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D2

APPENDIX D

APPENDIX D THE USE OF IMPERIAL SYSTEM (FPS) UNITS A great deal of confusion arises with the use of English units or the FPS (foot/pound/second) system. The system is intended to be user friendly and in many ways it is. For example, 1 pound mass will produce 1 pound force in Earths gravitational field. Also 1 inch is about the size of the thumb from the last joint to the tip of the nail. Also a foot is about the size of an average mans foot, etc. The price to pay for this simplicity is that a conversion constant must be used to make the units consistent. A case in point is Newtons second law, which expresses the relationship between force and acceleration. Newtons second law of motion is:

F = ma

where F is a force, m the mass of the object, and a the acceleration of the object. The weight of an object, or the force produced by an object with respect to the surface of another object (the surface of a scale for example) under the Earths constant gravitational field is proportional to its mass times the gravitational acceleration.

[D-1]

a = g therefore F = mg

g has a value of 32.17 ft/s2 on average. To have 1 pound mass produce 1 pound force, the constant gc must be used:

g c =32.17

lbm ft lbf s 2

We introduce the constant gc into Newtons second law to provide the units of the Imperial system:

F(lbf )=m(lbm)

[D-2]

Some of the units on the right hand side of equation [D-2] cancel out and the resultant combined unit is the pound-force (lbf-ft) a unit of energy. On the surface of the Earth 1 pound mass produces 1 pound force. On the surface of the moon, where the acceleration of the gravitational field is 1/6 that of the Earths, 1 pound mass will produce 1/6 pound force.

APPENDIX D

D3

The metric system or SI system is designed to be consistent with Newtons second law without the use of any conversion constant. In the metric system, one kilogram of mass on the Earths surface produces 9.8 Newtons of force. The acceleration g produced by Earths gravitational field is 9.8 m/s2.

F = mg

kg m F ( N ) = m ( kg ) 9 . 8 m = 9 . 8 2 s2 s

therefore 1 kilogram (kg) of mass produces 9.8 Newtons (N). A Newton by definition equals 1 kg-m/s2.

Kinetic energy in FPS units

( )

KE =

1 2 mv 2

[D-3]

A typical energy unit in the FPS system is the lbf-ft. To obtain lbf-ft in the above equation we use the constant gc. The value of gc is 32.17 lbm-ft/lbf-s2.

KE (lbf ft ) =

[D-4]

Some of the units on the right hand side of equation [D-4] cancel out and the resultant combined unit is the pound-force (lbf-ft) a unit of energy.

Potential energy in FPS units

Potential energy is equal to the weight of the object (mg) times its elevation (z) above as reference plane.

PE = m g z

Again the typical energy unit in the FPS system is the lbf-ft. To obtain lbf-ft in the above equation we use the constant gc.

[D-5]

D4

APPENDIX D

m(lbm) g(ft / s 2) z(ft) lbm ft g c 2 lbf s Some of the units on the right hand side of equation [D-6] cancel out and the resultant combined unit is the pound-force (lbf-ft) a unit of energy. PE(lbf ft) =

The conversion of head to pressure in the FPS system

[D-6]

Pressure is equal to head, times the specific weight or head, times the density times the acceleration due to gravity.

p = H = g H

[D-7]

where p (lbf/ft2) is pressure, (lbf/ft3) is the density, H(ft) is head and g is the acceleration due to gravity. To obtain lbf/ft2 in the above equation we use the constant gc.

p(lbf / ft ) =

lbm ft g c 2 lbf s

[D-8]

Some of the units on the right hand side of equation [D-8] cancel out and the resultant combined unit is the pound per square foot (lbf/ft2) a unit of pressure.

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