1

7

because, since
2

Premise Indicators
8

for, for example
3

Premise Indicators
9

for the reason that
4

Conclusion Indicators
10

in that, given that
5

Conclusion Indicators
11

as indicated by
6

Conclusion Indicators
12

due to, owing to

Conclusion Indicators

7

1

this can be seen from
8

Premise Indicators
2

we know this by
9

Premise Indicators
3

thus, therefore, hence
10

Premise Indicators
4

consequently, as a result
11

Premise Indicators
5

so, accordingly
12

Premise Indicators
6

clearly

Premise Indicators

13

19

must be that
14

Premise Indicators
20

shows that
15

Premise Indicators
21

follows that, conclude that
16

Premise Indicators (to support the conclusion but is sometimes non-essential to the conclusion)
22

for this reason
17

Premise Indicators (to support the conclusion but is sometimes non-essential to the conclusion)
23

Suggests
18

Premise Indicators (to support the conclusion but is sometimes non-essential to the conclusion)
24

Indicates

Premise Indicators (to support the conclusion but is sometimes non-essential to the conclusion)

19

13

for the fact that
20

Conclusion Indicators
14

it helps show
21

Conclusion Indicators
15

Furthermore
22

Conclusion Indicators
16

Moreover
23

Conclusion Indicators
17

Besides
24

Conclusion Indicators
18

In addition

Conclusion Indicators

25

31

What s more
26

Counter-Premise Indicators
32

But, However
27

Counter-Premise Indicators
33

Yet
28

Counter-Premise Indicators
34

After all
29

Counter-Premise Indicators
35

On the other hand
30

Counter-Premise Indicators
36

Admittedly

A Commonly Used Construction in which the test makers can raise alternate

31

25

In contrast, Despite
32

Premise Indicators (to support the conclusion but is sometimes non-essential to the conclusion)
26

Although, Even though
33

Counter-Premise Indicators
27

Counter-Premise Indicators
34 28

Still
35 36

Counter-Premise Indicators
29

Counter-Premise Indicators
30

Some people propose...

Counter-Premise Indicators

37

43

Many people believe...
38

Quantity Indicators
44

Some argue that... or Some people argue that...
39

Quantity Indicators
45

Some critics claim...
40

Quantity Indicators
46

Some critics maintain...
41

Quantity Indicators
47

Some scientists believe...
42

Quantity Indicators
48

all

Quantity Indicators

43

37

every
44

A Commonly Used Construction in which the test makers can raise alternate
38

most
45

A Commonly Used Construction in which the test makers can raise alternate
39

many
46

A Commonly Used Construction in which the test makers can raise alternate
40

some
47

A Commonly Used Construction in which the test makers can raise alternate
41

several
48

A Commonly Used Construction in which the test makers can raise alternate
42

few

Quantity Indicators

49

55

sole
50

Probability Indicators
56

only
51

Probability Indicators
57

not all
52

Probability Indicators
58

none
53

Probability Indicators
59

must
54

Probability Indicators
60

will

Probability Indicators

55

49

always
56

Quantity Indicators
50

not always
57

Quantity Indicators
51

probably
58

Quantity Indicators
52

likely
59

Quantity Indicators
53

should
60

Probability Indicators
54

would

Probability Indicators

61

67

not necessarily
62

Structure of Parallel Marker => Both X and Y
68

could
63

Structure of Parallel Marker => X or Y
69

rarely
64

Structure of Parallel Marker => Either X or Y
70

never
65

Structure of Parallel Marker => Not X but Y
71

And
66

Structure of Parallel Marker => Not only X but also Y
72

From/To

Structure of Parallel Marker => X rather than Y

67

61

Both/ And
68

Probability Indicators
62

Or
69

Probability Indicators
63

Either/ Or
70

Probability Indicators
64

Not/ But
71

Probability Indicators
65

Not Only/ But Also
72

Structure of Parallel Marker => X and Y or X,Y, and Y
66

Rather Than

Structure of Parallel Marker => From X to

73

79

A singular subject linked to other nouns by an additive phrase
74

Singular Subjects ( Note that each following a subject has no bearing on the verb form.)
80

Subjects joined by or or nor
75

Plural Sybiects
81

Subjects preceded by the number of
76

Plural Sybiects
82

Collective nouns
77

It Depends (In many idiomatic expressions that designate qyantities or parts such as a number of, the subject of the sentence is in an Ofprepositional phrase. These expressions provide the exception to the the rule that the subject cannot be in a prepositional phrase.like SANAM)

83

Collective nouns
78

Singular Subjects (Sometimes the subject of a sentence is an -Ing phrase or even a whole clause. This sort of subject is always singular and requires a singular verb form.
84

SANAM pronouns

Singular Subjects (Anyone, anybody, anything No one, nobody, nothing, Each, every (aspronouns) Someone, somebody, something, Everyone, everybody, everything Whatever, whoever, ehither , neither)

79

73

Subjects preceded by each or every
80

Singular Subjects (along with, in addition to, as well as, accompanied by, together with,includIng)
74

Subjects joined by and
81

It Depends ( find the noun nearest to the verb, and make sure that the verb agrees in number with this noun.)
75

Subjects preceded by a number of
82

Singular Subjects
76

Other numerical words and phrases
83

Singular Subjects (People:board, agency, army, audience, class, committee, crowd, orchestra, team)
77

Subject phrases or clauses
84

Singular Subjects (Items:string, baggage, citrus, equipment, fleet, fruit, furniture)
78

Most indefinite pronouns

It Depends (Some, Any, None, All, More/Most) (Look at the Ofphrase which usually follows the pronoun. You may recall that you are generally supposed to ignore Of prepositional phrases (since they are misleading middlemen). The SANAM pronouns are exceptions to this rule. You should look at the noun object of the Of phrase to determine the number of the subject.)

85

91

X Acts As
86

Certain idioms demand parallelism as a result of their structure.
92

Distinguish X From Y
87

Certain idioms demand parallelism as a result of their structure.
93

X is the Same As Y
88

Certain idioms demand parallelism as a result of their structure.
94

both X and Y
89

Certain idioms demand parallelism as a result of their structure.
95

As X, So Y
90

Certain idioms demand parallelism as a result of their structure.
96

Estimate X To Be Y

Certain idioms demand parallelism as a result of their structure.

91

85

X is good, and So Too is Y
92

Certain idioms demand parallelism as a result of their structure.
86

Between X And Y
93

Certain idioms demand parallelism as a result of their structure.
87

X Instead Of Y
94

Certain idioms demand parallelism as a result of their structure.
88

X, Such As Y (example)
95

Certain idioms demand parallelism as a result of their structure.
89

is Known To Be Y
96

Certain idioms demand parallelism as a result of their structure.
90

Think Of X As Y

Certain idioms demand parallelism as a result of their structure.

97

103

X is Less Than Y
98

Certain idioms demand parallelism as a result of their structure.
104

X is Thought To Be Y
99

Certain idioms demand parallelism as a result of their structure.
105

Compared To X, Y X
100

Certain idioms demand parallelism as a result of their structure.
106

Consider X Y
101

Certain idioms demand parallelism as a result of their structure.
107

Make X Y
102

Certain idioms demand parallelism as a result of their structure.
108

View X As Y

Certain idioms demand parallelism as a result of their structure.

103

97

Declare X Y
104

Certain idioms demand parallelism as a result of their structure.
98

In Contrast To X, Y
105

Certain idioms demand parallelism as a result of their structure.
99

Mistake X For Y
106

Certain idioms demand parallelism as a result of their structure.
100

X-Develops Into Y
107

Certain idioms demand parallelism as a result of their structure.
101

X Differs From Y
108

Certain idioms demand parallelism as a result of their structure.
102

Whether X Or Y

Certain idioms demand parallelism as a result of their structure.

109

115

Not Only XC) But Also Y (the comma is optional)
110

alarmed at X
116

Regard X As Y
111

amazed at X
117

a lot of X
112

amused by X
118

accuse X of Y
113

angry with X
119

adapt to X
114

apparent to X
120

afraid of X

apply to X for Y

115

109

agree with X about Y
116

Certain idioms demand parallelism as a result of their structure.
110

a lot of X
117

Certain idioms demand parallelism as a result of their structure.
111

amused at X
118

account to X for Y
112

angry at X
119

acquaintance with X
113

apologize to X for Y
120

affection for X
114

appeal to X

agree to X

121

127

appropriate to X
122

believe in X
128

argue about X
123

blind to X
129

ashamed of X
124

call to X from Y
130

ask X of Y
125

certain of X
131

at the top of X
126

characteristic of X
132

aware of X

close to X

127

121

because of X
128

approve of X
122

blame X for Y
129

argue with X for Y
123

by means of X
130

ask X for Y
124

capable of X
131

assure X of Y
125

challenge X to Y
132

attraction to X
126

cheat X of Y

bargain with X for Y

133

139

comment on X
134

confident of X
140

communicate X to Y
135

conscious of X
141

compare to X
136

consult with X about Y
142

competition with X for Y
137

contempt for X
143

composed of X
138

contrast with X
144

concerned with X

weary of X

139

133

confidence in X
140

communicate with X
134

congratulate X on Y
141

comparable to X
135

consideration for X
142

compare with X
136

consult with X on Y
143

complain to X about Y
137

contented with X
144

concerned about X
138

contribute to X

confess to X

145

151

control over X
146

defend X from Y
152

converse with X about Y
147

delighted with X
153

convince X of Y
148

depend on X for Y
154

correspond with X
149

designed for X
155

cure for X
150

different from X
156

decide on X

disappointed in X

151

145

defend X against Y
152

wait for X
146

delight in X
153

convict X of Y
147

demand X of Y
154

copy from X
148

deprive X of Y
155

count on X for Y
149

desire for X
156

deal with X
150

disagree with X about Y

dedicate X to Y

157

163

disappointed with X
158

exception to X
164

displeased with X
159

excuse X from Y
165

do X about Y
160

failure of X in Y
166

dream about X
161

fascinated with X
167

due to X
162

for the sake of X
168

engaged to X

grateful to X for Y

163

157

excel in X
164

disgusted with X
158

excuse for X
165

distrust of X
159

explain X to Y
166

doubt about X
160

faithful to X
167

dream of X
161

fearful of X
168

duty to X
162

full of X

escape from X

169

175

guard against X
170

inform X of Y
176

hear about X
171

insist on X
177

hint at X
172

interested in X
178

in case of X
173

introduce X to Y
179

in favor of X
174

irrelevant to X
180

in search of X

lecture on X

175

169

influence over X
176

guess at X
170

inquire into X
177

hear of X
171

intent on X
178

horrified at X
172

interfere with X
179

in common with X
173

invite X to Y
180

in place of X
174

laugh at X

independent of X

181

187

listen to X
182

pity for X
188

look for X
183

prefer X to Y
189

make X for Y
184

protect X from Y
190

need for X
185

punish X for Y
191

on account of X
186

quarrel with X over Y
192

opposition to X

reason for X

187

181

pay X to Y
188

look at X
182

point at X
189

made of X
183

prejudice against X
190

mistaken for X
184

provide X for Y
191

obligation to X
185

qualified to do X
192

opportunity for X
186

quote X from Y

pay X for Y

193

199

reason with X about Y
194

satisfactory to X
200

related to X
195

send for X
201

remind X of Y
196

shocking to X
202

require X of Y
197

smile at X
203

responsible to X
198

start with X
204

result in X

sure of X

199

193

rob X of Y
200

recover from X
194

search for X
201

rely on X
195

shocked at X
202

reply to X about Y
196

similar to X
203

research in X
197

stare at X
204

result from X
198

supply X with Y

result of X

205

211

take advantage of X
206 212

talk over X with Y
207

demand, dictate, insist, mandate, propose, recommend, request, stipulate, suggest eg: We demand THAT HE BE here.
213

tell X about Y
208

advise, allow, forbid, persuade, want eg: We aloow HIM TO BE here.
214

think about X
209

ask, beg, intend, order, prefer, urge, require (pay particular attention to require) eg:We require THAT HE BE here. OR We require HIM TO BE here.
215

think over X
210

advisable, crucial desirable, fitting, imperative,important, mandatory; necessary,preferable, urgent,essential, recommended, a good idea, a bad idea, and vital.
216

tired of X

211

205

trust X with Y
212

take care of X
206

Common Verbs that take ONLY the Command Subjunctive:
213

talk to X about Y
207

Verbs that take ONLY the Infinitive:
214

thankful for X
208

Verbs that take EITHER the Command Subjunctive OR the Infinitive
215

think of X
209

It is .... that CS (command subjunctive)
216

threaten X with Y
210

Avoid the use of the Command Subjunctive after whether. This usage is old-fashioned.

trust in X

217

A few Bossy Verbs, most notably prohibit, take other constructions altogether:

217

Right: The agency PROHIBITED Gary FROM WORKING on weekends.

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