Input devices

• • • • • • • • • • Keyboard. Mouse. Trackball & Spaceball. Joysticks. Data Glove. Digitizer (graphics/data tablet). Image Scanners. Touch Panels. Light pens. Voice Systems.

Lecture 3
Ch 2: Overview of Graphics Systems
10th April 2006

Keyboard
• Used to input non-graphic data as:
– Picture labels. – Screen coordinates. – Menu selections.

Mouse
• Mice first broke onto the public stage with the introduction of the Apple Macintosh in 1984, and since then they have helped to completely redefine the way we use computers.

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Trackball
• Can be rotated with the fingers or palm of the hand to produce screen cursor movement. • It’s a 2-D positioning device.

Spaceball
• Provides 6 degrees of freedom. • The device is designed to ease navigation in 3D computer models, and is therefore primarily used by CAD and computer graphics professionals.

Joysticks
• They take something entirely physical (movement of hand) & translate it into something entirely mathematical, a string of ones and zeros. • With a good joystick, the translation is so flawless that you completely forget about it. When you're really engaged in a game, you feel like you're interacting with the virtual world directly.

Data Glove
• Can be used to capture virtual objects. • Specifically used to capture:
– Bending of fingers. – Gestures of the hand.

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Digitizers
• A graphics tablet is an input device used by artists which allows one to draw a picture onto a computer screen without having to utilize a mouse or keyboard. • A graphics tablet consists of a flat tablet and some sort of drawing device, usually either a pen or stylus

• Drawings, graphs, colored or B/W photos can be stored in for computer processing by using image scanners by passing an optical scanning mechanism over the information to be stored. • You can then apply editing operations on an image like:
– Rotate, scale, crop the picture to a particular screen area. – alter or enhance the image. – print it out or use it on your Web page.

Image Scanners

Touch screen/panel
• A touch screen is an easy to use input device that allows users to control computer software by touching the display screen. • Used in:
– – – – – – Public Information Displays Retail and Restaurant Systems Customer Self-Service Control and Automation Systems Computer Based Training Assistive Technology

Light pen
• A light pen is a computer input device in the form of a light-sensitive wand used in conjunction with the computer's monitor. It allows the user to point to displayed objects, or draw on the screen, in a similar way to a touch screen but with greater positional accuracy

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Voice Systems
• Can be used to initiate graphics operations or to enter data. • These systems work by matching an input against a predefined dictionary of words and phrases.

Output Devices
• Display device (CRT/LCD). • Printers.
– Dot Matrix. – Inkjets and Laser printers.

• Plotter.

Refresh Cathode Ray Tube (CRT)

How the CRT works?
• A beam of electrons are emitted from the electron gun, which passes through the focusing and deflection system that directs the beam towards the specified location on the phosphor coated screen. • This light fades away … so we have to have a method of redrawing. – Done by a refresh CRT

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Components of the electron gun
• Heated metal cathode.
– Heat supplied to the cathode enables the negatively charged electrons to leave the cathode surface and move towards the phosphor screen.

Control grid
• Low negative voltage: Decreases the number
of electrons passing through the hole at the end of the control grid. • Since the amount of light emitted by the phosphor coating depends on the number of electrons striking the screen, we control the brightness of a display by varying the voltage on the control grid.

• Control Grid.
– Controls the intensity of the electron beam by setting voltage levels.

Focusing system
• Why is it needed? To force the electron beam to converge to a small spot on the phosphor. • Otherwise: The electrons would repel each other and the beam would spread out as it approaches the screen.

What actually happens
• Electron beam collides with the phosphor with some kinetic energy. • Part of that energy converted into heat. • Rest is absorbed in the phosphor, which causes:
– Electrons of the phosphor to be excited. – When the excited electrons move back to their original state, they emit small quantum's of light energy.

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Properties of phosphor
• Comes in different colours. • Important property: persistence
– Defined as: the time it takes the emitted light to decay to 1/10th its original intensity OR – How long they continue to emit light after the CRT beam is removed. – Lower persistence phosphors require more refresh rates and vice versa. WHY?

Some terms
• RESOLUTION: The maximum number of points that can be displayed on a CRT without overlap is called resolution. • ASPECT RATIO: The number gives the ration of the vertical points to horizontal points necessary to produce equallength lines in both directions.

Difference between resolution and screen size of a CRT

?

An image on a 21-inch 21monitor with an 800x600 resolution will not appear nearly as sharp as it would on a 15-inch display at 15800x600.
WHY?

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Color bit-depth
• color bit depth refers to the number of bits used to describe the color of a single pixel. • The bit depth determines the number of colors that can be displayed at one time.
Bit-Depth 1 2 4 8 16 24 32 Number of Colors 2 (monochrome) 4 (CGA) 16 (EGA) 256 (VGA) 65,536 (High Color, XGA) 16,777,216 (True Color, SVGA) 16,777,216 (True Color + Alpha Channel)

Raster Scan displays

Raster scan displays
• • • • • • • • • Based on the television technology. Object represented as set of discrete points. Screen point: pixel or pel. Refresh buffer/frame buffer. bitmap or pixmap. 3Mbytes for 1024x1024x24. refresh rate (60 -- 120 Hz). Horizontal & vertical retrace. Interlacing.

Concept of Interlacing
ODD EVEN

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Random Scan displays
• CRT beam only directed to places where the object is to be drawn. • Refresh display file. • Advantages:
– Higher resolution, smooth line drawing.

Colour CRT Monitors
• Uses a combination of different phosphors. • Two types:
– Beam penetration – Shadow-Mask
• Delta-delta shadow-mask. • In-line shadow-mask.

• Disadvantages:
– Cannot display realistic shaded regions.

Beam penetration
Combination: Orange & yellow

Shadow Mask
• three different phosphors: R,G,B. • Three electron guns to illuminate each kind of phosphor dot. • delta-delta or in--line arrangement. • additive color mix, RGB model. • 24 bits color information (16 million colors) . • true--color system

Intermediate: Red

Very fast beam: Green

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Blue

Green

Different colours
• White/Gray: activating all 3 dots with same intensity. • Yellow: red & green dots. • Magenta: blue & red. • Cyan: blue & green.

Red

Delta-Delta VS in-line

Only different in how the three electron guns are arranged

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