73 views

Uploaded by api-3803790

- Eigenvalues Eigenvectors and Differential Equations
- [Mark S. Gockenbach] Partial Differential Equation
- Analytical and Numerical Analysis of an Ordinary Differential Equation
- AMATH 350 Notes
- mathematics formula
- 0964-1726_18_11_115012 4
- Solving Linear Equations in Natural NUmbers
- Ode
- paper
- Mcw
- IRJET-Implementation of Normalized Cut Algorithm for Image Segmentation using Matlab
- A Comparative Approach to ECG Feature Extraction Methods
- 2D Euler Riemann Roe
- sem+8-systems+of+differential+equations
- M1.doc
- cbse class12 2105 board paper and solution
- 14%20-%20WS5%20-%20Differential%20Equations
- gate mn
- M257_316_2012_Lecture_17
- Course Syllabus MATH025 T1 2016

You are on page 1of 88

To 2007 Fall

Preface

這份資格考考古題參考解答包括八個學科，然而因為參與的同學所選

的答案也以上面五科較為嚴密周詳。在這邊先感謝提共與整理解答的

同學：大閔，祥煌和萬軍。再來感謝主要參與討論的同學：大閔，宗

榮，奇恩，冠顯，祥煌和萬軍（以上順序皆由名字筆劃來排）以及其

他外國同學。在準備的過程中，我們都深感如果有前人的資料來輔助

準備資格考，勢必更事半功倍，所以希望藉由這次機會拋磚引玉，由

我們先起個頭，把我們的成果留下給以後準備考試的同學。此外，也

盼望之後的同學從這份參考答案獲得幫助之餘，也能不吝付出點心

力，把這份參考解答錯誤的地方或是新的考題部分在做更新與補充，

即使重新整理也可以。宋儒張載西銘有云: 為天地立心，為生民立

命，為往聖繼絕學，為萬世開太平。能出國留學的人，聰明才智不在

話下。除了追求自己的理想之外，也許也可以想想為他人做點什麼，

不是嗎？

2007/02/03

Basic Mathematics

Contents

1 math 2

1.1 sample (a) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

1.2 sample (b) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

1.3 Fall 2007 (i) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

1.4 Fall 2007 (ii) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

1.5 Fall 2007 (iii) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

1.6 Fall 2007 (iV) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

1.7 spring 2007 (1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

1.8 spring 2007 (2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

1.9 fall 2006 (1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

1.10 fall 2006 (2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

1.11 spring 2006 (1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

1.12 spring 2006(2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

1.13 Fall 2005 (a) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

1.14 Fall 2005 (b) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

1.15 Fall 2005 (c) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

1.16 spring 2005 (1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

1.17 spring 2005 (2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

1

Chapter 1

math

d2 f df

2

+ 5 + 4f = 2exp(2x) (1.1)

dx dx

the feature of linear differential equation is f duplicates itself, so f is of

the form exp(rx). plug into the equation, we find f is a linear combination

of ’two’ exponents. It is two because we are solving second order DE.

Above is the so call homogeneous solution. You can say it is the natural

response of the equation no matter if there is driven source. The other

solution is the particular/inhomogeneous solution. It is the response driven

by the source. In our example it is 2exp(2x). Since it is the driven source, the

’frequency’ of the particular solution is the same. so we model the particular

solution to be of the form kexp(2x) plug into the equation, k = 1/9 is

carried out directly. Coefficients A, B are determined by boundary condition

or initial condition. without the possible conditions, the general form is

2

f (x) = exp(2x) + Aexp(−x) + Bexp(−4x) (1.3)

9

since given f (0) and f 0 (0), directly differentiate the above equation and

evaluate both at x = 0. two unknowns with two equations A, B suggests

these are sufficient to find them. solution:

2 2 4

f (x) = exp(2x) + exp(−x) − exp(−4x) (1.4)

9 9 9

2

1.2 sample (b)

¯ ¯

¯ 1−λ 1 1 ¯

¯ ¯

|A − λI| = ¯¯ 1 1−λ 1 ¯

¯

¯ 1 1 1−λ ¯

the above matrix is set to be zero becuase of definition of eigenvalue

and eigenvector. the corresponding eigenvalues are λ = 0, 0, 3. same values

are called degenerate. substitute eigenvalue and use the technique of Gauss

elimination to get the corresponding eigenvector. If one eigenvalue is degen-

erate, one can find more than one eigenvectors which are orthogonal to each

other. orthogonal means dot product is zero. Remember to normalize those

eigenvectors as required.

√ √ √

1/√3 1/ 2 1/ √2

A[v1 , v2 , v3 ] = A 1/√3 0√ −1/ 2 = [λ1 v1 , λ2 v2 , λ3 v3 ] = [3v1 , 0v2 , 0v3 ]

1/ 3 −1/ 2 0

To evaluate limit, remember x → 4 means√x can approach to 4 arbitrarily.

However, x nevers equals 4. Since x 6= 4, x 6= 2 and denominator is never

zero. We can safely rewrite

√

x−2 1

lim = lim √ = 1/4 (1.5)

x→4 x − 4 x→4 x+2

By definition,

(1.6)

2 3

= 1 + 2(x + 1) + 3(x + 1) + 4(x + 1) + ... (1.7)

While Taylor expansion is a systematic way, sometimes it suffers from

inefficiency. This example serves as an example, using identity equation

−1 1

= = 1 + (x + 1) + (x + 1)2 + (x + 1)3 + ... (1.8)

x 1 − (x + 1)

3

differentiate it,

1

= 1 + 2(x + 1) + 3(x + 1)2 + 4(x + 1)3 + ... (1.9)

x2

we reach the same result.

Two ways possible. 1)determine disk area with radius x and then integrate

over y. 2) determine cylindrical shell with height y and then integrate over

x. method 2 is preferable because y has been given explicitly in terms of x.

Express x in term of y is not easy.

the cylindrical shell has surface area (y2 − y1) × 2πx. The thickness of

the shell is dx. so volume is

Z 1

V = dx × 2πx × (−1/2x3 − x2 + 3/2x) = 3/10π (1.10)

0

consider

d

(y × exp(−2x)) = (y 0 − 2y)exp(−2x) = −4xexp(−2x) (1.11)

dx

Z

∴ yexp(−2x) = −4xexp(−2x)dx = 2xexp(−2x) + exp(−2x) + C (1.12)

y = 2x + 1 + Cexp(2x) (1.13)

applying condition x = y = 0,

y = 2x + 1 − exp(2x) (1.14)

the above method is the most general technique to deal with first order

DE, no matter linear or not. However, it only applies to first order. In

this example, it is linear because coefficient of y is independent of x. When

DE is linear, one can use Laplace transform even the DE is of higher order.

When DE is linear and one is asked steady-state solution, one can use Fourier

transform. In this example, it is not steady, we should not expect the same

result when adopting Fourier transform.

Inverse Laplace transform gives

4δ 0 (x)

y(x) = L−1 [ Y (s)] = 2x + 1 − exp(2x) (1.16)

s−2

4

1.7 spring 2007 (1)

similar to fall 2007 last question. Consider

d 2 2 2

(xe−t ) = (x0 − 2tx)e−t = te−t (1.17)

dt

Z

t2 2 2

x=e te−t dt = −1/2 + Cet (1.18)

Z

t2 2 2

x=e te−t dt = −1/2 + 1/2et (1.19)

dx

= t(1 + 2x) (1.20)

dt

Therefore,

dx

= tdt (1.21)

1 + 2x

integrate both side,

Z Z

2 dx

t = tdt = = 1/2 ln (x + 1/2) + C (1.22)

1 + 2x

Applying initial condition, we arrive the same result.

When a plane is tangent to a surface, both normal is same. Use gradient

to determine the normal of the surface so that we obtain the normal of the

plane.

F ≡ x2 + 2y 2 + 3z 2 − 6 OF = (2x, 4y, 6z) (1.23)

the normal at (1,1,1) is thus

n = OF k(1,1,1) = (2, 4, 6) (1.24)

since the plane pass through (1, 1, 1), the plane is

(2, 4, 6) • (x − 1, y − 1, z − 1) = 2(x − 1) + 4(y − 1) + 6(z − 1) = 0 (1.25)

after manipulating,

z = −1/3x − 2/3y + 2 (1.26)

5

1.9 fall 2006 (1)

because A is symmetric, modeling matrix A as

· ¸

a c

A=

c b

· ¸· ¸ · ¸ · ¸

a c 3 3 15

Av = =5 =

c b 4 4 20

ab − c2 = 50 (1.27)

one systematic way is to express a, b in terms of c. from the second conditon,

we get

15 − 4c 20 − 3c

a= b= (1.28)

3 4

substitute a, b into the third condition, we get c = −12/5 as a result,

· ¸

41/5 −12/5

A=

−12/5 34/5

The curve is symmetric about x, y axes. As a result, we only need to deal

the first quadrant, If we define total length to be L, then

Z p Z a p

1/4L = 2

dx + dy =2 1 + y 02 dx (1.29)

x=0

method, we should transform it back to x, y coordinate. (One can also do

it in polar coordinate, but I think difficulty is the same. Hope someone has

better method.) There is cos2 (θ), suggesting multiply both sides by r2 . So,

3

(x2 + y 2 ) 2 = r3 = ar2 cos2 (θ) = ax2 (1.30)

p

or y = a2/3 x4/3 − x2 (1.31)

6

p p

The logic is, we want 1 + y 02 and we have y. So we construct 1 + y 02

from y:

4 2/3 1/3

0 3

a x − 2x

y = √ (1.32)

2 a2/3 x4/3 − x2

... (1.33)

s

p 4 4/3 2/3

a x − 13 a2/3 x4/3

9

y 02 + 1 = (1.34)

a2/3 x4/3 − x2

the above form is tedious. One good way is to track each term’s dimension.

For example, y and x have the same dimension (length). So we expect y 0 is

dimensionless. That is why y 02 can be added with number one. Similarly, a

and x have the same dimension. In the last equation, we see both denomi-

nator and numerator have the same dimension as x2 . It is very instructive

to divide both denominator and numerator by x2 or a2 as well. As a result,

we are dealing with

s

Z 4

1 a

9

(a/x)4/3− 13 (a/x)2/3

L = dx (1.35)

4 x=0 (a/x)2/3 − 1

s

Z a

1 − 34 (x/a)2/3 2

= (a/x)1/3 dx (1.36)

x=0 1 − (x/a)2/3 3

2 2

(a/x)1/3 dx = (x/a)−1/3 d(x/a)a = d(x/a)2/3 a (1.37)

3 3

so, r

Z a

1 3 1

L=a 1 − (x/a)2/3 × p d(x/a)2/3 (1.38)

4 x=0 4 1 − (x/a)2/3

suggests to express d(x/a)2/3 as

1−(x/a)2/3

−d(1 − (x/a)2/3 ) so that

1

p −d(1−(x/a)2/3 ) = −(1−(x/a)2/3 )−1/2 d(1−(x/a)2/3 ) = −2d(1−(x/a)2/3 )1/2

1− (x/a)2/3

(1.39)

Finally, we change of variable

q

1 − (x/a)2/3 ≡ z (x/a)2/3 = 1 − z 2 (1.40)

7

Summarize,

Z 0

r

1 3

L = a 1 − (x/a)2/3 − 2dz (1.41)

4 z=1 4

Z 1 r

3

= 2a 1 − (1 − z 2 )dz (1.42)

4

Z 1z=0√

= a 1 + 3z 2 dz (1.43)

z=0

The answer is · ¸

2 √

L = a 4 + √ ln(2 + 3) (1.44)

3

Remark. In my opinion, the only principle is to keep changing of variable

and finally you will reach the result.

The smallest distance occurs when the tangent of y1 = x2 has the same slope

as y2 = 2x − 4 which is 2.

between (1, 1) and y2 = 2x−4. One way is to find a line normal to y2 = 2x−4

and it passes (1, 1). Since the slope product of two perpendicular lines is -1,

we can model the normal line directly as

x + 2y|(1,1) = 3 (1.46)

between (1, 1) and (11/5, 2/5) is 3/ 5.

This kind of coupling differential equation has a systematic way to solve

them. We are given

y 0 + 2y = x → (d/dt + 2)y = x (1.48)

8

The differential operator (d/dt + 2) transforms x, y to each other. So we

apply it to either x or y again to setup a single variable DE.

or x00 + 4x0 + 4x = x (1.50)

or x00 + 4x0 + 3x = 0 (1.51)

driven source/ inhomogeneous solution. The general solution thus reduces

to only possess homogeneous solution.

1 £ −t ¤ 1 £ −t ¤

x(t) = e − e−3t y(t) = e + e−3t (1.55)

2 2

Let’s use identity relation to expand e−2x . We are asked to expand at x = 1.

We therefore construct e−2(x−1)−2 .

1 2 1

e−z = 1 − z + z − z 3 + ... z ≡ 2y (1.56)

2! 3!

1 1

e−2y = 1 − 2y + (2y)2 − (2y)3 + ... y ≡x−1 (1.57)

2! 3!

1 1

e−2(x−1) = 1 − 2(x − 1) + (2(x − 1))2 − (2(x − 1))3 + ... (1.58)

· 2! 3! ¸

1 1

e−2x = e−2(x−1)−2 −2 2 3

= e × 1 − 2(x − 1) + (2(x − 1)) − (2(x − 1)) (1.59)+ ...

2! 3!

9

1.14 Fall 2005 (b)

If it is cut by z-axis, each slice is a √rectangle box. Use x as a parameter,

the width of the rectangle is 2y = 2 a2 − x2 , the height √ is xh/a, and the

thinkness is dx. Each rectangle box has volume dV = dx×2 a2 − x2 ×xh/a:

Z a Z a √ 2

V = dV = 2h/a dxx a2 − x2 = ha2 (1.60)

x=0 x=0 3

This is an implicit function connecting x, y and z. The question is to ask the

’partial’ derivative of ∂z/∂x, and so y is fixed as a constant. Simply partially

differentiate the given relation and organize what we need, and all done.

∂ ∂

[sin(2x − z) + cos(y − 2z)] = 1=0 (1.61)

∂x · ¸ · ∂x ¸

∂z ∂z

cos(2x − z) 2 − − sin(y − 2z) −2 =0 (1.62)

∂x ∂x

∂z 2cos(2x − z)

= (1.63)

∂x cos(2x − z) − sin(y − 2z)

10

1.16 spring 2005 (1)

Separation of variable:

Z

dy dx

= ln(x) = y −2 dy = −y −1 + C (1.64)

y2 x

1

ln(x) = − + 1 (1.65)

y

Similar to problem (b) of the sample,

1 √1 1

√ √ √

A[v1 , v2 , v3 ] = A 0 2 − 2 = [λ1 v1 , λ2 v2 , λ3 v3 ] = [1v1 , (1+ 2)v2 , (1− 2)v3 ]

−1 1 1

11

Probability

Electromagnetism

Circuit

Linear systems

Device

Computer Architecture

& systems

Digital Logic

- Eigenvalues Eigenvectors and Differential EquationsUploaded by322399mk7086
- [Mark S. Gockenbach] Partial Differential EquationUploaded byRohit Mundat
- Analytical and Numerical Analysis of an Ordinary Differential EquationUploaded byJomar Paul Berba Romero
- AMATH 350 NotesUploaded byaspendos69
- mathematics formulaUploaded byhimvar1
- 0964-1726_18_11_115012 4Uploaded byelishirin
- Solving Linear Equations in Natural NUmbersUploaded byAnonymous 0U9j6BLllB
- OdeUploaded byPunjabiKMan
- paperUploaded bySuvra Nath
- McwUploaded bysujiv_sujiv1278
- IRJET-Implementation of Normalized Cut Algorithm for Image Segmentation using MatlabUploaded byIRJET Journal
- A Comparative Approach to ECG Feature Extraction MethodsUploaded byDaisy Dandelion Nano
- 2D Euler Riemann RoeUploaded byJR
- sem+8-systems+of+differential+equationsUploaded byVarga Adrian
- M1.docUploaded byganeshtgb
- cbse class12 2105 board paper and solutionUploaded bynirali
- 14%20-%20WS5%20-%20Differential%20EquationsUploaded byJane Carol B
- gate mnUploaded bySibasish Sahu
- M257_316_2012_Lecture_17Uploaded byTeferi
- Course Syllabus MATH025 T1 2016Uploaded byDaniele Joseph Hizon
- FindingsUploaded byanepameer
- Lect1Introd.pptUploaded byManish Sombansh
- Sample Poicare-Bendixson Exercises SolutionsUploaded byOtávio José Dezem Bertozzi Jr.
- Euler EqnsUploaded byFathi Musa
- Method for Calculating Analytical Solutions of the Schrodinger Equation-AnharmonicUploaded byBruna Israel
- SNM R08 AprilMay 10Uploaded byebenesarb
- A Model Reduction Approach for OFDM Channel Estimation Under High Mobility ConditionsUploaded bysusasuresh
- c11-5Uploaded byVinay Gupta
- Final Exam - Formula SheetUploaded byqckslvrwookie
- DTMC.pdfUploaded bydmezin

- Note Chapter1 SF017Uploaded byapi-3699866
- Discrete Fracture Network Modelling to Quantify Rock Mass Pre-conditioning at the El Teniente MineUploaded byÁlvaro Oleas
- Classical Mechanics MIT 8.01 Course NotesUploaded bychodu007
- Surge for Variable Composition GasUploaded bykingcobra008
- how to scale-upUploaded byVinod Siram
- Solutions of Examp 00 Hdall RichUploaded byEnrique Elias Peñaloza Gutierrez
- The Cube of LightUploaded byRodney G. Heydon
- Gilbert, Thomas F. -- Fundamental Dimensional Properties of the Operant.Uploaded byJaime
- Advanced Problems in Core Mathematics - MasterUploaded byhmphry
- A Hardness Conversion ChartUploaded byimupathan
- 10th_introduction_to_trigonometry_test_paper.pdfUploaded byRyan Mills
- Chapter No2 CompleteUploaded byhassan
- Chervach EMME EnglishUploaded byWoon How
- Model Tests of Multiple Nozzle Exhaust Gas Eductor Systems for Gas Turbine Powered ShipsUploaded byAtreyapurapu Krishna
- Physics_The ElementsUploaded byMarcelo Silvano de Camargo
- physic_xi_2011Uploaded byAshok Pradhan
- PrandtlUploaded byLejla Selimovic
- Ground resistance of concrete foundations in substation yards - Omar Ferrer.pdfUploaded byrobert_rjc
- PH1104_CY1305_SM2_Lecture01_(Group_Theta).pdfUploaded byPhuong Le
- Journal of Fluid Mechanics Volume 7 Issue 04 1960 [Doi 10.1017%2FS0022112060000281] Shaw, R. -- The Influence of Hole Dimensions on Static Pressure MeasurementsUploaded byresonancebansal
- MAAE 2300 L1Uploaded bys067276675
- Chapter 1 IntroductionUploaded bydandewjanger
- s2_s2_syllabus_btech_2013_schemeUploaded bysaniljayamohan
- Poiseuille Lab ExperimentUploaded byArjun Singh
- Chapter 1 Physical Quantities and UnitsUploaded byJustice Wong
- CE272 Fluid MechanicsUploaded byHasan Kırmızıoğlan
- 01 unit and dimension ( theory ) 35 - 43Uploaded byshukur
- 9789048186075-c2Uploaded bySaul Martinez Molina
- 1 6 Dimensional AnalysisUploaded byEdwinsMusic
- fisherUploaded byFelipe