PREPARATION OF SHAMPOO

A Project report By Team: Kasey Hebert

Sumitha.D XII ‘A’

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and later. and the origin is currently attributed to him. He was appointed ‘Shampooing Surgeon’ to both George IV and William IV In the 1860s. both containing the same naturally derived surfactants. English hair stylists boiled shaved soap in water and added herbs to give the hair shine and fragrance. However. Commercially made shampoo was available from the turn of the 20th century. magazine ads in 1914 by Rexall featured Harmony Hair Beautifier and Shampoo. ordinary soap had been used for washing hair. a type of detergent. irritating. It is necessary to remove these particles from hair without stripping the scalp of sebum which is natural oil. the dull film soap left on the hair made it uncomfortable. 3 . Modern shampoo as it is known today was first introduced in the 1930s with Drene. opened "Mahomed's Steam and Vapour Sea Water Medicated Baths" in Brighton. England. usually with some form of hair oil. meaning therapeutic massage. His baths were like Turkish baths where clients received an Indian treatment of champi (shampooing). The word and the service of head massage were introduced to Britain by a Bengali entrepreneur named Sake Dean Mahomed.73212576. During the early stages of shampoo. These pollutants build up in hair over time and need to be removed to maintain personal hygiene and well groomed hair. and unhealthy looking. skin particles and dandruff from hair. the first shampoo with synthetic surfactants. Dean Mahomed introduced the practice to Basil Cochrane's vapour baths while working there in London in the early 19th century. History The word shampoo in English is derived from Hindi chāmpo and dates to 1762.The Hindi word referred to head massage. oil. A 1914 ad for Canthrox Shampoo in American Magazine showed young women at camp washing their hair with Canthrox in a lake. Earlier. soap and shampoo were very similar products. the meaning of the word shifted from the sense of massage to that of applying soap to the hair. Similar words also occur in other North Indian languages.doc INTRODUCTION Shampoo is a solution and hair care product that is used to remove dirt. Originally. together with his Irish wife. Kasey Hebert was the first known maker of shampoo.

doc COMPOSITION Shampoo is generally made by combining a surfactant. Glycol distearate is a wax. but that has been disproved. which may have either animal or vegetable origins. 4 . most often cocamidopropyl betaine in water to form a thick. glycol distearate. This is the ingredient that makes the product tear-free.73212576. e. chemically derived from stearic acid. which is used to adjust the viscosity. most often sodium lauryl sulfate and/or sodium laureth sulfate with a co-surfactant. Many shampoos also includesilicone to provide conditioning benefits. Other ingredients are generally included in shampoo formulations to maximize the following qualities:          Pleasing foam Easy rinsing Minimal skin/eye irritation Feels thick and/or creamy Pleasant fragrance Low toxicity Good biodegradability Slightly acidic (pH less than 7) No damage to hair Many shampoos are pearlescent. There was some concern over this particular ingredient circa 1998 about this chemical being a carcinogen. Other essential ingredients include salt (sodium chloride). Commonly used ingredients     Ammonium chloride Ammonium lauryl sulfate Glycol Sodium laureth sulfate is derived from coconut oils and is used to soften water and create a lather.   Sodium lauryl sulfate Sodium Lauroamphoacetate is naturally derived from coconut oils and is used as a cleanser and counter-irritant. viscous liquid. a preservative and fragrance. This effect is achieved by addition of tiny flakes of suitable materials.g.

  Quaternium-15 is used as a bacterial/fungicidal preservative.73212576. thinning hair and hair that breaks easily. Shampoos usually are at pH 5. 5 .5 because at slightly acidic pH the scales on a hair follicle lay flat making the hair feel smooth and look shiny. Dandruff Cosmetic companies have developed shampoos specifically for those who have dandruff. your hair).5. celiac disease wheat allergy. This chemical acts as the conditioning ingredient. Citric acid as opposed to any other acid will prevent bacterial growth. Coal tar and salicylate derivatives are often used as well.   PEG-150 Distearate is a simple thickener. some of them are listed here. dry scalp etc. Gluten and/or wheat free Many people suffer from eczema on their palms and their head. Citric Acid is naturally derived from citrus fruits and is used as an antioxidant to preserve the oils in the product. Shampoo can often go into the mouth. It is a fairly weak acid which makes the adjustment easier.  Polysorbate 80 (abbreviated as PEG(80)) is a glycol used to emulsify (or disperse) oils in water (so the oils don’t float on top like Italian salad dressing). It also has a small amount of preservative action.g. providing moisture and fullness to the hair.doc Polysorbate 20 (abbreviated as PEG(20)) is a mild glycol based surfactant that is used to  solubilize fragrance oils and essential oils. so all individuals who are on gluten-free diets may prefer to find a gluten-free shampoo. meaning it causes liquid to spread across and penetrate the surface of a solid (i.Some find that wheat and/or gluten (the protein found in many grains including wheat) is the cause. Polyquaternium-10 has nothing to do with the chemical Quaternium-15. particularly if they are sensitive to this in food e. While it is a severe eye-irritant. particularly for children. Citric acid is used to adjust the pH down to approximately 5. the Sodium Lauroamphoacetate counteracts that property. zinc pyrithione and selenium sulfide which reduce loose dander by killing Malassezia furfur. These contain fungicides such as ketoconazole . Other reactions can include dandruff.  Di-PPG-2 myreth-10 adipate is a water-dispersible emollient that forms clear solutions with surfactant systems SPECIALIZED SHAMPOOS We have several shampoos specialized for various problems such as dandruff.e.

combining these additions with one or more typical surfactants. including any oil. hydrosylate. Most of these ingredients do not theoretically contain any intact wheat proteins. protein. All-natural Some companies use "all-natural. stearyldimoniumhydroxypropyl or hydroxypropyltrimonium                 Cyclodextrin. dextrin. secale cereale (rye). 6 . dextrin palmitate." "organic. Following is a list of grain-derived shampoo ingredients. which may be produced from starch by means of enzymatic conversion Amino peptide complex Maltodextrin.  Triticum vulgare (wheat)." "botanical. Wheat derivatives and ingredients from the other gluten grains are commonly used as binders to help the shampoo stick together and are also used as emollients in the form of oils. or avena sativa (oats)." or "plant-derived" ingredients (such as plant extracts or oils).   Tocopherol/Tocopheryl Acetate (Vitamin E). hordeum vulgare (barley). which may be derived from wheat Hydrolyzed Hydrolyzed wheat protein / hydrolyzed wheat starch. or other extract from any part of the plant.doc Shampoo manufacturers are starting to recognize this and there are now gluten/wheat free products available. or (hydrolyzed) malt extract Phytosphingosine extract Amino peptide complex prolamine Beta glucan Disodium Wheat Germamido PEG-2-Sulfosuccinat Fermented Grain Extract AMP-Isostearoyl PG-Propyl Silanetriol PVP Crosspolymer Ethyldimonium Ethosulfate Yeast extract Phytospingosine Extract "Fragrance" is a broad category that may contain large numbers of chemicals that are otherwise unlisted on the label.73212576. but may do so due to incomplete processing or contamination. also sometimes listed as hydrolyzed vegetable protein.

or the use of the products so formulated. use of surfactants which. dilution. are less irritating than those used in other shampoos. approximately 7. 4. The monoanionic sulfonated surfactants and viscosity-increasing or foam stabilizing alkanolamides seen so frequently in other shampoos are much less common in the better baby shampoos. use of nonionic surfactants of the form of polyethoxylated synthetic glycolipids and/or polyethoxylated synthetic monoglycerides. in case product comes in contact with eyes after running off the top of the head with minimal further dilution. The considerations in 3 and 4 frequently result in a much greater multiplicity of surfactants being used in individual baby shampoos than in other shampoos. which may be a higher pH than that of shampoos which are pH adjusted for skin or hair effects. adjusting pH to that of non-stress tears.73212576. 2. 3. and lower than that of shampoo made of soap. These must never be used on humans. Johnson & Johnson's Baby Shampoo advertises under the premise of "No More Tears". Animal Shampoo intended for animals may contain insecticides or other medications for treatment of skin conditions or parasite infestations such as fleas or mange. It is equally important to note that while some human shampoos may be harmful when 7 . This is accomplished by one or more of the following formulation strategies: 1. and the detergency and/or foaming of such products may be compromised thereby. which counteract the eye sting of other surfactants without producing the anesthetizing effect of alkyl polyethoxylates or alkylphenol polyethoxylates. alone or in combination.doc Baby Shampoo for infants and young children is formulated so that it is less irritating and usually less prone to produce a stinging or burning sensation if it were to get into the eyes. For example. The distinction in 4 above does not completely surmount the controversy over the use of shampoo ingredients to mitigate eye sting produced by other ingredients.

selenium sulfide (cannot be used on cats) and benzoyl peroxide. These shampoos are made of sulfur.emulsifiers and humectants.povidone iodine. cure the condition and ease the symptoms at the same time while providing comfort to the pet. They commonly contain benzoyl peroxide. hydrocortisone. antiseborrheic.73212576. Antifungal shampoos are used on pets with yeast or ringworm infections. Aloe Vera. The main ingredients contained by pet shampoos can be grouped in insecticidals. Shampoos that are especially designed to be used on pets. Special care must be taken not to use those products on pets. salicylic acid. These ingredients are mostly found in shampoos that are meant to fight against parasite infestations. diphenhydramine. Bacterial infections in pets are sometimes treated with antibacterial shampoos. or sulfur. refined tar (which cannot be used on cats). providone iodine. Most of these shampoos contain ingredients which act differently and are meant to treat a skin condition.[15] These usually contain colloidal oatmeal. are normally intended to do more than just clean the pet's coat or skin. ethyl lactate. Generally. triclosan. pyrethroids (such as permethrin and which may not be used on cats) and carbaryl. pet owners are recommended to use them according to their veterinarian's indications because many of them cannot be used on cats or can harm the pet if it is misused. antibacterial. Cats are at particular risk due to their instinctive method of grooming their fur with their tongues. Whereas some of these ingredients may be efficient in treating some conditions. Antiseborrheic shampoos are those especially designed for pets with scales or those with excessive oily coats. menthol. an allergy or to fight against fleas. ketoconazole or selenium sulfide (which cannot be used on cats). sulfur or salicylic acid. Antipruritic shampoos are intended to provide relief of itching due to conditions such as atopy and other allergies. All these are meant to treat or prevent seborrhea oleosa which is a condition characterized by excess oils. any human hair care products that contain active ingredients/drugs (such as zinc in anti-dandruff shampoos) are potentially toxic when ingested by animals. commonly dogs and cats. pramoxine hydrochloride. 8 .doc used on animals. insecticidal pet shampoos contain pyrethrin. Dry scales can be prevented and treated with shampoos that contain sulfur or salicylic acid and which can be used on both cats and dogs. chlorhexidine. antifungals. These might contain ingredients such as miconazole. chlorhexidine. These ingredients are aimed to reduce the inflammation. emollients.

Pet shampoos which include fragrances. These include ingredients such as cetyl alcohol. [edit]Solid Solid shampoos or shampoo bars use as their surfactants soaps and/or other surfactants conveniently formulated as solids. and the disadvantage of being slowly applied. non-pourable clear gels to be squeezed from a tube were once popular forms of shampoo. They usually contain oils such as almond. needing to be dissolved in use.doc Emollient shampoos are efficient in adding oils to the skin and relieving the symptoms of a dry and itchy skin. This type of shampoo cannot be spilled.[16] On the contrary. lactic acid. to avoid the problem of slow application of solid shampoos noted above. 9 . Yet. soap jelly was formerly made at home by dissolving sodium soap in hot water before being used for shampooing or other purposes. oatmeal appears to be one of the most widely skin-tolerated ingredients that are found in pet shampoos. Most ingredients found in a shampoo meant to be used on animals are safe for the pet as there is a high likelihood that the pets will lick their coats. mineral or paraffin oil. stearyl alcohol. urea. lecithin. laureth-5. The emollient shampoos are typically used with emulsifiers as they help distributing the emollients. lanolin. carboxylic acid. olive. but unlike a solid.[citation needed] [edit]Paste/cream Shampoos in the form of pastes or creams were formerly marketed in jars or tubes. Natural ingredients that might be potential allergens for some pets include eucalyptus. [edit]Jelly/gel Stiff. sesame. although natural pet shampoos exist. orpolyvinylpyrrolidone. The contents were wet but not completely dissolved. corn. peanut. deodorants or colors may harm the skin of the pet by causing inflammations or irritation. They have the advantage of being spill-proof. it can still be lost down the drain by sliding off wet skin or hair.73212576. As an alternative to synthetic detergent gels. coconut. especially in the case of cats. Shampoos that do not contain any unnatural additives are known as hypoallergenic shampoos and are increasing in popularity. it has been brought to attention that some of these might cause irritation to the skin of the pet. They would apply faster than solids and dissolve quickly. and can be produced by increasing a shampoo's viscosity. Although some of the pet shampoos are highly effective. safflower. stearic acid. PEG-4 dilaurate. glycerin. some others may be less effective for some condition than another. sodium lactate. cottonseed. Persia. propylene glycol. lemon or orange extracts and tea tree oil.

Those with dark hair may prefer to use brown powders such as cocoa or carob powder.[17][18] as well as in humans before some surgical procedures.doc Jar contents were prone to contamination by users and hence had to be very well preserved.[citation needed] [edit]Dry shampoo Powdered shampoos are designed to work without water. They are typically based on powders such as starch.[19][20] 10 . silca or talc. [edit]Antibacterial Antibacterial shampoos are often used in veterinary medicine for various conditions.73212576. and are intended to physically absorb excess sebum from the hair before being brushed out.

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