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(mvc) and less volatile components(lvc) to achieve the required products. The 2nd distillation column in the production of 2-ethylhexanol has been designed to separate nbutyraldehyde and iso-butyraldehyde. the stream rich in iso-butyraldehyde is collected as the overhead while the stream rich in n-butyraldehyde is collected as the bottom product. The feed consists of 79.3 mol% n-butyraldehyde and 20.7 mol% isobutyraldehyde. The overhead consists of 98.7 mol% iso-butyraldehyde and 1.3% mol% n-butyraldehyde. The bottoms consists of 98.8 mol% nbutyraldehyde and 1.2% iso-butyraldehyde. The design entails both the chemical process and mechanical design. Various design parameters are considered and appropriate assumptions made in coming up with the design. The chemical process design parameters evaluated include: minimum reflux ratio(RRmin), optimum reflux ratio(RR), number of theoretical plates, the actual number of plates, the vapor and liquid flow rates, the reflux. McCabbe –Thiele method was used to determine the number of plates. The mechanical design areas include: estimation of plate spacing, column diameter, plate contactors, sieve plates, liquid flow pattern, downcomer design, plate hydraulics, plate areas, maximum and minimum vapour and liquid flow rates, weir dimensions, hole dimensions, liquid throw, plate pressure drop. One fundamental assumption made is that the vapor follows the ideal gas law. This has been done to necessitate the estimation of the vapor density. Another assumption made is that the density of the liquid is approximately equal to the density of n-butyraldehyde since the bottoms is predominantly composed of n-butyraldehyde. The other assumptions are stated where they are used.

Determination of minimum reflux ratio(RRmin) Considering the iso-butyraldehyde xD=0.987 q=1 xF=0.207 For the ROL passing through the pinch point in the McCabbe –Thiele diagram XD/(RRmin+1)=0.08 RRmin=11.34 Optimum reflux ratio (RR) Optimum reflux ratio ranges between 1.1-1.3RRmin RR=1.1RRmin=1.1 x 11.34=12.47 Finding the theoretical number of plates xB=0.012 Ø= xD/(RR+1)=0.987/(12.47+1)=0.073 Slope of ROL=0.919 Slope of SOL =1.231 Theoretical number of plates is found to be =33 including reboiler Therefore no of plates=33-1=32 0verall Efficiency is given as 70% E= (Theoretical no of plates)/ (actual no of plates) Therefore, the actual no. of plates=32/0.7=46 plates Distillation tray selection and Design Column conditions in the top and bottom section are as follows: Vapor flow rate at the top section=22225.63kg/hr=308.69kmol/hr Vapor flow rate at the bottom section=192.9kmol/hr Liquid flow rate in the bottom section=20576.11kg/hr=285.78kmol/hr Liquid flow rate at the top=169.69kmol/hr Overhead flow rate=1649.52kg/hr=22.91kmol/hr

Bottoms flow rate=6687.29kg/hr=92.88kmol/hr Slope of ROL=0.919 Slope of SOL =1.231 Liquid viscosity=0.45cP Surface tension of the iso-butyraldehyde liquid=29 x 10-3N/m Liquid density at the top=793.8kg/m3 Liquid density at the bottom=817kg/m3 Average temperature for the top section=64.50C Average temperature for the bottom section=75.50C Pressure average at the top =760mmHg=101325pa Assumed pressure drop per plate=100mm iso-butyraldehyde =0.1 x723 x9.81=709.263pa Column pressure drop=709.263 x 46=32626.098pa Average pressure at the bottom=101325+32626=133951pa Molecular weight=72kg/kgmol. To estimate vapor density, ideal gas law has been assumed Vapor density at the top= (72 x 50.663)/(8.314 x 337.65) =1.3kg/m3 Vapor density at the bottom= (72 x 66.98)/(8.314 x 348.65) =1.67kg/m3

Tray spacing Tray spacing is selected to minimize entrainment. A large distance between the trays is needed in vacuum columns, where vapor velocities are high and excessive liquid carryover can drastically reduce the efficiencies. Trays are 0.15m to 1.0m. A trial tray spacing of 0.457m was selected. Estimating column diameter F bottom=1.231(1.67/817)^0.5 =0.056 F LV top=0.919(1.3/793.8)^0.5 =0.037 Base K1=0.08 Top K1 =0.08

LV

Flooding velocity Bottom, uf= 0.08[(817-1.67)/1.67] ^0.5=1.77m/s

Top, uf= 0.08[(793.8-1.3)/1.3] ^0.5=1.98m/s Design for 85% flooding at maximum flow rate Superficial velocity; Bottom, u=0.85 x 1.77m/s=1.505m/s Top, u = 0.85 x 1.98m/s=1.68m/s

Maximum volumetric flow rate Bottom=(192.9x72)/(1.67x3600) =2.31m3/s Top =(308.69x72)/(1.3x3600) =4.75m3/s Net area Bottom=(2.31/1.505) =1.54m2 Top= (4.75/1.68) =2.83m2 First trial, downcomer area is taken as 12% of the total downcomer area Base=(0.12x1.54) =0.185m2 Top=(0.12x2.83) =0.34 m2 Column cross-section area Base=(1.54-0.185) =1.36m2 Top=(2.83-0.34) =2.49 m2 Column diameter Base=√[(1.36x4)/π] =1.32m Top = √[(2.49x4)/π] =1.78m Liquid flow pattern Maximum volumetric flow rate=(285.78x72)/(3600x817) =7x10-3m3/s The flow arrangement is cross flow single pass Provisional plate design

Column diameter Dc=1.78m Column area Ac =(1.782x π)/4 =1.4m2 Downcomer area Ad=(0.12 x1.4) =0.17 m2 Net area An= Ac- Ad=(1.4-0.17) =1.23 m2 Active area Aa= Ac-2 Ad= =1.4-(0.17x2) =1.06 m2 Hole area Ah=0.1 x Aa=(0.1x1.06)=0.106 m2 Ad/Acx100=12.1 Lw/Dc=0.76 from graph of Ad/Acx100 vs Lw/Dc Weir length=(0.76x1.78) =1.35m Weir height =50mm(assumed) Hole diameter=5mm Plate thickness=5mm Weeping rate

Check weeping

Maximum liquid flow rate=(285.78x72)/3600 =5.72 kg/s Assuming 65% of the feed rate is the minimum feed rate Minimum liquid flow rate=(0.65x5.72) =3.72kg/s maximum how =750[(5.72)/(817x1.35)]2/3 =22.47mm liquid minimum how =750[( 3.72)/(817x1.35)]2/3 =16.86mm liquid at minimum rate, hw + how =( 16.87+50) =66.87mm From weep point correlation diagram K2=30.5 Minimum design vapor velocity uh=[30.5-0.9(25.4-5)]/1.31/2 =10.65m/s Actual minimum vapor velocity = (minimum vapor rate)/Ah =(0.65x2.31)/0.106 =14.16m/s Plate pressure drop

Dry plate drop Maximum vapour velocity through holes Uh(max)=2.31/0.106 = 21.79m/s Plate thickness:hole diameter ratio=1 Ah/Ap=(0.106/1.06)=0.1 C0=0.84 hd =51(21.79/0.84)2x(1.3/817) =54.61mm liquid Residual head hr =(12.5x103 )/817 =15.3mm liquid total plate pressure drop ht =54.61+(50+16.87)+15.3 =136.78mm liquid(considerably acceptabless) Downcomer liquid back-up Downcomer pressure loss Take hap=50-9 =41mm liquid Area under apron, Aap =1.35x0.041=0.014m2 Ad>Aap,so we choose Aap hdc =166[(5.72)/(817x0.014)]2 =7.26mm Back-up in downcomer hb =(50+16.87)+136.78+7.26 =210.9mm(less than1/2[plate spacing+hw), so plate spacing is acceptable Residence time tr=(0.106x0.211x817)/5.72 =3.19s tr>3s hence satisfactory Entrainment uv =2.31/2.49 =0.93m/s per cent flooding =(0.93/1.505)x100 =61.8% =0.056 From entrainment correlation for sieve plate diagram using F ,

FLV

LV

Ψ=0.02,well below 0.1 the acceptable limit Trial layout Allowance:-50 mm unperforated strip round plate edge -50 mm wide calming zones Perforated area Lw/Dc=1.35/1.78 =0.76 Θc=99º Angle subtended by the edge of the plate=(180-99) =81º Mean length,unperforated edge strips =(1.78-50x10-3)πx81/180 =2.45m Area of unperforated edge strips=50x10-3x2.45 =0.122m2 Mean length of calming zone,approx.=weir length+width of unperforated strip =1.35+50x10-3 =1.4m Area of calming zones=2(1.4x50x10-3) =0.14m2 Total area for perforateions,Ap=(1.06-0.122-0.14) =0.798m2 Ah /Ap=0.106/0.798=0.133 From relation between hole area and pitch diagram,lp/dh=2.6 ;satisfactory,within 2.5 to 4.0 Number of holes Preffered jhole =5mm Area of one hole=[πx(5x10-3)2 ]/4] =1.9635x10-5 Number of holes=0.106/1.9635x10-5 =5398.54 =5398holes Mechanical design Operating pressure=1bar

Design pressure=(1x1.1);taken as 10% above operating pressure =1.1bars design temperature=75.5ºc(167.9ºF) from tables,maximum allowable stress for carbon steel used in our design,maximum allowable stress uder the above conditions=12.9x103psi=88.9N/mm2 corrosion allowance=2mm cylindrical section t=(0.11x1.78x103)/[(2x88.9x1)-(1.2x0.11)] =11.02mm Add corrosion allowance=11.02+2 =13.02mm Say 14mm plate Domed head I.Try a Standard dished head(torisphere): Crown radius Rc=Di=1.78m Knuckle radius=6% Rc=0.1068m

A head of this size would be formed by pressing:no joints,so E=1 t =(0.885x0.11x1.78x103) /[(88.9x1)-(0.1x0.11)] =1.949mm

II.Try a Standard ellipsoidal head,ratio major:minor axes=2:1 t =(0.11x1.78x103)/[(2x88.9x1)-(0.2x0.11)] =1.101mm

So an ellipsoidal head would probably be the most economical.take as same thickness as wall,14mm Flat head Use a full-face gasket C=0.25 De=bolt circle diameter,take as approx.1.7m t =1.7x103√(0.25x0.11)/(88.9x1) =29.9mm Add corrosion allowance=29.9+2=31.9mm Round off =32mm This shows the inefficiency of a flat cover.it would be better to use a flanged domed head

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