# 1

Chapter 5: 2-D
Geometric
Transformations
Shearing, Composite
Transformations, Properties of
transformations
Shearing
Distorts the shape such that the
transformed shape appears as if the object
were composed of layers that had been
caused to slide over each other.
Shearing is done in x-direction (sh
x
) and in
y-direction (sh
y
).
+ive values of sh
x
causes a shift in the object
towards right.
-ive values of sh
x
causes a shift in the object
towards left.
+ive values of sh
y
causes an upward shift in the
object.
-ive values of sh
y
causes a downward shift in the
object.
Shearing in x

=

1 1 0 0
0 1
0 1
1
'
'
y
x
sh
sh
y
x
y
x
0
MATRIX FOR SHEARING IN Y - ?
Shearing w.r.t a reference line
Shearing w.r.t. a reference lines shears and
translates an object too by a shift amount.
Shift = -sh
x
.y
ref
for x-direction shearing.
Shift = -sh
y
.x
ref
for y-direction shearing.
2
Result of shearing an object in
y-direction
Reference line here is x
ref
= -1
WHAT IS A REFERENCE LINE?
Result of shearing an object in x-
direction w.r.t a reference line
2D Composite Transformations
Sequence of transformations: composite transformation matrix
Matrices listed in reverse order
( )

⋅ ⋅ =
|
|
|
¹
|

\
|

⋅ ⋅ =

1 1 1
'
'
1 2 1 2
y
x
M M y
x
M M y
x
P M P M M P ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅ =
1 2
'
Composite 2D Translations

+
+
=

1 0 0
1 0
0 1
1 0 0
1 0
0 1
1 0 0
1 0
0 1
2 1
2 1
1
1
2
2
y y
x x
y
x
y
x
t t
t t
t
t
t
t
) , ( ) , ( ) , (
2 1 2 1 1 1 2 2 y y x x y x y x
t t t t T t t T t t T + + = ⋅
{ } { } P t t T t t T P t t T t t T P
y x y x y x y x
⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅ = ) , ( ) , ( ) , ( ) , ( '
1 1 2 2 1 1 2 2
3
Composite 2D Rotations
( ) ( )
( ) ( )

+ +
+ − +
=

1 0 0
0 cos sin
0 sin cos
1 0 0
0 cos sin
0 sin cos
1 0 0
0 cos sin
0 sin cos
2 1 2 1
2 1 2 1
1 1
1 1
2 2
2 2
θ θ θ θ
θ θ θ θ
θ θ
θ θ
θ θ
θ θ
( ) ( ) ( )
1 2 1 2
θ θ θ θ + = ⋅ R R R
{ } { } P R R P R R P ⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅ = ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( '
1 2 1 2
θ θ θ θ
Composite 2D Scalings

=

1 0 0
0 0
0 0
1 0 0
0 0
0 0
1 0 0
0 0
0 0
2 1
2 1
1
1
2
2
y x
x x
y
x
y
x
s s
s s
s
s
s
s
) , ( ) , ( ) , (
2 1 2 1 1 1 2 2 y y x x y x y x
s s s s S s s S s s S = ⋅
{ } { } P s s S s s S P s s S s s S P
y x y x y x y x
⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅ = ) , ( ) , ( ) , ( ) , ( '
1 1 2 2 1 1 2 2
General 2D Pivot-Point Rotation
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
r r r r r r
y x T R y x T y x R − − ⋅ ⋅ = , , , , θ θ
General 2D Fixed-Point
Scaling
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
f f y x f f y x f f
y x T s s S y x T s s y x S − − ⋅ ⋅ = , , , , , ,
4
Matrix Concatenation Properties
Associative:
Not commutative:
Order is important!
( ) ( )
1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3
M M M M M M M M M ⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅
2 1 1 2
M M M M ⋅ ≠ ⋅