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B2

APPENDIX B

APPENDIX B THE NEWTON-RAPHSON ITERATION TECHNIQUE Since the value for f in the Colebrook equation cannot be explicitly extracted from the equation, a numerical method is required to find the solution. Like all numerical methods, we first assume a value for f, and then, in successive calculations, bring the original assumption closer to the true value. Depending on the technique used, this can be a long or slow process. The Newton-Raphson method has the advantage of converging very rapidly to a precise solution. Normally only two or three iterations are required. The Colebrook equation is:

The technique can be summarized as follows: 1. Re-write the Colebrook equation as:

F=

=0

3. Give a trial value to f. The function F will have a residue (a non-zero value). This residue (RES) will tend towards zero very rapidly if we use the derivative of F in the calculation of the residue.

F dF df

For n = 0 assume a value for f0, calculate RES and then f1, repeat the process until RES is sufficiently small (for example RES < 1 x l0-6 ).

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