (2.16)

s3

L f g L f iC f

+ s2

L f g C f R f i + Rd + L f i C f

In this this lter conguration, there is a resonance frequency and it occurs when the impedance of the inductances becomes equal to the impedance of the capacitor. It can be calculated by using the following equation: res = Lfi + Lfg L f i L f gC f (2.17)

2.4.2

Transformer

At this point the voltage level has to be increased in order to be connected to the transmission line. Therefore a transformer is used and it is connected to the PCC (Point of Common Coupling). The ideal transformer has the following characteristics: VL = jLL IL + jLm IH 2. System description and implementation (2.18) 11

2.4 Grid Connection

VH = jLH IH + jLm IL

(2.19)

where LL and LH are the self-inductance of the primary and secondary. Lm is the mutual inductance between the primary and secondary. In this project the primary is considered to be the low voltage side and the secondary the high voltage side. Another important parameter of the transformer is the turn ratio k which is given by the following expression [15]: k= VH IL NH = = VL IH NL (2.20)

where NL and NH are the number of turns in the primary and secondary winding respectively. A more detailed representation of the transformer is the equivalent circuit of the linear transformer which is shown in Fig. 2.12.
IL RL LL LH RH IH

VL

RM

LM

VH

Figure 2.12: The equivalent circuit of the linear transformer.

In this report, for the simulations and calculations, all the plant parameters are considered on the low voltage side of the transformer. Fig. 2.13 shows the equivalent circuit of the linear transformer when the impedances of the high voltage side are brought on the low voltage side.
IL RL LL LH RH IH

VL

RM

LM

VH

Figure 2.13: The equivalent circuit of the linear transformer with all the parameters on the low voltage side.

The new values of the resistance and the inductance on the low voltage side are calculated in the following way: RH (2.21) k2 LH LH = 2 (2.22) k A three-phase transformer can be considered as three separate single-phase transformers. Furthermore, depending on the type of the connection of the windings in the primary and secondary, there are 4 different possibilities depending on if the connections are delta or star. Another important factor to consider is the phase shift that occurs in some of three-phase transformer connections which consists of a phase shift between the primary and secondary line-to-line voltages [3]. RH = 12 2. System description and implementation

2.4 Grid Connection

2.4.3

Grid

The grid can be presented with the Thevenin equivalent circuit. Each of the three phases can be presented by the equivalent circuit shown in Fig. 2.14. The equivalent impedance (R-L) takes into account the distribution lines.
Lg Ig Rg

VPCC

Vg

Figure 2.14: The equivalent Thevenin circuit representing the grid.

The voltage equation per phase can be written as follows: dIg +VPCC (2.23) dt where Vg is the grid voltage and Vpcc is the voltage of the PCC. When there is a connection to the grid many considerations have to be taken. There are important factors regarding the control of the important values and the grid requirements that regulate the operations. The amount of wind energy penetration in the network is always increasing which brings big challenges to grid operators. Especially with the growing of the big wind farms of large capacity, the network is more dependent on the wind energy which is uctuating and not completely predictable. Vg = Rg Ig + Lg For the simulations in MATLAB/Simulink, the model of the grid has been taken from the Wind Turbine Blockset in MATLAB/Simulink [9]. In Fig. 2.15 it can be seen the black box of the grid model with its inputs and outputs.

f
Grid model

V pcc

Phase

I abc

Figure 2.15: Black box of the grid model.

The inputs are A which is the amplitude of the grid voltage, f the frequency, phase the phase and Iabc the grid current. The output Vpcc is the voltage of the PCC. The MATLAB/simulink model and the mask of the grid model is represented in the appendix A.3. 2. System description and implementation 13

2.5 Wind turbine system

2.5

Wind turbine system

Finally, all Simulink models explained through this chapter has been connected in order to build the grid side wind turbine model and therefore to be able to perform the simulations and analysis of the system. The SVM and PWM models are included in the grid side controller. The model is shown in Fig. 2.16.

GRID

Vw
Wind

Twt Vw
Wind Turbine

m
Drive-train PMSG

wt

wt

v abc
Filter

PITCH CONTROL

v abc

iabc i DC v DC
DC Link

v abc

iabc

VSC

v DC

i DC

VSC

Pe

habc
GENERATOR SIDE CONVERTER CONTROL

habc
GRID SIDE CONVERTER CONTROL

~ Vw m

isd isq

v DC

iabc

v abc

Figure 2.16: Complete model of the system.

The layout of the complete model in MATLAB/Simulink is shown in Appendix A.6.

2.6

Grid Requirements

In this section the interconnection requirements based on the Danish grid codes will be explained. Topics that will be treated are local frequency control, active and reactive power control, design voltages and frequencies, fault ride-through capability and nally power quality.

Local frequency control

Fig. 2.17 presents the frequency control characteristics. The continuous line shows the range where the wind turbine can operate. It can also be decided to set a down-regulation operation. The gure shows an example where it has been decided a 50% down-regulation. It means that under normal operation the wind turbine will deliver 50% of the rated power. If the network operator needs more power due to a frequency drop, the wind turbine can deliver more power in order to stabilize the frequency of the grid. It will act in the opposite way if the frequency of the grid increases. Dead-band is the frequency between 49.85 and 50.15 Hz. 14 2. System description and implementation

2.6 Grid Requirements

Figure 2.17: Frequency control characteristics [8].

Active and reactive power In Fig. 2.18 the blue band represents the working zone of the wind turbine. Depending on the active power production, the reactive power has to be between -0.1 and 0.1 in p.u. values.

Figure 2.18: The reactive power exchange between the wind turbine and grid [8].

Design voltages and frequencies A wind turbine has to be designed to give power for voltages and frequencies as it is shown in Fig. 2.19. It is observed that a wind turbine will be working in normal operation when the values of frequency are between 47 and 53 Hz and the voltage values are between 95% and a bit above 105%. If in some moment the frequency and voltage values change and go out of the above mentioned range, the wind turbine will be disconnected from electrical network after the time indicated in Fig. 2.19.

2. System description and implementation

15

2.6 Grid Requirements

Figure 2.19: Voltages versus frequencies for design a Wind Turbine [8].

Fault ride-through capability In normal operation a wind turbine will be disconnected from the grid when it will be working out of the white area, although, there is a vertical lines area where it is possible to choose if it will be or not disconnect of the grid, as it shown in Fig. 2.20.

Figure 2.20: Requirements for disconnection of wind turbines under voltage dips/sags [8].

In case of fault, a wind turbine shall not be disconnected from the electrical grid in the following situations because after the time of short circuit it will be working in a normal operation: 3-phase short-circuit for 100ms. 2-phase short-circuit with or without ground for 100ms followed after 300 500ms by a new short-circuit for 100ms. In Fig. 2.21 the following notation is used: UHF as the upper-limit full-load and ULF as the lower-limit full-load. A wind turbine should have sufcient capacity to satisfy the mentioned requirements for the next sequences: at least two 2-phase short-circuit within 2 minutes interval. at least two 3-phase short-circuit within 2 minutes interval. 16 2. System description and implementation

2.6 Grid Requirements

Figure 2.21: Fault ride-through capabilities of wind turbines connected to the distribution system [8].

For this case it is the same as before, after the time of short-circuit will be working in a normal operation. Voltage quality The limits of rapid voltage variations and long term icker severity for different levels of voltages are shown in Fig. 2.22.

Figure 2.22: Levels of voltage quality [8].

In Fig. 2.23 the limits which can not be exceeded when the wind turbine is connected are presented. The rst, third, ninth, fteenth and twenty-rst harmonics do not appear due to the fact that the generator is using delta connection.

Figure 2.23: Harmonics voltage level versus harmonic order [8].

So far the main components of the system have been explained, grid connection requirements according to danish grid codes have been included and they will be taken into consideration in the chapter 4. The following chapter will explain the grid side converter control. 2. System description and implementation 17

2.6 Grid Requirements

18

2. System description and implementation

Control of the system

In this chapter two types of grid control strategies are explained. Then the PLL method to synchronize the control with the grid is introduced and tested. Finally, the PI and PR controllers as well as the process of tunning are described.

3.1

Introduction

The control system is an important issue for the wind turbine performance. It maximizes the extracted power from the wind through all the components and also makes sure that the delivered power to the grid complies with the interconnection requirements. The control strategies are applied in different parts of the wind turbine and they have different aims. The general control scheme is shown in Fig. 3.1.
Generator Side Converter Grid Side Converter

wind PMSG

AC

DC

Filter

PCC

DC
I
v DC

AC
I

Control Generator Side

Control Grid Side

m
* m * PG

CONVERTER CONTROL
* v DC
* QG

Pitch Control

Speed Control Power Control WIND TURBINE CONTROL

VDC and Q Control

PPCC QPCC
VPCC

Figure 3.1: General control scheme [7].

One of the control strategies is located in the rotor blades. This control modies the angle of attack of the rotor blades so that the output power of the wind turbine can be controlled. This is performed by the pitch control technique. The other control strategy is applied to the converter. The PMSG is driven by advanced power electronics. A back-to-back VSC is used to connect the generator to the grid and it allows the full controllability of the system. It can be divided in two parts: the generator side and the grid side. Both have different purposes. The rst one controls the speed of the rotor so that the power is maximized. The second one controls the voltage on the DC-link and also the reactive power delivered to the grid. This project will focus on the control of the grid side converter. 19

3.2 Grid side converter control

3.2

Grid side converter control

There are different control strategies used to perform the control of the grid side converter. They all are focused on the same topics: the control of the DC-link voltage, active and reactive power delivered to the grid, grid synchronization and to ensure high quality of the injected power [2]. They can be classied depending on the reference frame used in the control structure. They are shown in Fig. 3.2. In this project the focus is on the synchronous and stationary reference frame control strategies.

VECTOR CONTROL

SYNCHRONOUS REFERENCE FRAME CONTROL

STATIONARY REFERENCE FRAME CONTROL

NATURAL REFERENCE FRAME CONTROL

Figure 3.2: Classication of grid side converter control strategies.

In both cases, the control strategy contains two cascaded loops. The inner loops control the grid currents and the outer loops control the DC-link voltage and the reactive power. The current loops are responsible of the power quality, thus harmonic compensation can be added to the action of the current controllers to improve it. The outer loops regulate the power ow of the system by controlling the active and reactive power delivered to the grid [2]. The strategy used to control the power ow in both cases is the same. The equations of the active and reactive power in dq-reference frame assuming that the reference frame is oriented along the supply voltage are [5]: 3 (vd id ) (3.1) 2 3 Q = (vd iq ) (3.2) 2 Equations 3.1 and 3.2 show how to control the active and reactive power. It can be seen that by changing the d and q-components of the current, the active and reactive power are controlled respectively. Basically, the aim of the control is to transfer all the active power produced by the wind turbine to the grid and also to produce no reactive power so that unity power factor is obtained, unless the grid operator requires reactive power compensation. In order to transfer all the active power generated by the wind turbine the DC-link voltage must remain constant. It can be derived from the following equation [1]: P= C Pg dvDC Pt = dt vDC vDC (3.3)

where subscript g refers to the grid and t to the wind turbine. If the two powers, the wind turbine and the grid, are equal there will be no change in the DC-link voltage and all the power will be transferred to the grid.

20

3. Control of the system

3.2 Grid side converter control

The difference between the two control schemes is in the inner loops where they use different reference frames to perform the current control. In the rst case, the currents are controlled in the synchronous rotating reference frame using PI controllers. In the second case the currents and voltages are transformed into the stationary reference frame and PR controllers are used instead. The structure of the synchronous rotating reference frame control is shown in Fig. 3.3.

vd

va
PLL

vb vc

dq

vq
abc

id vd
* vDC
* id

Filter

dq

ia ib ic

iq
abc

PI

PI

* vd

vDC

id

iq
id

dq SVM PWM

Q*

2 3vd

* iq

PI

* vq

vq

vDC

vDC

iq

PMSG

Figure 3.3: General structure for synchronous rotating reference frame control [2].

This is the classical control structure, it is also known as dq-control. It transforms the grid voltages and currents from the abc to the dq reference frame. In this way the variables are transformed to DC values which can be controlled more easely. This structure uses PI controllers since they have good performance for controlling DC variables. In the output of the current controllers, cross-coupling term and voltage feed-forward are added to improve the response of the system. The resultant value is the voltage reference for the SVM technique [2]. The structure of the stationary reference frame control is shown in Fig. 3.4. In this second case, the voltages and currents are transformed from abc to reference frame. In this reference frame, the variables are sinusoidal instead of constant. Therefore, as the PI controllers are not able to remove the steady-state error, PR controllers are used instead. With the PR 3. Control of the system 21

3.2 Grid side converter control

va
PLL

vb vc

v
abc

i
* vDC

Filter

ia
ib ic

i
PI
* id * i

abc PR

dq

vDC

* v

SVM

PWM

Q*

2 3vd

* iq

* i

PR

* v

vDC
i

vDC

PMSG

Figure 3.4: General structure for stationary reference frame control [2].
w controllers the feed-forwardVis not needed [2].

m
Wind Turbine

* vsd

wt

Speed controller Twt The implementation of the two control strategies have been done in MATLAB/Simulink as the rest * isd vsq of the models. The control has been modeled based on the theoretical explanation seen previously isq in this section. The box which contains the model is presented in Fig. 3.5. The subsystem of the model is shown in Appendix A.5.

v DC

Twt
Drive Train Model

wt

i ABC
Control model

Te

gate _ signals

v ABC

Enable

Figure 3.5: Dq and control models.

The model has as inputs, the voltage of the DC-link vDC , the grid currents iABC , the grid voltages vABC and the enable signal. The output is the gate signals that will feed the power converter. 22 3. Control of the system

3.3 Phase Locked Loop.

3.3

Phase Locked Loop.

Nowadays, Distributed Power Generation Systems (DPGS) have to synchronize the injected current with utility voltage in order to comply with required grid codes [8]. There are many methods used so far, zero-crossing method, ltering of grid voltages and nally, Phase Locked Loop (PLL) method. The criterion to chose a suitable method is based on the best response in front of grid disturbances, for instance notches, harmonics and voltage drops [2]. PLL can be described basically as a device which is used to obtain the phase angle from the grid voltages. PLL output signal tracks the input one. Therefore PLL provides the inverter with frequency and phase angle. The purpose of that is to synchronize the inverter current angle with the grid voltage angle in order to obtain a power factor as close to 1 as possible. In Fig. 3.6 the PLL diagram is shown.

v*q = 0
PI

grid
1 Kp1 + Ts i

va

abc

vq

vb
vc
dq

1 s

vd

Figure 3.6: PLL diagram block.

The inputs of the PLL model are the grid phase voltages and the output is the tracked phase angle. The Vq component is nothing but symbolic, to make clear that the reference of q-axis voltage is set to zero, which locks the grid voltage phase. PLL model is implemented in dq synchronous reference frame which means that a Park transform from abc to dq reference frame is needed. The Park transform requires the output angle in order to synchronize the dq reference frame. A PI is used to control the system by reducing to zero the difference between the sinus of grid phase angle () and inverter phase angle based on equation 3.4. Therefore the value of Vq is equal to zero and Vd is the positive voltage magnitude [10]. The magnitude of the controlled variable Vq determines the phase difference between the grid voltage and the inverter phase angle. Hence the PI input is Vq [19].

sin( ) = =

(3.4)

This approximation made in the previous equation linearizes the function of the sinus and it is reliable when and are almost equal. In other words, for small values of .

3. Control of the system

23

3.3 Phase Locked Loop.

The transfer function of the PLL is of second order as shown in the following expression: H(s) = Kp s + K ip inv T = 2 + K s + Kp s p Ti (3.5)

Some components have been set to tune the PI controller. The desired settling time is to be around 1 two periods of the grid frequency, 0.04s, and the damping ratio = 2 . To obtain the parameters of the PI a MATLAB/simulink model has been implemented to design the PI as it is shown in Appendix A.4, which provides Kp and Ti in function of settling time and damping ratio [17]. Finally, Kp and Ti are obtained, whose values are Kp = 230 and Ti = 0.008693. To prove the reliability of the PLL some tests have been done by means of frequency and angle shift steps in the applied voltage grid. The response of the PLL is checked in time domain. The frequency of the grid is 50Hz and the voltage is changed at the time 0.1s from 50Hz to 51Hz by a step. The test of the PLL focuses on two responses, the frequency and the tetha angle.

a 51.5 Frequency [Hz] 51 50.5 50 49.5 0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 b 400 Angle [deg] 300 200 100 0 0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 c Error of angle [deg] 1.5 1 0.5 0 -0.5 0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 Time [s] 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.18 0.2 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.18 0.2 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.18 0.2

Figure 3.7: Frequency and angle response for 1Hz frequency step.

The analyzed time frame is 0.2s. Fig. 3.7.a. shows the frequency step as well as the response obtained by the PLL. It can be noticed that the transient time is 0.04s as it was set. Fig. 3.7.b. shows the angle of the grid voltages and the angle provided by the PLL by cycles from zero to 360 degrees. Both curves are almost overlapped due to the small difference between both angles. Therefore Fig. 3.7.c. is attached to show the small error between both angles previously called . 24 3. Control of the system

3.4 PI controllers

a 400 Angle [deg] 300 200 100 0 100 50 0 -50 0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 b 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.18 0.2

Error of angle [deg]

0.02

0.04

0.06

0.08

0.1 Time [s]

0.12

0.14

0.16

0.18

0.2

Figure 3.8: angle and responses.

Fig. 3.8 is composed by two graphs. In Fig. 3.8.a. it can be seen the angle shift applied in the voltage utility. At the time 0.11s, a 60 degrees step is shown as well as the angle tracking this step. Fig. 3.8.b. shows the error between both angles (). The shift angle starts from 60 degrees at the time 0.11s and responds according to the settling time.

3.4

PI controllers

The PI (proportional-integral) algorithm computes and transmits a signal which is desired to be controlled. The computed output signal o (t) from the PI depends on the parameters, which are the proportional gain Kp , the integral time Ti and the error e (t). Fig 3.9 shows the general scheme of the PI controller [14].

Signalreference

e(t )

1 K p 1 + Ts i
PI

o(t )

Signalreal
Figure 3.9: General scheme of the PI controller.

The proportional gain Kp makes a change to the output that is proportional to the current error value. If the value of the proportional gain is too high, the system can become unstable. On the other hand, a small value gives a small output response to a large input error making the controller less sensitive. A pure proportional controller would not be able to drive the signal at its target value. There would remain a steady state error usually called offset. In order to make the offset zero, the integral term is needed.

3. Control of the system

25

3.5 PR controllers

The integral term contribution is proportional to the magnitude and the duration of the error. The integral gives the accumulated offset which is then multiplied by the inverse of the integral time and added to the controller output. The magnitude of the contribution of the integral term to the overall control action is determined by the integral time Ti . The integral term accelerates the response of the controller and eliminates the residual steady-state error that occurs with a pure proportional controller. However, since the integral term is responding to accumulated errors from the past, it can cause the present value to overshoot the reference value.

3.5

PR controllers

In the stationary reference frame control, the grid currents are transformed into reference frame. In this case the variables are sinusoidal, thus PI controller cannot be used due to the fact that they are not able to track a sinusoidal reference without a steady state error. Therefore, another controller must be used instead. Proportional Resonant (PR) controllers has gained a large popularity for current regulation of the grid-tied systems [2]. The general scheme of the PR controller is shown in Fig. 3.10.

PR

i* Kp i

v*

Ki s s2 + 2

Figure 3.10: Structure of the PR controller [2].

In the scheme shown in Fig. 3.10, is the resonance frequency of the controller, Kp and Ki are the proportional gain and the integral gain respectively. This controller has a very high gain around the resonance frequency which it eliminates the steady state error between the reference and the measured signal. The width of the frequency band around the resonance point depends on the integral gain value. A small value produce a very narrow band, whereas a large value produce a wider band [2] [20]. The Bode plots of the resonant controller for different integral gains Ki and set to 50Hz as shown in Fig. 3.11. Harmonic compensation can also be easily implemented by adding to the PR controller several generalized integrators tuned at the frequency of the harmonics which have to be compensated. The transfer function of the harmonic compensator for the 3rd , 5th and 7th would be as follows [20]: Ghc =

h=3,5,7

Kih

s s2 + (h)2

(3.6)

26

3. Control of the system

3.6 Tuning of the controllers


Bode Diagram 350 300 Magnitude (dB) 250 200 150 100 50 0 -270 -315 -360 -405 -450 10
Ki=100 Ki=500 Ki=1500 Ki=3000

Phase (Deg)

10

10 Frequency (Hz)

10

Figure 3.11: Bode plot of the PR controller.

3.6

Tuning of the controllers

In this section, the tunning and analysis of the controllers and the plants for the 2.4 MW and 11kW are carried out.

3.6.1

2.4 MW model

In the dq-control scheme, the parameters of the three controllers have to be tuned in order to get a good performance of the system. In this case, the current controllers are tuned based on the design criterion called optimal modulus. The outer loop is tuned according to the design criterion called symmetry optimum. After the tuning calculations, the Matlab Sisotool is used to test, verify and adjust, if necessary, the values obtained in the analytical calculations.

D-axis control loop The control loop system of d-axes is shown in Fig. 3.12, where two controllers are present. One controller is for the outer loop which is the DC-link voltage loop and the other is for the inner loop, which is the current loop. For the tuning of the PI, the compensation term and the voltage feed-forward are considered as disturbances and are neglected. However, both terms will denitely improve the dynamic of the system when they are included after the tuning process. Firstly, the inner current loop is considered. The following blocks are present in the current loop: PI controller with the following transfer function: GPI = Kp 1 + T1s = Kp i Sampling time Ts which frequency fs is 10kHz. Plant with Te =
L R Ti s+1 Ti s

The inner loop block can be moved as shown in Fig. 3.13 [4].

3. Control of the system

27

3.6 Tuning of the controllers

* vDC

* id

* vd

PI
vDC id

PI

1 Ls + R
Plant

id

1 Cs

vDC

1 Ts s + 1
Inner currrent loop Sampling

1 Ts s + 1
Outer DC-link voltage loop Sampling

Figure 3.12: Block diagram of d-axis control loop.

G1

* id

* vd

PI
id

1 Ls + R
Plant

1 Ts s + 1
Sampling

id
Ts s + 1

Figure 3.13: Block diagram of the current loop.

The G1 transfer function is: G1 = Kpc


1 Tic s + 1 R 1 L Tic s R s + 1 Ts s + 1

(3.7)

The transfer function can be simplied as follows [4]: G1 = Kpc 1 Ke Tic s + 1 Tic s T 1 s + 1 Te s + 1 (3.8)

1 L where Ke = R , Te = R and T 1 = Ts . Based on the optimal modulus, the next relation is satised [4]:

Kpc

Tic s + 1 1 Ke 1 = Tic s T 1 s + 1 Te s + 1 2T 1 s (T 1 s + 1)

(3.9)

Therefore, by comparing the two sides of the equation 3.9, the proportional gain and the integral time of the controller can be calculated with the following equations: Tic = Te = 28 L R (3.10) 3. Control of the system

3.6 Tuning of the controllers

and Kpc =

Te 2T 1 Ke

L 2T 1 = 0.1238 and Tic =


24.768e6 0.8e3

(3.11) = 0.031.

Using the values of each variable, yields Kpc =

24.768e6 20.1e3

Sisotool has been used to verify the performance of the current controller where these parameters are used. Root locus, bode diagram and the step response are used to analyze the performance of the controller. The root locus as well as the bode diagram are shown in Fig. 3.14.
Root Locus Editor for Open Loop 1 (OL1) 5000 0.94 0.86 0.76 0.64 0.5 0.34 0.16 60 40 20 800 600 400 200 0 -20 -40 0.86 -8000 0.76 -6000 0.64 -4000 0.5 0.34 0.16 -2000 0 -60 G.M.: Inf Freq: Inf Stable loop -80 -90 Open-Loop Bode Editor for Open Loop 1 (OL1)

0.985 0 4e+003 1.2e+003 1e+003

0.985

0.94 -5000 -10000 10 0 -10 -20 0

Bode Editor for Closed Loop 1 (CL1)

-135

-45 P.M.: 65.5 deg Freq: 724 Hz -90 0 10 10


1

10 Frequency (Hz)

10

10

-180 10

10

10 10 Frequency (Hz)

10

10

Figure 3.14: Root locus and bode diagrams of the current controller design.

The location of the poles gives a damping of 0.707 which is the standard value. The phase and gain margin are 65.5 degrees and innite respectively, thus the loop is stable. The step response is shown in Fig. 3.15. The overshoot is 6.7% and the settling time is 0.746 ms.
1.4 Step Response System: Closed Loop r to y I/O: r to y Peak amplitude: 1.07 Overshoot (%): 6.7 At time (sec): 0.000466

1.2

System: Closed Loop r to y I/O: r to y Settling Time (sec): 0.000746

Amplitude

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.2

0.4

0.6 Time (sec)

0.8

1.2 x 10
-3

Figure 3.15: Step response of the current controller design.

Therefore Sisotool has veried the values obtained with the the analytical calculations. Once the parameters of the controller have been found and veried in s-domain, the block diagram has been changed to z-domain. The parameters of the controller have been readjusted using the 3. Control of the system 29

3.6 Tuning of the controllers

graphical tuning in Sisotool. The new value of the proportional gain is Kpc = 0.0602, the integral time remains equal, thus Tic = 0.031. The root locus as well as the bode diagram are shown in Fig. 3.16.
Root Locus Editor for Open Loop 1 (OL1) 1 3.5e3 0.5 4e3 4.5e3 0 5e3 5e3 4.5e3 -0.5 4e3 3.5e3 -1 -1 10 0 -10 -20 0 -90 -180 -270 0 10 3e3 -0.5 2.5e3 0 2e3 0.5 1 1.5e3 1e3 3e3 2.5e3 2e3 60 50 1e3 500 40 30 20 500 10 0 -10 G.M.: 12.3 dB -20 Freq: 1.3e+003 Hz Stable loop -30 -90 -135 -180 -225 -270 -315 -360 P.M.: 61.9 deg Freq: 378 Hz -405 10
0

Open-Loop Bode Editor for Open Loop 1 (OL1)

0.1 1.5e3 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9

Bode Editor for Closed Loop 1 (CL1)

10

10 Frequency (Hz)

10

10

10

10 Frequency (Hz)

10

10

Figure 3.16: Root locus and bode diagrams of the current controller design.

The location of the poles gives a damping of 0.707 which is the standard value. The phase and gain margin are 61.9 degrees and 12.3dB respectively, thus the loop is stable also in z-domain. The step response is shown in Fig. 3.17. The overshoot is 5.17% and the settling time is 1.19ms.
1.4 Step Response System: Closed Loop r to y I/O: r to y Peak amplitude: 1.05 Overshoot (%): 5.17 At time (sec): 0.0008

1.2

System: Closed Loop r to y I/O: r to y Settling Time (sec): 0.00119

Amplitude

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.5

1 Time (sec)

1.5

2.5 x 10
-3

Figure 3.17: Step response of the current controller design.

Once the controller values for the inner loop are found, the outer loop can be tuned. First the inner closed loop transfer function is found [4]: G= Ts s + 1 2 2T 1 s2 + 2T 1 s + 1 1 Ts s + 1 2T 1 s + 1 (3.12)

After nding the values for the current loop, the block diagram is shown in Fig. 3.18. 30 3. Control of the system

3.6 Tuning of the controllers

* vDC

* id

PI
vDC

Ts s + 1 2T 1 s + 1
Current closed loop

id

1 Cs

vDC

1 Ts s + 1
Sampling

Figure 3.18: DC-link voltage loop block diagram.

The blocks can be moved as shown in Fig. 3.19.


G2

* vDC

* id

PI
vDC

Ts s + 1 2T 1s + 1
Current closed loop

id

1 Cs

1 Ts s + 1
Sampling

vDC
Ts s + 1

Figure 3.19: Equivalent DC-link voltage loop block diagram.

The G2 transfer function is: G2 = Kpv Tiv s + 1 Ts s + 1 1 1 Tiv s 2T 1 s + 1 Cs Ts s + 1 (3.13)

The transfer function can be simplied as follows [4]: G2 = Kpv 1 Tiv s + 1 Tiv s Cs (T 2 s + 1) (3.14)

where T 2 = 2T 1 + Ts Ts . Now, based on the symmetry optimum, the next relation is satised [4]: Kpv Tiv s + 1 1 4T 2 s + 1 = 2 s2 (T s + 1) Tiv s Cs (T 2 s + 1) 8T 2 2 (3.15)

Therefore, by comparing the two sides of the equation 3.15, the proportional gain and the integral time of the controller can be calculated with the following equations: Tiv = 4T 2 and Kpv = TivC C = 2 8T 2 2T 2
0.232 20.2e3

(3.16) (3.17)

Using the values of each variable yields Kpv =

= 580 and Tiv = 4 0.2e 3 = 0.8e 3.

As in the previous case, Sisotool has been used to verify the performance of the DC-link voltage controller. The root locus as well as the bode diagram are shown in Fig. 3.20. 3. Control of the system 31

3.6 Tuning of the controllers

Root Locus Editor for Open Loop 1 (OL1) 6000 0.945 4000 0.976 2000 0 -2000 -4000 0.945 -6000 -15000 20 0 -20 -40 -60 90 0 -90 -180 1 10 -180 10 -170 -160 -150 0.89 -10000 0.81 0.68 -5000 0.5 0.3 0 5000 20 0.994 2e+003 1.5e+003 0.994 0.976 1e+003 500 0 -20 -40 -60 0.89 0.81 0.68 0.5 0.3 60 40

Open-Loop Bode Editor for Open Loop 1 (OL1)

G.M.: -Inf dB -80 Freq: 0 Hz Stable loop -100 -140 P.M.: 36.9 deg Freq: 398 Hz

Bode Editor for Closed Loop 1 (CL1)

10

10 Frequency (Hz)

10

10

10

10 Frequency (Hz)

10

10

Figure 3.20: Root locus and bode diagrams of the DC-link voltage controller design.

The location of the poles gives a damping of 0.5 which is not a standard value. The position of the zero has been moved in order to modify the root locus of the system and thus to obtain a better damping. This has been carried out by using the graphical tuning in Sisotool. The new position of the zero gives a value of the integral time Tiv = 0.025. The new root locus as well as the bode diagram are shown in Fig. 3.21.
Root Locus Editor for Open Loop 1 (OL1) 3000 0.986 2000 0.994 1000 0 -1000 -2000 0.986 -3000 -15000 20 0 -20 -40 -60 90 0 -90 -180 0 10 -180 10 -150 -120 0.968 -10000 0.94 0.88 0.76 0.5 -5000 0 5000 -100 -90 P.M.: 64.5 deg Freq: 362 Hz -50 G.M.: -Inf dB Freq: 0 Hz Stable loop 0.999 2e+003 1.5e+003 0.999 0 0.994 1e+003 500 50 100 0.968 0.94 0.88 0.76 0.5 150 Open-Loop Bode Editor for Open Loop 1 (OL1)

Bode Editor for Closed Loop 1 (CL1)

10

10 10 Frequency (Hz)

10

10

-2

10

10 Frequency (Hz)

10

10

Figure 3.21: Root locus and bode diagrams of the DC-link voltage controller design.

The new location of the zeros and poles gives a damping of 0.707 which is the standard value. The phase and gain margin are 64.5 degrees and innite respectively, thus the loop is stable. The step response is shown in Fig. 3.22. The overshoot is 5.88% and the settling time is 1.97ms. 32 3. Control of the system

3.6 Tuning of the controllers


Step Response System: Closed Loop r to y I/O: r to y Peak amplitude: 1.06 Overshoot (%): 5.88 At time (sec): 0.00128

1.4

1.2

System: Closed Loop r to y I/O: r to y Settling Time (sec): 0.00197

Amplitude

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.5

1.5

2.5 Time (sec)

3.5

4.5 x 10

5
-3

Figure 3.22: Step response of the DC-link voltage controller design.

Therefore Sisotool has veried and improved the values obtained using the analytical calculations. As in the previous case, the block diagram has been changed to z domain. The parameters of the controller have been readjusted using the graphical tuning in Sisotool. The new value of the proportional gain is Kpc = 379.5, the integral time remains equal, thus Tiv = 0.025. The root locus as well as the bode diagram are shown in Fig. 3.23.
Root Locus Editor for Open Loop 1 (OL1) 1 3.5e3 0.5 4e3 4.5e3 0 5e3 5e3 4.5e3 -0.5 4e3 3.5e3 -1 -1 10 0 -10 -180 -20 -30 90 0 -90 -180 -270 0 10 10
1

Open-Loop Bode Editor for Open Loop 1 (OL1) 120 100 1e3 80 500 60 500 1e3 40 20 0 1 G.M.: 15.6 dB -20 Freq: 995 Hz Stable loop -40 -90 -135

3e3

2.5e3

2e3

0.1 1.5e3 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9

1.5e3 3e3 2.5e3 0 2e3 0.5

-0.5

Bode Editor for Closed Loop 1 (CL1)

-225 -270 -315 -360 P.M.: 61.5 deg Freq: 248 Hz -405 10
-2

10 Frequency (Hz)

10

10

10

10 Frequency (Hz)

10

Figure 3.23: Root locus and bode diagrams of the DC-link voltage controller design.

The new location of the poles gives a damping of 0.707 which is the standard value. The phase and gain margin are 61.5 degrees and 15.6dB respectively, thus the loop is stable also in z-domain. The step response is shown in Fig. 3.24. The overshoot is 7.1% and the settling time is 6.31ms.

3. Control of the system

33

3.6 Tuning of the controllers


Step Response System: Closed Loop r to y I/O: r to y Peak amplitude: 1.07 Overshoot (%): 7.1 At time (sec): 0.0015

1.4

1.2

System: Closed Loop r to y I/O: r to y Settling Time (sec): 0.00631

Amplitude

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.001

0.002

0.003

0.004

0.005 Time (sec)

0.006

0.007

0.008

0.009

0.01

Figure 3.24: Step response of the DC-link voltage controller design.

Q-axis control loop The q-axis control loop is simpler than the d-axis control loop. It only has a current loop. As the block diagram of the current controller is the same in both cases, the same values for the proportional gain and integral time have been used. The parameters for the current and DC-voltage controller have been found and analyzed using analytical and graphical approaches. The nal values used in the model are presented all together as a brief in the Fig. 3.25.

PI id

Kp 0.0602
0.0602 379.5

Ti 0.031 0.031 0.025

PI iq PIVDC

Figure 3.25: PI parameters for the current and DC-voltage controllers.

3.6.2

11 kW model

Comparing this model to the previous one, there are two big differences: the power converter model is fed with a switching signal instead of the average and in the plant an LCL lter is used instead of an L lter. These differences affect to the tunning of the controllers and so they have to be carefully analyzed. The LCL lter has a resonance frequency which can affect the performance of the system. The bode plot of the plant including the grid impedance is shown in Fig. 3.26. 34 3. Control of the system

3.6 Tuning of the controllers


Bode Diagram 50

Magnitude (dB)

-50

-100

Magnitude (dB): 7.87 Frequency (kHz): 2.39

-150 0 -45 Phase (deg) -90 -135 -180 -225 -270 10


-1 0 1 2 3 4 5

10

10

10

10 Frequency (Hz)

10

10

Figure 3.26: Bode plot of the LCL plant.

It can be seen that for this plant the resonance frequency is placed in 2.39kHz. Therefore the switching frequency must be two times bigger according to the Shannon limit. Before selecting the switching frequency, the tunning of the controllers have to be done. The same procedure as for the 2.4 MW model has been used. For the inner current loop the rst obtained values for the proportional gain and the integral time are Kpc = 17.75 and Tic = 0.047. The value of the integral time has been decreased to Tic = 0.01, in order to improve the dynamics of the system. Fig. 3.27 shows the different root locus of the system for different values of switching frequency.
5kHz 6kHz 7kHz

8kHz

9kHz

10kHz

Figure 3.27: Root locus of the system for different switching frequencies.

From the table, 7kHz has been chosen as the switching frequency of the model. The higher and 3. Control of the system 35

3.6 Tuning of the controllers

lower frequencies does not allow to tune the system in order to get a good performance. The root locus of the system and the bode diagram are shown in Fig. 3.28. The phase and gain margin are 59.7 and 7.66 degrees respectively, thus the loop is stable. The poles have been adjusted in order to get a damping of 0.707. The new value for the proportional gain is Kpc = 17.35.

Root Locus Editor for Open Loop 1 (OL1) 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 -0.2 -0.4 -0.6 -0.8 -1 -1 2.8e3 2.45e3 3.15e3 3.5e3 3.5e3 3.15e3 0.9 0.8 350 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 700 0.3 0.2 1.05e3 0.1 350 1.75e3 2.1e3 1.4e3 2.45e3 2.8e3 1.05e3 40 700 20 60

Open-Loop Bode Editor for Open Loop 1 (OL1)

0 G.M.: 7.66 dB Freq: 1.17e+003 Hz Stable loop -20 0 -90 -180 -270 -360 -450 -540 P.M.: 59.7 deg Freq: 397 Hz -630 10
-2

2.1e3 1.4e3 1.75e3 -0.5 0 Real Axis 0.5 1

10 10 Frequency (Hz)

10

Figure 3.28: Root locus and bode diagrams of the current controller design.

The step response of the system is shown in Fig. 3.29.

1.4

1.2

Step Response System: Closed Loop r to y I/O: r to y Peak amplitude: 1.11 Overshoot (%): 11.3 At time (sec): 0.000714

1 System: Closed Loop r to y I/O: r to y Settling Time (sec): 0.00174

Amplitude

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.5

1.5 Time (sec)

2.5

3.5 x 10
-3

Figure 3.29: Step response of the current controller design.

For the outer DC-link voltage loop the values of the proportional gain and the integral time are Kpv = 1.17 and Tiv = 0.02. After adjusting the Kpv = 1.01 in order to get a damping of 0.707, the root locus and the bode plots of the system are shown in Fig. 3.30. 36 3. Control of the system

3.6 Tuning of the controllers

Root Locus Editor for Open Loop 1 (OL1) 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 3.15e3 350 1.75e3 2.1e3 1.4e3 2.45e3 2.8e3 1.05e3 700 120 100 80 60 40

Open-Loop Bode Editor for Open Loop 1 (OL1)

3.5e3 0 3.5e3 -0.2 -0.4 -0.6 -0.8 -1 -1 2.8e3 2.45e3 3.15e3 0.9 0.8 350 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 700 0.3 0.2 1.05e3 0.1

G.M.: 7.59 dB 0 Freq: 1.16e+003 Hz Stable loop -20 -90 -180 -270 -360 -450 -540 P.M.: 58.3 deg Freq: 400 Hz -630 10
-2

20

2.1e3 1.4e3 1.75e3 -0.5 0 Real Axis 0.5 1

10 10 Frequency (Hz)

10

Figure 3.30: Root locus and bode diagrams of the DC-link voltage controller design.

The phase and gain margin are 58.3 and 7.59 degrees respectively, thus the loop is stable. The step response of the system is shown in Fig. 3.31.
1.4 Step Response System: Closed Loop r to y I/O: r to y Peak amplitude: 1.14 Overshoot (%): 13.5 At time (sec): 0.000714 System: Closed Loop r to y I/O: r to y Settling Time (sec): 0.00244

1.2

Amplitude

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.5

1.5

2.5 Time (sec)

3.5

4.5 x 10

5
-3

Figure 3.31: Step response of the DC-link voltage controller design.

The nal values used in the model are presented all together as a brief in the Fig. 3.32.
Kp 17.35
17.35 17.35 17.35 1.01 Ti 0.01 0.01 --0.02 Ki --1735 1735 --

PI id

PI iq PR PR PIVDC

Figure 3.32: PI an PR parameters for the current and DC-voltage controllers.

Through this chapter the grid side control has been explained as well as the methods used to tune the controllers. In the next chapter different study cases have been carried out, in order to analyse the performance of the system. 3. Control of the system 37

3.6 Tuning of the controllers

38

3. Control of the system

Simulation and analysis

In this chapter the response of the system will be analyzed for the 2.4 MW model. For this purpose different study cases have been performed. In addition a scale down of the model has been prepared for an 11 kW system. In this case it has been decided to make the comparison between dq and strategies.

4.1

Simulation and analysis of 2.4 MW model

The study cases of this section will be focused on power ow, variations in grid voltage and some grid fault studies. The response of the system will be analyzed and discussed taking into consideration Danish grid codes mentioned in refsec:gridrequirements.

4.1.1

Power ow analysis

A. Active power steps with reactive power reference set to zero First simulation is performed for a number of wind speed steps. From the project of last semester the generator side control model has been used to obtain the DC-link current which corresponds to different wind speeds in steady state. Therefore these different currents are the inputs in this study case. The purpose of the Fig. 4.1 is to show the response of active and reactive power ow during this simulation.

a 0.7 Active power [p.u.] 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.5 0.1 0.05 0 -0.05 -0.1 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 Time [s] 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 b Reactive power [p.u.] 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5

Figure 4.1: Active power steps and reactive power set to zero.

Fig. 4.1 is composed by two graphs. Fig 4.1.a. shows the active power delivered to the grid. At the time 0.7s the power step corresponds to a wind step from 10m/s to 11m/s, later at the second 0.9 there is another negative step to 10m/s of wind speed. Finally, the steps are opposite and they 39

4.1 Simulation and analysis of 2.4 MW model

go back to the initial value. In this simulation the reactive power reference is set to zero. In every step, it can be observed that small bumps of reactive power are almost negligible compared to the rated power as shown in Fig. 4.1.b. The reactive power transient is positive or negative, when active power step is upward or downward respectively, that means delivering or absorbing reactive power from the grid. To check if the system is really working and delivering power to the grid the Fig. 4.2 shows the DC-link voltage transient.
1.02 DC link voltage [p.u.]
reference

1.01 1 0.99 0.98 0.5

measured

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.1

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.5

Figure 4.2: DC-link voltage.

Fig. 4.2 shows at the time 0.7s and 1.3s two positive bumps of the voltage in the DC-link, which return after a transient to the reference value. According to the equation 3.3, when the difference between input power and output power in DC-link is positive, the current coming from the rectier is bigger than the current going to the inverter. Therefore all the exceeding current is owing through the capacitor, thus the capacitor is charging. When the inverter current reaches the rectier current, the voltage goes back to the reference value. In the case of negative steps of active power at second 0.9 and 1.1 the response is opposite. The difference between both currents are negative and the capacitor supplies the needed current. Therefore it discharges itself, the voltage in the DC-link drops until the control makes both currents equal.
DC-link currents [p.u.] 0.7 0.65 0.6 0.55 0.5 0.45 0.4 0.35 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 Time [s] 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 rectifier inverter

Figure 4.3: DC-link currents.

Fig 4.3 shows both currents, rectier inverter side where it can be seen the transient response of the control system. The importance of this graph is in the relation between active and reactive with d and q-axis currents respectively. Fig 4.4.a. depicts the d-axis current reference and measured, and the second graph shows q-axis current reference and measured. The relation between active power and d-axis 40 4. Simulation and analysis

4.1 Simulation and analysis of 2.4 MW model

a D-axis current [p.u.] 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.5 0.1 0.05 0 -0.05 -0.1 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 Time [s] 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5
reference measured reference measured

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1 b

1.1

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.5

Figure 4.4: D and q-axis currents reference and measured from active power steps.

current is clear in Fig 4.4.a. as well as the relation between reactive power and q-axis current as shown in the Fig 4.4.b.

Q-axis current [p.u.]

Voltage at the PCC [p.u.]

a 1.02 1.01 1 0.99 0.98 0.5 1 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 b 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5

Grid currents [p.u.]

0.5 0 -0.5 -1 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 Time [s] 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5

Figure 4.5: Voltage of the PCC and grid current.

Fig 4.5 shows the voltage of the PCC and grid currents. In Fig 4.5.a. it can be noticed that the voltage of the PCC above one, which means that power is being delivered to the grid. Finally, in Fig 4.5.b. shows the grid currents with smalls variations according to the power steps. In this study case it can be veried one of the grid requirements which focuses on the relation between active and reactive power ow. It can be seen in Fig. 4.1 that the system keeps reactive power under grid requirement limitations 10% for rated value of active power as it was shown in 4. Simulation and analysis 41

4.1 Simulation and analysis of 2.4 MW model

Fig. 2.18. Besides, it is worth of remark that the variation of the applied voltage at the PCC does not reach 0.5% which is under limits of grid requirement shown in Fig. 2.19. B. Reactive power steps with active power reference set to 0.9 of the rated value In this simulation active power is set to 0.9 of the rated value. The control in this case will be focused on changes of 20% of reactive power by keeping constant the active power.

a 1 Active power [p.u.] 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.2 0 -0.2 -0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 Time [s] 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 b Reactive power [p.u.] 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5

Figure 4.6: Reactive power steps and active power set to 0.9 of the rated value.

Fig. 4.6.a. shows the active power. Fig. 4.6.b. shows the reference reactive steps which are applied to the current controllers. The 0.9 of the rated power is not reached due to the small power losses. As it was explained in the previous subsection, DC-link voltage response helps to verify the power ow.
1.01 DC link voltage [p.u.]
reference

1.005 1 0.995 0.99 0.5

measured

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.1

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.5

Figure 4.7: DC-link voltage.

Fig. 4.7 shows the DC-link voltage response and its reference. It can be seen that the curves are overlapped and there are no signicant bumps.

42

4. Simulation and analysis

4.1 Simulation and analysis of 2.4 MW model

a 1 D-axis current [p.u.] 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.2 0 -0.2 -0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 Time [s] 1.2 1.3
reference measured reference measured

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1 b

1.1

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.5

Q-axis current [p.u.]

1.4

1.5

Figure 4.8: D-axis currents and q-axis currents reference and measured.

Fig. 4.8.a. shows the reference and the measured d-axis currents. Fig. 4.8.b. shows the response of the system in q-axis. Next the voltages of the PCC and grid are shown in Fig. 4.9.

Voltage at the PCC [p.u.]

a 1.1

1.05

1 0.5 1.1 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 b 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5

Grid currents [p.u.]

1 0.9 0.8 0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1 1.1 Time [s]

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.5

Figure 4.9: Voltage of the PCC and grid currents.

Fig. 4.9.a. shows the voltages of the PCC where it can be seen the changes at the times 0.7, 0.9, 1.1 and 1.3 seconds, where the magnitude of the voltage rises when reactive power is applied. Fig. 4.9.b. depicts the grid currents which rise when is applied an either positive or negative reactive power. For this analysis it is known that Danish grid requirements do not allow more than 10% of reactive power ow. however this simulation pursuits the limits of nowadays wind turbines reactive power 4. Simulation and analysis 43

4.1 Simulation and analysis of 2.4 MW model

ow. It is noticeable that the voltage of the PCC is on the limits between normal operation and disconection.

4.1.2

Voltage excursion

One common case is having voltage excursions in the grid voltage as shown in Fig. 4.10. The voltage in this case is varying between 110% and 90% of the rated value. The variation in the voltage grid causes istantaneus variation of the voltage drop between the grid voltage and the converter voltage and conseguently in the grid current.
Amplitude of the Grid voltage [p.u.]

1.15 1.1 1.05 1 0.95 0.9 0.85 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 Time [s] 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5

Figure 4.10: Amplitude of the grid voltage.

Instantaneous variation of the grid voltage causes an initial variation of the power, which can be seen in Fig. 4.11. For example when the voltage increases there is a sudden increase in the power which will be brought back to the original value thanks to the action of the control system. It can be also be noticed that the reactive power is able to go back to the reference value which in this case is zero.
a Active power [p.u.] 1.3 1.1 0.9 0.7 0.5 0.5 0.1 0.05 0 -0.05 -0.1 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 Time [s] 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 b Reactive power [p.u.] 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5

Figure 4.11: Active and reactive power.

In Fig. 4.12 the DC-link voltage is shown. Because of the sudden variation of the voltage, the power varies as well which makes the currents of the DC-link unbalanced. This causes the charge 44 4. Simulation and analysis

4.1 Simulation and analysis of 2.4 MW model

or the discharge of the capacitor in the DC-link and therefore the variation of the DC-link voltage. It is possible to see in the graph that for example when the voltage rises, the power rises as well which causes the DC current of the inverter to increase. This means that the capacitor of the DC-link is discharging and therefore the DC-link voltage decreases.

1.01 DC-link voltage [p.u.] 1.005 1 0.995 0.99 0.5


reference measured

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.1

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.5

Figure 4.12: DC-link voltage.

In Fig. 4.13 the dq currents are shown. The variation in the dq reference currents are made in a way to bring back the power and voltage to the desired values.

a D-axis current [p.u.] 1,3 1,1 0,9


reference measured

0,7 0.5 0.1

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1 b

1.1

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.5

Q-axis current [p.u.]

0.05 0 -0.05 -0.1 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 Time [s] 1.2 1.3

reference measured

1.4

1.5

Figure 4.13: Dq currents.

In Fig. 4.14 the PCC voltage and the grid currents are shown. It is possible to see that for example when the grid voltage increases, the grid current decreases. This can be explained by the fact that the power owing to the grid is constant. When the grid voltage decreases the output voltage of the converter decreases in order to bring back the current to the desired value. 4. Simulation and analysis 45

4.1 Simulation and analysis of 2.4 MW model

Voltage of the PCC [p.u.]

a 1 0.5 0 -0.5 -1 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 b 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5

Grid current [p.u.]

1 0.5 0 -0.5 -1 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 Time [s] 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5

Figure 4.14: PCC voltage and grid current.

According to the grid requirements, when the frequency is 50Hz and the voltage varies between 110% and 90% of the rated value, The system can remain connected for one minute as shown in Fig. 2.19. Therefore t can be seen that in this study case the system is complying with this grid requirement. It can be observed that the values of the active and reactive powers are within the accepted range according to the grid requirement shown in Fig. 2.18.

4.1.3

Frequency excursion

Through this section the response of the system will be analyzed in the case of grid frequency changes, by keeping the active power at 0.9 of its rated value and reactive power to zero. Grid voltage frequency varies 3Hz of its rated value considering that each step lasts 200ms as shown in Fig. 4.15.

Grid voltage frequency [Hz]

55 54 53 52 51 50 49 48 47 46 45 0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1 1.1 Time [s]

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.5

Figure 4.15: Grid frenquency steps.

Power ow response is shown in Fig. 4.16.

46

4. Simulation and analysis

4.1 Simulation and analysis of 2.4 MW model

a 1 Active power [p.u.] 0.95 0.9 0.85 0.8 0.5 0.2 0.1 0 -0.1 -0.2 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 Time [s] 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 b Reactive power [p.u.] 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5

Figure 4.16: Active and reactive power ow.

Fig. 4.16.a. shows the active power. As it was said before the 0.9 of rated value is not reached due to the lter losses. Fig. 4.16.b. shows the reactive power where it can be noticed that is more sensible than the active power. This is because the reactive power is related with q-axis current control as shown in Fig 4.18. Fig. 4.17 shows the DC-link voltage response.

1.01 DC link voltage [p.u.] 1.005 1 0.995 0.99 0.5


reference measured

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.1

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.5

Figure 4.17: DC-link voltage.

In can be noticed that the voltage bumps are negligible compared to the rated value. Fig. 4.18 shows the reference and measured dq currents.

4. Simulation and analysis

47

4.1 Simulation and analysis of 2.4 MW model

a D-axis current [p.u.] 1 0.95 0.9 0.85 0.8 0.5 0.1 0.05 0 -0.05 -0.1 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 Time [s] 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5
reference measured reference measured

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1 b

1.1

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.5

Q-axis current [p.u.]

Figure 4.18: Reference and measured dq.

In this case q-axis current is more sensible than d-axis current. It can be seen that after a short transient both currents go back to the reference values. In this simulation there are not big changes in the dq currents as they are below 1%. Finally, the PCC voltage and the grid currents are shown in Fig. 4.19.

Voltage at the PCC [p.u.]

a 1.01 1.005 1 0.995 0.99 0.5 0.9 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 b 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5

Grid currents [p.u.]

0.895 0.89 0.885 0.88 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 Time [s] 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5

Figure 4.19: Voltage of the PCC and grid current.

It can be observed that during the simulation, the PCC voltage is larger than the grid voltage when the active power is being delivered to the grid. Thus, it is worth to remark that the voltage of PCC has uctuations which produces the transients in the grid currents. It is necessary to zoom in to realize the grid current transients. Another important point is that in spite of the fact that the frequency excursions of 3Hz are signicants, the reactive power ow does not reach the limits of 48 4. Simulation and analysis

4.1 Simulation and analysis of 2.4 MW model

grid requirements. The voltage of the PCC is within the acceptable range of the grid requirement.

4.1.4

Phase jumps

The purpose of this simulation is to see the behavior of the system when the voltage angle of the grid is shifted. This study case is performed with some steps in the grid voltage angle, as shown in Fig. 4.20, when the system is delivering 0.9 of rated active power and zero reactive power is set to zero.

80 60 40 20 0 -20 -40 -60 -80 0.5

Grid voltage angle [Deg]

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1 1.1 Time [s]

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.5

Figure 4.20: Phase angle of grid voltage.

Fig. 4.21 shows the active and reactive power ow. In Fig. 4.21.a. it can be seen that the active power ow decreases when the change in the phase angle of the voltage is applied. This is because the active power is related to the d-axis current and voltage reference, which is shown in Fig. 4.23.

a 1.5 Active power [p.u.] 1.2 0.9 0.6 0.3 0 0.5 1.5 1 0.5 0 -0.5 -1 -1.5 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 Time [s] 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 b Reactive power [p.u.] 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5

Figure 4.21: Active and reactive power ow.

Fig. 4.21.b. shows that the reactive power ow reaches the reference value of zero after the transients. Due to the relation between reactive power and phase angle, these transients have abrupt starts. Therefore, depending on the sign of this shifted angle, the peak of power will be negative or positive. The response of the DC-link voltage is shown in Fig. 4.22. 4. Simulation and analysis 49

4.1 Simulation and analysis of 2.4 MW model

1.1 DC link voltage [p.u.] 1.05 1 0.95 0.9 0.5


reference measured

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.1

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.5

Figure 4.22: DC-link voltage.

The graph shows how the DC-link voltage arrives at steady state after a small transient, whose maximum peak for each angle variation is below 1% of the rated value. Fig. 4.23 shows the dq currents of the grid.

a D-axis current [p.u.] 1.6 1.4 1.2 1 0.8 0.5 0.4 0.2 0 -0.2 -0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 Time [s] 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5
reference measured reference measured

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1 b

1.1

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.5

Q-axis current [p.u.]

Figure 4.23: Reference and measured dq currents.

Fig. 4.23.a. shows reference and measured d-axis current where it can be seen that after a small transient they become overlapped. It can be noticed that during the transient, the maximum value is below 20% of the rated value. Fig. 4.23.b. shows the reference and measured of the q-axis current. Fig. 4.24 shows the PCC voltage and the grid current. 50 4. Simulation and analysis

4.1 Simulation and analysis of 2.4 MW model

a Voltage at the PCC [p.u.] 1.5 1 0.5 0 -0.5 -1 -1.5 0.68 1.5 1 0.5 0 -0.5 -1

b 1.5 1 0.5 0 -0.5 -1

c 1.5 1 0.5 0 -0.5 -1

-1.5 -1.5 -1.5 0.7 0.72 0.88 0.9 0.92 1.08 1.1 1.12 1.28 1.3 1.32 Time [s] Time [s] Time [s] Time [s]

e 1.5 Grid currents [p.u.] 1 0.5 0 -0.5 -1 -1.5 0.68 0.7 Time [s] 1.5 1 0.5 0 -0.5 -1 -1.5 0.72 0.88

f 1.5 1 0.5 0 -0.5 -1 0.9 Time [s] -1.5 0.92 1.08

g 1.5 1 0.5 0 -0.5 -1 1.1 Time [s] -1.5 1.12 1.28

1.3 1.32 Time [s]

Figure 4.24: Voltages of the PCC and the grid currents.

4.1.5

Unbalanced

Another situation could be the case of an unbalanced three-phase sinusoidal waveform in the grid voltage. In a balanced sinusoidal supply system the three line-neutral voltages are equal in magnitude and are phase displaced from each other by 120 degrees. A system is called unbalanced when there is a difference between the voltage magnitudes and/or when there is phase shift different than 120 degrees. In this study case the unbalanced percentage is chosen to be 3%. In other words the amplitude of one phase is 3% more than the other two, as shown in Fig. 4.25. Voltage unbalance is considered as a power quality problem of signicant importance. The voltages can become unbalanced when there are unequal impedances and unequal distribution of single-phase loads [6].
1.2 Grid voltage [p.u.] 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0.5 0.51 0.52 0.53 Time [s] 0.54 0.55 0.56

Figure 4.25: Unbalanced grid voltage.

In Fig. 4.26 the active and reactive power are shown. Here as in all other graphs of this study case, the situation is the same. The values uctuate around the desired value. The same situation can be seen for dq currents as shown in Fig. 4.28. 4. Simulation and analysis 51

4.1 Simulation and analysis of 2.4 MW model

a 1.3 Active power [p.u.] 1.1 0.9 0.7 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.2 0 -0.1 -0.4 0.5 0.51 0.52 0.53 Time [s] 0.54 0.55 0.56 0.51 0.52 0.53 b Reactive power [p.u.] 0.54 0.55 0.56

Figure 4.26: Active and reactive power.

Fig. 4.27 shows the DC-link voltage. It can be noticed that there are small uctuations over the reference value. These small uctuations can be seen in all the graphs presented here for this study case. They are caused by the dq transformation.

1.01 DC-link voltage [p.u.] 1.005 1 0.995 0.99 0.5 0.51 0.52 0.53 Time [s] 0.54 0.55 0.56
reference measured

Figure 4.27: DC-link voltage.

The dq currents are shown in Fig. 4.28. We can see that the currents are slightly oscillating around the reference value. 52 4. Simulation and analysis

4.1 Simulation and analysis of 2.4 MW model

a d-axis current [p.u.] 1.3


reference

1.1 0.9 0.8 0.6 0.5 0.1 0.51 0.52 0.53 b 0.54 0.55

measured

0.56

q-axis current [p.u.]

0.05 0 -0.02 -0.04 0.5 0.51 0.52 0.53 Time [s] 0.54 0.55

reference measured

0.56

Figure 4.28: Dq currents.

In Fig. 4.29 it is possible to see the grid current. Where one of the phases has a bigger amplitude compare to the other two.

1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 0.5

Grid current [p.u.]

0.51

0.52

0.53 Time [s]

0.54

0.55

0.56

Figure 4.29: Grid current.

4. Simulation and analysis

53

4.1 Simulation and analysis of 2.4 MW model

4.1.6

Short-circuit

Electrical systems are susceptible to short circuits and to the abnormal current levels they create. These currents can produce considerable thermal and mechanical stresses in electrical distribution equipment. Therefore, it is important to protect people and equipment by calculating short-circuit currents during system upgrade and design. Because these calculations are life-safety related, theyre mandated by 110.9 of the NEC, which states: Equipment intended to interrupt current at fault levels shall have an interrupting rating sufcient for the nominal circuit voltage and the current that is available at the line terminals of the equipment. Equipment intended to interrupt current at other than fault levels shall have an interrupting rating at nominal circuit voltage sufcient for the current that must be interrupted. When you apply these requirements to a circuit breaker, you must calculate the maximum 3-phase fault current the breaker will be required to interrupt. This current can be dened as the shortcircuit current available at the terminals of the protective device [18]. A. Three-phase short-circuit A three-phase short-circuit can be considered as a balanced load, which means it is possible to use a single-phase circuit to analyze the fault. In this study case a three-phase short-circuit occurs at second 0.5 and it last for 150 ms.
a Grid voltage [p.u.] 1 0 -1 0.4 0.45 0.5 0.55 0.6 b Grid current [p.u.] 1 0 -1 0.4 0.45 0.5 0.55 0.6 Time [s] 0.65 0.7 0.75 0.8 0.65 0.7 0.75 0.8

Figure 4.30: Voltages and currents of the PCC.

In Fig. 4.30 the voltage and current of the PCC are shown. The value of the short-circuit resistance is chosen so that the voltage drop will be equal to 90% of the rated value which can be seen in Fig. 4.30.a. After the short-circuit the grid voltage has a short transient, where the value is temporarily higher than the rated value, before going back to the rated value. This temporarily raise does not happend if the system is connected to a stronger grid with a higher short-circuit power. The grid current is kept at the same value thanks to the control system which acts on the power references.

54

4. Simulation and analysis

4.1 Simulation and analysis of 2.4 MW model

a 2 Active power [p.u.] 1 0 -1 0.4 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 -0.5 0.4 0.45 0.5 0.55 0.6 Time [s] 0.65 0.7 0.75 0.8

0.45

0.5

0.55

0.6 b

0.65

0.7

0.75

0.8

Reactive power [p.u.]

Figure 4.31: Active and reactive power.

In Fig. 4.31 the active and the reactive power are shown. It is possible to see the action of the control system. At second 0.5, when the fault happens, the active power reference is set to zero, because otherwise considering the small value of the voltage the current would be extremely high. In the same moment the reactive power reference is set to maximum. This is required by the grid and helps to maintain the voltage.

1.1 DC-link voltage [p.u.] 1.05 1 0.95 0.9 0.4


reference measured

0.45

0.5

0.55

0.6

0.65

0.7

0.75

0.8

Figure 4.32: DC-link voltage.

In Fig. 4.32 The DC-link voltage is shown. It can be noticed that when the short-circuit occurs there is a temporary drop in the DC-link voltage. At the end of the short-circuit the DC-link voltage rises temporarily before reaching the reference value. In Fig. 4.33 dq currents are shown. After the short-circuit, the d-axis component of the current goes to zero as the active power reference is set to zero. In the same moment the q-axis component of the current rises since the reactive power is set to maximum. According to the grid requirements, when the voltage drops to less than 2% of the rated value, within the rst 10 seconds "may be disconnected" and after that "shall disconnected" as shown in 4. Simulation and analysis 55

4.1 Simulation and analysis of 2.4 MW model

a d-axis current [p.u.] 1 0.5


reference

0 -0.5 0.4 1 0.5 0.45

measured

0.5

0.55

0.6 b

0.65

0.7

0.75

0.8

q-axis current [p.u.]

reference

0 -0.5 -1 0.4 0.45 0.5 0.55 0.6 Time [s] 0.65 0.7

measured

0.75

0.8

Figure 4.33: Dq currents.

Fig. 2.20. Therefore in this situation for the rst 10 seconds it can be choose to keep the wind turbine connected to grid. B. Two-phase short-circuit In this study case a two-phase short-circuit occurs in second 0.5 and it lasts 150 ms. In Fig. 4.34 the voltage and currents of the PCC are shown. In the two phases affected by the short-circuit the voltage drops to half of the original value as shown in Fig. 4.34.a.

a Grid voltage [p.u.] 1 0 -1 0.4 2 Grid current [p.u.] 1 0 -1 -2 0.4 0.45 0.5 0.55 0.6 Time [s] 0.65 0.7 0.75 0.8 0.45 0.5 0.55 0.6 b 0.65 0.7 0.75 0.8

Figure 4.34: Voltage and currents of the PCC.

In Fig. 4.35 the active and the reactive power are shown. The active power goes to zero as required 56 4. Simulation and analysis

4.1 Simulation and analysis of 2.4 MW model

by the control system and the reactive power to its maximum.

a 1 Active power [p.u.] 0.5 0 -0.5 -1 0.4 1 0.5 0 -0.5 -1 0.4 0.45 0.5 0.55 0.6 Time [s] 0.65 0.7 0.75 0.8 0.45 0.5 0.55 0.6 b Reactive power [p.u.] 0.65 0.7 0.75 0.8

Figure 4.35: Active and reactive power.

In Fig. 4.36 The DC-link voltage is shown. It can be noticed that when the short-circuit occurs, the DC-link voltage decreases slightly and then reaches the reference value.

1.1 DC-link voltage [p.u.] 1.05 1 0.95 0.9 0.4


reference measured

0.45

0.5

0.55

0.6

0.65

0.7

0.75

0.8

Figure 4.36: DC-link voltage.

In Fig. 4.37 dq currents are shown. After the short-circuit, the d-axis component of the current goes to zero as the active power reference is set to zero. In the same moment the q-axis component of the current rises since the reactive power is set to maximum. 4. Simulation and analysis 57

4.1 Simulation and analysis of 2.4 MW model

a d-axis current [p.u.] 1 0.5 0 -0.5 -1 0.4 0.45 0.5 0.55 0.6 b q-axis current [p.u.] 1 0.5 0 -0.5 -1 0.4 0.45 0.5 0.55 0.6 Time [s] 0.65 0.7 0.75 0.8
reference measured reference measured

0.65

0.7

0.75

0.8

Figure 4.37: Dq currents.

The voltage drop of the two phases affected by the fault, in this case, is around 50% of the rated value. Therefore according to the grid requirements, Fig. 2.20, during this fault the wind turbine "shall remain connected".

C. One-phase short-circuit In this study case the short-circuit occurs in one of the phases. In Fig. 4.38 the voltage and current of the PCC are shown. It can be seen that one phase of the grid voltage drops to 10% of the initial value. The current rises to almost three times of the rated value.

a Grid voltage [p.u.] 1 0 -1 0.4 4 Grid current [p.u.] 2 0 -2 -4 0.4 0.45 0.5 0.55 0.6 Time [s] 0.65 0.7 0.75 0.8 0.45 0.5 0.55 0.6 b 0.65 0.7 0.75 0.8

Figure 4.38: Voltage and currents of the PCC.

58

4. Simulation and analysis

4.1 Simulation and analysis of 2.4 MW model

In Fig. 4.39 the active and reactive powers are shown where it is possible to see the action of the control system. After the fault the active power reference is set to zero. In the same moment the reactive power reference is set to maximum.

a 1.5 Active power [p.u.] 1 0.5 0 -0.5 -1 -1.5 0.4 1.5 1 0.5 0 -0.5 -1 -1.5 0.4 0.45 0.5 0.55 0.6 Time [s] 0.65 0.7 0.75 0.8 0.45 0.5 0.55 0.6 b Reactive power [p.u.] 0.65 0.7 0.75 0.8

Figure 4.39: Active and reactive power.

In Fig. 4.40 the DC-link voltage is shown. It can be noticed that when the short-circuit occurs the DC-link voltage decreases slightly and then reaches the reference value.

1.1 DC-link voltage [p.u.] 1.05 1 0.95 0.9 0.4


reference measured

0.45

0.5

0.55

0.6

0.65

0.7

0.75

0.8

Figure 4.40: DC-link voltage.

In Fig. 4.41 dq currents are shown. After the short-circuit, the d-axis component of the current goes to zero as the active power reference is set to zero. In the same moment the q-axis component of the current rises since the reactive power is set to maximum. 4. Simulation and analysis 59

4.2 Analysis and comparison of 11 kW model

a d-axis current [p.u.] 1 0.5 0 -0.5 0.4 1 0.5


reference reference measured

0.45

0.5

0.55

0.6 b

0.65

0.7

0.75

0.8

q-axis current [p.u.]

0 -0.5 -1 0.4 0.45 0.5 0.55 0.6 Time [s] 0.65 0.7

measured

0.75

0.8

Figure 4.41: Dq currents.

The voltage drop of the phase affected by the fault, in this case, is around 90% of the rated value. Therefore according to the grid requirements, when the voltage drops to less than 20% of the rated value, within the rst 10 seconds "may be disconnected" and after that "shall disconnected" as shown in Fig. 2.20. Therefore in this situation for the rst 10 seconds it can be choose to keep the wind turbine connected to grid.

4.2

Analysis and comparison of 11 kW model

In this section the model has been scaled down in order to control a 11kW system. The control has been carried out in and dq reference frame. The procedure is to analyze the system under different grid conditions in both types of control strategies and to compare the results at the end of the subsection. The comparison is made for active and reactive power ow, voltage of the PCC, grid currents and the DC-link voltage responses. The rated values of the main variables are presented in Fig. 4.42.

Parameters Rated active power Grid voltage (peak value) Grid currents (peak value) DC-link voltage

Prat. Vgrid. Igrid. VDC.

Units [kW] [V] [A] [V]

Value 11 230 2 16,43 2 650

Figure 4.42: Main parameters of the system.

The summary of the study cases as well as the obtained results are presented in the following table Fig. 4.43. 60 4. Simulation and analysis

4.2 Analysis and comparison of 11 kW model

4.2.1

Study cases
A. B. C. D. E. F. Power flow active steps and reactive power set to zero Power flow reactive steps and active power set to 0.9 of rated value Voltage excursion Unbalanced Voltage phase angle steps for active power set to 0.9 of rated value Voltage frequency steps for active power set to 0.9 of rated value

4.2.2

Simulation results
A. B. C. D. E. F. A. B. C. D. E. F. Dq Dq Dq Dq Dq Dq Power flow active steps and reactive power set to zero Power flow reactive steps and active power set to 0.9 of rated value Voltage excursion Unbalanced Voltage phase angle steps for active power set to 0.9 of rated value Voltage frequency steps for active power set to 0.9 of rated value Power flow active steps and reactive power set to zero Power flow reactive steps and active power set to 0.9 of rated value Voltage excursion Unbalanced Voltage phase angle steps for active power set to 0.9 of rated value Voltage frequency steps for active power set to 0.9 of rated value
Figure 4.43: Index of the simulation and results.

4.2.1 and dq control study cases


A. Active power ow steps and reactive power set to zero This analysis is performed for a number of active power excursions by setting reactive power to zero value. The active power starts at 60% of the rated value, later it rises to 90% and at the end it goes down to 40%.

Active power inputs [p.u.]

1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 Time [s] 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5

Figure 4.44: Active power steps applied to the system.

4. Simulation and analysis

61

4.2 Analysis and comparison of 11 kW model

B. Reactive power ow steps and active power set to 0.9 of rated value In this analysis positive and negative reactive power steps of 20% of the rated value, will be applied. The active power ow is set to 90% of the rated value.
Reactive power inputs [p.u.] 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 -0.1 -0.2 -0.3 -0.4 0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1 1.1 Time [s]

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.5

Figure 4.45: Reactive power steps applied to the system.

C. Voltage excursion In this analysis voltage excursions in the grid voltage are considered as shown in Fig. 4.46. The voltage in this case is varying between 10% of the rated value.
Grid voltage amplitude [p.u.] 1.15 1.1 1.05 1 0.95 0.9 0.85 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 Time [s] 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5

Figure 4.46: Voltage excursion.

D. Unbalanced In this study case the grid voltage is an unbalanced three-phase sinusoidal waveform, where one of the phases is 3% bigger in amplitude as shown in Fig. 4.47.
1.1 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0.5 0.51 0.52 0.53 Time [s] 0.54 0.55 0.56

Grid voltage [p.u.]

Figure 4.47: Unbalanced grid voltage.

62

4. Simulation and analysis

4.2 Analysis and comparison of 11 kW model

E. Voltage phase angle steps for active power set to 0.9 of rated value This study case considers that the system is delivering 90% of the rated active power. Besides, a few steps in the voltage phase angle are applied. These steps are 60 degrees positive and negative respectively.

80 60 40 20 0 -20 -40 -60 -80 0.6

Grid voltage angle [Deg]

0.7

0.8

0.9

1 1.1 Time [s]

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.5

Figure 4.48: Voltage phase angle.

F. Voltage frequency steps for active power set to 0.9 of rated value Frequency excursions of 3Hz are taken into consideration in this analysis. During the frequency variations the system is delivering 90% of the rated value.
Grid voltage frequency [Hz]

55 54 53 52 51 50 49 48 47 46 45 0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1 1.1 Time [s]

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.5

Figure 4.49: Frequency steps of the grid voltage.

4. Simulation and analysis

63

4.2 Analysis and comparison of 11 kW model

4.2.2

and dq control simulation results

A. active power ow steps and reactive power set to zero

1.4 Active power [p.u.] 1.2 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 Time [s] 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5
reference measured

Figure 4.50: Active power ow.

1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 -0.2 -0.4 -0.6 -0.8 -1 0.6

Reactive power [p.u.]

reference measured

0.7

0.8

0.9

1 1.1 Time [s]

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.5

Figure 4.51: Reactive power ow.

1.25 1 0.75 0.5 0.25 0 -0.25 -0.5 -0.75 -1 -1.25 0.6

Voltage at the PCC [p.u.]

0.7

0.8

0.9 Time [s]

1.1

Figure 4.52: Voltage of the PCC.

64

4. Simulation and analysis

4.2 Analysis and comparison of 11 kW model

1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 -0.2 -0.4 -0.6 -0.8 -1 0.6

Grid currents [p.u.]

0.7

0.8

0.9

1 1.1 Time [s]

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.5

Figure 4.53: Grid currents.

1.01 DC link voltage [p.u.] 1.005 1 0.995 0.99 0.6


reference measured

0.7

0.8

0.9

1 1.1 Time [s]

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.5

Figure 4.54: DC-link voltage.

B. reactive power ow steps and active power set to 0.9 of rated value

1.5 Active power [p.u.] 1.25 1 0.75 0.5 0.25 0 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5
reference measured

Figure 4.55: Active power ow.

0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 -0.1 -0.2 -0.3 -0.4 0.6

Reactive power [p.u.]

reference measured

0.7

0.8

0.9

1 1.1 Time [s]

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.5

Figure 4.56: Reactive power ow.

4. Simulation and analysis

65

4.2 Analysis and comparison of 11 kW model

Voltage at the PCC [p.u.]

1.5 1 0.5 0 -0.5 -1 -1.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5

Figure 4.57: Voltage of the PCC.

1.25 Grid currents [p.u.] 0.75 0.25 -0.25 -0.75 -1.25 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5

Figure 4.58: Grid currents.

1.01 DC link voltage [p.u.] 1.005 1 0.995 0.99 0.6 reference measured

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.1

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.5

Figure 4.59: DC-link voltage.

C. voltage excursion

1.3 Active power [p.u.] 1.1 0.9 0.7 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 Time [s] 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 reference measured

Figure 4.60: Active power.

66

4. Simulation and analysis

4.2 Analysis and comparison of 11 kW model

Reactive power [p.u.]

0.4 0.2 0 -0.2 -0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 Time [s] 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 reference measured

Figure 4.61: Reactive power.

1.2 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 -0.2 -0.4 -0.6 -0.8 -1 -1.2 0.5

Voltage of the PCC [p.u.]

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1 1.1 Time [s]

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.5

Figure 4.62: Voltage of the PCC.

1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 -0.2 -0.4 -0.6 -0.8 -1 0.5

Grid currents [p.u.]

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1 1.1 Time [s]

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.5

Figure 4.63: Grid current.

1.03 DC-link voltage [p.u.] 1.02 1.01 1 0.99 0.98 0.97 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 Time [s] 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 reference measured

Figure 4.64: DC-link voltage.

4. Simulation and analysis

67

4.2 Analysis and comparison of 11 kW model

D. unbalanced voltage
1.3 Active power [p.u.] 1.1 0.9 0.7 0.5 0.5 0.51 0.52 0.53 Time [s] 0.54 0.55 0.56 reference measured

Figure 4.65: Active power.

Reactive power [p.u.]

0.4 0.2 0 -0.2 -0.4 0.5 0.51 0.52 0.53 Time [s] 0.54 0.55 0.56 reference measured

Figure 4.66: Reactive power.

1.2 1.1 1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 0.5

Voltage of the PCC [p.u.]

0.51

0.52

0.53 Time [s]

0.54

0.55

0.56

Figure 4.67: Voltage of the PCC.

1.2 Grid currents [p.u.] 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0.5 0.51 0.52 0.53 Time [s] 0.54 0.55 0.56

Figure 4.68: Grid current.

68

4. Simulation and analysis

4.2 Analysis and comparison of 11 kW model

1.01 DC-link voltage [p.u.] 1.005 1 0.995 0.99 0.5 0.51 0.52 0.53 Time [s] 0.54 0.55 0.56 reference measured

Figure 4.69: DC-link voltage.

E. voltage phase angle steps for active power set to 0.9 of rated value

3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 -0.5 -1 -1.5 -2 0.6

Active power [p.u.]

reference measured

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.1

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.5

Figure 4.70: Active power ow.

2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 -0.5 -1 -1.5 -2 -2.5 0.6

Reactive power [p.u.]

reference measured

0.7

0.8

0.9

1 1.1 Time [s]

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.5

Figure 4.71: Reactive power ow.

2 1.5 1 0.5 0 -0.5 -1 -1.5 -2 0.6

Voltage at the PCC [p.u.]

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.1

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.5

Figure 4.72: Voltage at the PCC.

4. Simulation and analysis

69

4.2 Analysis and comparison of 11 kW model

3 Grid currents [p.u.] 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5

Figure 4.73: Grid currents.

1.4 1.3 1.2 1.1 1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.6

DC link voltage [p.u.]

reference measured

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.1

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.5

Figure 4.74: DC-link voltage.

F. voltage frequency steps for active power set to 0.9 of rated value

1.3 Active power [p.u.]


reference measured

1.1 0.9 0.7 0.5 0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.1

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.5

Figure 4.75: Active power ow.

1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 -0.2 -0.4 -0.6 -0.8 -1 0.6

Reactive power [p.u.]

reference measured

0.7

0.8

0.9

1 1.1 Time [s]

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.5

Figure 4.76: Reactive power ow.

70

4. Simulation and analysis

4.2 Analysis and comparison of 11 kW model

1.25 1 0.75 0.5 0.25 0 -0.25 -0.5 -0.75 -1 -1.25 0.6

Voltage at the PCC [p.u.]

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.1

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.5

Figure 4.77: Voltage at the PCC.

1 0.75 0.5 0.25 0 -0.25 -0.5 -0.75 -1 0.6

Grid currents [p.u.]

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.1

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.5

Figure 4.78: Grid currents.

1.02 DC link voltage [p.u.]


reference measured

1.01 1 0.99 0.98 0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.1

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.5

Figure 4.79: DC-link voltage.

A. Dq active power ow steps and reactive power set to zero

1.4 Active power [p.u.] 1.2 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5
reference measured

Figure 4.80: Active power ow.

4. Simulation and analysis

71

4.2 Analysis and comparison of 11 kW model

1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 -0.2 -0.4 -0.6 -0.8 -1 0.6

Reactive power [p.u.]

reference measured

0.7

0.8

0.9

1 1.1 Time [s]

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.5

Figure 4.81: Reactive power ow.

2 1.5 1 0.5 0 -0.5 -1 -1.5 -2 0.6

Voltage at the PCC [p.u.]

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.1

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.5

Figure 4.82: Voltage of the PCC.

1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 -0.2 -0.4 -0.6 -0.8 -1 0.6

Grid currents [p.u.]

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.1

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.5

Figure 4.83: Grid currents.

1.01 DC link voltage [p.u.] 1.005 1 0.995 0.99 0.6


reference measured

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.1

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.5

Figure 4.84: DC-link voltage.

72

4. Simulation and analysis

4.2 Analysis and comparison of 11 kW model

B. Dq reactive power ow steps and active power set to 0.9 of rated value

1.5 Active power [p.u.] 1.25 1 0.75 0.5 0.25 0 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5
reference measured

Figure 4.85: Active power ow.

0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 -0.1 -0.2 -0.3 -0.4 0.6

Reactive power [p.u.]

reference measured

0.7

0.8

0.9

1 1.1 Time [s]

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.5

Figure 4.86: Reactive power ow.

Voltage at the PCC [p.u.]

1.5 1 0.5 0 -0.5 -1 -1.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5

Figure 4.87: Voltage of the PCC.

1.25 Grid currents [p.u.] 0.75 0.25 -0.25 -0.75 -1.25 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5

Figure 4.88: Grid currents.

4. Simulation and analysis

73

4.2 Analysis and comparison of 11 kW model

1.01 DC link voltage [p.u.]


reference measured

1.005 1 0.995 0.99 0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.1

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.5

Figure 4.89: DC-link voltage.

C. Dq voltage excursion

1.3 Active power [p.u.] 1.1 0.9 0.7 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 Time [s] 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 reference measured

Figure 4.90: Active power.

Reactive power [p.u.]

0.4 0.2 0 -0.2 -0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 Time [s] 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 reference measured

Figure 4.91: Reactive power.

1.2 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 -0.2 -0.4 -0.6 -0.8 -1 -1.2 0.5

Voltage of the PCC [p.u.]

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1 1.1 Time [s]

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.5

Figure 4.92: Voltage of the PCC.

74

4. Simulation and analysis

4.2 Analysis and comparison of 11 kW model

Grid currents [p.u.]

1 0.5 0 -0.5 -1 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 Time [s] 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5

Figure 4.93: Grid current.

1.03 DC-link voltage [p.u.] 1.02 1.01 1 0.99 0.98 0.97 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 Time [s] 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 reference measured

Figure 4.94: DC-link voltage.

E. Dq unbalanced voltage

1.3 Active power [p.u.] 1.1 0.9 0.7 0.5 0.5 0.51 0.52 0.53 Time [s] 0.54 0.55 0.56 reference measured

Figure 4.95: Active power.

Reactive power [p.u.]

0.4 0.2 0 -0.2 -0.4 0.5 0.51 0.52 0.53 Time [s] 0.54 0.55 0.56 reference measured

Figure 4.96: Reactive power.

4. Simulation and analysis

75

4.2 Analysis and comparison of 11 kW model

Voltage of the PCC [p.u.]

1.2 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0.5 0.51 0.52 0.53 Time [s] 0.54 0.55 0.56

Figure 4.97: Voltage of the PCC.

1.2 Grid currents [p.u.] 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0.5 0.51 0.52 0.53 Time [s] 0.54 0.55 0.56

Figure 4.98: Grid current.

1.01 DC-link voltage [p.u.] 1.005 1 0.995 0.99 0.5 0.51 0.52 0.53 Time [s] 0.54 0.55 0.56 reference measured

Figure 4.99: DC-link voltage.

E. Dq voltage phase angle steps for active power set to 0.9 of rated value

3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 -0.5 -1 0.6

Active power [p.u.]

reference measured

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.1

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.5

Figure 4.100: Active power ow.

76

4. Simulation and analysis

4.2 Analysis and comparison of 11 kW model

2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 -0.5 -1 -1.5 -2 -2.5 0.6

Reactive power [p.u.]

reference measured

0.7

0.8

0.9

1 1.1 Time [s]

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.5

Figure 4.101: Reactive power ow.

Voltage at the PCC [p.u.]

1.5 1 0.5 0 -0.5 -1 -1.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5

Figure 4.102: Voltage at the PCC.

3 Grid currents [p.u.] 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5

Figure 4.103: Grid currents.

1.05 DC link voltage [p.u.] 1.025 1 0.975 0.95 0.6


reference measured

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.1

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.5

Figure 4.104: DC-link voltage.

4. Simulation and analysis

77

4.2 Analysis and comparison of 11 kW model

F. Dq voltage frequency steps for active power set to 0.9 of rated value

1.3 Active power [p.u.] 1.1 0.9 0.7 0.5 0.6


reference measured

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.1

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.5

Figure 4.105: Active power ow.

1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 -0.2 -0.4 -0.6 -0.8 -1 0.6

Reactive power [p.u.]

reference measured

0.7

0.8

0.9

1 1.1 Time [s]

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.5

Figure 4.106: Reactive power steps.

1.25 1 0.75 0.5 0.25 0 -0.25 -0.5 -0.75 -1 -1.25 0.6

Voltage at the PCC [p.u.]

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.1

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.5

Figure 4.107: Voltage at the PCC.

1 0.75 0.5 0.25 0 -0.25 -0.5 -0.75 -1 0.6

Grid currents [p.u.]

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.1

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.5

Figure 4.108: Grid currents.

78

4. Simulation and analysis

4.2 Analysis and comparison of 11 kW model

1.02 DC link voltage [p.u.] 1.01 1 0.99 0.98 0.6


reference measured

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.1

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.5

Figure 4.109: DC-link voltage.

4.2.3

General comparison between and dq

In the previous subsection the simulation results of the study cases have been presented graphically. In this section the comparison between the results obtained for and dq control strategies is shown in Fig. 4.110.
CONTROL STRATEGY V and I at PCC DC-link voltage P and Q dq V and I at PCC DC-link voltage

STUDY CASES Active power steps, Reactive power 0 Reactive power steps, Active power 0,9 Pn Voltage excursion Volage unbalanced Voltage phase jumps Voltage frequency excursion

P and Q

Very good performace Acceptabe performance Bad performance

Figure 4.110: Comparison table for dq and .

It can be observed that the performance of both strategies is very good for most of the study cases. However, the results of voltage phase angle shift and voltage frequency excursions cases are poor, being poorer in than in dq.

The simulations and analysis for the 2.4 MW model under different voltage disturbances, power ow uctuations and faults in the grid have been carried out, taking into consideration the grid requirements. The comparison between and dq has been performed. Next chapter will show the laboratory tests and its results compared with the model.

4. Simulation and analysis

79

4.2 Analysis and comparison of 11 kW model

80

4. Simulation and analysis

Experimental setup

In this chapter, the experimental setup used in the laboratory is presented and the main components are described. Next, and dq control strategies are implemented. Finally the results obtained for the active power ow study case are shown.

5.1

Setup description

The setup used in the laboratory to carry out the experimental tests is presented in Fig. 5.1. It emulates the grid side connection of the wind turbine system. The system contains a DC voltage supply, a power inverter, a LC lter, a three-phase transformer, the grid, the dSPACE system and the PC computer.

5 6 7 2 1

Figure 5.1: Laboratory setup components: 1:PC computer, 2:dSPACE Hardware, 3:LC lter, 4:Power Inverter, 5:Main supply, 6:DC voltage connection, 7:three-phase transformer.

The power inverter is controlled by a Graphical User Interface (GUI) from the PC computer through the dSPACE system. The dSPACE system sends the needed pulses to the converter gates in order to generate the active and reactive power set in the control system. It is composed by the software, the expansion box which contains the main boards as the processor and I/O boards and nally the panels with BNC connectors to read and send the signal from the computer to the system and vice versa. The setup structure is shown in Fig. 5.2. 81

5.1 Setup description

AC grid

Power Inverter LC filter DC supply Transformer

I/O panel

PC computer dSPACE Expansion Box

Figure 5.2: structure of the laboratory setup.

The GUI used to control the system is shown in Fig. 5.3.

Figure 5.3: dSPACE graphical user interface.

Basically, from the GUI, it is possible to enable and disable the converter, to set the active and reactive power and to modify the parameters of the controller during the tests. Furthermore the main variables of the system are shown by means of different graphs. Behind the GUI both control strategies (dq and ) are implemented. The results of the laboratory tests are analyzed and compared with the results obtained in the previous chapter for the power ow study case. 82 5. Experimental setup

5.2 Study cases and results

5.2

Study cases and results

In this section the load ow study case that was analyzed in the section 4.2, is carried out in the laboratory for both control strategies.

5.2.1 active power ow steps and reactive power set to zero

1.2 Active power [p.u.] 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 Time [s] 0.8

reference measured

1.2

Figure 5.4: Active power.

0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 -0.1 -0.2 -0.3 -0.4 -0.5

Reactive power [p.u.]

reference measured

0.2

0.4

0.6 Time [s]

0.8

Figure 5.5: Reactive power

1.5 Grid voltages [p.u.] 1 0.5 0 -0.5 -1 -1.5 0.4 0.41 0.42 0.43 Time [s] 0.44 0.45 0.46

Figure 5.6: Grid voltages.

5. Experimental setup

83

5.2 Study cases and results

1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 -0.2 -0.4 -0.6 -0.8 -1 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 Time [s] 0.8 1

Grid currents [p.u.]

Figure 5.7: Grid currents.

1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 -0.2 -0.4 -0.6 -0.8 -1 0.4 0.41 0.42 0.43 Time [s] 0.44

Alpha-beta currents [p.u.]

alpha-ref. alpha-meas. beta-ref. beta-meas.

0.45

0.46

Figure 5.8: currents of the grid.

Phase-A voltage & current [p.u.]

1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 -0.2 -0.4 -0.6 -0.8 -1 0.4 0.41 0.42 0.43 Time [s] 0.44 0.45

voltage current

0.46

Figure 5.9: Voltage and current of phase A.

84

5. Experimental setup

5.2 Study cases and results

5.2.2

Dq active power ow steps and reactive power set to zero

1.2 Active power [p.u.] 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 Time [s] 0.8

reference measured

1.2

Figure 5.10: Active power.

0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 -0.1 -0.2 -0.3 -0.4 -0.5

Reactive power [p.u.]

reference measured

0.2

0.4

0.6 Time [s]

0.8

1.2

Figure 5.11: Reactive power.

1.5 Grid voltages [p.u.] 1 0.5 0 -0.5 -1 -1.5 0.4 0.42 0.44 Time [s] 0.46 0.48 0.5

Figure 5.12: Grid voltages.

5. Experimental setup

85

5.2 Study cases and results

1.2 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 -0.2 -0.4 -0.6 -0.8 -1 -1.2

Grid currents [p.u.]

0.2

0.4

0.6 Time [s]

0.8

1.2

Figure 5.13: Grid currents.

1.2 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 -0.2 -0.4 -0.6 -0.8 -1 -1.2

Dq currents [p.u.]

d-axis ref. d-axis meas. q-axis ref. q-axis meas.

0.2

0.4

0.6 Time [s]

0.8

Figure 5.14: Dq currents of the grid.

Phase-A voltage & current [p.u

1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 -0.2 -0.4 -0.6 -0.8 -1 0.4 0.41 0.42 0.43 Time [s] 0.44 0.45

voltage current

0.46

Figure 5.15: Voltage and current of phase A.

As it can be seen in the previous graphs, the laboratory results are very close to the results obtained in the simulations. This conrms the expected performance of the grid side wind turbine system.

86

5. Experimental setup

Conclusions
Summary
It is possible to state that the main objectives of the project have been achieved. The main objective was to implement the control system of the grid side converter for a large wind turbine system connected to the grid. Therefore good knowledge about control systems has been necessary. Besides, to perform the simulations, the models of the components have been prepared and therefore good skills about MATLAB/Simulink and modeling was required. Power systems connected to the grid have to comply with the grid requirements. In the case of the wind turbines, considering that the amount of wind energy penetrating to the grid is increasing considerably, it is very important to develop reliable and quality control systems. In this project Danish grid codes have been taken into consideration. The control strategy used to control the wind turbine model of 2.4 MW is dq reference frame strategy. The control system has been implemented and in order to analyze the results, different study cases under various grid conditions have been performed. By analyzing the results it is possible to conclude that the main objective of the project has been reached. In fact thought the simulations it is possible to see that the system responds well and fast in front of different conditions. In addition it has been decided to compare two different control strategies, and dq. Considering that uses PR controllers and dq PI controllers, it is interesting to compare this two methods. For this purpose a small-scale model of 11 kW has been implemented. Simulations have been performed on this model and different study cases have been analyzed. The reason for making the simulation on a small-scale system was to be able to verify the results with experimental tests in the laboratory. By comparing the results of the two control strategies it has been possible to observe that both of them have good performances and they are quite similar. The laboratory tests are very important. In this way it is possible to verify the results of the simulations. Besides that, the experimental work is useful to familiarize with the real components and have a better understanding of the systems. For this purpose, it was necessary to acquire good knowledge about the components of the setup, specially dSPACE.

Future work
Different control strategies could be studied to improve the performance of the system as a future work. The complete wind turbine system, containing the generator side and the grid side of the system can be studied and analyzed more in detail. The laboratory work could be done also for the generator side control and for the complete wind turbine system.

87

Bibliography
[1] A. Abedini and A. Nasiri, Pmsg wind turbine performance analysis during short circuit faults, IEEE Canada Electrical Power Conference, pp. 160165, 2007. [2] F. Blaabjerg, R. Teodorescu, M. Liserre, and A. V. Timbus, Overview of control and grid synchronization for distributed power generation systems, IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 53, pp. 13981409, 2006. [3] A. Carlsson, The back to back converter, May 1998. [4] E. Ceanga, C. Nichita, L. Protin, and N. A. Cutululis, Thorie De La Commande Des Systmes. Editura Tehnica, 1997, no. ISBN: 973-31-2103-7. [5] M. Chinchilla, S. Arnaltes, and J. Burgos, Control of permanent-magnet generators applied to variable-speed wind-energy systems connected to the grid, IEEE Transactions on energy conversion, vol. 21, p. 6, 2006. [6] V. Gosbell, S. Perera, and V. Smith, Voltage Unbalance, October 2002. [7] F. Iov, Wind turbine system technology, Lecture at AAU, 2008. [8] F. Iov and F. Blaabjerg, Advanced power converters for universal and exible power managment in future electricity network, Tech. Rep., 2007. [9] F. Iov, A. D. Hansen, P. Srensen, and F. Blaabjerg, Wind Turbine Blockset in Matlab/Simulink: General Overview and Description of the Models. Aalborg University, 2004, no. ISBN 87-89179-46-3. [10] V. Kaura and V. Blasko, Operation of a phase locked loop system under utility conditions, IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, vol. 33, 1997. [11] M. P. Kazmierkowski, R. Krishnan, and F. Blaabjerg, Control in Power Electronics. Academic Press, 2002, no. ISBN 0-12-402772-5. [12] A. R. Massimo Valentini, Thordur Ofeigsson, Control of a variable speed variable pitch wind turbine with full scale power converter, Tech. Rep., 17. December 2007. [13] D. Mehrzad, J. Luque, and M. capella Cuenca, Vector control of pmsg for wind turbine applications, Tech. Rep., 2008. [14] K. Ogata, Modern Control Engineering. Tom Robbins, 2002, no. ISBN: 0-13-043245-8.

[15] A. Petersson, Analysis, modeling and control of doubly-fed induction generators for wind, 2007. 88

BIBLIOGRAPHY

[16] V. H. Prasad, Analysis and comparison of space vector modulation schemes for three-leg and four-leg voltage source inverters, 9th Semester Report, Institute of Energy Technology, Aalborg University, May 15, 1997. [17] M. L. R. Teodorescu and P. Rodrguez, Linearized small signal pll model, Power Electronics for Renewable Energy Systems Course, Institute of Energy Technology, Aalborg University, May 13-15, 2008. [18] R. Roeper, Short-circuit currents in three-phase systems. 1985, no. ISBN 0-471-90707-3. Siemens, John Wiley & Sons,

[19] R. Teodorescu and F. Blaabjerg, Flexible control of small wind turbine with grid failure detection operating in stand-alone and grid connected mode, IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol. 19, 2004. [20] A. V. Timbus, M. Ciobotaru, R. Teodorescu, and F. Blaabjerg., Adaptive resonant controller for grid-connected converters in distributed power generation systems, IEEE Xplore, pp. 16011606, 2006.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

89

Matlab models
A.1 Voltage Source Converter model

3 iABC

u(1)+u(2)+u(3) DC_link current

1 idc

1 gate _signals Commutation functions 2 vdc DC-link voltage

u*K Matrix Gain 2 vABC Output voltage

90

A.2 Space Vector Modulation model

A.2

Space Vector Modulation model


vdref 1 vdref vAlpha /Beta _ref Weight vqref Weight 2 Vdc
vdc

Avoid Saturation Avoid saturation

vdc

if (..)

vd vd
u1

vd vq

if { } duty _ABC

vq
elseIf (..)

1st quadrant

vd vq
elseIf (..)

vd vq

elseif { } duty _ABC

2nd quadrant

duty _ABC duty _abc

1 duty _ABC

vd vq
u2

vd vq

elseif { } duty _ABC

pulse dropping

vq
elseIf (..)

3rd quadrant

vd If vq

vd vq

elseif { } duty _ABC

4th quadrant

A. Matlab models

91

A.3 Grid model

A.3

Grid model

1 |A|

ampl 2 fq freq 3 phase phase vRST 1 vpcc

Harmonic Voltage Source

4 iRST

IRST

Vpcc

Isc

Short -circuit path

SCval

Isc

Vg

Ground
vpcc iload Iload

Local Load Grid Impedance

92

A. Matlab models

A.4 PLL tuning model

A.4

PLL tuning model

9.2
Kp

Tset 1 Input K Ts psi u(1)^2


Ti

1 Output z-1

2.3

A. Matlab models

93

A.5 dq and control models

A.5

dq and control models

94

A. Matlab models

A.5 dq and control models

A. Matlab models

95

A.6 Complete model

A.6

Complete model

96

A. Matlab models

Project proposal

Siemens Wind Power A/S

22-08-2008

Vector control of PMSG for wind turbine applications


Background: The generator of a wind turbine is usually connected to the main shaft via a step down gearbox. It would however be advantageous to omit the gearbox and connect the generator directly to the main shaft. Depending on the generator design, this can result in a wind turbine which has e.g. an increased efficiency, increased reliability and is more cost-effective. The permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) is regarded as a realistic solution for a direct drive generator for variable speed wind turbines. In order to obtain full control possibilities and in order to minimize the generator size, a full scale 4Q frequency converter can be applied between the generator and the grid. The converter can e.g. consist of two Voltage Source Inverters (VSI) connected back to back and with an intermediate DC link. The generator torque and the generator terminal voltage can be controlled by the generator side VSI. The DC link voltage and the reactive power/grid voltage can be controlled by the grid side VSI. At nominal power, the speed of the generator can be controlled by pitching the blades. Objectives: It is the objective of the project to design, analyze and optimize controllers for the converter for a 2 - 3 MW non-salient pole PMSG. The controllers shall be based on vector control theory and shall be able to operate independently of each other. The controllers shall be well damped and have a fast response time in the whole operation area both during normal operation and during grid faults. The controllers shall be designed and analyzed using Matlab/Simulink. Contents: - Modeling of drive train, PMSG, converter, filter and grid - Design and optimization of torque and voltage/flux vector controllers for the generator side VSI - Design and optimization of DC link and reactive power vector controllers for the grid side VSI. - Simulation of controller performance during normal operation and during grid faults Suggested by: Erik Grndahl, Siemens Wind Power A/S

97