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Back-Up Protection of Distance Relay Second Zone by Directional Overcurrent Relays with Combined Curves
Mojtaba Khederzadeh1
to prevent equipment damage, and must occur in the presence of abnormal operating conditions which jeopardize the system integrity. In many sub-transmission and transmission power systems Directional Overcurrent Relays (DOCR) are used as secondary protection; while the main protection systems use distance relays. Distance relay schemes are implemented according to the instantaneous for the first-zone and delayed for the second zone schemes. The second zone represents a definite time backup protection, and its operation time is over 0.3 seconds [3]-[4]. A method to automatically determine the optimum timing for the second zone of distance relay in a mixed scheme with directional overcurrent relays has been presented in [5]-[7]. It has been shown that when the line protection schemes are composed of distance relays and directional overcurrent relays, the setting of the relays must be computed considering both relays. Separate relay computation would lead to loss of selectivity. It is shown that in practical cases the best setting for the second zone that assures selectivity could be larger than the classical setting of 0.3 seconds used in distance schemes. The proposed method leads to the unfavorable timing of the second zone. Electromechanical and solid-state protection devices have fixed operational characteristics, which can only be changed within limits. For example, an overcurrent relay with normal inverse time-current characteristic (TCC) can-not readily be changed into a relay with extremely inverse TCCs. The first microprocessor relays [9]-[10] introduced a degree of flexibility because they provided a number of different operational characteristics in the same chassis. One relay could and does satisfy many applications. But only one operational characteristic could be used at a time and different protective functions still require different relays. In [8] a universal protection device is presented that integrates various protective functions. It is possible to combine inverse time and definite time overcurrent TCCs to improve coordination and reduce relay response time. This is achieved because it is possible to program into the same scheme a number of independently operated definite time overcurrent protection elements as required by the application. Even it is possible to have a piecewise curve with different shapes. For example, some part an inverse curve and some other extremely inverse one. This idea could be very well

Abstract-- In this paper, a novel approach for simultaneous setting of distance and directional overcurrent relays is presented. When the line protection schemes are composed of distance relays and directional overcurrent relays the setting of the relays must be computed considering both relays. Separate relay computation would lead to loss of selectivity. If the second zone time setting is fixed, automatic determination of the settings could lead to a non-feasible situation, indicating the impossibility of finding a selective set of settings. Thus the second zone time must be manually changed until the optimization problem is feasible. In this method, the best setting for the second zone that assures selectivity could be larger than the classical setting, so, it could lead to the unfavorable timing of the second zone. In the proposed method, instead of changing the time of the second zone, the shape of the backup directional overcurrent relay would be changed adaptively with the fault location and current. The idea of reducing the overcurrent protection response times at higher fault currents is achieved using a universal protection device with a software platform that can facilitate designing time-current characteristic curves of different shapes, all in the same hardware. The simulation results indicate the effectiveness of the method.

Index Terms-- Power System Protection, Directional Overcurrent Relay (DOCR), Universal Relay, Distance relay.

HE problem of coordinating protective relays in electric power systems consists of selecting their suitable settings such that their fundamental protective function is met under the requirements of sensitivity, selectivity, reliability, and speed [1]-[2]. These requirements must be met for a variety of system conditions and configurations, and can be translated into conditions such as: i. A variety of fault conditions must be detected by appropriate relays, ii.The relays located closer to the fault should have priority of operation, iii. If a primary relay fails, a backup relay should operate, and iv. The operation of the relay should be as fast as possible
Mojtaba Khederzadeh is with the Electrical Engineering Department, Power & Water University of Technology, P. O. Box: 16765-1719, Tehran, Iran (e-mail: khederzadeh@pwit.ac.ir).

T

I. INTRODUCTION

1-4244-0493-2/06/$20.00 ©2006 IEEE.

where the relevant faults are determined by points F1 and F2 [5]. the simultaneous consideration of distance and directional overcurrent relays is kept. There are two important types of constraints: Second zone of distance relay associated with circuit breaker b must be slower than the DOCR associated with main circuit breaker m. and CI time coordination interval time coordination interval Constraints of type (3). speed. Fig. 1 shows the case of two DOCR with similar inverse-time characteristic. and the relay times for each pair (m. but instead of changing the timing of second zone. Fig.2 It is assumed that the ohmic reach of each distance relay is properly set prior to the time coordination process. DOCR relay associated with circuit breaker b must be slower than the second zone of distance relay associated with main circuit breaker m: subject to: ti min ≤ ti ≤ ti max tb( Zm) − tm( Zm) ≥ CI where: (2) (3) tb( F 3) − tz 2 ≥ CI ' (5) operation time of relay . Since the operation time of a given relay “i” for faults at zone Zm can be approximated by an equation of the type: Minimize: . The original equations (1) and (4)–(5) can be stated in terms of the relays’ time dial settings by using a proper representation of the relay operation times as functions of them. [7]. In this paper. The basic optimization problem. in terms of the relay operation times has the following basic form: minimize: tz 2 − tm( F 4) ≥ CI ' (4) where CI’ is a time coordination interval which does not have to be the same as CI used in the selectivity constraints between DOCR (Fig. ti tm(Zm) and tb(Zm) denote the main and backup relays operation times over a given power system protection zone Zm. the operation time of main DOCR is evaluated at point F4. security and selectivity conditions associated with the traditional relay coordination problem. DOCR/DISTANCE RELAY COORDINATION The problem of finding the time dial setting of directional overcurrent relays (DOCR) has been stated and solved using linear programming [5]. which corresponds to the ohmic reach of the second zone of the distance relay associated with the backup circuit breaker. This technique is based on the mathematical statement of the sensitivity. The proposed method is used for coordination of the distance and backup directional overcurrent relays in a sample system.2 applied in the mixed protection scheme. 2 Coordination between DOCR and distance relays Notice that the operation time of the DOCR is evaluated at point F3. b) are determined only for a set of relevant faults in the zone. are stated according to a set of coordination pairs previously determined. the shape of the backup directional overcurrent relay would be changed adaptively with the fault location and current. which is the zone where is the main relay. 1 Coordination between Directional Overcurrent Relays ∑t i i (1) For this constraint. The derivation of the coordination constraints for systems with DOCR and distance relays is explained in Fig. It will be shown that it is possible to have fixed second zone timing of the distance relays in a coordinated situation by selecting appropriate curves for different sections of the overcurrent relay timecurrent characteristic (TCCs).2). which can be stated as follows: Fig. where the second zone of distance relay at m starts. II.

permitting examination of the behavior of every level of the relay functions. Troubleshooting is simplified as event records can be examined and played back in the PC software “version” of the actual hardware. NEW MULTIFUNCTIONAL RELAYS New multifunction relays [8]-[10] integrate many protection functions into a single device. fi = 1. and frequency. Relay schemes can be rapidly developed for specific applications. Constraints (9) and (10) become: xn + 1 − tm( Zm) ≥ CI ' tb( Zm) − xn + 1 ≥ CI ' (11) (12) where xn+1 = tz2 . Any changes to the scheme are self-documenting. device response times are faster and more accurate than with subject to: eb( Zm) − em( Zm) ≥ CI (7) (8) (9) (10) xi min ≤ xi ≤ xi max tz 2 − tm( Zm) ≥ CI ' tb( Zm) − tz 2 ≥ CI ' where n is the total number of DOCR. it may be easily and quickly tested utilizing the Virtual Test Set (VTS) implemented in the program. Multifunctional relays software uses object-oriented programming for scheme designing.3 shows the characteristics of conventional overcurrent relays. re-verse power. although it is possible to select any common shape. Fig. there is the risk of non-feasible solution and if the bounds are wide. Once the auxiliary variables are determined. A single hardware platform with software can integrate protection and measurements for one feeder. The new multifunction technology improves protection while integrating additional functions such as metering. This is achieved by using a universal protection relay with a software platform that facilitates designing TCC curves of different shapes in the same hardware. The problem can be appropriately solved by the optimization toolbox of MATLAB. The figure indicates the combination of DOCR and instantaneous relay. Thus tz2 must be manually changed until the optimization problem is feasible. All types of faults can be simulated to test how the relay will operate and how closely every sub-function approaches its threshold.3 ∑C x i =1 n i i (6) times. Integration reduces the required number of devices per application and associated wiring. since coefficients e are determined for the relevant faults. source impedance. and communication into a single device. constraints of the (7). LinProg. so only one variable is added to the original problem. The capability of multifunctional relays establishes new methods for protecting power equipments from extended stresses during high fault current conditions. The objective function (6) now changes as: ∑C x i =1 n +1 i i (13) and a new bound constraint for tz2 is added: tz 2 min ≤ xn + 1 ≤ tz 2 max (14) These limits depend on the regular selectivity and speed constraint for distance relays. which complies with the concept of “one feeder one device”. III. then the results could converge to unfavorable long second zone . and xi = fi(TDSi). each can be calculated as the solution of xi – fi (TDSi)=0. PLC. breaker failto-trip and fail-to-open. negative and positive sequence overvoltage elements. constraints (9) and (10) take the form (8). In the next section a novel approach based on the capabilities of multi-functional is described. (8) type could lead to a non-feasible situation. Multiple protection functions permit the interconnection of components within embedded software instead of external to the device. ground and negative sequence overcurrent (each may be set for directional or nondirectional operation). When different TCC curves are combined. In [5] it is proposed to include tz2 as one of the variables in the coordination problem. Sensitive Ground Fault overcurrent. FIXED SECOND ZONE TIMING If the second zone time setting tz2 is given. IV. The problem with this method is that tz2 is automatically calculated by the optimization routine and if the bounds according to (12) are very tight. bus potential transformer fuse fail detection. control. Protection is improved because the platform makes it possible to manipulate input voltage and current samples through different algorithms to obtain quantities such as phasors. In other words. When a scheme is constructed. symmetrical components. and line impedance. over/under voltage. indicating the impossibility of finding a selective set of settings. as the device cannot perform any function not visually drawn. command. tz2 contributes to the bound-type constraints for the time dial settings. As tz2 is previously fixed. The VTS simulates a simplified power system including a voltage source. As can be deduced from this figure. Equations (6)–(10) have the form of a standard linear programming problem. the shape of the DOCR relay is fixed for every relay. This combination makes faster and more accurate decisions about faults in the system. current supervision. A fixed tz2 is selected for all the distance relays. Protection functions includes: Phase.

4). In these cases the DOCR time current characteristics is changed from IDMT to a mixed scheme consisting of IDMT and two definite time according to Fig.4 conventional means (Fig.65+j1.0 5.0 5.254 Ω/Km • Line lengths (Km): L1=10. 5 [7]. leads to infeasible situation. L2=20.0 5. System characteristics are as follows: • G1 and G2: 12 KV.0 5. there is no influence on time dial settings for tz2≤0. X=9%. These cases are marked by UR (Universal Relay) in Table II.4s and CI’≥0. L4=10. The second and third elements of the definite-time overcurrent protection are coordinated with the downline device’s instantaneous overcurrent protection. The results indicate the potential of using . L6=10. This allows the upline device to respond faster for fault currents in the middle and at the end of its zone of protection.0 Fig.19+j0.461 Ω/Km Z0=0.0 5. but for the tz2>0.0 5. Table I: DOCR Relay Basic Data CB 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 CTR 600/5 400/5 200/5 200/5 600/5 400/5 400/5 400/5 400/5 300/5 1600/5 100/5 1600/5 100/5 400/5 400/5 Ip (A) 5.0 5. In these cases the tz2 is fixed and is given to the optimization problem as an input. while the third element coordinates for fault currents at the end of the line. As can be deduced from Table II. 3 Phase Coordination – Conventional Settings Fig.0 5. 69/12KV.0 5. 4 Phase Coordination – Improved Settings Table II shows the results obtained with the application of the proposed method for the DOCR time dial settings for a mixed scheme with distance relays. 4. The second zone timing of the distance relays is fixed and the same for all relays. The sys-tem consists of 2 generators. V. L7=10. The pick-up current settings (IP) and the cur-rent transformer ratios (CTR) are given in table I.4s. X1=X2=15%. The simulation is performed for 5 different cases.0 5.4s.0 5. X/R=10 • Line impedances: Z1=0. X0=8% • T1 and T2: 30MVA. SIMULATION RESULTS The proposed approach is applied to the setting of DOCR relays for the system shown in Fig. 2 Y-Y transformers. L3=12. 25 MVA. The second element coordinates for fault currents in the middle of the line. 9 buses and 7 lines.0 5. The first programmed element is used to coordinate device operation for high fault currents close to the substation.0 5.0 5. L5=20.0 5.

St. 1992. A New Method in Reducing the Overcurrent Protection Response Times at High Fault Currents to Protect Equipment from Extended Stress.8 0.5 0.5 2.. 1276–1284. New York: Marcel Dekker.0 2.5 0.25 to 0. REFERENCES [1] Protective Relaying Application Guide. Vol. Urdaneta. Johns.5 2.0 2. Taunton. [4] J.5 0. Digital Protection for Power Systems. Stevenage.4 0. Blackburn. F. When different TCC curves are combined.2 Fig. pp.5 0.3 Case5 1. 2nd ed. The proposed method determines the optimum timing for the time dial settings in a mixed scheme with directional overcurrent relays. pp.4 0.0 UR 0. It was shown that the classical setting of 0. Urdaneta. Leonard’s Works. device response times are faster and more accurate than with conventional means.4 0.8 1.8 0. Pérez and A.5 2. 2001. 1995.5 2. Pérez.5 UR 2. Oct. VI.6 0. [2] The Electricity Training Association. vol.4 0. Relay 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 tz2(s) CI(s) CI’(s) Table II: Results of the coordination Time Dial Setting Case1 UR UR 0.4 0.4 0.. Phadke. on Power Delivery. 903–911. G. [3] S. July 1988. 2001.3 Case4 1. conventional DOCR with IDMT characteristic is replaced by universal relay. 4. 65-70. J. 14. 3.8 UR 0.2 1. A. An example of coordination for a typical system is presented to demonstrate how the new multifunction devices can be used to solve the infeasible coordination problem. 1995. J.0 2.8 0.0 0.0 2. L.4 0. R.0 2.. No. Horowitz. A. H.K.4 0.5 2.5 0.5 UR 0.5 2. J.4 0.5 0.5 Case2 UR UR 0.5 2. 1999. G. on Power Delivery. and Witte. and Urdaneta. 1987.0 2.5 0.” IEEE Trans.5 0. UK: Research Studies Press. G.5 0. 3. “Optimal coordination of directional overcurrent relays considering definite time backup relays.4 Case3 1. G. Peter Peregrinus LTD.4 0.4 0. no.5 0. on behalf of Institution of Electrical Engineers (IEE). 1995. Salman. Power System Relaying.4 0. 3. U. 1.5 0. and coordination difficulties would be solved by using DOCR with multi-section characteristics. A.0 2. [5] Perez.5 0. Ram.0 1.8 UR 0. Transmission & Distribution Conference & Exhibition 2001.0 0. “Optimal coordination of directional overcurrent relays in interconnected power systems.5 2. no. [6] A.0 UR 0. Whenever the optimization problem does not converge due to the fixed time of second zone timing of distance relays. Principles and Applications.8 1..5 UR 0.5 2.4 0. Vol.0 1.3 0.5 0.0 0.5 UR 2. UK: Institution of Electrical Engineers. PWRD. and L.3 0.0 1.8 1. [8] Kojovic.5 UR 0..5 UR 0. pp. Advanced Microprocessors and Interfacing. S. T. IEEE/PES.2 1. K.” IEEE Trans.4 0.5 0. Optimal Computation of Distance Relays Second Zone Timing in a Mixed Protection Scheme with Directional Overcurrent Relays. Second Ed. Protective Relaying.4 0. vol. July 2001. Nadira..5 0.5 0. .0 2. Power System Protection. CONCLUSION This paper describes a new method for coordinating DOCR and distance relays using a universal protection relay with a software platform that facilitates designing TCC curves of different shapes in the same hardware. [9] B. Tata McGrawHill. Stafford. L. GEC Alsthom Measurement Ltd. J.2 1. 16. [7] L.5 multi-section characteristics for solving the infeasible optimization problem. 5 Sample System VII.4 seconds used in distance schemes for the second zone that assures selectivity could be kept. [10] A. L. IEEE.

the M. degree from Sharif University of Technology. . 1990 and 1996. He is Assistant Professor and Director of Power System Protection and Control Researches in the Department of Electrical Engineering.Sc. all in electrical engineering.6 VIII. He has been on Sabbatical leave at the University of Western Ontario (UWO) in 2004 for a one year period. control and monitoring. Tehran.D. respectively. in 1980. degree from Sharif University of Technology. Power and Water Institute of Technology.Sc. Iran. BIOGRAPHIES Mojtaba Khederzadeh received the B. degree from Tehran University and Ph. Tehran. His areas of research interest include power system protection. Iran. and power system dynamics.

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