The Rite Of Spring

Evolution of 20th-21st Century Music (1900-1913 - Present)
Radically developments in arts and sciences occurred in the years 1900 to 1913. A number is discoveries were made during the period that overturned long-held beliefs. The theory of Relativity of Albert Einstein revolutionized the view of the universe. Sigmund Freud explored the unconscious and developed psychoanalysis. Pablo Picasso revolutionized painting and sculpture when he distorted human figures and objects and showed them from several angles at one time. The abstract paintings of Wassily Kandinsky no longer present the visual word. With the coming of the 20th century another evolution in the musical world emerged. While some of the early 20th century music can be seen as extensions of the late Romantic style, much of 20th century music can be seen as a rebellion. Composers did not look to build on what was standard but again created music freely and used sounds that went against the current grain. Twentieth century music can be described as being more refined, vague in form, delicate, and having a mysterious atmosphere. The most famous riot in music history happened in paris in May 29, 1913 at the premiere of Igor Stravinsky’s ballet called. The audience laughed, made noises, and actually fought with the police. The ballet evoked primitive rites. At present Stravinsky’s The Rite of Spring is now recognized as a masterpiece. Rhythm, Chords, and percussive sounds that were perceived as noise in 1913 are now commonly heard in jazz, rock, and music for television and films. A fundamental technique in organizing pitches around a central tone or key was shared. Twentieth century music is an era that is hard to define in terms of musical style. The only easy way to define 20th century music is that it does not fit into the Romantic era's requirements. And because of its own expression and orchestral technique it does not fit into any other category but its own. This time period spawned many new terms for musical styles because of the diversity of music that was being written. Some common examples are atonality, expressionism (seen in Schoenberg's early music), neo-Romanticism , and neoClassicism . As was true in the Romantic era, nationalism was still an important musical device used during the first half of the 20th century. Composers utilized folk songs to enriched their music. Examples can be seen in the music of Raplh Vaughan Williams (England), Bela Bartok (Hungary), Heitor Villa Lobos (Brazil) and Aaron Copland

etc. Most recently. the two terms are not interchangeable. metal. jazz. It stands in contrast to both art music and traditional music. which are typically disseminated academically or orally to smaller. new age. embracing the period from about 1880 to about 1910. whereas pop music usually refers to a specific musical genre. and rhythm and blues. Sibelius. hip-hop. local audiences. Strauss Maler. Popular music differs from classical music which was created for the purpose of religious functions or for the elite’s and nobility’s entertainment. Technology also became an extremely important factor in the music making during this time period. acoustic. Jazz and popular musical styles influenced composers from both the United States and Europe. heavy. rap. Electronically created sounds are used in combination with other electronic sounds or played together with traditional music instruments. Composers have been known to use recording tape as a compositional tool. the use of computer technology has affected the world of music making. Although popular music sometimes is known as "pop music". Rachmaninoff. Popular music is a generic term for music of all ages that appeals to popular tastes. Popular music differs from traditional folk music which was created for the enjoyment of the ordinary people. . Meanings : Neo-Romanticism: a term synonymous with post-Romanticism or late Romanticism. rock. In 20th century musical styles traditional forms and structures were broken up and recreated or composed using non-Western musical techniques and abstract ideas. Popular music Popular music belongs to any of a number of musical genres "having wide appeal" and is typically distributed to large audiences through the music industry. as represented by R. Popular music includes a wide genre which consists of folk.(USA). alternative. Some ways in which computers currently alter the face of the music world are by manipulating the performance of instruments in real time.

gothic rock. Radiohead. The Cure. However. Examples of folk music are John Denver’s songs and Peter. It is characterized by simple melodies. Folk Music is music that originates among the common people of a country or region. These genres are unified by their collective debt to the style and/or ethos of punk rock. indie pop.Jane's Addiction. and Mary’s songs. The Smashing Pumpkins. It has become increasingly common to refer to this type of music as traditional music. It was transmitted by word of mouth and was shared and performed by the entire community not by a special group of expert performers. Weezer. Alternative Music Alternative rock (also called alternative music. and indie rock.E. many alternative . It arose and best survived in societies and places not yet afected by mass communication and the commercialization of culture. alternative rock has been used as a catchall phrase for rock music from underground artists and all music descended from punk rock (including punk itself. Green Day. Britpop. alt rock or simply alternative) is a genre of rock music that emerged in the 1980s and became popular in the 1990s. The term originated in the 19th century. Nirvana. In the original sense of the term. folk music is by and of the people. Paul. as music of the lower classes. Alternative rock consists of various subgenres that have emerged from the independent music scene since the 1980s. At times.M. The White Stripes.Folk Music Folk music is an English term encompassing both traditional music and contemporary folk music. Traditional folk music has been defined in several ways: as music transmitted by mouth. New Wave. and is spread about or passed down orally.. such as grunge. Some examples of alternative rock bands that have achieved commercial success and mainstream critical recognition are R. which laid the groundwork for alternative music in the 1970s. and Muse. and post-punk). It has been contrasted with commercial and classical styles. Foo Fighters. and as music with unknown composers.

Often a microphone is placed in front of an acoustic instrument which is then wired up to an amplifier. Writing for Splendid. extended guitar solos. However.rock artists are cult acts that have recorded with independent labels and have received the majority of their exposure through college radio airplay and word-of-mouth Acoustic Music Acoustic music comprises music that solely or primarily uses instruments which produce sound through entirely acoustic means. emphatic beats. Heavy Metal Music Heavy metal (often referred to simply as metal) is a genre of rock music that developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s. "When music is labeled acoustic. the bands that created heavy metal developed a thick. and overall loudness. unplugged. massive sound. Following the increasing popularity of the television show MTV Unplugged during the 1990s. these amplification devices remain separate from the amplified instrument and reproduce its natural sound accurately. as opposed to electric orelectronic means. Nyoy Volante. Nina. electric organ andsynthesizer. With roots in blues rock and psychedelic rock. or unwired. Performers of acoustic music often increase the volume of their output using electronic amplifiers. such as the electric guitar." Examples: the music of Paolo Santos. and Aiza Seguerra. largely in the United Kingdom and the United States. acoustic (though in most cases still electricallyamplified) performances by musical artists who usually rely on electronic instruments became colloquially referred to as "unplugged" performances. music reviewer Craig Conley suggests. . characterized by highly amplified distortion. electric violin. the assumption seems to be that other types of music are cluttered by technology and overproduction and therefore aren't as pure. The retronym "acoustic music" appeared after the advent of electric instruments.

and the swung note. Its West African pedigree is evident in its use of blue notes. In the 1980s. Underground scenes produced an array of more extreme. Before the end of the decade. andAnthrax. a status common throughout the history of the genre. jazz has incorporated music from 19th and 20th century American popular music.polyrhythms. popular styles such as nu metal. and metalcore.Heavy metal lyrics and performance styles are generally associated with masculinity and machismo. Black Sabbath and Deep Purple attracted large audiences. Slayer. In the mid-1970s Judas Priest helped spur the genre's evolution by discarding much of its blues influence. which blends extreme metal with hardcore punk. which often incorporates elements of grunge and hip hop. Motörhead introduced a punk rock sensibility and an increasing emphasis on speed. The word "jazz" (in early year’s also spelled "jass") began as a West Coast slang term and was first used to refer to music in Chicago at about 1915. while other styles like death metal and black metal remain subcultural phenomena. Jazz music developed from early ensemble improvisation to big . It has spread from its African-American roots to a worldwide audience. though they were often critically reviled. Megadeth. have further expanded the definition of the genre. Bands in theNew Wave of British Heavy Metal such as Iron Maiden followed in a similar vein. From its early development until the present. Examples: the music of Bon Jovi and Pepe Smith Jazz Music Jazz is a musical style that originated at the beginning of the 20th century in African American communities in the Southern United States: it was born from a confluence of African and European music traditions. Since the mid-1990s. heavy metal had attracted a worldwide following of fans known as "metalheads" or "headbangers". Jazz is American music born in the early part of the century from African rhythm and slave chants. The first heavy metal bands such as Led Zeppelin. glam metal became a major commercial force with groups like Mötley Crüe and Poison. syncopation. improvisation. aggressive styles: thrash metal broke into the mainstream with bands such as Metallica.

The harmonies in New Age music are generally modal. art. Andrew E. andbeatboxing. The music of Earl Klugh is jazz music. or include a drone bass. Other elements include sampling (or synthesis). which is defined by four key stylistic elements:MCing/rapping. and is often associated with environmentalism and New Age spirituality. DJing/ swing to soloing brilliance of bop to thorny atonality and back to the current rearticulating melody and harmony. The melodies are often repetitive. Pieces of up to thirty minutes are common. Blues is a style type of popular music which influenced both ragtime and later blues.massage. consonant.. The term rap music is often used synonymously with the term hip hop music. Hip-Hop Music and Rap Music Hip hop music and Rap Music is an American musical genre that developed as part of hip-hop culture. and reading as a method of stress management or to create a peaceful atmosphere in their home or other environments. and Salbakuta New Age Music New Age music is music of various styles intended to create artistic inspiration. . and optimism. It is used by listeners for yoga. spoken lyrics. but rap vocals are not required for music to be considered "hip hop. and sometimes recordings of nature sounds are used as an introduction to a track or throughout the piece. It is synonymous to rap music with its topics of political or social issues. to create a hypnotic feeling. and a background of scratched records. relaxation. meditation. breaking/dancing and graffiti writing. Examples: the music of Francis Magalona. and speech of the ordinary people. " Hip-hop music pertains to the urbanized dressing.

itself heavily influenced by rhythm and blues and country music. or Tibetaninfluenced chants. while other artists and bands have specifically stated that they do not consider their own music to be New Age. Like pop music. Typically. Rock music also drew strongly on a number of other genres such as blues and folk. frequently relying on sustained synth pads or long sequencer-based runs. Rock Music Rock music is a genre of popular music that developed during and after the 1960s. high-quality digitally sampled instruments are used instead of natural acoustic instruments. music retailers. but the genre has become extremely diverse and common musical characteristics are difficult to define. or radio broadcasters.New Age music includes both electronic forms. even when their work has been labeled as such by record labels. Sanskrit. live performance. . It has its roots in 1940s and 1950s rock and roll. usually as part of a rock group with bass guitar and drums. Musically. Examples: the voice of Enya in The Lord of the Rings and the theme songs of the films. and acousticforms. classical and other musical sources. The dominance of rock by white. lyrics often stress romantic love but also address a wide variety of other themes that are frequently social or political in emphasis. acoustic guitar and a wide variety of non-western acoustic instruments. and incorporated influences from jazz. Rock places a higher degree of emphasis on musicianship. particularly in the United Kingdom and the United States. rock is song-based music with a 4/4 beat utilizing a verse-chorus form. featuring instruments such as flutes. Some New Age music artists openly embrace New Age beliefs. or lyrics based on mythology such as Celtic legends or the realm of Faerie. piano. and an ideology of authenticity than pop music. Vocal arrangements were initially rare in New Age music but as it has evolved vocals have become more common. rock has centered on the electric guitar. especially vocals featuring Native American. In many cases. male musicians has been seen as one of the key factors shaping the themes explored in rock music.

punk rock both intensified and reacted against some of these trends to produce a raw. sex and drug use. rap rock. From the 1990s alternative rock began to dominate rock music and break through into the mainstream in the form of grunge. including pop punk. Britpop. jazz based music with a heavy. and the diverse and enduring major subgenre of heavy metal. insistent beat" was becoming more popular. including the garage rock/post punk revival at the beginning of the new millennium. folk rock. In the second half of the 1970s.By the late 1960s a number of distinct rock music sub-genres had emerged. Inheriting the folk tradition of the protest song. The term was originally used by record companies to describe recordings marketed predominantly to urban African Americans. including New Wave. including hybrids like blues-rock. and jazz-rock fusion. energetic form of music characterized by overt political and social critiques. rock music has been associated with political activism as well as changes in social attitudes to race. rocking. which emphasized volume. New genres that emerged from this scene included progressive rock. country rock. Punk was an influence into the 1980s on the subsequent development of other sub-genres. 1970s punk culture spawned the visually distinctive goth and emo subcultures. at a time when "urbane. Rhythm and Blues (R&B) Rhythm and blues. and rap metal. leading to major sub-cultures including modsand rockers in the UK and the "hippie" counterculture that spread out from San Francisco in the US in the 1960s. Rock music has also embodied and served as the vehicle for cultural and social movements. is a genre of popular African American music that originated in the 1940s. post punk and eventually the alternative rock movement. Further fusion sub-genres have since emerged. . as well as conscious attempts to revisit rock's history. which highlighted showmanship and visual style. often abbreviated to R&B. Similarly. many of which contributed to the development of psychedelic rock influenced by the counter-cultural psychedelic scene. which extended the artistic elements. power and speed. and indie rock. and is often seen as an expression of youth revolt against adult consumerism and conformity. glam rock.

g. Broadway Musicales A Broadway Musical is a musical with a book by William F. Most traditional music is "in a particular key" e. The star of the musical-within-the-musical (Sneakers. Music that is in C major uses the notes of a C major scale. Jimmy Bondoc. the term rhythm and blues was frequently applied to blues records. becoming known ascontemporary R&B. a newer style of R&B developed.rhythm and blues was used as a blanket term for soul and funk. about a basketball star) closely resembles Golden Boy star Sammy Davis. Music such as this is called polytonal. . Jr. in "C major" or in "D major" or in "D minor".steps in and takes on the lead role in order to save the production. Starting in the 1950s. the term "R&B" became used to refer to music styles that developed from and incorporated electric blues. 1978.who from the start had resisted turning his work into a musical . Bitonality is the use in music of two keys at the same time. Music such as this is called bitonal. lyrics by Lee Adams. By the 1970s. The plot about a sleazy white theatre producer's attempt to adapt an African American writer's serious play for a commercial stage musical was inspired by Adams and Strouse's real-life experiences with their 1964 Broadway production of Golden Boy. The Broadway production closed after 14 previews and only one performance on December 21. after this style of music contributed to the development of rock and roll. and Brian McKnight. Brown. Example: the music of Kyla. and music by Charles Strouse. as well as gospel and soul music. In the early 1950s and beyond. Innovations in Musical Compositions Polytonality Polytonality is the use in music of several keys at the same time. the playwright . When the star opts to leave the show.The term has subsequently had a number of shifts in meaning. In the 1980s.

Electronic Music Electronic music is music that employs electronic musical instruments and electronic music technology in its production. The first clarinet plays a melody that uses the notes of the C major chord. often by adjusting the pitch. Hammond organ.In 20th century some composers sometimes wrote music which is in more than one key at once. Examples of electromechanical sound producing devices include the telharmonium. and computer. However. A well-known example is the beginning of the second tableau of Igor Stravinsky's ballet. Electronic Instruments An electronic musical instrument is a musical instrument that produces its sounds using electronics. Such an instrument sounds by outputting an electrical audio signal that ultimately drives a loudspeaker. Purely electronic sound production can be achieved using devices such as the Theremin. Charles Ives and many others. frequency. Composers who have used bitonality or polytonality include Igor Stravinsky. respectively. In general a distinction can be made between sound produced using electromechanical means and that produced using electronic technology. . Today electronic music includes many varieties and ranges from experimental art music to popular forms such as electronic dance music. sound synthesizer. Electronic music was once associated almost exclusively with Western art music but from the late 1960s on the availability of affordable music technology meant that music produced using electronic means became increasingly common in the popular domain. An electronic instrument may include a user interface for controlling its sound.Petrushka. Béla Bartók. and the electric guitar. or duration of each note. while the second clarinet plays a different version of the same melody using the notes of the F sharp major chord. it is increasingly common for the user interface and sound-generating functions to be separated into a music controller (input device) and a music synthesizer. Darius Milhaud.

14 August 1910 – 19 August 1995) was a French composer. All electronic musical instruments can be viewed as a subset of audio signal processing applications. and synthesizers. Most notably. have organized to report cutting edge work. and synthesizers continues to be a highly active and interdisciplinary field of research. controllers. Specialized conferences. the border between sound effects and actual musical instruments is often hazy. whistles. engineer.with the two devices communicating through a musical performance description language such as MIDI or Open Sound Control. as well as to provide a showcase for artists who perform or create music with new electronic music instruments. writer. Simple electronic musical instruments are sometimes called sound effects. The development of new electronic musical instruments. Schaeffer is most widely and currently recognized for his accomplishments inelectronic and experimental music. Electronic musical instruments are now widely used in most styles of music. Amongst the vast range of works and projects he undertook. literature and radio presentation after the end of World War II. he wrote Poème Électronique for the Phillips pavilion at the Brussels World Fair in 1958. broadcaster. notably the International Conference on New interfaces for musical expression. Pierre Shaffer Pierre Henri Marie Schaeffer (pronounced /piːˈɛər ˈhɛnriː məˈriː ˈʃeɪfər/ in English. and tape. French composer and engineer Edgard Varèse created a variety of compositions using electronic horns. at the core of which stands his role as the chief developer of a unique and early form of avant-garde music known as musique concrète. His innovative work in both the sciences —particularly communications and acoustics— and the various arts of music. musicologist and acoustician of the 20th century. as well as his anti-nuclear activism and cultural criticism garnered him widespread recognition in his lifetime. The genre emerged out of Europe from the utilization of new music . controllers.

39).]). ondes Martenot. His collaborative endeavors are considered milestones in the histories of electronic and experimental music. and Trautonium were intended simply as new means of sound production. a number of musical treatises and severalplays) are often oriented towards his development of the genre. as well as the theoretics and philosophy of music in general. filters. Live Electronic Music Live electronic music generally utilizes instrumental or electronic sounds but excludes those that have been prerecorded (Sutherland 1994. Theremin. Schaeffer's writings (which include written and radionarrated essays. Today. biographies. Early electronic instruments such as the Telharmonium. Cage’s Imaginary Landscape No. ring modulators and other forms of circuitry. it featured two variable-speed phonograph turntables and sine tone recordings (Collins 2007. and did nothing to change the nature of musical composition or performance (Collins 2007. 38–39). Synthesizers A synthesizer (often abbreviated "synth") is an electronic instrument capable of producing sounds by generating electrical signals of differentfrequencies. . electroacoustic and subsequently electronic developed in the post-Nazi Germany era. The timbres of the various sounds may then be transformed extensively during performance using devices such as amplifiers. having been the first composer to utilize a number of contemporary recording and sampling techniques that are now used worldwide by nearly all record production companies. short novels. Schaeffer is considered one of the most influential experimental. following the advance of electroacoustic and acousmatic music. 1 (1939) was among the earliest compositions to include an innovative use of live electronic material.

phase distortion synthesis. which may either imitate other instruments ("imitative synthesis") or generate new timbres. was an American engineer and inventor. at least one element that carries out arithmetic and logic operations. Among the most popular waveform synthesis techniques are subtractive synthesis. and a sequencing and control element that can change the order of operations based on the information that is stored. the Novachord. wavetable synthesis.These electrical signals are played through a loudspeaker or set of headphones. 1973). most famously. additive synthesis. and allow the results of operations to be sent out. each with their own strengths and weaknesses. like subharmonic synthesis orgranular synthesis. are not found in music synthesizers. Synthesizers can usually produce a wide range of sounds. The . Electric Guitar An electric guitar is a guitar that uses the principle of direct electromagnetic induction to convert vibrations of its metal strings into electricaudio signals. the Hammond Clock. Synthesizers use a number of different technologies or programmed algorithms. allowing the computer to solve more than one kind of problem. frequency modulation synthesis. Conventionally a computer consists of some form of memory for data storage. The particular sequence of operations can be changed readily. His inventions include. and the world's first polyphonic musical synthesizer. Peripheral devices allow information to be entered from an external source. Computers A computer is a programmable machine designed to sequentially and automatically carry out a sequence of arithmetic or logical operations. theHammond organ. 1895–July 3. Other sound synthesis methods. physical modeling synthesis and sample-based synthesis. Laurens Hammond Laurens Hammond (January 11.

. It has evolved into a stringed musical instrument that is capable of a multitude of sounds and styles. transposition. the electric guitar has undeniably become one of the most important instruments in popular music around the world. Often the signal is modified using effects such as reverb and distortion. thus connecting the switches. It served as a major component in the development of rock and roll and countless other genres of music. the signal may easily be altered using electronic circuits to add "color" to the sound. Electronic Keyboard An electronic keyboard (also called digital keyboard.g. Amplifier and speaker: a low-powered audio amplifier and a small speaker that amplify the sounds so that the listener can hear them. Most keyboards use a keyboard matrix circuit to reduce the amount of wiring that is needed. The major components of a typical modern electronic keyboard are:      Musical keyboard: The plastic white and black piano-style keys which the player presses. Sound generator: An electronic sound module typically contained within an integrated circuit or chip. which is capable of accepting MIDI commands and producing sounds. portable keyboard and home keyboard) is an electronic or digitalkeyboard instrument. the electric guitar became a necessity as jazz musicians sought to amplify their sound. organ. so it is amplified before sending it to a loudspeaker. flute. effects (reverb. drum kit). echo. Since then. . Invented in 1931.signal generated by an electric guitar is too weak to drive a loudspeaker. and other features (e.g.. which triggers the electronic note or other sound. telephones or sustain). piano. an electronic drum machine) Rhythm & chord generator: A software program which produces rhythms and chords by the means of MIDI electronic commands. Since the output of an electric guitar is an electric signal. which allows the user to select tones (e. User interface software: A program (usually embedded in a computer chip) which handles user interaction with control keys and menus.

the term has also applied— in ethnomusicological contexts—to pitch structures in non-European musical cultures. "measure. the word had other possible meanings. standard. Modes are the forerunners of our modern major and minor scales. Mixolydian. Phrydian. way") is a concept that involves scale andmelody type. it meant the rhythmic relationship between long and short values (Powers 2001. §V. F to F1. It is an important aspect in a musical composition. Notation is the writing o symbols to represent musical sounds. Historically. for it is through notation that one can play and sing it. M to M1. the rest of the intervals are whole tones. through the use of written symbols. The semitones or half-steps are indicated by a slur. In the late medieval period. manner. Introduction). New Sounds At the advent of the 20th-21st Century. each mode corresponding to the white notes o the piano keyboard. sometimes with doubtful compatibility (Powers 2001. new sounds were introduced to render variation to musical scales. Bartok’s compositions possess church modes.1). Since the end of the eighteenth century. G to G1. played consecutively from a note to its octave thus: D to D1 is Dorain. mode (from Latin modus. . This article addresses the medieval and modern scale and melody-type meaning.Notation Music notation or musical notation is any system that represents aurally perceived music. Lydian. Church Modes In modern Western music. it meant interval. In the early medieval period.

Serial Music Serial or 12-tone music was invented in the early 20th Century by Schoenberg and pupils. Aleatoric or Chance Music Aleatoric or chance is also known as interdeterministic music which has a chance element in reaction to music that is totally planned. For example. Neo-Classical Music “Neo” means modernized or new. it may have phrases that can be played in any order. It was based on the chromatic scale. It consists of repeated phrases which slowly changed. Bern and Webern. Some musical composers of the period rejected the Romantic style. often looped. Electronic Music Composers like Stockhausen in the late 1950’s began to use early synthesizers to produce electronic music. to produce the entirety of the sonic canvas. This method merged with those of musique concrete. Minimalists or Process Music is easier to listen to than some experimental music. Musique Concrete In the 1950’s. . It refers to the dominance of process in music where fragments are layered on the top of each other. French composers explored new sound recording technology wherein they rearranged sounds on tape changing the speed or playing them backwards to make musical patterns. Minimalists or Process Music In the 1960’s a group of North America composers invented minimalists or process music.

.Example of minimalists or process music are In C of Terry Riley and Drumming of Steve Reich.

Pierre Shaffer Laurens Hammond .

Terry Riley Pablo Picasso Igor Stravinsky .

Wassily Kandinsky .

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