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P ACI FIC N ATION AL PTY LTD

Greta Train Servicing Facility


Surface Water Management Assessment

301020-02473 10-Mar-10

Infrastructure & Environment 8-14 Telford Street Newcastle East NSW 2300 Australia Tel: +61 2 4907 5300 Fax: +61 2 4907 5333 www.worleyparsons.com WorleyParsons Services Pty Ltd
ABN 61 001 279 812 Copyright 2010 WorleyParsons Services Pty Ltd

PACIFIC NATIONAL PTY LTD GRETA TRAIN SERVICING FACILITY SURFACE WATER MANAGEMENT ASSESSMENT

This report has been prepared on behalf of and for the exclusive use of Pacific National Pty Ltd, and is subject to and issued in accordance with the agreement between Pacific National Pty Ltd and WorleyParsons Services Pty Ltd. WorleyParsons Services Pty Ltd accepts no liability or responsibility whatsoever for it in respect of any use of or reliance upon this report by any third party. Copying this report without the permission of Pacific National Pty Ltd and WorleyParsons Services Pty Ltd is not permitted.

PROJECT 301020-02473 - GRETA TRAIN SERVICING FACILITY


REV DESCRIPTION ORIG REVIEW WORLEYPARSONS APPROVAL DATE CLIENT APPROVAL DATE

Draft for Client Review Chris Kuczera Ben Patterson

N/A

Final for Submission Chris Kuczera Ben Patterson

10 march 2010

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PACIFIC NATIONAL PTY LTD GRETA TRAIN SERVICING FACILITY SURFACE WATER MANAGEMENT ASSESSMENT

CONTENTS
1. 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 2. 2.1 2.2 3. 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 4. 4.1 4.2 4.3 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................1 Study Objectives .................................................................................................................1 Site Locality.........................................................................................................................1 Development Proposal .......................................................................................................2 Available Data.....................................................................................................................3 STATUTORY REQUIRMENTS ..........................................................................................4 Director Generals Requirements ........................................................................................4 Applicable Guidelines .........................................................................................................4 EXISTING CONDITIONS ...................................................................................................6 Site Description...................................................................................................................6 Receiving Waters................................................................................................................6 Climatic Conditions .............................................................................................................7 Local Water Quality.............................................................................................................8 SURFACE WATER MANAGEMENT ...............................................................................10 Potential Impacts ..............................................................................................................10 Surface Water Management Objectives ...........................................................................11 Surface Water Management Plan.....................................................................................11 4.3.1 4.3.2 4.3.3 4.3.4 5. 5.1 5.2 6. 6.1 Preventative Measures ........................................................................................11 Rainwater Harvesting...........................................................................................12 Treatment of Surface Runoff................................................................................13 Surface Water Management during Construction................................................13

RAINWATER HARVESTING ...........................................................................................14 Water Balance Model .......................................................................................................14 Design Measures ..............................................................................................................17 SURFACE RUNOFF TREATMENT .................................................................................19 WQCP Design Concept ....................................................................................................19

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6.2

Water Quality Modelling....................................................................................................20 6.2.1 6.2.2 6.2.3 Modelling Objectives ............................................................................................20 MUSIC Water Quality Model................................................................................21 Model Parameters................................................................................................21

6.3 7. 7.1 7.2

Model Results ...................................................................................................................23 TRADE WASTE MANAGEMENT ....................................................................................25 Sources of Trade Waste ...................................................................................................25 Trade Waste Quality .........................................................................................................25 7.2.1 7.2.2 Preventative Measures ........................................................................................26 Treatment Measures ............................................................................................26

7.3 7.4 8. 8.1 8.2 9. 9.1 9.2 9.3 10. 10.1 10.2 11. 12.

Trade Waste Agreement...................................................................................................27 Wastewater Disposal ........................................................................................................27 TREATMENT OF RIPARIAN CORRIDORS ....................................................................28 Riparian Corridor Setbacks...............................................................................................28 Farm Dams .......................................................................................................................29 MONITORING AND RESPONSE PLAN..........................................................................30 Surface Water Monitoring Plan.........................................................................................30 Spill Response Measures .................................................................................................32 Contingency Measures .....................................................................................................33 POTENTIAL IMPACTS ....................................................................................................34 Water Quality Impacts ..................................................................................................34 Water Quantity Impacts................................................................................................34 CONCLUSION..................................................................................................................36 REFERENCES .................................................................................................................39

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LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1 Site Survey Figure 2 Surface Water Management Plan Figure 3 Water Quality Control Pond Concept

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1.

INTRODUCTION

Pacific National Pty Ltd (PN) proposes to establish a Train Servicing Facility (TSF) on a site that is located in the Hunter Valley, near the Township of Greta. The TSF is to provide essential operational services for PNs Hunter Valley rail coal haulage business. Proposed services include locomotive provisioning, locomotive and wagon maintenance, crew changes and administration. WorleyParsons have been engaged by PN to develop a surface water management assessment for the development proposal. This strategy, which is documented in this report, forms part of the Environmental Assessment for the development proposal.

1.1

Study Objectives

The following objectives have been adopted for this investigation: Assessment of existing site water quality and hydrological conditions. Identification of potential impacts the development proposal may have on the water quality and environmental functionality of the receiving waters. Development of mitigation measures to minimise any identified impacts. Development of measures to manage and dispose of trade waste generated on-site. Development of a surface water quality monitoring and response plan for the project.

1.2

Site Locality

The site comprises 49.3 ha of land that is located in the Hunter Valley to the west of the Township of Greta. The site is legally described as Lot 1 DP 1129191 and is located within the Cessnock Local Government Area (LGA). The site is bound by the Great Northern Railway to the north and east, existing residential allotments to the south and the proposed Hunter Expressway corridor to the west. Plate 1-1 locates the site.

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PACIFIC NATIONAL PTY LTD GRETA TRAIN SERVICING FACILITY SURFACE WATER MANAGEMENT ASSESSMENT

Plate 1-1 Site Locality

1.3

Development Proposal

Pacific National proposes to operate the Greta Train Servicing Facility to provide the following key operational services for their Hunter Valley rail coal haulage business: Train provisioning; Locomotive, wagon and vehicle maintenance; Crew changes; and Administration. The proposed TSF is located in the northern portion of the development site and will comprise the following key elements: Construction of six rail sidings to accommodate the proposed operations. Substantial earthworks will be required to achieve the required site grades. Construction of a range of facilities including a Provisioning Shed, Locomotive Wash and Maintenance Facilities, a Wagon Maintenance Facility, a Wheel Lathe facility, a Vehicle Maintenance Facility, a Fuel Storage Area and an Administration Building.

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Construction of an access road to provide site access from Nelson Street. Construction of the associated drainage and service infrastructure required to support the development proposal. Figure 2 details the development proposal.

1.4

Available Data

The following data was used for this study: A site survey of the development site provided by PN. Development masterplans provided by PN. Aerial photograph of the site sourced from Google Earth . 1 to 25,000 scale topographical map of the site and surrounding area. Rainfall data and climatic statistics supplied by the Bureau of Meteorology. Black Creek stream gauge data provided by The Department of Water and Energy.
TM

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2. 2.1

STATUTORY REQUIREMENTS Director Generals Requirements

In accordance with Section 75F of the EP&A Act, the Director General of the Department of Planning has issued requirements for the preparation of the Environmental Assessment for the proposed Greta TSF project. The requirements that have been addressed in this report are detailed in Table 2-1. Table 2-1 Director Generals requirements specific to the surface water management aspects of the project. Director Generals Requirement A description of the existing environment An assessment of the potential impacts of both the construction and operation stages, in accordance with relevant guidelines and policies. A description of measures that would be implemented to avoid, minimize, manage, mitigate, offset and/or monitor the impacts of the project. Applicable Section of Report Section 3 Sections 4 and 10

Sections 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9

2.2

Applicable Guidelines

GUIDELINES
There are no known guidelines that specifically address water management issues for rail yards. However, the following guidelines are considered to be applicable to various aspects of this development proposal. Australian Rainfall and Runoff Australian Rainfall and Runoff (AR&R) is a document published in 1987 by the Institution of Engineers, Australia (IEAust). This document has been prepared to provide designers with the best available information on design flood estimation and is widely accepted as a design guideline for all flood and stormwater related design in Australia.

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Erosion and Sediment Control Guidelines Managing Urban Stormwater: Soils and Construction (Blue Book) is guideline that documents best practice erosion and sediment control measures. The guideline was published by the Department of Housing in 1998. Australian Runoff Quality Australian Runoff Quality (ARQ) is a document published in 2006 by IEAust which provides design guidelines for all aspect of water sensitive urban design (WSUD), including preventative measures, source controls, conveyance controls and end of line controls. Additionally, it provides guidance for water quality modelling as well as stormwater harvesting and re-use. Constructed Wetland Manual The Constructed Wetlands Manual is a document published by the Department of Land and Water Conservation (DLWC) in 1998. The manual provides comprehensive technical information regarding planning, design, construction and operation of constructed wetlands for a range of applications. Guidelines for Controlled Activities The NSW Office of Water (DECCW) has developed guidelines to assist applicants who are considering carrying out a controlled activity on waterfront land. The guidelines provide information on the recommended treatment of riparian corridors and design measures for any in-stream structures such as culverts or crossings. Water Harvesting Guidelines Managing Urban Stormwater: Harvesting and Reuse provides guidance on the planning, design and operation of a range of stormwater harvesting and re-use applications. The document was published by the Department of Environment and Conservation in 2006. Australian Guidelines for Water Quality Monitoring and Reporting ANZECC, 2000 These guidelines are the benchmark document of the National Water Quality Management Strategy (NWQMS) which is used for comparison of water quality monitoring data throughout Australia.

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3. 3.1

EXISTING CONDITIONS Site Description

The site comprises 49.6 ha of land that is located to the west of the Township of Greta. The site fronts approximately 2.4km of the Main Northern Railway corridor, which forms the eastern and northern site boundary. The site topography is characterised by undulating hills and drainage lines with grades ranging from 3 to 10%. The steeper topography is located in the western portion of the site. Figure 1 presents a site survey. The south-eastern portion of the site comprises cleared grazing land, while the northern and western portions of the site are vegetated with native vegetation. A number of small farm dams exist throughout the site. The extent of vegetation and farm dam locations is evident in Figure 1, which includes an aerial photograph of the site. There are four ephemeral watercourses that traverse the site. The largest watercourse is Sawyers Creek, which traverses through the southern portion of the site. Sawyers Creek has a contributing 2 catchment area of approximately 5km that extends approximately six kilometres to the south of the site, to the Molly Morgan Mountain Range. Sawyers Creek is classified as a second order watercourse using the Strahler System of ordering watercourses. Two unnamed smaller first order watercourses and one unnamed second order watercourse traverse the site to the north of Sawyers Creek. For the purposes of this report, these unnamed watercourses have been numbered 1 to 3 in a north to south sequence. Refer to Figure 1 for watercourse alignments. The site is undermined by the workings of the remnant Anvil Creek Colliery, which operated between 1884 and 1912. Geotechnical investigations undertaken by Douglas Partners have identified the potential for pot hole subsidence to occur in the southern portion of the site, where the underground workings are less than 40 m below the surface.

3.2

Receiving Waters

All four on-site watercourses are tributaries to Anvil Creek, which has a catchment area of 3,653ha. The Anvil Creek Catchment is characterised by undulating and flat terrain with slopes ranging from 0 to 10%. Rural land-uses dominate the catchment, with pasture/grazing/cropping making up 48% of the total area. In addition, there are small areas of intensive agriculture. Approximately 40% of the catchment is currently forested and 12% is occupied by urban settlement. There are numerous remnant mining operations located through the catchment (Cessnock City Wide Settlement Strategy, 2003). The Cessnock City Wide Settlement Strategy describes Anvil creek has relatively degraded when compared to other, less developed, catchments in the Cessnock City Council LGA.

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Anvil Creek joins Black Creek downstream of the Township of Branxton. Black Creek is a major tributary of the Hunter River.

3.3

Climatic Conditions

RAINFALL DATA
Daily rainfall and climatic data is available from Bureau of Meteorology (BoM) Weather Station 61025 (Greta Post Office) that was located within 500m of the project area. BoM Station 061025 operated between 1902 and 1978 providing a comprehensive data set of climatic conditions for the Greta area. Key statistical rainfall data from BoM Station 61025 is summarised in Table 3-1. Table 3-1 Local Rainfall Data BoM Station 61025 (Greta Post Office) Mean 10 Percentile 50 Percentile 90 Percentile
th th th

Annual Rainfall Depth (mm/year) 766 514 761 1000

EVAPORATION DATA
Average monthly evaporation (ET) and areal potential evapotranspiration (PET) rates at Greta were extracted from the monthly climate maps provided by the BoM. The adopted monthly average evaporation and PET depths are presented in Table 3-2.

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Table 3-2 Average evaporation and potential evapotranspiration at the Greta Month
January February March April May June July August September October November December
^ Evaporation from a Class A evaporation pan.

Average Monthly Evaporation (mm/month)


180 175 125 100 90 80 75 90 120 140 180 200

Areal Potential Evapotranspiration (mm/month)


170 140 130 90 65 60 50 70 90 120 150 165

3.4

Local Water Quality

A desk top search was undertaken to collate publicly available water quality data from both Anvil and Black Creeks. Water quality information was sourced from the following sources: The Department of Water and Energy operates a gauging station that is located immediately downstream of the confluence of Black and Anvil Creeks (Station Number 210131). Salinity measurements were recorded daily between 1993 and 2002. In stream Total Phosphorous and Nitrogen measurements collected by Hunter Water upstream and downstream of the Branxton Wastewater Treatment Plant were published in the publically available water quality assessment titled Branxton Wastewater Treatment Works Upgrade: Load-Based Water Quality Assessment (Cardno, February, 2009). Table 3-3 compares the above water quality data to the default trigger values documented in the ANZECC guideline for fresh and marine water quality.

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Table 3-3 Comparison of known water quality data to ANZECC trigger values

Analyte

Typical Observed Values in Black and Anvil Creeks Average: 1554 s/cm th 10 Percentile: 909 s/cm th 90 Percentile: 2162 s/cm Observed concentrations^ range from 0.5mg/l to >3mg/l. The average concentration is approximately 1.5mg/L^^ Observed concentrations^ range from 0 mg/l to >0.3mg/l. The average concentration is approximately 0.05mg/L^^

ANZECC Default Trigger values for lowland rivers Trigger values range from 125 to 2200 s/cm. NSW coastal Rivers are typically in the 200-300 s/cm range. 0.35 mg/L

Salinity

Total Nitrogen

Total Phosphorus

0.025 mg/L

^ Refers to observations recorded upstream of the Branxton WWTP. ^^ Water quality data was only available in graphical form. The estimated average concentrations were estimated from the graphs and should therefore be considered as indicative rather than absolute.

The water quality observations presented in Table 3-3 indicate that the local water quality in Black and Anvil Creeks significantly exceeds the ANZECC default trigger values for salinity. In addition, the observed salinity levels are significantly higher than the median value of 670 s/cm reported in the Hunter River at Greta (Department of Land and Water Conservation, 2003). Both observed Total Nitrogen and Total Phosphorus water quality trends were also substantially higher than the ANZECC default trigger values. The available data indicates that the water quality in both Anvil and Black Creeks is degraded. This hypothesis is supported by the Cessnock City Councils City Wide Settlement Strategy which describes the water quality in both Anvil and Black Creek Catchments as being very highly saline and degraded (Cessnock City Council, 2003).

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4.

SURFACE W ATER MANAGEMENT

This section discusses the potential surface water impacts and proposed management measures.

4.1

Potential Impacts

The following contamination processes and pathways have been identified as potentially occurring during the construction and operational phases of the development proposal: Construction Phase: The construction of the TSF is to involve significant earthworks to achieve the proposed site grading. As a result of the soil disturbances, there is potential for temporary increases in sediment loads to occur in runoff from the site. Accordingly, erosion and sediment control measures will be required to minimise the occurrence of sediment being exported from the site. Operation Phase: During operational stage of the TSF, the following potential contaminant sources have been identified: Locomotive Wash Facility: Locomotives will be washed in a designated facility. Runoff from this washing process is likely to comprise poor water quality, with elevated concentrations of oil and grease, heavy metals, nutrients and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD). Accordingly, all wash down water will be treated on-site to a suitable quality required for disposal under a trade waste agreement. Work Shops and Provisioning Shed: Internal runoff from the onsite workshops and the provisioning shed is likely to contain similar water quality to runoff from the locomotive wash facility. As such, all internal runoff will be treated on-site to a suitable quality required for disposal under a trade waste agreement. Rail Yard and Maintenance Areas: It is likely that the rail sidings would generate a low to moderate particulate load (comprising coal and non coal particulates). Coal particulates can contain soluble salts and acid forming materials. However, as no handling of coal will be undertaken on-site, the coal particulate load is expected to be low (primarily through coal failing from wagons) and no significant acid or salinity issues are expected. In addition to particulate loads, there is potential for low to moderate levels of hydrocarbon and heavy metal contamination resulting from machinery operations. All surface runoff from the rail yard would be treated in Water Quality Control Ponds (WQCPs) designed to remove suspended sediments and low to moderate levels of heavy metals and oil and grease prior to discharge. The oil and grease loads are expected to be higher in runoff from the key infrastructure and maintenance area (defined as the area between the Administration Building and the

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PACIFIC NATIONAL PTY LTD GRETA TRAIN SERVICING FACILITY SURFACE WATER MANAGEMENT ASSESSMENT

fuel storage area). As such, a Gross Pollutant Trap (GPT) with hydrocarbon removal capabilities will pre-treat runoff from this area prior to treatment in the WQCPs. Accidental Spills: The rail yard operations will involve the handling of large volumes of liquids such as fuel, oil, radiator fluid and hydraulic fluid. As with any industrial operation, there is potential for an accidental spill or leakage to occur. In addition, spills may occur from machinery failure. While management measures will be implemented to reduce the probability of an accidental spill occurring, contingency measures will also be implemented to enable any spill to be contained on-site and be effectively remediated.

4.2

Surface Water Management Objectives

The following surface water management objectives have been established: Implement best practise surface water management measures. Separate clean and dirty water streams to increase the effectiveness of treatment measures. Provide treatment for all surface runoff from the development area. Establish a trade waste collection and treatment facility to treat all water generated from locomotive washing and internal runoff from work shops and provisioning sheds. Implement stormwater harvesting where practical. Establish contingency measures that enable any accidental spill to be contained on-site and be effectively remediated.

4.3

Surface Water Management Plan

A Surface Water Management Plan (SWMP) has been developed based on the surface water management objectives discussed in Section 4.2. The SWMP incorporates a range of preventative, treatment and contingency measures, which are discussed in the following sections. The following sections should be read in conjunction with Figure 2, which graphically illustrates the SWMP.

4.3.1

Preventati ve Measures

Preventative measures are the most effective stormwater management methods as they control the source of any surface water management issue. The following preventative measures are proposed:

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Isolation of the Clean Water Drainage As detailed in Figure 2, the natural site topography grades from the west to the east. It is proposed to construct a clean water collection system that diverts all arriving flow from up gradient areas into a series of culverts that pass under the TSF. As indicated in Figure 2, all surface runoff from the TSF will be treated prior to release into the clean water system. Isolation of Highly Polluting Areas All workshops and locomotive washing and provisioning facilities will be enclosed and covered. As such, any internal surfaces that may contain pollutants will not be exposed to rainfall and will not contribute to the surface runoff from the site. All internal runoff will be collected and treated in a separate system and managed under the trade waste management scheme that is discussed in Section 5. Operational Procedures PN will develop operational procedures to ensure that all on-site activities are undertaken in accordance with best practice environmental management standards. Operational procedures would be required for the following tasks: Transfer and storage of liquids such as fuel and oils. Management of liquid and solid waste streams. As part of the operational procedures, PN will provide training to relevant personal as required. Stabilisation of Exposed Soils Any exposed soils in non-trafficable areas should be stabilised with vegetation and mulch to prevent soil loss. This is particularly important on steep slopes such as batters.

4.3.2

Rainw ater Harvesting

A rainwater harvesting scheme is proposed to supplement the on-site non-potable water requirements for both toilet flushing and locomotive washing. The scheme will incorporate the following features: Rainwater will be harvested from the roofs of all on-site buildings. Harvested rainwater from the Administration building, Wheel Lathe facility and the Provisioning Shed will be re-used for toilet flushing in each respective building. Rainwater tanks sizes for each building are detailed in Figure 2. Harvested rainwater from the Locomotive, Road Vehicle and Wagon Maintenance Sheds and the Locomotive Wash Facility will be reused for toilet flushing in each building as well as to supplement the water requirements for the Locomotive Wash Facility. The proposed rainwater harvesting scheme is discussed in detail in Section 5.

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4.3.3

Tr eatment of Surface Runoff

As indicated in Figure 2, all surface runoff from the TSF will be treated in Water Quality Control Ponds (WQCPs) prior to discharge. WQCPs were selected as the preferred water quality treatment method as they are suited to flat sites and facilitate relative ease of maintenance. WQCPs are effective in removing sediment, nutrients and other pollutants such as oils and greases and heavy metals from runoff through a range of physical, biological and chemical processes. The proposed WQCP design measures are discussed in detail in Section 6. As discussed in Section 4.1, there is potential for increased oil and grease concentrations in runoff from the infrastructure and maintenance area, which is designated in Figure 2. All runoff from this area will be pre-treated in a GPT with oil and grease removal capabilities (typical proprietary units include HumeCeptor or SpelCeptor) prior to treatment in the WQCPs.

4.3.4

Surface Water Management during Construction

During construction, sediment and erosion control measures would be designed and installed in accordance with the NSW Department of Housing Managing Urban Stormwater Soils and Construction (Blue Book). A detailed soil and water management plan will be prepared at the detailed design stage of each construction stage. The soil and water management plan will include the following information: Areas of disturbance during each stage of construction. Clean and dirty water management. The location and size of sediment basins. The location and specifications of erosion control measures such as silt fences. The treatment of areas that require temporary stabilisation, such as stockpiles. .

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5.

RAINW ATER HARVESTING

As discussed in Section 4.3.2, a review of possible rainwater harvesting schemes was undertaken and the following four rainwater harvesting schemes are proposed: Scheme A Harvests runoff from the Administration building for internal re-use for toilet flushing. Scheme B Harvests runoff from the Wheel Lathe facility for internal re-use for toilet flushing. Scheme C Harvests runoff from the Provisioning Shed for internal re-use for toilet flushing. Scheme D Harvests runoff from the Locomotive Maintenance Shed, Road Vehicle Centre, Wagon Maintenance Shed and the Locomotive Wash Facility. Harvested water will be reused for toilet flushing in each building as well as supplement the water requirements for the Locomotive Wash Facility. This section details water balance modelling undertaken to size each of the above schemes and discusses the design concepts.

5.1

Water Balance Model

The efficiency of a rainwater harvesting system is dependant on the catchment area and characteristics, rainfall characteristics (rainfall depths and variability), the storage capacity of the tanks and the demand usage and variability. Water balance modelling was undertaken to examine the above factors. The objective of modelling was to determine appropriate design parameters for the harvesting schemes.

CATCHMENT AREAS
Roof areas contributing to each of the proposed harvesting schemes were determined from the preliminary design plans provided by PN. Table 5-1 details the estimated roof areas for each scheme.

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Table 5-1 Estimated Catchment Areas Harvesting Scheme Scheme A Scheme B Scheme C Scheme D Total Available Roof Area (m ) 570 760 2,150 3,130 6,610
2

An initial loss run-off model was used to determine the harvesting volume. A 5mm per day initial loss was adopted to account for losses associated with a first flush by-pass system.

DEMAND ANALYSIS
It is proposed to re-use harvested rainwater for toilet flushing and locomotive washing. These demands are anticipated to be constant, with no seasonal variation. As such, estimated average daily demands were adopted for water balance calculations. The estimated daily water demands for each scheme are summarised in Table 5-2. Table 5-2 Average Daily Water Demands Harvesting Scheme Scheme A Scheme B Scheme C Scheme D Total Toilet Flushing (KL/day)^ 0.32 0.05 0.76 0.32 1.46 Locomotive Washing (KL/day) 3.00^^ 3.00 Total (KL/day) 0.32 0.05 0.76 3.32 4.46

^ Toilet flushing demands are based on the predicted staffing levels provided by PN for Stage 3 of the operation. Toilet flushing volumes were calculated based on 1 full flush (9l) and 4 half flushes (4.5l) per 8hr shift. ^^ Refer to Section 7 for further information regarding the locomotive wash water usage.

STORAGE VOLUMES
The water balance model was used to assess the efficiency of a range of rainwater tank storage sizes. The harvesting efficiency (volume of harvested water / total demand) for each scheme was assessed by running a continuous water balance simulation using 76 years of local daily rainfall data (sourced from BoM Station 61025 ). The use of a long continuous simulation period allows for the effects of both short and long term rainfall variations to be captured in the model results.

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Rainwater tanks for Schemes A, B and C were sized to achieve a minimum 80% harvesting efficiency. A 50% harvesting efficiency was selected for Scheme D, which has a smaller demand to catchment area ratio. Water balance results are presented in Table 5-3. Table 5-3 Water Balance Results Harvesting Scheme Tank Size (KL) Average Harvested Volume (KL/year) 100 18 225 615 958 Harvesting Efficiency (% of Total Demand) 85% 97% 81% 51% 59%

Scheme A Scheme B Scheme C Scheme D Total

20 5 30 60 115

As detailed in Table 5-3, water balance modelling indicates that the proposed stormwater harvesting schemes would facilitate an average 958KL/year reduction in mains water usage, which accounts for 59% of the estimated demand. The most significant contribution arises from Scheme D. Plate 5-1 presents the key model results on a monthly basis, demonstrating that the scheme is more efficient during higher rainfall months.

Average Rainwater Harvesting Effectivness - Scheme D


Average Rainfall 250.0 Avg Runoff Avg Demand Avg Mains Supply Avg Harvested 120 100 80 150.0 60 100.0 40 50.0 20 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
Month Rainfall Depth (mm)

200.0
Volume of water (kl)

0.0 7 8 9 10 11 12

Plate 5-1 Scheme D Monthly Water Balance Results

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5.2

Design Measures

WATER COLLECTION AND STORAGE


As rainwater will be harvested from the roofs of all buildings, a guttering system will be required to collect all roof water and direct it into the rainwater tanks. In order to maintain an acceptable water quality, it is recommended that the following measures are implemented in the gutter design: Ideally, there should be no trees overhanging the harvesting roof area. If vegetation does overhang the roof area then a leaf guard guttering system will be required to prevent organic matter entering the rainwater tanks. A first flush by-pass system will be required to discard the initial runoff from the roof, which generally comprises poorer water quality.

W A T E R Q U A L I T Y T R E A T ME N T
The NSW Government Guideline titled Managing Urban Stormwater Harvesting and Reuse (DECC, 2006) provides stormwater quality criteria for managing health risks associated with stormwater harvesting schemes. As discussed above, harvested water would be used for toilet flushing and locomotive washing. Locomotive washing will comprise spraying water through a high pressure nozzle. This process would create airborne droplets that would directly expose employees operating the wash facility to any waterborne pathogen. As such, the locomotive washing process is considered primary contact and the following water quality criteria are required: E. Coli < 1 cfu/100 ml. Turbidity < 2 NTU. pH 6.5 8.5. 1 mg/L Cl2 residual after 30 minutes or equivalent level of pathogen reduction. The above water quality criteria could be achieved using a pressurised filtration unit followed by chlorine dosing. A water quality monitoring plan would be developed to monitor the effectiveness of this treatment. Re-use of harvested stormwater for toilet flushing is considered to be secondary contact and no treatment is required other than a first-flush diversion.

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MAINTENANCE REQUIREMENTS
The proposed stormwater harvesting scheme will require the following ongoing maintenance tasks: Removal of any accumulated debris from the gutter system. Maintain all pumps and tanks in good working order. Maintain the treatment system in accordance with manufacturers recommendations. This may include a requirement to back flush water through the filter. Storage and treatment of chemicals will need to be managed in accordance with relevant Australian Standards.

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6.

SURFACE RUNOFF TRE ATMENT

As discussed in Section 4, all surface runoff from the development area will be treated in one of five Water Quality Control Ponds (WQCPs). WQCPs were selected as the preferred water quality treatment method as they are suited to flat sites and facilitate relative ease of maintenance. WQCPs are effective in removing suspended sediment and other pollutants such as oils and greases and heavy metals from runoff through a range of physical, biological and chemical processes. Water quality modelling was undertaken to determine the key design parameters for each of the five WQCP. This section discusses the modelling assumptions, methodologies and results and presents a design concept for the WQCPs.

6.1

WQCP Design Concept

The design objectives of the WQCPs are to provide water quality treatment to remove suspended sediments and low to medium levels of heavy metals and oils and greases as well as facilitate relative ease of maintenance. As such the WQCPs are proposed to incorporate a two stage treatment process incorporating the following design measures (Figure 3 details the design concept): Inlet Pond:- is the initial treatment zone, which is designed to trap coarse to medium size sediments and debris. As the majority of incoming sediment will be removed in this zone, vehicle maintenance will be provided to facilitate the removal of trapped sediment and debris. A weir will control the overflow from the inlet pond into the wetland zone. Macrophyte Zone:- provides secondary treatment targeting the removal of finer sediments, heavy metals and oils and greases. The wetland zone comprises the following three components: Deep Water Zones serves as an oxidation and photosynthesis zone, enabling oxidation of organics and metals as well as ultra violet breakdown of oils and greases and organic compounds. Deep water zones also provide permanent pools that increase the retention volume of the WQCP and provide important refuge for wetland biota during dry periods. Deep water zones should not exceed a depth of 2.0m to avoid stratification. Macrophyte Benches are shallow benches constructed 200 to 400mm below the permanent water level. These benches would be vegetated with macrophyte species that provide effective removal of finer particulates and soluble pollutants such as soluble metals and nutrients. Extended Detention refers to a temporary detention volume that is located above the permanent water level. Extended detention moderates the outflows from the WQCP and allows for a greater volume of runoff to be treated.

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PACIFIC NATIONAL PTY LTD GRETA TRAIN SERVICING FACILITY SURFACE WATER MANAGEMENT ASSESSMENT

Outlet Control It is proposed to construct a grated inlet pit to control outflow from the WQCP. The outflow structure will have a small orifice control set at the permanent water level and a higher capacity weir control set at the extended detention level. All overflows would be conveyed into the downstream receiving water through piped drainage.

MAINTENANCE REQUIREMENTS
The proposed WQCPs will require the following ongoing maintenance tasks: Removal of accumulated sediment and debris from the inlet pond. As indicated in Figure 3, an access road will be provided to facilitate access for a small front-end-loader or bobcat. The inlet pond should be cleaned on an annual basis or if accumulated sediment exceeds 30% of the pond volume. Over an extended period of time, accumulated sediment in the macrophyte zone may require removal. The frequency of this can be minimised by effective maintenance of the inlet pond. A detailed maintenance plan shall be prepared as part of the detailed design of the WQCPs.

6.2

Water Quality Modelling

Water quality modelling was undertaken to determine the key design parameters for each WQCP. This section discusses the modelling methodologies, assumptions and results.

6.2.1

Modelling Objecti ves

There are no known water quality guidelines for rail yard facilities. As discussed in Section 4.1, surface runoff from the TSF is expected to generate moderate levels of suspended sediments with the potential for minor to moderate levels of heavy metals and oils and greases to also occur. The key adopted design objective for the WQCPs is to achieve an 80% reduction in Total Suspended Sediment (TSS) concentrations. This is consistent with the water quality guidelines Australian Runoff Quality (IEAust, 2006) which has been developed as urban stormwater management guidelines. It is noted that the removal of heavy metals is correlated with removal of finer colloidal particulates and biological process associated with wetlands. (Constructed Wetlands Manual, DLWC, 1998). It has therefore been assumed that a WQCP sized to remove 80% of suspended sediments will also provide sufficient hydraulic residence time to facilitate the removal of heavy metals (which are typically bound to particulates) and low to moderate levels of oil and greases which are biodegradable and will break down over time when exposed to biological and photosynthetic process (Australian Runoff Quality, 2006). It is noted that a GPT, with oil and grease removal capabilities will

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PACIFIC NATIONAL PTY LTD GRETA TRAIN SERVICING FACILITY SURFACE WATER MANAGEMENT ASSESSMENT

pre-treat runoff from the key infrastructure and maintenance area (area defined in Figure 2), which is considered to have the potential for elevated oil and grease concentrations in the surface runoff.

6.2.2

MUSIC Water Qualit y Model

MUSIC is a conceptual water quality assessment model developed by the Cooperative Research Centre for Catchment Hydrology (CRCCH). MUSIC can be used to estimate the long-term annual average runoff volume generated by a catchment as well as the expected pollutant loads. MUSIC is able to conceptually simulate the performance of a series of stormwater treatment measures (treatment train) to assess whether a proposed water quality strategy is able to meet specified water quality objectives. To undertake this water quality assessment, a MUSIC model was established for each of the five catchments within the subject site. The model was used to estimate the pollutant load generated from the development and estimate the indicative size of the WQCPs required to meet the water quality targets defined above.

6.2.3

Model Param eters

This section details to adopted model parameters,

RAINFALL
In order to develop a model that could comprehensively assess the performance of the proposed SWMP, the use of 6 minute pluviograph data was considered necessary. 6 minute rainfall records obtained from BoM Station 061174, located at Millfield, were used for MUSIC water quality simulations. The rainfall records at BoM Station 061174 extend between 1959 to 1980 and were reviewed to determine that the average annual rainfall depth is approximately 800mm, which is similar to the long term average observed at BoM Station 61025 (766mm). Observed rainfall between 1969 and 1973 was used for all MUSIC water quality simulations. This period was selected as it represents 5 consecutive years of approximate average rainfall.

EVAPORATION
Monthly areal potential evapotranspiration (PET) rates for the site were estimated from PET data provided by the Climate Atlas of Australia (BoM). These values have been previously reported in Table 3-2.

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PACIFIC NATIONAL PTY LTD GRETA TRAIN SERVICING FACILITY SURFACE WATER MANAGEMENT ASSESSMENT

CATCHMENT AREAS
As detailed in Figure 2, it is proposed to divide the development area into five sub-catchments. In order to accurately determine the expected runoff volumes and suspended sediment concentrations, the areas of the following land-surfaces were estimated for each catchment: Rail yard area; Roof area; Paved area; and Vegetated area. The resulting areas are presented in Table 6-1. Table 6-1 Catchment Areas Catchment SC - 1 SC - 2 SC - 3 SC - 4 SC - 5 Total Rail Yard Area (ha) 1.35 1.85 3.50 1.45 1.80 9.95 Roof Area (ha) 0.22 0.45 0.67 Paved Area (ha) 0.19 0.14 1.60 0.22 0.35 2.50 Vegetated Area (ha) 0.54 1.31 3.15 0.43 1.45 6.88 Total Area (ha) 2.3 3.3 8.7 2.1 3.6 20.00

CATCHMENT PARAMETERS
Rainfall runoff parameters were established for each of the above land-surfaces that have the following catchment characteristics: Paved and roof areas were assumed to be 100% impervious. A 1 mm initial loss was applied to the rainfall runoff model. Rail yard areas will comprise ballast placed on a compacted foundation that grades towards a piped drainage system. It is expected that the ballast would attenuate runoff and moderate losses would occur through evaporation of any retained runoff in the ballast. However, as the ballast would be well drained the volumetric runoff is likely to be higher than that from a vegetated surface. All areas of the catchment outside of the indentified rail yard, roof and pavement areas were assumed to comprise predominately (90%) vegetated surfaces. A 10% impervious

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percentage adopted for modelling purposes to account for any potential additional impervious or compacted pervious surfaces that were not identified on the concept design drawings. Table 6-2 presents the adopted modelling parameters and resulting average annual volumetric runoff coefficient for each land surface. In addition, the TSS Event Mean Concentrations (EMCs) for each of land-surface was derived from Urban Stormwater Quality: A Statistical Overview (Duncan, February 1999) and Australian Runoff Quality (Engineers Australia, 2005). Adopted EMCs are presented in Table 6-2. Table 6-2 MUSIC Parameters MUSIC Parameters Percentage Impervious Average Annual Runoff Coefficient 0.30 0.88 0.88 0.15 Field Capacity / Soil Storage (mm) FC = 25mm SS = 25mm NA NA FC = 120mm SS = 80mm Infiltration coefficient and exponent Coeff a = 500 Exp b = 1 NA NA Coeff a = 200 Exp b = 1 TSS - Event Mean Concentration (mg/l) 158 mg/l 32 mg/l 158 mg/l 80 mg/l

Land-Surface

Rail yard Areas Roof Areas Paved Areas Vegetated Areas

0% 100% 100% 10%

6.3

Model Results

The MUSIC water quality model was used to determine key design parameters for each of the proposed WQCPs. The proposed rainwater harvesting system was also included to account for the reduced volume of runoff from roof areas. Key design parameters for each WQCP are presented in Table 6-3. Figure 3 details the WQCP design concept. Table 6-3 WQCP Properties Catchment Area (ha) 2.3 3.3 8.7 2.1 3.6 20.00 Inlet Pond Volume 3 (m ) 150 180 430 120 180 1060 Macrophyte Zone Area 2 (m ) 380 495 1305 315 540 3035 Macorphyte Zone Volume 3 (m ) 340 450 1200 290 490 2770 Extended Detention Volume 3 (m ) 114 149 392 95 162 1821

Catchment

SC - 1 SC - 2 SC - 3 SC - 4 SC - 5 Total

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The WQCP design parameters detailed in Table 6-3 have been determined as the minimum requirement to meet the water quality treatment targets outlined in Section 6.2. Accordingly, these design parameters will be applied at the detailed design stage. The introduction of impervious surfaces and the rail yard formation are likely to increase the volumetric runoff from the site. Table 6-4 presents the estimated average annual runoff volumes and associated run-off coefficients for each sub catchment under existing and developed conditions. The volumetric runoff coefficient under existing conditions was estimated to be 0.1, which is approximately mid-range in the values recommended in Table 10-5 of the Constructed Wetlands Manual (DLWC, 1998) for a site containing elastic clay soils and mean annual rainfall ranging between 500-900mm. Table 6-4 Estimated Volumetric Runoff Developed State Catchment Area Catchment (ha) SC - 1 SC - 2 SC - 3 SC - 4 SC - 5 Total 2.3 3.3 8.7 2.1 3.6 20.00 Average Volumetric Runoff (ML) 6.0 6.1 23.2 5.0 7.5 47.8 Average Volumetric Runoff Coefficient 0.32 0.23 0.33 0.30 0.26 0.30 Existing State Average Volumetric Runoff (ML) 1.84 2.64 6.96 1.68 2.88 16 Average Volumetric Runoff Coefficient 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 Increase in Average Annual Runoff Volume (ML) 4.1 3.5 16.2 3.3 4.7 31.8

The modelling results presented in Table 6-4 indicate that average annual runoff from the 20ha development area would increase from approximately 16 ML/year to 48 ML/year. This increase in runoff volume is unavoidable as it is attributed to the removal of vegetated surfaces which absorb the majority of rainfall. Significant attenuation would be provided within the rail yard ballast and WCQPs which would moderate peak flows leaving the site to sustainable rates. The potential impact of the increased runoff volume on the receiving waters is discussed in Section 10.2.

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7.

TRADE W ASTE MAN AGEMENT

Trade waste will be generated from the locomotive wash down bay as well as the various work shops. All trade waste will be treated on-site to remove the majority of oils and greases and disposed under a trade waste agreement. This section discusses the proposed trade waste management measures.

7.1

Sources of Trade Waste

Trade waste would be generated from the following sources: Runoff from the locomotive wash facility:- PN have advised that approximately 1 to 2 locomotives will be washed per day. Information provided by EDI Downer indicates that their locomotive wash facility at Kooragang Island washes 1 locomotive per day and generates approximately 10KL of trade waste per week. Hence, the estimated volume of water generated by washing 2 locomotives per day would be expected to be in the order of 20 KL per week or 3 KL per day. Workshop Runoff:- Internal runoff from the locomotive maintenance facility, road vehicle service centre, fuel storage area, wheel lathe facility and the provisioning shed would be collected as trade waste. The majority of runoff would be generated from washing down workshop floors and equipment. It is expected that approximately 1 KL/day of water would be generated from these sources. The collective volume of trade waste generated on-site would be approximately 4KL/day.

7.2

Trade Waste Quality

Runoff from the locomotive wash bay and other trade waste sources is expected to contain elevated levels of oils and greases, suspended solids, heavy metals, nutrients and chemical oxygen demand. Management and treatment measures will be required to maintain a water quality that is acceptable for disposal as trade waste. The following sections discuss these measures. Water quality samples were collected at a similar train servicing facility to determine indicative water quality parameters. The samples were collected from a holding tank that stored treated water for collection by a liquid waste contractor. The sampled water had been treated through an on-site treatment system that comprised a gravity separation tank with an oil skimmer and a coalescing plate oil and grease separator. Laboratory analysis of the samples indicated that the sampled water can be treated to a suitable standard for discharge under a trade waste agreement provided that the preventative and treatment measures detailed in the following sections are implemented.

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