*. . . a library of the subject in miniature, affording helpful insights and convenient material for students at all levels.'

N o t i o n s o f w i t c h c r a f t have h a u n t e d and fascinated the h u m a n m i n d fi h e i g h t o f w i t c h c r a f t persecutions in s i x t e e n t h - a n d s e v e n t e e n t h - c e n 5 0 , 0 0 0 people were executed, they were accused o f acts i n c l u d i n g m black m a g i c and devil worshipping :ction ters a selection o f the best historical writ :gan, a n d the social and cultural c o f historical perspectives is collect recent research o n the r in w i t c h trials, ideas a b o u t the

possession, a n d reasons for the decline o f w i t c h trials. T h e m a j o r t h e m e s and debates in the study o f w i t c h c r a f t are b r o general i n t r o d u c t i o n , w h i c h places the extracts in a critical c o n t e x t , wide range o f i m p o r t a n t w o r k in a single, accessible v o l u m e , The essential reading for a n y o n e intrigued by this c o m p l e x a n d fascinatin The Witchcraft Casement, Reader includes the w o r k o f W o l f g a n g Behringer, R o Clark, Norman Cohn, Owen Davies, Malcol Lou

Stuart

G e n t i l c o r e , C a r l o G i n z b u r g , M a r i a n n e Hester, Clive H o l m e s , Levack, Daniel Maier-Katkin, H.C.E. Midelfort, E.

J e n k i n s , E d m u n d K e r n , R i c h a r d Kieckhefer, G a b o r Klaniczay, C h r i William M u c h e m b l e d , D a v i d N i c h o l l s , Eva I o c s , Lyndal Roper, J i m oharpe

is L e c t u r e r

liversity C o l l e g e Worcester.

11 N e w Fetter Lane, L o n d o n E C 4 P 4 E E 2 9 West 35th Street, N e w York N Y 10001 www, routledge .com Printed in Great Britain
' * Franc'

ISBN

0-415-21493-9

9 '780415

214933

1

The Witchcraft Reader
Edited by

Darren Oldridge

NEWCASTLE 202

UNIVERSITY 0214 3 8 • Vv 6 0 ° .

LIBRARY

>vy,

London and New York

First published 2 0 0 2 bv R o u t l e d g e 11 N e w F e t t e r Lane, London E C 4 P 4 E E Simultaneously published in the U S A and Canada by Routledge 2 9 W e s t 35th S t r e e t , N e w Y o r k , N Y 1 0 0 0 1 Routledge is an imprint of the Taylor S^Francis Group

Individual chapters © the original copyright holders Selection and editorial m a t t e r © 2 0 0 2 D a r r e n Oldridge T y p e s e t in Perpetua and Bell Gothic by F l o r e n c e Production Ltd, Stoodleigh, D e v o n Printed and bound in Great Britain bv T J International Ltd, Padstow, Cornwall All rights reserved. N o part of this b o o k mav be reprinted or reproduced or utilised in anv form or bv anv e l e c t r o n i c , mechanical, o r o t h e r means, n o w k n o w n or hereafter invented, including photocopying and r e c o r d i n g , o r in anv information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publishers. British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data

A catalogue r e c o r d for this b o o k is available from the British Library Library of Congress Cataloging p. c m . Includes bibliographical r e f e r e n c e s and i n d e x . 1. W i t c h c r a f t — History. B F 1 5 6 6 . W 7 3 9 5 2001 1 3 3 . 4 ' 3 ' 0 9 — dc21 ISBN 0 - 4 1 5 - 2 1 4 9 2 - 0 (hbk) ISBN 0 - 4 1 5 - 2 1 4 9 3 - 9 (pbk) 2001048166 I. Oldridge D a r r e n , 1966in Publication Data

T h e W i t c h c r a f t R e a d e r / [edited bv] Darren Oldridge

Contents Acknowledgements General I n t r o d u c t i o n Darren Oldridge PART ONE Mediaeval Origins 1 Richard WITCH Kieckhefer IN MEDIAEVAL EUROPE TRIALS 2 Norman THE Cohn HERETICS D E M 0 N I Z A T I O N OF M E D I A E V A L PART TWO W i t c h c r a f t . SOCIETY AND MENTALITY 5 E. THE William Monter OF J U R A WITCHCRAFT SOCIOLOGY . Magic and Culture 3 Robin THE Briggs OF BEWITCHMENT EXPERIENCE 4 Wolfgang WEATHER. Behringer HUNGER AND FEAR: ORIGINS OF T H E EUROPEAN WITCH-HUNTS IN C L I M A T E .

Possession and the Devil 17 David THE Nicholls IN RENAISSANCE FRANCE HEARTLAND DEVIL 8 Carlo Ginzburg THE WITCHES' SABBAT 18 H.C. Waite THE DEVIL AND THE INQUISITOR: AND MAGICAL ANABAPTISTS. Erik Midelfort OF T H E WITCHCRAZE P A R T SIX W i t c h c r a f t . WITCHCRAFT AND THE LEGAL 13 Edmund Kern IDENTITY AND MAGIC BITHNER IN T H E AND LATE WITCHCRAFT 23 Clive Holmes WITCHES AND WITNESSES CONFESSIONAL SIXTEENTH IN STYRIA WOMEN: CENTURY: JAKOB PART 14 Gary K. WITCH-HUNTING P A R T FOUR W i t c h c r a f t and the Reformation 12 Stuart Clark WITCHCRAFT. BELIEFS 24 BETWEEN EIGHT Reading Confessions Lyndal OEDIPUS Roper AND THE DEVIL DIABOLICAL CONSPIRACIES PART FIVE 25 Malcolm Gaskill AND POWER IN EARLY MODERN ENGLAND: W i t c h c r a f t . CATHOLIC WITCHCRAFT 21 Marianne Hester RECONSTRUCTION AND WITCH-HUNTING PATRIARCHAL 22 Jim Sharpe PROCESS PROTESTANT WOMEN.viii CONTENTS 6 David Gentilcore NARRATIVES ITALY AND FOLKLORE MOTIFS 16 Brian Levack AND WITCH HUNTING IN EARLY WITCHCRAFT IN SOUTHERN STATE-BUILDING MODERN EUROPE PART THREE The Idea of a W i t c h Cult 7 H. THE Erik DEVIL Midelfort AND THE GERMAN PEOPLE DECIPHERING 9 Eva THE Pocs ALTERNATIVE WORLD OF T H E W I T C H E S ' SABBAT 19 Moshe A Sluhovsky APPARITION OR D E M O N I C POSSESSION? DIVINE 10 Robert SATANIC Muchembled MYTHS AND CULTURAL REALITIES PART SEVEN W i t c h c r a f t and Gender 11 Stuart Clark MISRULE AND THE MEANING OF WITCHCRAFT 20 Christina WAS Larner WOMAN-HUNTING? INVERSION.C. the State and Social Control 15 Christina THE CRIME Larner OF W I T C H C R A F T IN EARLY MODERN EUROPE WITCHCRAFT THE CASE OF M A R G A R E T MOORE .

by permission o f T a y l o r & Francis. 5 1 — 7 8 . H u n g e r and F e a r ' b y W o l f g a n g B e h r i n g e r f r o m German 1 3 ( 1 9 9 5 ) .H u n t ? 30 Philip Jenkins and Daniel OCCULT SURVIVORS: THE 413 Maier-Katkin MAKING OF A MYTH 419 Popular and Learned Culture 1300—1500 by Richard Kieckhefer (Routledge & Kegan Inner Demons by N o r m a n Cohn (copy- Paul 1 9 7 6 ) . p p . and mission of T h e G e r m a n History Society. p p . WOMEN'S ENGLAND PART NINE The Decline of W i t c h c r a f t 27 Brian THE 367 Acknowledgements Levack OF WITCH TRIALS 373 END 28 Gabor THE Klaniczay OF WITCHES AND THE RISE OF VAMPIRES 387 DECLINE 29 Owen Davies AND OF THE DECLINE OF WITCHCRAFT: 399 URBANIZATION AN EXAMINATION LONDON T h e author and publishers wish t o thank the following for their permission to r e p r o duce copyright material: ' W i t c h T r i a l s in M e d i a e v a l E u r o p e ' f r o m European Witch Trials: Their Foundations in of PART TEN A New W i t c h . 1 9 9 2 ) . ' W e a t h e r . 'The Experience of Bewitchment' from (HarperCollins 1996). Modern 'Satanic M y t h s and European Witchcraft. p p . b y p e r during the Reformation by E. published by P i m l i c o and r e p r i n t e d bv p e r m i s s i o n o f T h e R a n d o m H o u s e G r o u p Ltd and P F D o n b e h a l f o f P r o f e s s o r Norman Cohn. Bishop William M o n t e r (copyright © publisher 1 9 7 6 C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y ) . 10—26. 1 3 9 — 6 0 . pp. European E r i k M i d e l f o r t f r o m History 27—36. o r i g i n a l l y p u b l i s h e d in 1 9 8 7 b y I n s t i t u t e t f o r R a t t s h i s t o r i s k F o r s k n i n g u n d e r by p e r m i s s i o n o f O x f o r d University Press and the Institutet for Rattshistorisk Forskning. 1—27. ' T h e Alternative W o r l d of the W i t c h e s ' S a b b a t ' f r o m Between the Living and the Dead b y E v a P o c s ( 1 9 9 9 ) . . 31 the Today. 115—4-1. 1 9 9 3 ) . b y p e r University Press. p p . by permission 'Deciphering Witchcraft. pp.X CONTENTS 26 Louise AND Jackson WIVES AND MOTHERS: IN WITCHCRAFT PERSECUTION CONFESSIONS S E V E NT E E NT H-C E NT U R Y 353 WITCHES. pp. by permission o f History Modern Today. C. ' T h e D e m o n i z a t i o n M e d i a e v a l H e r e t i c s ' r e p r o d u c e d f r o m Europe's right © N o r m a n C o h n 1 9 7 S . W i t c h e s ' S a b b a t ' b y C a r l o G i n z b u r g f r o m Early by B e n g t A n k a l o o and Gustav H e n n i n g s e n t h e t i t l e Hdxomas Europa 1400—1100. Witches and by Neighbours permission by of Robin Briggs reproduced 31 Patrick THE Casement NOT TO KNOW 433 WISH H a r p e r C o l l i n s Publishers L t d . pp. Index 437 F o l k l o r e M o t i f s in S o u t h e r n I t a l y ' f r o m From (Manchester University Press 'Heartland o f the W i t c h c r a z e ' (February 1 9 8 1 ) . 1 2 1 — 3 5 . u s e d b y p e r University 'Witchcraft to Witch Narratives of the by David Gentilcore author. edited ( O x f o r d University Press 1 9 9 3 ) . Felicity Bryan and t h e a u t h o r . p p . Cultural edited by mission o f the Central European R e a l i t i e s ' b v R o b e r t M u c h e m b l e d f r o m Early B e n g t Ankaloo and Gustav H e n n i n g s e n ( O x f o r d University Press 1 9 9 3 ) . 'The Sociology of Jura Witchcraft' reprinted f r o m Witchcraft mission of the in France and Switzerland: Cornell The Borderlands Press. History. 7 3 — 1 0 5 . 63—95. pp. by H. 238 5 8 .

edited by W e r n e r O . edited by Women's 1 0 . by permission Forskning. M a r i a n n e H e s t e r and G a r e t h R o b e r t s ( C a m b r i d g e University Press 1 9 9 6 ) by permission o f C a m b r i d g e University Press and Brian Levack. Misrule and the Meaning History. 8 .1 2 7 . copyRadical U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . pp. r e p r o d u c e d by permission o f Aldine D e G r u y t e r . 35—67 and 79—91 Studies P u b l i s h e r s L t d .5 .B u i l d i n g a n d W i t c h H u n t i n g in E a r l y M o d e r n E u r o p e ' b y B r i a n L e v a c k f r o m Witchcraft in Early Modern Europe: in Culture and Belief. W i v e s and M o t h e r s ' by Louise Jackson f r o m History Review. Crime and the Courts. Richardson. Jonathan B a r r y . by permission mission o f O x l o r d University Press. p p . of Social ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS xiii o r i g i n a l l y p u b l i s h e d in 1 9 8 7 b y I n s t i t u t e t f o r R a t t s h i s t o r i s k F o r s k n i n g u n d e r t h e t i t l e Hdxomas Institutet Europa 1400—1700. W i t c h c r a f t a n d t h e L e g a l P r o c e s s ' b y J i m S h a r p e f r o m Women. ' W o m e n : W i t c h e s a n d W i t n e s s e s ' b y C l i v e H o l m e s f r o m Past Present. 4 ( 1 ) ( 1 9 9 5 ) . 323—40. pp. by p e r m i s sion o f C a m b r i d g e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s a n d M a r i a n n e H e s t e r . 1 0 6 — 2 4 . of Oxford University Press and the of for Rattshistorisk 'Inversion. ' T h e Devil and the G e r m a n P e o p l e ' by in the Renaissance edited by Steven O z m e n t (Sixteenth Centurv University The Journal Publishers 1 9 8 9 ) . R e c o n s t r u c t i o n and W i t c h . r e p r i n t e d and the Decline W i t c h c r a f t ' b y O w e n D a v i e s f r o m Journal 30 ( 1 9 9 7 ) . Catholic W i t c h c r a f t ' . b y p e r m i s s i o n o f T a y l o r & F r a n c i s . I n c . E v e r y effort has b e e n m a d e t o obtain p e r m i s s i o n t o r e p r o d u c e c o p y r i g h t m a t e r i a l .Xii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS r e p r o d u c e d b y p e r m i s s i o n o f t h e Journal Scare. reproduced by per' B e t w e e n the Devil and the Inquisitor' by Gary K. Dipple (Ashgate Witchcraft by and Religion permission by Christina of Blackwell edited by 1 9 9 9 ) . and Reformation. copyright © Witchcraft 8 7 ( 1 9 8 0 ) . 1 2 0 — 4 0 . Reformation right © 1 9 9 4 by T h e Sixteenth Century Journal Publishers. p p .K a t k i n f r o m The edited by J a m e s T . copyright edited by Valerie Sinason ( R o u t l e d g e 1 9 9 4 ) . 2. ' c o p y r i g h t © Press. p p . B r o m l e y (Aldine D e Treating Survivors of Satanist W i t c h c r a f t ' b y S t u a r t C l a r k f r o m Past and Present. ' C o n f e s s i o n a l I d e n t i t y a n d M a g i c in t h e L a t e S i x t e e n t h b y E d m u n d K e r n f r o m The Sixteenth mission. 9 9 — 1 1 9 . b y p e r m i s s i o n o f History H . ' T h e C r i m e o f W i t c h c r a f t in E a r l y M o d e r n E u r o p e ' a n d 'Was Witch-Hunting Woman-Hunting?' from Larner (Blackwell 1984). c h . ' W i t c h c r a f t a n d P o w e r in E a r l v M o d e r n E n g l a n d ' b y M a l c o l m G a s k i l l f r o m Women. ' S t a t e . w e w o u l d i n v i t e h o l d e r s t o i n f o r m us o f t h e o v e r s i g h t . 2 2 . W a i t e f r o m Studies. Today. by permission o f Taylor & Francis. by permission o f Louise Jackson. J o e l Best and David G . and Culture Today. 9 8 . ch. ' W i t c h e s . E r i k M i d e l f o r t f r o m Religion 11 o f Sixteenth Century Essays and Studies. 45—78. ch. 2 5 ( 2 ) ( 1 9 9 4 ) . a n d t h e D e v i l ' f r o m Oedipus and the Devil 1 4 0 ( 1 9 9 3 ) . Packull and Geoffrey L. Inc. p p . p p . ' T h e Devil in R e n a i s s a n c e F r a n c e ' b y D a v i d N i c h o l l s f r o m History p p . N e w Y o r k . by permission o f T r u m a n State Sixteenth Century Journal. of Tavlor & Francis. ' W o m e n . pp. pp. 'Oedipus by Lyndal R o p e r ( R o u t l e d g e 1 9 9 4 ) . 30 (November 1980). I f a n y p r o p e r a c k n o w l e d g e m e n t has n o t b e e n m a d e . 'A Divine Apparition o r D e m o n i c Possession?' bv M o s h e Sluhovsky f r o m Sixteenth Century Journal Publishers. 2 7 ( 4 ) ( 1 9 9 6 ) . Power b y G a b o r K l a n i c z a y ( c o p y r i g h t © 1 9 9 0 P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s ) . J e n n y K e r m o d e and Garthine W a l k e r ( U C L Press 1 9 9 4 ) . 2 8 8 — 3 0 8 . ch. vol. p p . 6 . 1 9 9 6 by T h e 'Patriarchal in Early Witchcraft edited by Jonathan Barry. . 'The W i s h N o t to K n o w ' by Patrick Casement from Abuse. 2 5 — 3 0 . by permission o f T a y l o r & F r a n c i s . . ' O c c u l t Survivors: T h e Satanism M a k i n g o f a M y t h ' b y P h i l i p J e n k i n s a n d D a n i e l M a i e r . reproduced by permission. 8 . C .5 5 . 597—617. 'Protestant Witchcraft. by permission o f O x f o r d University Press. edited by J e n n y and K e r m o d e and Garthine W a l k e r ( U C L Press 1 9 9 4 ) .. ch. of Social 'Urbanization History. r e p r i n t e d f r o m Thinking Modern Europe in Early by Stuart Clark ( 1 9 9 7 ) by permission o f O x f o r d Century' Century Journal. 2 2 6 — 4 8 . by perwith Demons: The Idea of G r u y t e r 1 9 9 1 ) . pp. S t u a r t C l a r k 1 9 9 7 . reprinted by permission o f Pearson Education L t d . 1 0 3 9 . Crime and the Courts. Europe T r i a l s ' b y B r i a n L e v a c k f r o m The Witch Hunt in Early Modern ' T h e End of W i t c h (2nd edition copySupernatural of right © Longman G r o u p Ltd 1 9 9 5 ) . pp. Marianne Hester and G a r e t h R o b e r t s ( C a m b r i d g e U n i v e r s i t y Press 1 9 9 6 ) .H u n t i n g ' by Marianne H e s t e r f r o m Modern Europe: Studies in Culture and Belief. ' T h e D e c l i n e o f W i t c h e s a n d t h e R i s e o f V a m p i r e s ' f r o m The Uses of by permission of Princeton University Press.

p a g a n m o v e m e n t . W i t c h e s e n j o y a Witch Project. r a n g i n g f r o m learned t r e a individuals entirely a c c u s e d of t h e c r i m e . y o u w i l l n o r m a l l y find a d i s p a r a t e c o l l e c t i o n of p u b l i c a t i o n s under the heading of ' W i t c h c r a f t ' . t h e r e satanic magic to ballads recounting the activities was of that a l r e a d y a large m a r k e t f o r p u b l i c a t i o n s on the subject. a n d v i e w e d t h e p e r s e c u t i o n of w i t c h e s a s a t o k e n of a less e n l i g h t e n e d a g e . B y t h e e a r l y y e a r s of t h e . the t o p i c has e s t a b l i s h e d i t s e l f a s a g e n r e in its o w n r i g h t . i n c l u d i n g w o r k s by t h e n e o . In s o m e 1 i n s t a n c e s . S p i r i t ' d e p a r t m e n t of a n y l a r g e b o o k s h o p . t h e y p o p u l a t e i n n u m e r a b l e of W a l t D i s n e y t o The Blair and colourful sub-genre of p o p u l a r literature.General Introduction M OST P E O P L E I N T E R E S T E D in w i t c h c r a f t a r e f i r s t a t t r a c t e d t o t h e high films. t h a t b o o k s t h e s u b j e c t a r e c o m m o n l y d i s p l a y e d in a s e c t i o n of t h e i r o w n . f r o m the c a n o n Body and will s u b j e c t by s t o r i e s a n d i m a g e s f r o m p o p u l a r c u l t u r e . a c a d e m i c t e x t s . R a t h e r l i k e J a c k t h e Ripper. P o p u l a r t a l e s of w i t c h c r a f t c o n t i n u e d t o magical c i r c u l a t e in t h e e i g h t e e n t h a n d n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s . m o d e r n e d i t i o n s of m u c h o l d e r books like the Malleus Maleficarum. It is a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t . p r o f i l e in c h i l d r e n ' s b o o k s a n d T V . p e r h a p s . a n d i n d i c a t e s its f a s c i n a t i o n f o r a w i d e a u d i e n c e . c o m b i n i n g e l e m e n t s of h i s t o r y . the Kennedy a s s a s s i n a t i o n and the search f o r the H o l y G r a i l . and reprints of e c c e n t r i c but still popular reflects on p u b l i c a t i o n s l i k e M o n t a g u e S u m m e r s ' History of Witchcraft. This mixture t h e e x t r e m e l y d i v e r s e r a n g e of i n t e r e s t s t h a t c o n v e r g e on t h e s u b j e c t . a n d t h e y a r e t h e s u b j e c t of a n e c l e c t i c If y o u v i s i t t h e ' M i n d . T h e w i d e s p r e a d i n t e r e s t in w i t c h c r a f t is n o t h i n g n e w . A t t h e t i m e of t h e m o s t intense w i t c h tises on the persecutions problem of in t h e s i x t e e n t h a n d s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s . and religious speculation. m y t h . w h i l e a c a d e m i c w o r k s on t h e subject generally assumed a more sceptical tone. These texts attributed b e l i e f s t o t h e f o l l y a n d s u p e r s t i t i o n of t h e ' v u l g a r ' m a s s e s . d e m a n d w a s so g r e a t fictitious accounts were created. The texts displayed c o v e r a r a n g e of t o p i c s l o o s e l y r e l a t e d t o t h e h i s t o r y a n d p r a c t i c e of m a g i c .

Championed by t h e English Egyptologist Margaret Murray.u p t h i n g s . . T h i s n o t i o n is l i n k e d t o t h e t e n d e n c y t o a s s u m e t h a t m o s t w i t c h t r i a l s t o o k p l a c e in t h e Middle Ages. T h u s C a r l o G i n z b u r g a n d E v a P o c s a r g u e in t h i s b o o k t h a t t h e o r i g i n s of t h e s a b b a t c a n be f o u n d in f o l k b e l i e f s .p a g a n s a n d s e l f . b u t c a n be e x t e n d e d t o e x p l a i n d e t a i l s of t h e w i t c h e s ' s a b b a t . beyond w h a t I had already endured'.w e r e d e v e l o p e d by t h e m o s t e d u c a t e d m e n in E u r o p e a n s o c i e t y . 6 In t h i s i n s t a n c e . In 1 6 2 8 in the a n d a r e r e p r e s e n t e d in t h e v a r i o u s b o o k s t h a t c o m p e t e f o r t h e a t t e n t i o n of r e a d e r s m a y o r of B a m b u r g . extracts Muchembled and L a r n e r e m p h a s i s e t h e r o l e of t h e f a n t a s i e s of e d u c a t e d m e n from in v i e w s d e s c r i b e d a b o v e a r e . w h i c h w a s b r u t a l l y s u p p r e s s e d by t h e Christian church. It w i l l a l s o c o n s i d e r t h e p o p u l a r i m a g e of w i t c h c r a f t a s a n ' i r r a t i o n a l ' b e l i e f . in r e c e n t y e a r s . . when western society was somehow less r a t i o n a l t h a n it is t o d a y . a n d w e r e s o m e t i m e s in m o d i f i e d f o r m in t h e w o r k of h i s t o r i a n s like C a r l o implicated Gabor his in a c c u s a t i o n s of w i t c h c r a f t . 1 6 9 2 . h o w e v e r . A t h i r d c o m m o n a s s u m p t i o n is t h e b e l i e f t h a t w i t c h . enforced confession and death. ' I f I'd l i v e d in t h e A g e s t h e y ' d h a v e b u r n t m e a s a w i t c h ' .h u n t s w e r e p u r s u e d by r u t h l e s s a n d s a d i s t i c m e n w h o s t o p p e d a t n o t h i n g t o s e c u r e c o n v i c t i o n s f o r t h e c r i m e . a c c o r d i n g t o M . F o r m a n y s c h o l a r s . u n d o u b t e d l y . it is a l t o g e t h e r less s i m p l e t o d i s c o u n t t h e i d e a t h a t n o n . and recurs in d i f f e r e n t c o n t e x t s find t h e m o s t a p p r o p r i a t e p o s i t i o n b e t w e e n t h e s e t w o i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s is one of t h e u n d e r throughout t h i s b o o k . but the behaviours 7 In a v a r i a t i o n of t h i s i d e a . hysteria. F o r a l l t h i s I w a s f o r c e d t o s a y t h r o u g h f e a r of Pagan cults. J .C h r i s t i a n reli- g i o u s p r a c t i c e s e x i s t e d in t h e e a r l y m o d e r n p e r i o d . K e p h a r t . a n d s o m e of t h e m a r e s i m p l y u n t r u e . J o h a n n e s J u n i u s . 5 England named Gerard Nonetheless. t h e p o p u l a r i m a g e of t h e c r u e l w i t c h finder who imposed By the 1 9 5 0 s . A l l t h e s e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of w i t c h c r a f t d r a w n to the t o p i c . w h i c h w a s b a s e d l o o s e l y on t h e S a l e m w i t c h t r i a l s of have survived into the present age. In t h i s v e r s i o n . t h e w i l l i n g n e s s o f t h e a u t h o r i t i e s t o use t o r t u r e w a s s u f f i c i e n t t o e n s u r e a c o n v i c t i o n . t h e y t r y t o s t r i k e a b a l a n c e b e t w e e n t h e e v i d e n c e s u g g e s t i n g t h a t w i t c h t r i a l s r e f l e c t e d t h e r e a l a c t i v i t i e s a n d b e l i e f s of o r d i n a r y p e o p l e . 3 T h e p o p u l a r s t e r e o t y p e s of p a g a n c u l t s a n d e v i l w i t c h t h e best w a y t o e x p l a i n a l l e g a t i o n s of w i t c h c r a f t s i m p l i f i e d v e r s i o n s of p o s i t i o n s a v a i l a b l e t o a c a d e m i c h i s t o r i a n s . w h a t e v e r t h e o t h e r c i r c u m s t a n c e s of t h e c a s e . In o t h e r w o r d s . t h e y h a v e no h i s t o r ical or intellectual c o n n e c t i o n to the twentieth-century w i t c h c r a f t movement. s o m e f e m i n i s t w r i t e r s h a v e s t r e s s e d t h e f e m a l e .h u n t i n g ' w a s c o i n e d in A m e r i c a . T h i s a s p i r a t i o n is s u m m e d up n e a t l y in t h e t i t l e of a b o o k by V i v i a n n e C r o w l e y . 2 Gardner. 4 male-dominated in A n o t h e r t h e m e in p o p u l a r a c c o u n t s is t h e c r e d u l i t y a n d ' s u p e r - s t i t i o n ' of t h o s e m e n a n d w o m e n w h o a c c e p t e d t h e e x i s t e n c e of h a r m f u l m a g i c t h e p a s t . w i t c h p e r s e c u t i o n s w e r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e s u p p r e s s i o n of d e v i a n t g r o u p s by p o l i t i c a l e l i t e s . d e r i v e d p a r t l y f r o m the is t h a t w i t c h c r a f t w a s a p a g a n c u l t d r i v e n u n d e r g r o u n d by t h e the t o r t u r e w h i c h w a s threatened. T h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n w i l l e x p l o r e s o m e of t h e p r o b l e m s i n v o l v e d in g e t t i n g t h e b a l a n c e r i g h t . The led a g a i n s t a n y g r o u p o r p e r s o n w h o m a u t h o r i t i e s w a n t e d t o g e t r i d of f o r a n y r e a s o n ' . i n v o l v i n g t h e i d e a of s e c r e t a s s e m b l i e s of w i t c h p e r s e c u t i o n s . it w o u l d be w r o n g t o d i s m i s s t h e s e p o p u l a r assumptions e n t i r e l y . o b s e s s i o n s on t h e v i c t i m s of t o r t u r e r a i s e s p r o f o u n d q u e s t i o n s a b o u t t h e o r i g i n s of w i t c h t r i a l s . S o m e c o n f e s s i o n s w e r e e n t i r e l y f a l s e . R e l a t i v e l y f e w w i t c h t r i a l s o c c u r r e d in the M i d d l e A g e s . it a p p e a r s t h a t t h e y s o m e t i m e s i m p o s e d t h e i r o w n v i e w s of t h e c r i m e t h e c o u r s e of i n t e r r o g a t i o n s . T h e a t t e m p t t o l y i n g t h e m e s of w i t c h c r a f t research. U n s u r p r i s i n g l y .w o r s h i p p i n g c a n n i b a l s . d e c l a r i n g t h a t his c o n f e s s i o n t o t h e c r i m e w a s ' s h e e r lies a n d m a d e . On t h e o p p o s i t e e x t r e m e . t h e y d o e n c a p s u l a t e s o m e s e r i o u s issues in t h e h i s t o r y of w i t c h c r a f t . a l l e g a t i o n s of w i t c h c r a f t inevitably to torture. a m o r e r o m a n t i c v i e w of t h e s u b j e c t h a d e m e r g e d in s o m e q u a r ters. s m u g g l e d a t r a g i c l e t t e r t o his d a u g h t e r f r o m his c e l l in t h e t o w n ' s ' w i t c h p r i s o n ' . a n d t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t p r o s e c u t i o n s w e r e s i m p l y i m p o s e d by e l i t e g r o u p s . since the authorities were capable t h r o u g h t h e use of t o r t u r e alone? finders c a n be v i e w e d a s Did witch trials of securing depend convictions C h r i s t i a n a u t h o r i t i e s . in t h e g e n r e . t h i s c l a i m f e a t u r e s m o s t o f t e n in t h e w o r k of n e o . a n u m b e r of g e n e r a l t h e m e s occur frequently w o r k of Murray.e x i s t e n t t h r e a t of a w i t c h c u l t . E q u a l l y . T h e f a c t t h a t t h i s w a s p o s s i b l e p r e s e n t s h i s t o r i a n s w i t h s o m e a w k w a r d p r o b l e m s . There w a s nothing inherently i r r a t i o n a l about w i t c h c r a f t a n d t h e m o s t e x t r e m e of t h e s e b e l i e f s beliefs. a n d r e a c t e d ' h y s t e r i c a l l y ' t o t h e n o n . It w o u l d be t e m p t i n g a t t h i s p o i n t t o e x p l o d e t h e s e p o p u l a r c o n c e p t i o n s .p r o c l a i m e d ' w i t c h e s ' . T h e m a j o r i t y of h i s t o r i a n s o c c u p y g r o u n d s o m e w h e r e in b e t w e e n .2 GENERAL INTRODUCTION GENERAL INTRODUCTION 3 t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y . h e r e s y a n d s u n d r y d i s g u s t i n g None of the writers in t h i s collection go quite so f a r . Wicca: The Old Religion in the New Age (1989). B e f o r e c o n s i d e r i n g t h e s e issues in d e t a i l . when the phrase ' w i t c h . If a n y f e r t i l i t y c u l t s e x i s t e d in t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y . w h i c h w a s i n v e n t e d in t h e 1 9 5 0 s by a r e t i r e d c i v i l s e r v a n t f r o m Gardner. w h o w i s h t o t r a c e t h e l i n e a g e of t h e i r b e l i e f s b a c k t o t h e a n c i e n t w o r l d .c e n t r e d n a t u r e o f t h e ' o l d r e l i g i o n ' . One c o m m o n a s s u m p t i o n . the idea that w i t c h c r a f t w a s a n a n c i e n t f e r t i l i t y c u l t s u p p r e s s e d by t h e C h r i s t i a n c h u r c h a t t r a c t e d considerable publicity and some academic support. o v e r s i m p l i f i c a t i o n s of t h e h i s t o r y of w i t c h c r a f t . T h i s p r i n c i p l e is o f t e n used t o a c c o u n t f o r a l l e g a t i o n s of h a r m f u l m a g i c . T h e r e is no r e a s o n t o a s s u m e t h a t a n y c h a r g e s a g a i n s t w i t c h e s w e r e b a s e d o n f o l k t r a d i t i o n s . it is n e c e s s a r y t o D e v i l . and evil witch finders D e s p i t e t h e d i v e r s i t y o f p o p u l a r w r i t i n g o n w i t c h c r a f t . E v e n M u r r a y ' s i d e a of a p a g a n f e r t i l i t y c u l t h a s s u r v i v e d Ginzburg and Klaniczay. w h i c h h a s a t t r a c t e d t h e a t t e n t i o n of h i s t o r i a n s a n d p h i l o s o p h e r s p r o v i d e a b r i e f s u r v e y of w h a t is k n o w n a b o u t w i t c h p e r s e c u t i o n s in Europe. is t o a s s u m e t h a t s o m e of t h e p r a c t i c e s d e s c r i b e d by e a r l y m o d e r n d e m o n o l o g i s t s w e r e b a s e d o n r e a l a c t i v i t i e s o r a s p e c t s of f o l k r e l i g i o n . D e s p i t e t h e i r o b v i o u s s h o r t c o m i n g s . ' w h e n w e a l r e a d y k n o w t h a t it w a s p e r f e c t l y easy t o f a b r i c a t e a c c u s a t i o n s of s o r c e r y . W h i l e it is e a s y t o d i s c r e d i t t h e c l a i m s o f M u r r a y a n d . Is it n e c e s s a r y t o a s s u m e t h a t a n y t h i n g ' r e a l ' lay b e h i n d a l l e g a t i o n s of w i t c h c r a f t ? on popular support. Middle T h e s e i d e a s a r e c o m b i n e d in t h e c o m m o n E n g l i s h p h r a s e . s o m e h i s t o r i a n s h a v e a r g u e d t h a t all t h e e l e m e n t s in w i t c h c r a f t a c c u s a t i o n s s h o u l d be r e g a r d e d a s l e a r n e d f a n t a s i e s . T h i s v i e w w a s e x e m p l i f i e d in A r t h u r M i l l e r ' s play The Crucible. W h i l e t h o s e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p r o s e c u t i o n s w e r e n o r m a l l y s i n c e r e in t h e i r m o t i v e s .

t h e y m a y p e r f o r m w h a t e v e r e v i l d e e d s o r s o r c e r y t h e y w i s h a n d be t r a n s p o r t e d to or away f r o m wherever they wish . l i k e t h e principalities Germany. desecration and m u r d e r w a s generally confined to the higher of E u r o p e a n s o c i e t y . T h i s c a s e i n v o l v e d m a n y of t h e key e l e m e n t s f o u n d in l a t e r a l l e g a t i o n s of w i t c h c r a f t . t h e f e r o c i t y of s o m e w i t c h p a n i c s in C a t h o l i c France was matched of by events but in Presbyterian witch Scotland. Maillat. there were differences between social r i t e s w i t h a s m a l l g r o u p of a s s o c i a t e s . the c h r o n o l o g y lady. a n d i n s i s t e d t h a t t h e i r a b i l i t i e s d e r i v e d f r o m a p a c t w i t h t h e D e v i l . w h o a t p a r t i c u l a r l y savage panics. by a s i n g l e w o r d . In c o n t r a s t . she a d d e d n e w d e t a i l s t o t h i s s t a t e m e n t ' f r o m d a y t o d a y ' . a n d d e s e r v e s t o be q u o t e d a t l e n g t h : g r o u p s a b o u t t h e m e a n i n g of w i t c h c r a f t i t s e l f . w a s a c c u s e d of p r a c t i s i n g h a r m f u l magic and participating in Alice diabolical idea idea a n d t h e N e t h e r l a n d s s u f f e r e d r e l a t i v e l y f e w p e r s e c u t i o n s . he w a s a b l e t o p r e s e n t t h e ' p r i n c i p a l p o i n t s ' of h e r c o n f e s s i o n as f o l l o w s : New England. one of t h e l a s t w i t c h p a n i c s in t h e w e s t e r n w o r l d . T h e e a r l i e s t k n o w n p r o s e c u t i o n o c c u r r e d in K i l k e n n y in I r e l a n d in 1 3 2 4 .s c a l e u n t i l a s p e c t a c u l a r e r u p t i o n of p e r s e c u t i o n in 1 6 4 5 . . e x t e n d i n g t o F l a n d e r s a n d S c o t l a n d . m o s t o f t e n i n v o l v i n g d i s e a s e . rather than groups. Subsequently. The emphasis in t h e s e allegations was over- T h e y s a c r i f i c e t o d e m o n s . and m a k e w i t h t h e m a w r i t t e n a g r e e m e n t or a n o t h e r k i n d of p a c t t h r o u g h w h i c h . this t i m e e x t e n d i n g beyond G e r m a n y a n d F r a n c e to S w i t z e r l a n d a n d E n g l a n d . A n o t h e r o u t b r e a k o c c u r r e d t o w a r d s t h e e n d of t h e c e n t u r y . It is i m p o r t a n t t o n o t e t h a t t h e r e w e r e c o n s i d e r a b l e r e g i o n a l v a r i a t i o n s w i t h i n t h i s p a t t e r n .t r a i n e d l a w y e r s a n d c h u r c h m e n t e n d e d t o s t r e s s t h e s a t a n i c n a t u r e of t h e w i t c h ' s m a g i c . when a second e l e m e n t s to m e r g e t o g e t h e r . u n i v e r s i t y . r a t h e r t h a n t h e o r i g i n s of t h e i r p o w e r . t h a t she h a d l o n g s i n c e g i v e n h e r s e l f t o t h e D e v i l . c. a d o r e t h e m . D u r i n g t h e c o u r s e of a t r i a l . In 1 4 8 6 t h e s e i n g r e d i e n t s w e r e c o m b i n e d in t h e T h e p u b l i c a t i o n of t h e Malleus in F r a n c e and Germany. b u t i n c l u d e s m o s t of t h e o t h e r by t h e G e r m a n Maleficarum. t h o u g h s o m e of t h e m notably the of a p a c t w i t h t h e D e v i l .w e r e o n l y i m p l i e d in t h e s u r v i v i n g d o c u m e n t s . G e r m a n y Spain affairs suffered until in the last q u a r t e r of the seventeenth century. w i t c h t r i a l s declined The confession of Frangoise Secretain ideas. W h i l e w i t c h t r i a l s had ended . a n d o t h e r s a c r a m e n t s . T h e r e is s o m e e v i d e n c e t h a t f o l k t r a d i t i o n s l i n k e d maleficium the Devil. Not h o n o u r i n g the mysteries. p a r t i c u l a r l y in E n g l i s h w i t c h c r a f t a n d c a s e s i n v o l v i n g d e m o n i c s i o n . T h e s e v a r i a t i o n s h a v e t h w a r t e d m o s t a t t e m p t s t o E u r o p e a n w i t c h p e r s e c u t i o n s is n o w f a i r l y w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d . T h e y m a k e i m a g e s of w a x o r o t h e r m a t e r i a l s . E v e n t u a l l y . In t h e i r s o r c e r y t h e y a r e n o t a f r a i d t o use t h e m a t e r i a l s o f b a p t i s m . and E n g l i s h t r i a l s t e n d e d t o be s m a l l . b u t e v e n in t h e s e c a s e s . it w a s e a s y f o r t h e s e e s t e d in t h e s a t a n i c a s p e c t s of w i t c h c r a f t t h a n s i m p l e maleficium. regional variations. 1400-1750 T h a n k s to the w o r k of R i c h a r d K i e c k h e f e r and N o r m a n C o h n . u p o n w h i c h o u r s a v i o u r h a n g e d f o r us. they s o m e t i m e s inflict upon the representations a n d o t h e r s i g n s of t h e c r o s s v a r i o u s s h a m e f u l t h i n g s by e x e c r a b l e m e a n s . t h e y r e a c h e d t h e i r p e a k in impose a single-cause e x p l a n a t i o n f o r the t r a g e d y . J e a n B o d i n a n d K i n g J a m e s V I of S c o t l a n d . and the p r o b l e m it p r e s e n t s f o r t h e inter- T h e c o n f l a t i o n of t h e s e v a r i o u s p r e t a t i o n o f w i t c h c r a f t c o n f e s s i o n s . o c c u r r e d d u r i n g t h e f i r s t w a v e of m a j o r lasted until the early y e a r s of 1 5 6 0 . h o w e v e r . as d i d S c o t l a n d after 1 6 2 0 . p a r t i c u l a r l y w h e n the legal a u t h o r i t i e s w e r e m o r e inter- sixteenth century. T h e l a t e r f o u r t e e n t h c e n t u r y . t h e d e s t r u c t i o n of c r o p s o r d i s t u r b a n c e s in t h e w e a t h e r . P r o t e s t a n t states like Poland England a n d H u n g a r y in t h e s a m e p e r i o d . Prosecutions then declined until around w a v e of t r i a l s began. 8 w h e l m i n g l y o n t h e h a r m c a u s e d by t h e w i t c h . b u t t h e s a m e c a n be s a i d f o r C a t h o l i c I t a l y a n d S p a i n . idea that witchcraft was a collective enterprise involving nocturnal gatherings for Devil w o r s h i p . In c o n t r a s t . S o m e t i m e s t h e y m a k e a r e v e r s a l of t h e h o l y c r o s s . major panics also took peaceful regions like As well as these Scandinavia. t h e v i c t i m s o f w i t c h c r a f t w e r e f a r m o r e w i t h t h e e f f e c t s of maleficium P r i m a r y a l l e g a t i o n s also tended to focus on individuals with posses- concerned The ranks t h a n the supposed pact between S a t a n and the w i t c h . Intense place persecutions in relatively o c c u r r e d in r e g i o n s s u f f e r i n g s u s t a i n e d w a r f a r e in t h e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y . o r maleficium. t o u c h o r s i g n . T h i s i d e a p l a y e d a c e n t r a l r o l e in t h e w o r k s of l e a r n e d d e m o - This account lacks the i d e a of i n f a n t i c i d e a n d c a n n i b a l i s m t h a t f e a t u r e d promi- nologists like H e n r i Boguet. of in m u c h of E u r o p e by t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y . t h e e u c h a r i s t . seek o u t a n d a c c e p t r e s p o n s e s f r o m t h e m . T h i s e x p r e s s e d t h e c o n c e p t of w i t c h c r a f t m o r e f u l l y . . but w a s mostly absent f r o m the a l l e g a t i o n s brought by European villagers against their n e i g h b o u r s . A f t e r a p e r i o d of r e s p i t e in t h e e a r l y 1 6 0 0 s . a F r e n c h w o m a n c o n v i c t e d in 1 5 9 8 . S e c o n d . she w a s i m p r i s o n e d f o r t h r e e d a y s b e f o r e m a k i n g h e r initial a d m i s s i o n of g u i l t . A l l t h o s e w h o a c k n o w l e d g e d t h e e x i s t e n c e of w i t c h e s a c c e p t e d t h e i r a b i l i t y t o p e r f o r m h a r m f u l m a g i c .4 GENERAL INTRODUCTION GENERAL INTRODUCTION 5 European witch trials. S u b s e q u e n t l y . A l l e g a t i o n s o f t h i s k i n d m a d e up t h e b u l k o f t h e a c c u s a t i o n s l e v e l l e d by o r d i n a r y people against suspected witches. t h a t she h a d w i s h e d five d e v i l s o n L o y s e t h a t t i m e h a d t h e l i k e n e s s of a b i g b l a c k man. t h e N e t h e r l a n d s a n d t h r o u g h o u t the w h o l e period. w h e n a n a r i s t o c r a t i c K y t e l e r . was F i r s t . witch panics inquisitors Heinrich K r a m e r and J a c o b which Sprenger ingredients Malleus the of t h e R e n a i s s a n c e c o n c e p t of w i t c h c r a f t . a n d r e s u r f a c e d in 1 4 3 7 in a l e t t e r f r o m Pope of a s e c r e t s o c i e t y of D e v i l w o r s h i p p e r s a p p e a r s t o h a v e d e v e l o p e d s l o w l y in t h e Eugenius I V ' t o a l l i n q u i s i t o r s of h e r e t i c a l d e p r a v i t y ' . do h o m a g e to t h e m . In 1 6 9 2 t h e f a m o u s e p i s o d e in S a l e m . w h i c h by t h e i r i n v o c a t i o n s t h e y b a p t i s e o r c a u s e t o be b a p t i s e d . T h e r e w e r e r e l a t i v e l y f e w t r i a l s in I t a l y . disparate n e n t l y in l a t e r d e s c r i p t i o n s of t h e c r i m e . A c c o r d i n g t o H e n r i B o g u e t ' s a c c o u n t of h e r i n t e r r o g a t i o n . E q u a l l y . c a n be i l l u s t r a t e d by t h e t e s t i m o n y of F r a n g o i s e S e c r e t a i n . a f i n a l w a v e of s e v e r e p e r s e c u t i o n s b e g a n a r o u n d 1 6 2 0 a n d c o n t i n u e d in m u c h of E u r o p e n u m b e r a n d i n t e n s i t y .

C o h n ' s a r g u m e n t s have achieved general acceptance since t h e m i d . there are the death of Did a witch cult exist? In Margaret Murray's original formulation. F i f t h . it is n o w t i m e t o c o n s i d e r some of the elements t h a t c o n t r i b u t e d to E u r o p e a n w i t c h persecutions. Even the lurid detail that his s e m e n was cold reflected the relationship between the accused w o m a n and the Devil owed m u c h to learned stereotheological since he assumption that Satan's earthly b o d y w a s c o m p o s e d of l i f e l e s s m a t t e r . A f t e r a g r o u p o f y o u n g w o m e n c o n f e s s e d t o a t t e n d i n g a s a b b a t in . T h e i m a g e of S a t a n a s ' a b i g b l a c k m a n ' . In t h i s p a r t i c u l a r c a s e . T h i s i n t e r pretation Demons is n o w u n s u s t a i n a b l e . find strikingly. f o w l . w h e n t h e o l d g o d s w e r e c o n d e m n e d as d e m o n s a n d t h e i r w o r s h i p p e r s w e r e r e d e f i n e d a s w i t c h e s . it a p p e a r s t h a t t h e w o r d s of h e r t e s t i m o n y w e r e not s i m p l y i m p o s e d on h e r by t h e a u t h o r i t i e s . M o r e o v e r . A s L o u i s e J a c k s o n p o i n t s o u t in C h a p t e r 2 6 . A s Norman C o h n p o i n t e d o u t in Europe's Inner ( 1 9 7 5 ) . T h u s t h e c o n f e s s i o n c o m b i n e d i d e a s f r o m l e a r n e d d e m o n o l o g y w i t h m o r e w i d e l y h e l d c o n c e p t s of maleficium. p a r t i a l l y a s s i m i l a t e d by t h e m e d i a e v a l c h u r c h . the 'witch cult' in of suppressed in the the been a g a i n s t n a m e d i n d i v i d u a l s . a n d m u c h of c o n t e m p o r a r y Europe. t h e types.6 GENERAL INTRODUCTION GENERAL INTRODUCTION 7 T h i r d . In t h i s c a s e . A p a r t f r o m the allegations dissenting themselves such g r o u p s s i n c e a n t i q u i t y . in This process a l l o w e d suspects to weave their own fantasies and beliefs into the that t h e f o r m s o m e t i m e s o f a d o g . a n d t h a t she d i d so by t o u c h i n g t h e m w i t h h e r h a n d o r w i t h a w a n d w h i l e s a y i n g c e r t a i n words. a c t s o f maleficium allegations poisoning against a woman Secretain. G e r m a n y a n d E n g l a n d . she c l a i m e d t o h a v e a t t e n d e d t h e s a b b a t a n d i n d u l g e d in s e x w i t h t h e D e v i l . it a p p e a r s S e c r e t a i n m i x e d d e t a i l s f r o m l o c a l f o l k l o r e i n t o h e r s t o r y . s o m e t i m e s of a c a t . W h e n t h e s e c o n f e s s i o n s a r e r e a d in f u l l . 9 o u t l i n e n a r r a t i v e p r o v i d e d by o f f i c i a l s o f t h e c o u r t s . 1 1 a n d o c c a s i o n a l c o n f e s s i o n s e x t r a c t e d by f o r c e - t h e r e is no e v i d e n c e t h a t p o s s e s s e d no p h y s i c a l b o d y of his o w n . W h i l e w e c a n d o no m o r e like the confessions discussed by Roper s p e c u l a t e on t h e s u r v i v i n g e v i d e n c e . in C h a p t e r 6 . searched f o r it. G u s t a v H e n n i n g s e n ' s w o r k o n A l f o n s o S a l a z a r . of m e a n i n g a p p e a r t o be p r e s e n t in B o g u e t ' s d o c u m e n t . It is i m p o s s i b l e t o k n o w f o r c e r t a i n t h e o r i g i n of t h e s e b i z a r r e d i s c l o s u r e s . but possession w a s closely associated w i t h w i t c h c r a f t f e r t i l i t y of harvests. a n d h a d b e a t e n w a t e r t o cause hail. this would certainly preoccupation w h i c h she e d i t e d s e l e c t i v e l y t o c r e a t e t h e i m p r e s s i o n t h a t t h e y d e s c r i b e d r e a l e v e n t s . S e v e n t h . M u r r a y ' s evidence was drawn entirely f r o m witchcraft confessions flying at in t h e f o l k l o r e F r a n c e . C o h n o b s e r v e d t h a t a l l e g a t i o n s s i m i l a r to those m a d e a g a i n s t w i t c h e s had been levelled at erings involving cannibalism and m u r d e r . w h i c h p r o b a b l y c o n s t i t u t e d the initial of c a u s i n g to death and sending devils i n t o t h e b o d y of a y o u n g sixteenth century was a folk gods' which religion practised widely Europe to ensure and S e c o n d . a n d s o m e t i m e s o f a F o u r t h . T h e a l l e g a t i o n s of p o i s o n i n g a n d k i l l i n g l i v e s t o c k w e r e c o m m o n in c a s e s of s u s p e c t e d b e w i t c h m e n t in s i x t e e n t h . whose parents s u s p e c t e d p o s s e s s i o n w h e n she w a s s t r u c k by a m y s t e r i o u s s i c k n e s s . meetings ever t o o k place. t h a t she h a d c o u n t l e s s t i m e s been t o t h e s a b b a t a n d a s s e m b l y of w i t c h e s n e a r t h e v i l l a g e of C o y r i e r e s in a p l a c e c a l l e d C o m b e s by t h e w a t e r . a n d h a v e been r e i n f o r c e d by m u c h n e w r e s e a r c h . a c o n f e s s i o n t e x t is ' a p a l i m p s e s t m a d e of d i f f e r e n t l a y e r s of d e t a i l a n d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . If t h e y w e r e reflect introduced Boguet's in t h e c o u r s e of own Secretain's with the sexual interrogation. T h i s c o m b i n a t i o n of d i v e r s e t y p i c a l of w i t c h t r i a l s in t h e e a r l y m o d e r n p e r i o d . it is p o s s i b l e t h a t S e c r e t a i n ' s f a n t a s y folkthan and derived M a l c o l m G a s k i l l in C h a p t e r s 2 4 a n d 2 5 . S i m i l a r l y . B o g u e t r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e first allegation against Secretain came f r o m 8-year-old Loyse M a i l l a t . a n i n q u i s i t o r in t h e B a s q u e has s h o w n t h a t c o n t e m p o r a r i e s unable to p h y s i c a l e v i d e n c e of a l l e g e d s a b b a t s w h e n t h e y c a r e f u l l y W h i l e m a n y aspects of S e c r e t a i n ' s final c o n f e s s i o n were p r o b a b l y added to the i n i t i a l c l a i m s of maleficium.c e n t u r y F r a n c e . region were 1610. it b e c o m e s o b v i o u s t h a t t h e y a r e n o t s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d a c c o u n t s of a c t u a l h a p p e n i n g s .1 9 7 0 s . even t h o u g h t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e m w a s d e e p l y u n e q u a l . that she and Groz-Jacques Bocquet had caused Loys had M o n n e r e t t o d i e by m a k i n g h e r e a t a p i e c e of b r e a d w h i c h t h e y d u s t e d w i t h a p o w d e r g i v e n t o t h e m by t h e D e v i l . w h i c h he d e s c r i b e d a t l e n g t h e l s e w h e r e in h i s t e x t . Sixth. t h a t she h a d c a u s e d s e v e r a l c o w s t o d i e . She was accused 1 0 A t least t w o layers specific cattle. T h e r e l a t i v e t o l e r a n c e o f t h e a u t h o r i t i e s t o w a r d s t h i s p r a c t i c e e n d e d in t h e late M i d d l e A g e s . girl. t h a t the Devil h a d f o u r or five t i m e s k n o w n her c a r n a l l y . a n d t h a t his s e m e n w a s v e r y c o l d . M o s t of Spain in t h e e a r l y s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y . w h e n C h r i s t i a n s t h e m s e l v e s w e r e a c c u s e d of n o c t u r n a l g a t h 1 2 s u b j e c t . o r a s a d o g o r c a t . First. T h e t h e m e t o e x p l o r e is t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t w i t c h b e l i e f s w e r e i n s p i r e d by s o m e k i n d of real cultic activity. M e n a n d w o m e n w o u l d g a t h e r at s a c r e d sites to offer devotion to 'ancient had s u r v i v e d the advent Christianity. a n d m a k e s e a c h a p p e a l i n g t o d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l a c t o r s in t h e d r a m a o f a p r o s e c u t i o n it e v e n h a r d e r in t e r m s of a s i n g l e c a u s e t h a t s h a p e d t h e b e h a v i o u r e x p l a i n the p h e n o m e n o n a l l t h e g r o u p s i n v o l v e d . t h a t a t t h e s a b b a t she h a d d a n c e d . The more* of c l a i m that S e c r e t a i n was responsible for a d e m o n i c possession was a little unusual. t h e r e f e r e n c e s t o t h e s a b b a t w e r e p r o b a b l y n o t p a r t of t h e o r i g i n a l allegations. w a s r e m i n i s c e n t of p o p u l a r t a l e s a b o u t t h e D e v i l . L y n d a l R o p e r a r g u e s in C h a p t e r 2 4 t h a t w i t c h c r a f t c o n f e s s i o n s c o u l d i n v o l v e a p r o c e s s of n e g o t i a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e a c c u s e d a n d h e r q u e s t i o n e r s . W i t h t h i s n o t e of c a u t i o n in m i n d . a d d e d one o n t o p of a n o t h e r as d i f f e r e n t p e o p l e b e c a m e i n v o l v e d in t h e p r o c e s s of a c c u s a t i o n a n d c o n f e s s i o n ' . and possibly beliefs was to of first i n c o r p o r a t e d m o r e p e r s o n a l e l e m e n t s a s w e l l . a n d t h a t she w e n t t h e r e o n a w h i t e s t a f f w h i c h she p l a c e d b e t w e e n her legs. c o m p l e t e w i t h d e t a i l s of w i t c h e s n i g h t a n d t r a n s f o r m i n g t h e m s e l v e s i n t o a n i m a l s . T h e t e n d e n c y of w i t c h e s t o c r a f t s t o r i e s o f d e m o n i c e n c o u n t e r s f r o m l o r e is n o t e d by D a v i d G e n t i l c o r e from some event in h e r o w n life. In c o n t r a s t t o t h e s e a c t s of m a l i c i o u s m a g i c .

we w i t h b u n d l e s of f e n n e l a n d t h e y w i t h s o r g h u m stalks. a t n i g h t . H i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n b e c o m e s m o r e c o n t r o v e r s i a l . T h i s l a s t e d f o r t w o o r three hours until the c o c k c r o w e d . then. h e l p i n g t h e m t o c u r e d i s e a s e s a n d l o c a t e h i d d e n t r e a s u r e . w i t h t h e o u t c o m e of t h i s c o m b a t the fate torture.t o m e e t w i t h a s s e m b l i e s of e v i l s p i r i t s t h e y d e s c r i b e d as w i t c h e s . a r m e d w i t h t h e b u n c h e s of f e n n e l m e n t i o n e d in t h e d e p o s i t i o n . w h o s e m e m b e r s p e r c e i v e d t h e m s e l v e s a n d t h e i r n o c t u r n a l f o e s in v e r y d i f f e r e n t t e r m s f r o m t h o s e u n d e r s t o o d by t h e m e n r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e i r p r o s e c u t i o n . a n d t h e w i t c h e s [ g o f o r t h ] in t h e n a m e of t h e Devil. and travelled with . G i n z b u r g ' s w o r k reveals t h a t a f e r t i l i t y cult did exist. t h e benandante y e a r . A s a d u l t s . B o g u e t . t h o u g h c r e d e n c e w a s g i v e n t o t h i s i d e a in t h e r e g i o n ' s d e m o n o l o g i c a l 1 8 A s well as these i n t r i g u i n g details. r e p u d i a t e d t h e i d e a t h a t ' f o r t h e m o s t p a r t it is o n l y in s p i r i t t h a t w i t c h e s g o t o t h e s a b b a t ' . w h o o f t e n a p p e a r in E n g l a n d in 1 4 9 9 . S u p p o r t Klaniczay. G u s t a v 2 1 h a s i d e n t i f i e d s i m i l a r b e l i e f s in t h e c o n f e s s i o n s o f w i t c h e s in t h a t c o u n t r y . of t h e w e a t h e r . l i s h e d in S i c i l y d u r i n g t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y . T h e s e r e l a t e d t o a l o c a l c u l t k n o w n as t h e benandante. Gabor fight to death w i t h the c o n f e s s i o n t h a t they have been t r a n s p o r t e d w i t h the f a i r i e s such a hill.a t t e n d i n g w i t c h e s . G i n z b u r g h a s r e c o n s t r u c t e d t h e s y s t e m of t h e benandante. and a n d it is q u i t e p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e y o r i g i n a t e d in p o p u l a r c u l t u r e . d e s p i t e t h e f a c t t h a t t h e y h a d no p l a c e in t h e l e a r n e d s t e r e o t y p e o f t h e w i t c h . b u t c o u l d n o t w a k e n h e r .t h e ' e m b e r d a y s ' in D e c e m b e r . He o n l y e x p l a i n s u c h c l a i m s by a s s u m i n g t h e y w e r e s a t a n i c d e l u s i o n s . seventeenth c e n t u r y . a m o r e s u b t l e a n d p e r s u a s i v e v e r s i o n of t h e t h e o r y h a s been d e v e l o p e d by o t h e r h i s t o r i a n s . H e r e . G i n z b u r g ' s thesis receives i n d i r e c t support f r o m a n o t h e r b o d y of e v i d e n c e . M o r e o v e r . of t h e next harvest. fairies'. J a m e s V I n o t e d t h a t ' s u n d r y w i t c h e s h a v e g o n e could other estabhumble Hungarian historian. or a m n i o t i c sacs. details None of t h e s e t e s t i m o n i e s consistent were obtained of and their were remarkably over a period deciding through several R e p o r t s t h a t t h e s p i r i t s o f w i t c h e s left t h e i r b o d i e s a t little literature. A n e a r l y e x a m p l e of f a i r y b e l i e f s w a s p r e s e r v e d in t h e r e g i s t e r o f t h e a r c h d e a c o n ' s c o u r t of N o r w i c h for consorting with spirits they described Three m e m b e r s of t h e C l e r k f a m i l y f r o m S u f f o l k w e r e c o n v i c t e d of ' h e r e t i c a l as ' g r a c i o u s Marion depravity' creatures to d e c a d e s . These to h a v e f o u n d t h e m i n c o m p r e h e n s i b l e . h o w e v e r . r e f e r e n c e s t o f a i r i e s o c c u r q u i t e f r e q u e n t l y in c o n n e c t i o n t o w i t c h c r a f t c a s e s . w h e n he t r i e s t o e x t e n d t h i s m o d e l t o o t h e r a r e a s of Europe. His argument is p r e s e n t e d in C h a p t e r 8 . he d e m o n s t r a t e s t h a t t h e benandante w e r e g r a d u a l l y r e d e f i n e d by t h e i n q u i s i t i o n as s a b b a t . we fight 1 4 each other. . a n d w h e n he a s k e d h e r w h a t w a s a m i s s . w h o s e w o r k is b a s e d l a r g e l y o n t h e F r i u l i r e g i o n of n o r t h e r n I t a l y . . d e s p i t e his c o n v i c t i o n t h a t they were merely d e l u s i o n s . a s e r i e s of e x t r a o r d i n a r y t e s t i m o n i e s w e r e r e c o r d e d t h e r e by t h e R o m a n I n q u i s i t i o n . n i g h t w e r e a l s o r e c o r d e d in G e r m a n y in t h e late s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y . It a p p e a r s t h a t G i n z b u r g h a s u n c o v e r e d a n a g r a r i a n c u l t r e l a t e d t o w i t c h c r a f t . o r taltos. w i t h o u t e v e n b r e a t h i n g . L i k e t h e b e l i e f t h a t w i t c h e s c o u l d t r a v e l a t n i g h t in s p i r i t f o r m .8 GENERAL INTRODUCTION GENERAL INTRODUCTION 9 Salazar conducted an exhaustive investigation of t h e i r supposed 1 3 activities. and there s a w a f a i r q u e e n ' . 2 0 1 9 Clerk through the air Fairies continued to figure in E n g l i s h w i t c h t r i a l s u n t i l t h e to In S c o t l a n d . 1 7 M e m b e r s h i p of t h e g r o u p w a s d e t e r m i n e d a t b i r t h . On t h e b a s i s of t h i s r i c h b o d y of m a t e r i a l . H e p r o v i d e d a n o t h e r e x a m p l e o f t h e b e l i e f . I g o i n v i s i b l y in s p i r i t a n d t h e b o d y r e m a i n s b e h i n d . the most and were generally On t h e Henningsen has s h o w n t h a t f a i r y beliefs were w e l l e v i d e n c e c o m e s f r o m d e t a i l s in w i t c h c r a f t c o n f e s s i o n s t h a t c o n t r a d i c t e d t h e a s s u m p t i o n s of d e m o n o l o g i s t s . s a y i n g a m o n g other t h i n g s t h a t w h e n t h e y w e r e in bed t o g e t h e r o n e T h u r s d a y n i g h t he n o t i c e d t h a t his w i f e w a s a b s o l u t e l y s t i l l . s i d e of E u r o p e . t h a t is d u r i n g t h e e m b e r d a y s . w e g o f o r t h in t h e s e r v i c e of C h r i s t . it is u n l i k e l y t h a t these details were i m p o s e d by l a w y e r s o r t h e o l o g i a n s . A g a i n . still intact around t h e i r b o d i e s . t h e r e w a s a m a n of O r g e l e t w h o b r o u g h t his w i f e t o t h i s p l a c e a n d a c c u s e d h e r of b e i n g a w i t c h . w h e r e u p o n he b e g a n t o s h a k e her. T h e p r i n c i p a l a r c h i t e c t of t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n is C a r l o G i n z b u r g . F r o m 1 5 8 0 o n w a r d s . one of its m e m b e r s : w h o s e b e l i e f s w e r e d e s c r i b e d as f o l l o w s by S o m e l i t t l e t i m e a g o . beliefJ a m e s V I of S c o t l a n d n o t e d v e r y s i m i l a r c l a i m s in 1 5 9 7 . a n d then his wife suddenly awoke.c a l l e d ' f a i r y c u l t s ' in e a r l y m o d e r n E u r o p e . they w e n t in. w h e n t r a v e l l e d in s p i r i t o n c e r t a i n n i g h t s of t h e certain individuals were born with their 'cauls'. w h o m she h a d t h r e a t e n e d . had a l r e a d y h a d s o m e s u s p i c i o n of h e r b e c a u s e t h e c a t t l e of s o m e of t h e i r 1 6 I a m a benandante because I go w i t h the others to fight four times a y e a r . In t h i s t r a v e l l e d in s p i r i t t o r i v a l taltos for control compelling F o r those s y m p a t h e t i c to G i n z b u r g ' s case. Agrarian cults and fairies W h i l e M u r r a y ' s c o n c e p t of a w i t c h c u l t c a n be s a f e l y d i s g a r d e d . f o r he n e i g h b o u r s . whose m e m b e r s believed they were conveyed through the a i r to attend joyful gatherings w i t h fairies. a n d its a c t i v i t i e s p r o v o k e d a c c u s a t i o n s of w i t c h c r a f t f r o m t h e a u t h o r i t i e s . a n d t h i s n e w d e f i n i t i o n of t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s w a s e v e n t u a l l y a c c e p t e d by t h e c o m m u n i t i e s in w h i c h t h e y l i v e d . m e n a n d w o m e n f r o m b a c k g r o u n d s were organised into ' c o m p a n i e s ' . w h i c h o p e n i n g . f o r e x a m p l e . A t a regional level. she a n s w e r e d t h a t she w a s so t i r e d f r o m t h e w o r k she h a d d o n e t h e d a y b e f o r e t h a t she w a s w e i g h e d d o w n w i t h s l e e p a n d f e l t n o t h i n g of w h a t h e r h u s b a n d h a d d o n e t o h e r . d e s p i t e t h e f a c t t h a t one of t h e w i t c h e s a c c u s e d a l o n g s i d e Frangoise S e c r e t a i n c l a i m e d it w a s ' q u i t e p o s s i b l e ' t o d o s o . T h e m a n t h e n s u p p o s e d t h a t she h a d been t o t h e s a b b a t . a s w e l l as t r a n s p o r t i n g Canterbury cathedral. c u l t m e m b e r s . r e j e c t e d by e d u c t a t e d w r i t e r s on t h e s u b j e c t . 1 5 p e r f o r m e d v a r i o u s f e a t s on t h e f a m i l y ' s b e h a l f . for who G i n z b u r g ' s thesis has c o m e f r o m the v e r s i o n . w h i c h s u g g e s t s t h a t it w a s a c c e p t e d in F r e n c h f o l k l o r e in t h e l a t e s i x t e e n t h century: c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e y c o u l d be r e g a r d e d o n l y as d e l u s i o n s . T h i s r e l a t e s t o s o . It is d i f f i c u l t t o see h o w t h e s e d e t a i l s c o u l d h a v e been i m p o s e d f r o m a b o v e . T h e i r p u r p o s e w a s t o fight t h e w i t c h e s . h a d been d y i n g .

a n d it o f f e r e d a n e x p l a n a t i o n . as S t u a r t Clark argues M a n y e l e m e n t s of t h e s a b b a t c o u l d h a v e d e r i v e d f r o m t h e f a n t a s y of a n ' a n t i . w h i c h s u f f e r e d m o r e i n t e n s e p e r s e c u t i o n s . t h i s in i t s e l f c o u l d n o t e x p l a i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of a w i t c h p a n i c . and why popular beliefs were demonised at this p a r t i c u l a r time. a l l e g i n g 2 4 g u i l t . w h o f o u n d it e a s y t o a t t r i b u t e t o w i t c h e s i n t e n t o n destroying o b j e c t i o n c a n be m a d e t o o t h e r a t t e m p t s t o e x p l a i n w i t c h t r i a l s in t e r m s of p o p u l a r b e l i e f s . t h e C a t h o l i c B o g u e t e m p h a s i s e d t h e d e s e c r a t i o n of t h e m a s s in t h e s a b b a t . her parents began to suspect bewitchfor m e n t a n d t o o k h e r t o a p r i e s t . one a r g u e s t h a t t h e p e r s e c u t i o n s w e r e c a u s e d by f e a r s of maleficium a m o n g the European p o p u l a t i o n .10 GENERAL INTRODUCTION GENERAL INTRODUCTION 11 t h e c r e a t u r e s a s t h e y p e r f o r m e d g o o d d e e d s in t h e h o m e s of t h e i r n e i g h b o u r s . however. in c o n t r a s t . w h i c h m u c h o f t h e s u r v i v i n g e v i d e n c e . Second. l i k e t h e p r a c t i c e of and infanticide. during persecution learned beliefs. In t h e e a r l y 1 9 7 0 s . w h i c h s e e m e d t o r e s e m b l e a d e m o n i c v e r s i o n of a Scots Protestant service. d o w n t o s p e c i f i c d e t a i l s of c o n f e s s i o n a l p r a c t i c e . B u t in c o m m o n w i t h m o s t o t h e r a c c u s a t i o n s o f h a r m f u l m a g i c . t h e b e l i e f t h a t t h e o f w i t c h c r a f t .h a s been a d v a n c e d m o s t p e r s u a s i v e l y by t h e G e r m a n h i s t o r i a n W o l f g a n g B e h r i n g e r . T h i s w e a t h e r p a t t e r n w a s c o r r e c t l y p e r c e i v e d as a b n o r m a l by c o n t e m p o r a r i e s . h e r y o u n g d a u g h t e r L o y s e w a s a f f l i c t e d w i t h a s t r a n g e illness t h a t w e a k e n e d her l i m b s a n d t w i s t e d her m o u t h 'in a very s t r a n g e m a n n e r ' . T h e n e x t m o r n i n g . some serious weaknesses in t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . M o r e o v e r . a l t e r n a t i v e s o u r c e f o r t h e m y t h of t h e s a b b a t . it w o u l d be n e c e s s a r y t o s h o w fifteenth that these fears increased f r o m the late century onwards. 2 6 a n d F r a n c e . were occasionally attributed to entirely unrelated William p r e s e n t in m e d i a e v a l d e s c r i p t i o n s of h e r e t i c s . t h e r e is a d a n g e r t h a t h i s t o r i a n s c a n t a k e f r a g m e n t s f r o m p o p u l a r t r a d i t i o n a n d from them a composite belief-system critics that of never existed have as a whole. the e c o n o m i c changes e x p e r i e n c e d in E n g l a n d w e r e n o t m i r r o r e d in o t h e r c o u n t r i e s . p r i n c i p a l l y t h e g r o w t h in p o p u l a t i o n a n d t h e of c a p i t a l i s m . its p r i n c i p a l w e a k n e s s is t h a t it is less a p p l i c a b l e t o l a r g e . It w a s d u r i n g t h e g i r l ' s e x o r c i s m t h a t she n a m e d S e c r e t a i n a s t h e p e r s o n r e s p o n s i b l e her s u f f e r i n g . t h e e v e n t s l e a d i n g t o h e r a p p r e h e n s i o n b e g a n w h e n she v i s i t e d t h e h o u s e of H u m b e r t e a n d C l a u d e M a i l l a t t o a s k f o r o v e r n i g h t l o d g i n g s . l i k e S c o t l a n d .l e v e l c a s e s In t h i s p a r t i c u l a r i n s t a n c e . w h i c h c o u l d e a s i l y be t r a n s f e r r e d t o t h e p e r s o n w h o h a d been t u r n e d In M a c f a r l a n e ' s v i e w . social t w o m a j o r f u n c t i o n s f o r t h e p e o p l e i n v o l v e d : it p r o v i d e d a n o u t l e t f o r a n g e r in a f o r a m i s f o r t u n e t h a t w a s o t h e r w i s e h a r d t o u n d e r s t a n d . t h a t a b l a c k t u r n i p a n d urine w e r e o f f e r e d as the body a n d b l o o d of C h r i s t . a n d in S c o t l a n d and central E u r o p e d u r i n g the seventeenth century. were a r g u e d t h a t the c o n c e p t of w i t c h c r a f t c o u l d h a v e a r i s e n w i t h o u t a n y r e f e r e n c e t o p o p u l a r N o r m a n C o h n s h o w s in C h a p t e r 2 t h a t t h e m a j o r i n g r e d i e n t s of t h e s a b b a t t h e i d e a s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e w i t c h e s ' g a t h e r i n g . 2 5 beginnings provision with T h e s e i m a g i n a r y r e v e r s a l s of a c c e p t e d b e h a v i o u r p r o v i d e a p l a u s i b l e .s o c i e t y ' w h i c h in C h a p t e r The view that w i t c h t r i a l s were a response to increased social tensions t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y is m o s t c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h E n g l i s h r e s e a r c h . t h e n r e l e n t e d in t h e T h e r o l e of f a i r y beliefs notion in E u r o p e a n w i t c h c r a f t is a s u b j e c t t h a t a w a i t s f u l l e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n . Ideas Scotland f a c e of h e r v i s i t o r ' s p e r s i s t e n c e . w h i c h c a u s e d c r o p f a i l u r e s a c r o s s m u c h of E u r o p e u n t i l t h e m i d d l e y e a r s of t h e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y .w h i c h w e r e n o t a c c o m p a n i e d by a n a d e q u a t e s y s t e m of 2 7 V I . it a p p e a r s t h a t t h e c a s e of F r a n g o i s e S e c r e t a i n s i t u a t i o n o f s o c i a l c o n f l i c t . w h o c o n f i r m e d t h e d i a g n o s i s of p o s s e s s i o n . t h e s t u d i e s of K e i t h T h o m a s a n d A l a n M a c f a r l a n e s u g g e s t e d t h a t a c c u s a tions typically occurred when a relatively wealthy neighbour. or that the authorities prosecutions were imposed 'from were prepared to take t h e m more seriously for some reason. T h e s e t h e m e s of to explain witchcraft ' f r o m below'.s c a l e w i t c h p a n i c s s u c h a s t h o s e in E a s t A n g l i a in 1 6 4 5 . 2 2 Social and political contexts It is i n s t r u c t i v e a t t h i s p o i n t t o r e t u r n t o t h e c a s e o f F r a n g o i s e S e c r e t a i n . s i m i l a r t o t h o s e h e l d by t h e I t a l i a n benandante c a n be f o u n d in G e r m a n y . F i r s t of a l l . In C h a p t e r 4. it a p p e a r s t h a t t h e k i n d of f u l l y d e v e l o p e d b e l i e f . Thus unnatural inverted 1 1 . a n d p o s s i b l y a served remedy. A c c o r d i n g t o B o g u e t ' s a c c o u n t . It w o u l d be n e c e s s a r y t o e x p l a i n w h y o f f i c i a l a t t i t u d e s c h a n g e d f r o m i n d i f f e r e n c e t o erance. b u t t h e r e is l i t t l e e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e y w e r e i n t e g r a t e d i n t o a c o h e r e n t b o d y of r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s . These points relate to t h e m u c h w i d e r q u e s t i o n of w h e t h e r w i t c h c r a f t to that question. Such a p p r o a c h can ignore the specific c u l t u r a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s of w i t c h e s occurred. b u t it is p o s s i b l e t h a t such p o p u l a r ideas p r o v i d e d the r a w m a t e r i a l f r o m w h i c h the learned of a w i t c h c u l t w a s f o r m e d . t h e c o n v e n t i o n s of o f f i c i a l r e l i g i o n . T h e o t h e r k i n d of e x p l a n a t i o n f o r w i t c h t r i a l s ' f r o m b e l o w ' . It is Thus James G o u g e a s s e r t e d in 1 6 2 6 t h a t A m e r i c a n t r i b e s m e n ' e x c e l l e d in 2 3 c o n f l i c t a n d t h e e x p l a n a t i o n of s u f f e r i n g h a v e p l a y e d a p r o m i n e n t r o l e in a t t e m p t s cruelty. A t a m o r e b a s i c l e v e l . t h e t e n s i o n s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i n e q u a l i t y w e r e c r e a t e d by e c o n o m i c t r a n s i t i o n s f o r t h o s e w h o lost o u t . T h e s e e v e n t s w e r e r e i n t e r p r e t e d by t h e i n q u i s i t i o n as s a b b a t s . f o r e x a m p l e .s y s t e m s t h a t c o u l d h a v e i n s p i r e d t h e i d e a of t h e s a b b a t w e r e c o n f i n e d t o a r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l a r e a of E u r o p e . Ginzburg in w h i c h t h e infer an T h e d y n a m i c s o f t h i s s t o r y w e r e f a i r l y t y p i c a l of v i l l a g e . A s R i c h a r d M u c h e m b l e d p o i n t s o u t in C h a p t e r 1 0 . c l a i m e d t h a t a b l a s p h e m o u s p a r o d y o f a s e r m o n w a s t h e c e n t r e p i e c e of t h e w i t c h e s ' a s s e m b l y . If. A T h e s t r e n g t h of t h i s a p p r o a c h is t h a t it p r o v i d e s a p l a u is c o n s i s t e n t s i b l e a c c o u n t of t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s of l o c a l a c c u s a t i o n s . s o m e of Devil-worship groups. W i t h h e r husband away. villager felt obliged to refuse of away. Even if s u c h c u l t s e x i s t e d in Renaissance intolsimilar E u r o p e . largely c h a r i t y t o a less f o r t u n a t e One c o n s e q u e n c e of t h i s w a s a f e e l i n g s t r i k i n g t h a t s c h o l a r l y a c c o u n t s of w i t c h c r a f t tended to reverse t h e i r a u t h o r s ' most c h e r i s h e d r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s . g i r l w a s p o s s e s s e d w i t h d e m o n s e n c o u r a g e d a n a l l e g a t i o n of w i t c h c r a f t .b a s e d o n t h e n e e d of e a r l y m o d e r n s o c i e t i e s t o m a k e sense of n a t u r a l c a l a m i t i e s . In t h e e a r l y m o d e r n p e r i o d . W e c a n n o w t u r n . There are. a b o v e ' o r s h o u l d be r e g a r d e d a s a r e s p o n s e t o p o p u l a r c o n c e r n s . Humberte first r e f u s e d a n d a s k e d h e r t o l e a v e . A d i s p u t e b e t w e e n t w o w o m e n w a s f o l l o w e d by t h e i l l n e s s of a c h i l d . s u b s e q u e n t l y a s c r i b e d t o maleficium. sacrificing their children and offering t h e m to d e v i l s ' . B e h r i n g e r p o i n t s o u t t h a t t h e m o s t s a v a g e p e r i o d o f w i t c h p e r s e c u t i o n s f r o m 1 5 6 0 c o i n c i d e d w i t h t h e c l i m a t i c p h e n o m e n o n k n o w n as t h e ' l i t t l e ice a g e ' . S o m e days later. s i n c e t h e c o n d i t i o n w a s o f t e n a t t r i b u t e d t o w i t c h e s . it is p r o b l e m a t i c t o a r g u e t h a t t h e e x i s t e n c e of f e r t i l i t y cults gave rise to w i t c h p e r s e c u t i o n s .

F o r a start. 2 8 p r e s e n t e d a s a v i n d i c a t i o n of his f a i t h a n d a t a c i t e n d o r s e m e n t of his e c c l e s i a s t i c a l 3 2 T h e p o l i t i c s of r e l i g i o u s d i v i s i o n n o t o n l y a f f e c t e d t h e p o l i t i c a l e l i t e s of e a r l y modern E u r o p e . T h e l e a r n e d c o n c e p t of a s a t a n i c ' a n t i . of c o u r s e . i n d u c e w i t c h p e r s e c u t i o n s . t h e n o t i o n of t h e s a b b a t a c h i e v e d p r o m i n e n c e f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e d u r i n g t h e E a s t A n g l i a n t r i a l s of 1 6 4 5 . L y n d a l p o w e r of t h e Roman church. In t h e l a t t e r c a s e . t h e d e n u n c i a t i o n of f o l k m a g i c a s d i a b o l i s m . as h a p p e n e d in s i x t e e n t h - c e n t u r y B a v a r i a a n d T r i e r . w h o s h o u l d s t r i k e a g a i n s t t h e m ' w i t h c o n f i d e n c e . One r e s u l t of t h e s p l i t in t h e m e d i a e v a l political d e n o m i n a t i o n a l f a c t i o n a g a i n s t a n o t h e r . w h i c h o c c u r r e d in a g r e a t v a r i e t y of d i f f e r e n t c o n t e x t s : t h e r e d e f i n i t i o n of a g h o s t a s t h e D e v i l in 1 5 6 0 s F r a n c e ( C h a p t e r 1 9 ) . b o t h C a t h o l i c a n d P r o t e s t a n t . 3 1 the of and was Nicholas in w h i c h Remy explained. e d u c a t e d Europeans were allegations c o n t i n u e d t o be m a d e in E n g l a n d t h r o u g h o u t t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y . of maleficium a n d it a p p e a r s t h a t s i m i l a r b e l i e f s p e r s i s t e d in m u c h of m a i n l a n d witch beliefs were flourishing In t h e s a m e p e r i o d .p r o f i l e d i s p o s s e s s i o n s w e r e a p o w e r f u l t o o l of c o n f e s s i o n a l p r o p a g a n d a in F r a n c e . A s Behringer of a c k n o w l e d g e s .12 GENERAL INTRODUCTION GENERAL INTRODUCTION 13 w h o l e c o m m u n i t i e s . f a i r i e s a n d s a i n t s . Moshe Sluhovsky R o p e r has s h o w n 19 B e h r i n g e r ' s w o r k s h o w s t h e m a j o r r o l e p l a y e d by p o p u l a r c o n c e r n s in s o m e w i t c h p e r s e c u t i o n s . sion was often frequently English b i s h o p s . religion. T h e p o p u l a r c l a m o u r f o r a c t i o n caused the p o l i t i c a l elites of central Europe to move against those b e l i e v e d t o be r e s p o n s i b l e . d e s p i t e M a r t i n L u t h e r ' s f i r m b e l i e f in t h e e x i s t e n c e of w i t c h e s a n d his i n s i s t e n c e on S a t a n ' s great earthly p o w e r . maleficium as a p r o b l e m . large-scale witch-hunts o f t e n o c c u r r e d w h e n t h e l e a r n e d c o n c e p t of c o l l e c t i v e w i t c h c r a f t w a s i n v o l v e d . 3 4 in p a r t s of D e n m a r k a n d S p a i n a s late a s t h e 1 9 6 0 s . b u t it s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e r e s p o n s e of e l i t e g r o u p s t o s u c h a n x i e t i e s h e l p e d t o d e t e r m i n e t h e e x t e n t a n d s e v e r i t y of p a n i c s . Indeed. one m a j o r f a c t o r t h a t e n c o u r a g e d b e l i e f c o n s p i r a c y w a s t h e d i v i s i o n of E u r o p e i n t o C a t h o l i c a n d P r o t e s t a n t f a c t i o n s . d o c t r i n e s of P r o t e s t a n t i s m d i d n o t . D u r i n g a v i s i t t o t h e p o s s e s s e d c o n v e n t of L o u d o n in 1 6 3 4 . Furthermore. t r a d i t i o n a l b e l i e f s a b o u t g h o s t s . Europe. ^interorthodox were If t h e y c o u l d n o t be incorporated within the f r a m e w o r k of t h e o f f i c i a l of R a t h e r .including some by c a s t i n g o u t d e v i l s ' . Kern remarks in C h a p t e r 1 3 . where at least t w o e x e c u t i o n s . in w h i c h t h i s i d e a c a m e t o be T h e r e l e v a n c e of t h e s e p r o p a g a n d a b a t t l e s w a s t h a t p o s s e s to w i t c h c r a f t in p o p u l a r belief. s i n c e t h e i d e a of a w i t c h c u l t e n c o u r a g e d t h e c o u r t s t o p u r s u e t h e a l l e g e d of c o n v i c t e d w i t c h e s . it a p p e a r s t h a t m a j o r p a n i c s e n d e d w h e n local authorities ceased to regard witchcraft satanic witchcraft. conflict between C a t h o l i c s and P r o t e s t a n t s recast E u r o p e a n p o l i t i c s a s a c r u s a d e b e t w e e n t h e f o r c e s of G o d a n d H i s e n e m i e s . w e r e s u b j e c t e d t o pretation. or a p p e a r e d to threaten the a u t h o r i t y i n d i r e c t c o n s e q u e n c e s of r e l i g i o u s d i v i s i o n . who claimed that papists and their 'secret friends' . w h e r e t h e V I f r o m a p l o t t o d e s t r o y h i m by w i t c h c r a f t d e l i v e r a n c e of J a m e s policies. in t h e m s e l v e s . t h a t p o p u l a r a n x i e t i e s Lauderdale w a s a s k e d by a p r i e s t if t h e p o w e r of t h e J e s u i t e x o r c i s t s c o u l d p e r s u a d e h i m t o 3 5 P u r i t a n e x o r c i s t s in E n g l a n d w e r e c a u g h t in a t w o . B o g u e t t o l d t h e s t o r y of a H u g u e n o t g e n t l e m a n w h o s e s o n w a s p o s s e s s e d by a d e m o n b u t f o u n d t h a t his l o c a l p a s t o r ' h a d no p o w e r against d e v i l s ' . h o w e v e r . attributed a t t e n d e d by a l l e g a t i o n s France and England.s o c i e t y ' w a s p a r t i c u l a r l y i m p o r t a n t h e r e . By the same token. t h e D u k e of convert to C a t h o l i c i s m . H e ' s e c r e t l y s e n t f o r a C a t h o l i c p r i e s t . t h e c o n d e m n a t i o n of t h e benandante ( C h a p t e r 8 ) . In one i n s t a n c e . T h i s w a s t h e c a s e Germany. increasingly reluctant to a c c e p t t h e r e a l i t y of s a t a n i c w i t c h c r a f t . k n o w i n g he T h e s a m e a r g u m e n t w a s a d v a n c e d in P r o t e s t a n t S c o t l a n d . T h i s w a s t h e c a s e in D e n m a r k a n d E n g l a n d u n t i l t h e 1 6 4 0 s . D a r r e l ' s a c t i v i t i e s led t o a s e r i e s of w i t c h t r i a l s The effects of religious division in a satanic The A n o t h e r c o n s e q u e n c e of t h e R e f o r m a t i o n w a s t h e a t t e m p t by l o c a l e l i t e s . b u t a l s o h e l p e d s h a p e t h e b e h a v i o u r of Protestant and Catholic c l e r g y . the first wave panics commenced some eighty years earlier. B r o a d l y s p e a k i n g . t o i m p o s e C h r i s t i a n b e l i e f s on t h e p o p u l a t i o n a t l a r g e . Regions where this concept was absent f r o m confederates learned witch these developments c a m p a i g n s against satanic w i t c h c r a f t could c o n f i r m their agents a s t h e c h a m p i o n s of t r u e r e l i g i o n . T h i s i m p r e s s i o n is s u p p o r t e d by t h e p a t t e r n of d e c l i n e in p r o s e c u t i o n s f r o m a r o u n d 1 6 8 0 . In t h e c o n t e x t of c h u r c h . h o w e v e r . w h i c h f e a r e d t h a t s u c c e s s f u l d i s p o s s e s s i o n s c o u l d b o l s t e r t h e a u t h o r i t y of n o n c o n f o r m i n g m i n i s t e r s . about about p r o s e c u t i o n s e n d e d e a r l i e r in r e g i o n s l i k e S p a i n w h e r e e l i t e s w e r e s c e p t i c a l T h i s d o e s n o t m e a n . A s Edmund Europe'. T h i s i n c r e a s e d t h e p o l i t i c a l i m p o r t a n c e of m a i n t a i n i n g r e l i g i o u s o r t h o d o x y . a n d t h e p o l i t i c a l t h r e a t p o s e d by r e l i g i o u s d i s s e n t . t h e h a r d s h i p s i n d u c e d by t h e ' l i t t l e ice a g e ' c a n n o t p r o v i d e a complete explanation for Europe's witch trials. A s Catholic demonologist is p u r s u i n g a v o c a t i o n defender'. T h i s w a s e v i d e n t in c a s e s of d e m o n i c p o s s e s s i o n . they r e a d i l y e x p l a i n e d in t e r m s of d e m o n i c a c t i v i t y . witches had a special hatred he w i l l always have G o d a s his c h a m p i o n in 1 5 9 1 t h e p i o u s m a g i s t r a t e . Similarly. T h i s c o n f l i c t w a s e p i t o m i s e d in t h e 1 5 9 0 s by t h e e x o r c i s t J o h n Darrel. this entailed an a t t a c k on folk ideas and p r a c t i c e s a s p a r t of ' a n o v e r a l l m i s s i o n a r y e f f o r t t o r e f o r m t h e c o m m o n p e o p l e of 3 7 F r o m t h e 1 5 2 0 s o n w a r d s . a n d it is n e c e s s a r y to consider the p o l i t i c a l and religious c i r c u m s t a n c e s a c c e p t e d by a s e c t i o n of E u r o p e ' s g o v e r n i n g c l a s s . t h e v e r y e x i s t e n c e of w i t c h e s w a s s o m e t i m e s v i e w e d a s a h e l l i s h e n d o r s e m e n t of t h e a u t h o r i t y of r u l i n g g r o u p s . w h o used t h e a c c u s t o m e d e x o r c i s m s of t h e R o m a n c h u r c h w i t h s u c h s i n c e r i t y t h a t t h e p o s s e s s e d w a s s o o n d e l i v e r e d ' . w h i c h c o n s t i t u t e d by f a r t h e l a r g e s t w i t c h p e r s e c u t i o n in While England.w a y c o n f l i c t b e t w e e n t h e i r C a t h o l i c r i v a l s a n d t h e h i e r a r c h y of t h e e s t a b l i s h e d c h u r c h . I n d e e d . b e l i e f s e x p e r i e n c e d r e l a t i v e l y f e w t r i a l s . A t the same time.' d o w h a t t h e y c a n [ s o ] t h a t t h e t r u e c h u r c h of C h r i s t m a y n o t h a v e c r e d i t 3 6 c o u l d n o t s o m e t i m e s p r o v o k e j u d i c i a l a c t i o n . A t t h e level of r u r a l c o m m u n i t i e s . 2 9 t h a t G e r m a n J e s u i t s in t h e l a t e r s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y used e x o r c i s m s t o v a l i d a t e t h e 3 3 n o t e s in C h a p t e r t h a t h i g h . and exorcisms in were and of t h e c r i m e . d e s p i t e t h e e f f e c t s of c l i m a t i c c h a n g e . t h e i m p o r t a n c e of t h e R e f o r m a t i o n lay in t h e m a n y elites across E u r o p e were forced to identify with one a n d p o p u l a r e x p r e s s i o n s of p i e t y l i k e p r o p h e t i c v i s i o n s . church was that 3 0 A s p a r t of t h i s p r o c e s s . S e v e r a l of t h e c o n t r i b u t o r s t o t h i s b o o k d e s c r i b e t h i s p r o c e s s . a n d t h e c o u r t s in m o s t c o u n t r i e s c e a s e d t o r e c o g n i s e it as a c r i m e . it is h a r d t o see h o w t r i a l s c o u l d h a v e s p r e a d w i t h o u t t h e a c t i v e s u p p o r t of r u l i n g e l i t e s .

as p r o s t i t u t e s . A s a r e s u l t . however. A f e w days later. attractive in s u c h c a s e s h a d a s o u n d E u r o p e a n w i t c h t r i a l s . a n d t h e h e a l t h of l i v e s t o c k a n d c r o p s .f e a r i n g m a s t e r . In t h e c o n t e x t of t h e s e w i d e r c o n c e r n s .14 GENERAL INTRODUCTION GENERAL INTRODUCTION 15 in s i x t e e n t h . this m e d i c a t i o n a r o u s e d the s u s p i c i o n of the boy's G o d . s h o u l d be t r e a t e d w i t h g r e a t s u s p i c i o n ' . f o r e x a m p l e . s i n c e t h e s t a b i l i t y of h o u s e h o l d s w a s v i e w e d as e s s e n t i a l t o t h e w e l f a r e of s o c i e t y a s a w h o l e . in t h e e a r l y s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y . concerning Mr Gibs. s i c k n e s s f r e q u e n t l y a r i s e s f r o m a w e a k e n i n g of t h e i m m u n e s y s t e m . It is a l s o r e l e v a n t . in w h i c h p a r e n t s development family trends have 4 0 t i a l l y as a t h e o r y of c a u s a t i o n . On o t h e r o c c a s i o n s . f e l l i l l . w h i c h t u r n e d o u t t o be a p a p e r inscribed w i t h m a g i c a l w o r d s . a n d m e a n t t h a t g o o d p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s w e r e e s s e n ill health and f r i c t i o n w a s a c k n o w l e d g e d by t h e E n g l i s h p h y s i c i a n . S u c h e v e n t s w e r e s y m p t o m s of a g e n e r a l c l i m a t e of a n x i e t y a b o u t t h e D e v i l ' s p o w e r in t h e w o r l d . w h i c h r e p r e s e n t e d a n a t t a c k on t h e f a m i l y . o r e v e n a d o m i n a n t one. J o a n Fellow. m a y w e l l h a v e r e f l e c t e d t h e r e a l o r i g i n of t h e v i c t i m ' s s y m p t o m s in t h e i r relationship with another person. m a n y c h a r g e s of w i t c h c r a f t strained R e f o r m a t i o n . s u c h as t h e w e a t h e r . and increased parts regulation Germany. which occurred assume com- s p o r a d i c a l l y in e a r l y m o d e r n G e r m a n y a n d F r a n c e . a n d a l l o w e d t h o s e w h o m some c o n t r o l over the s i t u a t i o n . as well as Similar accom- France England. In t h i s r e s p e c t . C r a b ' s master and parents began to suspect w i t c h c r a f t . s u c h as p r o s t i t u t e s . O n c e it w a s e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t G i b s w a s a ' c u n n i n g m a n ' r a t h e r than a legitimate physician. T h i s was been paralleled identified by o f f i c i a l in o t h e r intolerance of towards perceived threats 3 9 m u n i t i e s w h o s e l i v e l i h o o d s d e p e n d e d l a r g e l y on f o r c e s b e y o n d h u m a n c o n t r o l . p h y s i c a l i l l n e s s . a n d t h e s o c i a l a n d e n v i r o n m e n t a l c h a n g e s t h a t e n c o u r a g e d f e a r s of maleficium in s o m e p a r t s of E u r o p e : a l l c o n t r i b u t e d t o w i t c h p e r s e c u t i o n s in t h e . since those lacking this quality o f t e n p e r i s h in i n f a n c y . A s a r e s u l t . u n m a r r i e d m o t h e r s a n d w o m e n a c c u s e d of While the impact of religious division offers an infanticide. w h i l e w h o l e . maleficium i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of it a p p e a r s t h a t w i t c h c r a f t f u n c t i o n e d e s s e n Maillat an T h e d e s i r e of P r o t e s t a n t s a n d C a t h o l i c s t o r e f o r m p o p u l a r r e l i g i o n w a s a c c o m p a n i e d by a n x i e t i e s a b o u t s e x u a l c o n d u c t . A s C h r i s t i n a L a r n e r p o i n t s o u t in C h a p t e r 15. of an who a s i x t e e n t h a n d s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s . he n o t e d t h a t one of his p a t i e n t s . W h a t e v e r t h e l o c a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s of w i t c h p e r s e c u t i o n s . W h e n a l o c a l a p p r e n t i c e n a m e d N a t h a n C r a b w a s a f f l i c t e d w i t h e p i l e p s y . was afflicted with acute insomnia and 'light-headedness'. Lyndal assumed to and R o p e r h a s c h r o n i c l e d t h e r i s e of ' t h e h o l y h o u s e h o l d ' .f e a r i n g ' b e h a v i o u r w i t h i n the f a m i l y . the various consequences of the s a m e c i r c u m s t a n c e s p r e v a i l e d in p r e . and s o m e t i m e s provided the basis f o r w i t c h c r a f t a l l e g a t i o n s .c e n t u r y A u s t r i a ( C h a p t e r 1 3 ) . a n d t h e a t t a c k o n w i t c h e s m i g h t be v i e w e d a s a n a d j u n c t t o t h e p r o s e c u t i o n of o t h e r f e m a l e e n e m i e s of t h e ' h o l y h o u s e h o l d ' . an how as a t h e s e v a r i o u s f a c t o r s i n t e r a c t e d in p a r t i c u l a r r e g i o n s a t p a r t i c u l a r m o m e n t s . T h e t e n d e n c y t o a t t r i b u t e m i s f o r t u n e t o o n e ' s n e i g h b o u r s w a s a l s o e n c o u r a g e d by a s o c i a l e n v i r o n m e n t in w h i c h m o s t p e o p l e w o r k e d a n d l i v e d in e x t e n d e d h o u s e h o l d s comprising profound social f a m i l y members. w h i c h c a n be t r i g g e r e d by s t r e s s f u l s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s . t h e y a c c u s e d t h e h e a l e r o f maleficium when the boy's fits returned. 3 8 The rational basis for witch beliefs A t t h e level of v i l l a g e c o m m u n i t i e s . They supplied an e x p l a n a t i o n it a f f e c t e d t o in r u r a l f o r a n o t h e r w i s e a r b i t r a r y event. p e r h a p s . T h e l a s t section modern o u t b r e a k o f w i t c h c r a f t in E x e t e r . One s u c h i n s t a n c e w a s r e c o r d e d in 1 6 8 8 w h e n a g r o u p devout Protestants w r o t e to the English divine. A s B r i g g s p o i n t s o u t . a n d t h e also provided o p p o r t u n i t y t o r e l i e v e t h e i r c h i l d ' s s u f f e r i n g by a c t i n g a g a i n s t h e r . S u c h m e c h a n i s m s were i m p o r t a n t n e w r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s f o r t h e r e l i g i o u s e d u c a t i o n of t h e i r c h i l d r e n a n d s e r v a n t s . h o w e v e r . the desire t o e n f o r c e s e x u a l m o r a l i t y r e f l e c t e d t h e need t o m a i n t a i n s o c i a l o r d e r in a t i m e of p o l i t i c a l a n d r e l i g i o u s c h a n g e . his p a r e n t s t o o k h i m f o r t r e a t m e n t to one g a v e h i m ' a b a g t o h a n g a b o u t his n e c k ' w i t h instructions to remove it a f t e r of t h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n w i l l c o n s i d e r t h e s o c i a l c o n t e x t in w h i c h t h i s b e l i e f o p e r a t e d . M e d i c a l s t u d i e s s u g g e s t t h a t m a n y a d u l t s l i v i n g in t r a d i t i o n a l A f r i c a n societies have a high natural resistance to disease. T h e c h a l l e n g e t o h i s t o r i a n s is t o e x p l a i n resisting the t e m p t a t i o n to impose a single theory to e x p l a i n the tragedy of t h e e x i s t e n c e of h a r m f u l magic. explanation for 'any various physical s y m p t o m s to bad feelings between f a m i l y m e m b e r s or n e i g h b o u r s . N a p i e r It is r e a s o n a b l e t o a s s u m e t h a t s u c h e x p e r i e n c e s w e r e c o m m o n it is p l a u s i b l e t o a r g u e t h a t t h e d i a g n o s i s of maleficium attributed 4 3 E u r o p e a n s . it is h e l p f u l t o r e m e m b e r Robin Briggs' warning that m e d i c a l b a s i s . w h o b e l i e v e d t h a t it m i g h t be a c h a r m . it is e a s y t o see h o w t h e i d e a of s a t a n i c w i t c h c r a f t . this trend was p a n i e d by a rise in p r o s e c u t i o n s f o r ' s e c r e t c r i m e s ' l i k e i n f a n t i c i d e . In p a r t . In s i x t e e n t h . Richard Baxter. this. encouraged new s t a n d a r d s of ' G o d . a n d t h e s u p p r e s s i o n of ' v i s i o n a r y ' w o m e n in I t a l y ( C h a p t e r 6 ) . in e a r l y c o m m u n i t i e s . week. Such a r r a n g e m e n t s created a tial to emotional and physical wellbeing. t h a t w o m e n w e r e t h e p r i n c i p a l t a r g e t s of c u l t u r e . The link between life. adding that 'her m o t h e r in l a w h a t h used h e r v e r y u n k i n d l y ' . 4 4 a t t e m p t t o s u g g e s t t h a t t h e r e is a s i n g l e c a u s e . a l l e g a t i o n s of w i t c h c r a f t p l a y e d a s i m i l a r r o l e t o t h e less c o m m o n p r a c t i c e of p r o s ecuting animals for crimes against people and their 4 2 property. w h i c h m e a n t t h a t h o u s e holds became the focus for religious devotion. of m a r r i a g e . a n d in s o m e c a s e s t h e y led d i r e c t l y t o a c c u s a t i o n s of w i t c h c r a f t . modern Equally. d i s o r d e r l y w o m e n w e r e p e r c e i v e d as such t h e m a i n d a n g e r t o f a m i l y l i f e . W h e n t h e d a u g h t e r of H u m b e r t e a n d C l a u d e Frangoise S e c r e t a i n as t h e p e r s o n r e s p o n s i b l e w a s one of t h e p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n s a v a i l a b l e t o t h e m . 4 1 If t h e The learned fantasy of the sabbat. a h i d d e n key t o t h e m y s t e r y . in t u r n . H e m a d e t h e b o y r e m o v e t h e b a g so he c o u l d i n s p e c t its c o n t e n t s .w h i c h i n v o l v e d a s e c r e t c u l t d e v o t e d t o s e x u a l i t y a n d t h e m u r d e r of i n f a n t s w i t c h p e r s e c u t i o n s . In a p a t r i a r c h a l was able to gain support a m o n g illicit educated sense of i n t e r d e p e n d e n c y .i n d u s t r i a l E u r o p e . t h e m o s t p l a u s i b l e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of w i t c h c r a f t i n v o l v e t h e i n t e r a c t i o n of n u m e r o u s causes. servants or apprentices. In 1 6 3 4 . M o r e g e n e r a l l y . a n d m a k e a c a s e f o r t h e e s s e n t i a l r a t i o n a l i t y of s u c h t h i n k i n g in t h e e a r l y period.c e n t u r y Augsburg. R i c h a r d N a p i e r . t h e y a l l depended on the general a c c e p t a n c e t h a t is w i d e l y r e g a r d e d a s u n t e n a b l e idea in w e s t e r n s o c i e t i e s t o d a y . t h i s a r o s e f r o m t h e a b o l i t i o n of m o n a s t i c i s m a n d p r i e s t l y c e l i b a c y in P r o t e s t a n t r e g i o n s .

p e r p e t u a t i n g b o d y of l i t e r a t u r e . S i n c e t h e late 1 9 6 0 s . P o p u l a r magic. A n o t h e r a r e a o f e x p e r i e n c e of ' s l e e p p a r a l y s i s ' and sometimes to attributed immobilised. t h e Europe. it is m o r e d i f f i c u l t p e r h a p s t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e less c o m m o n b u t i m p o r t a n t i d e a of a c l a n d e s t i n e . s i n c e t h e g e n u i n e n e s s of its c l a s s i c a l s o u r c e s w a s b e y o n d q u e s t i o n . w i t h the of Christ. the Holy Trinity. charms 5 1 c o u l d be r e v e r s e d t o c r e a t e h a r m f u l s p e l l s . A f t e r a l l . . the three kings. the verses f r o m the pracVirgin New tices with f a m i l i a r and unfamiliar words. s o c i a l p r a c t i c e m a k e s it e n t i r e l y u n d e r s t a n d a b l e t h a t m e n a n d w o m e n the acts. . 4 7 A s late as 1 8 7 1 . c e r t a i n angels. it w a s m u c h h a r d e r f o r a c a d e m i c s t o p r o v e t h e e x i s t e n c e of t h e c r i m e .w o r s h i p p i n g c u l t . w h i c h e n c o u r a g e d e x a c t l y t h e k i n d of c o n f e s s i o n s t h a t c o u l d be f e d b a c k m a n or w o m a n begins. W h y . t h e r e w a s no e m p i r i c a l e v i d e n c e t o s u p p o r t t h i s b e l i e f . incantation. the twelve apostles. w i t h o u t e m p l o y i n g some p a r t i c u l a r blessing. . a n d t h e e f f o r t s of e x o r c i s t s t o r e l i e v e t h e s y m p t o m s of s c h i z o p h r e n i c s psychiatrists 4 5 S i m i l a r p r a c t i c e s w e r e r e c o r d e d in F r a n c e . d i d t h e c o n c e p t of a w i t c h c u l t s e e m so c r e d i b l e t o e d u c a t e d E u r o p e a n s ? In p a r t . 5 4 T h e f e a r o f maleficium many parts of b e c o m e s s t i l l e a s i e r t o u n d e r s t a n d w h e n it is p l a c e d in from wide1594 beliefs and practices were t h e c o n t e x t of p o p u l a r r e l i g i o n a s a w h o l e . m u c h of t h e e v i d e n c e f o r s a t a n i c w i t c h c r a f t w a s d e r i v e d f r o m s c r i p t u r e a n d t h e w r i t i n g s of t h e c h u r c h f a t h e r s . . s u c h a s s c h i z o p h r e n i a a n d syndromes today. a n d c a r r i e d at least as m u c h w e i g h t as e m p i r i c a l witches. spell. t o r m e n t e d in h e r s l e e p ' by a w i t c h ' s f a m i l i a r had sent s p i r i t s to a t t a c k h i m at n i g h t . m a k e s it l i k e l y t h a t maleficium In 1 5 6 6 . to m a k e things better or w o r s e ' . was linked to in w h i c h w a s sleep d i s t u r b a n c e . t h e n . names. r e s e a r c h E u r o p e has shown that m a g i c a l spread a m o n g the peasant p o p u l a t i o n . . These c i t a t i o n s were g e n e r a l l y r e g a r d e d as a u t h o r i t a t i v e . 4 6 in his b e d o n e n i g h t . . o r w h o a c t u a l l y t h o u g h t t h a t t h e y p r a c t i s e d t h e a r t of b l a c k o r w h i t e w i t c h c r a f t ' . whatever 5 3 suffer hallucinations readily maleficium. A s Roy P o r t e r has noted.r e f e r e n t i a l a n d s e l f . n u m e r o u s saints. the w o u n d s his s e v e n w o r d s on t h e c r o s s [and] T e s t a m e n t . T h i s p o i n t is e s p e c i a l l y d e p r e s s i o n . s i n c e a c c o u n t s of t r i a l s w e r e d e m o n o l o g i e s t h a t w e r e s u b s e q u e n t l y used by t h o s e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r c o n d u c t i n g f u r t h e r p r o s e c u t i o n s . a n d w e r e p r o b a b l y t y p i c a l of p o p u l a r c u l t u r e a c r o s s w e s t e r n g o o d a n d b a d p u r p o s e s .16 GENERAL INTRODUCTION GENERAL INTRODUCTION 17 The idea of w i t c h c r a f t c o u l d also e x p l a i n m e n t a l a n d p h y s i c a l e x p e r i e n c e s t h a t w e r e o t h e r w i s e v e r y h a r d t o d e f i n e o r c o m p r e h e n d . especially n a m e s of M a r y . Likewise. These are spoken secretly or openly. It a l s o h e l p e d t o c o n s o l i d a t e t h e m y t h of a s a t a n i c c u l t . O n c e t h e c i t a t i o n of c l a s s i c a l s o u r c e s w a s no l o n g e r r e g a r d e d a s s u f f i c e n t e v i d e n c e . E n g l a n d a n d S p a i n . successful e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r these sometimes appear to have been as effective as those of relevant t o c o n d i t i o n s l a t e r d e f i n e d as p s y c h o l o g i c a l ' d i s o r d e r s ' . . T h e s y n d r o m e themselves sensations of f e a r witchcraft individuals or and Thus Henri W i t h such activin England culture c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h o s e a c c u s e d of w i t c h c r a f t w e r e n o t c h o s e n a t r a n d o m : ' t h e y w e r e t h o s e w h o h a d c u l t i v a t e d a r e p u t a t i o n f o r w i t c h c r a f t a s a m e a n s of s u r v i v a l . a s w a s t h e c a s e in S p a i n in 1 6 1 0 . undertakes. t h o u g h he d e n i e d e v e r d o i n g s u c h t h i n g s . suspected magical their neighbours of witchcraft. W h e n e v e r a n a r t i c l e of c l o t h i n g has b e e n m i s l a i d a n d c a n n o t be f o u n d . T h e r e s u l t w a s a l a r g e l y s e l f . 4 9 . b u t t h i s e m p h a s i s on e m p i r i c a l i n q u i r y w a s n o t w i d e l y a c c e p t e d a m o n g s c h o l a r s u n t i l t h e l a t t e r p a r t o f t h e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y . t h i s c a n be r e g a r d e d a s a m o d e r n E u r o p e . t h e Malleus made a very strong case f o r T h e use o f s p e l l s is so w i d e s p r e a d a m o n g t h e p e o p l e h e r e t h a t n o t a t h e e x i s t e n c e of s a t a n i c w i t c h c r a f t . it a p p e a r s t h a t Given The credibility of a witch cult in e a r l y v i c t i m s of w i t c h c r a f t w e r e a t t r i b u t i n g r e a l e x p e r i e n c e s t o m a l i c i o u s m a g i c . t h e y r u n a t o n c e t o t h e s o o t h s a y e r t o a s k w h o h a s s t o l e n it o r p u t a b a d s p e l l o n it. M a n y of t h e s e w e r e o b t a i n e d t h r o u g h t o r t u r e . a n d a c r o s s m u c h of w e s t e r n E u r o p e f r o m a r o u n d 1 6 8 0 . T h e r e a l i t y of m a g i c a s a sometimes of actual consequences Boguet described how a bewitched man was paralysed w a s e v e n u n a b l e t o c a l l t o his n e i g h b o u r s f o r h e l p . A l l t h e p e o p l e h e r e a b o u t s e n g a g e in s u p e r s t i t i o u s God. a n e x p e r i e n c e t h a t w a s d e s c r i b e d in witchcraft awake extreme to confessions find in 1 6 4 5 . D e v i l . W h i l e it is r e l a t i v e l y e a s y t o a c c e p t t h e r a t i o n a l b a s i s f o r f e a r s of maleficium t h a t m o s t of t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s a r e s t i l l l i t t l e u n d e r s t o o d . r e m a i n e l u s i v e . wholly reasonable response. they are w r i t t e n on s c r a p s of p a p e r . t h e a u t h o r of a recent study of popular 5 2 W i t c h c r a f t a l s o p r o v i d e d a n e x p l a n a t i o n f o r less s e v e r e h a l l u c i n a t o r y experiences English work has t h a t a r e s t i l l v e r y c o m m o n . w h o w e r e l i n k e d t o s u c h p e o p l e by b l o o d o r h o u s e h o l d t i e s . often m i x e d with elements of o f f i c i a l r e l i g i o n . . It is s t r i k i n g t h a t a l l e g a t i o n s of c o l l e c t i v e w i t c h c r a f t d i d n o t l e a d t o p r o s e c u t i o n s on t h o s e o c c a s i o n s w h e n t h e a u t h o r i t i e s s o u g h t c o r r o b o r a t i n g e v i d e n c e f o r c o n f e s s i o n s . the visitors to W e i s b a d e n c l a i m e d that spells were p e r f o r m e d 'to h a r m on others or to do good. I t a l y . T h e d e v e l o p m e n t of p r i n t f r o m t h e late fifteenth century a l l o w e d i n f o r m a t i o n about w i t c h c r a f t to spread quickly reproduced and in w i d e l y a m o n g t h e l i t e r a t e m i n o r i t y of t h e E u r o p e a n p o p u l a t i o n . ities in m i n d . e x c e p t t h e c o n f e s s i o n s of a l l e g e d c u l t m e m b e r s . 5 0 The general accepboth t a n c e o f m a g i c a l t e c h n i q u e s . and rhymes. a n d t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t t h e y c o u l d be u s e d f o r E n g l i s h m a g i c i a n J o h n W a l s h d e s c r i b e d h o w the w o r d s of was sometimes attempted. M a l c o l m G a s k i l l p o i n t s o u t in C h a p t e r 2 5 t h a t b e r e a v e d p e o p l e o f t e n h a v e v i s i o n s o f t h e d e a d . t h e a n s w e r lies in t h e c o n v e n t i o n s of s c h o l a r l y d e b a t e in e a r l y m o d e r n E u r o p e . or o t h e r s u c h h e a t h e n i s h m e a n s . s w a l l o w e d o r w o r n a s c h a r m s . A s S y d n e y A n g l o h a s o b s e r v e d . a m a n f r o m D o r s e t w a s t r i e d f o r a s s a u l t i n g a n o l d w o m a n w h o m he b e l i e v e d 4 8 In t h e s e a n d s i m i l a r c a s e s . w h e n s o m e o n e f e e l s s i c k l y o r a c o w a c t s q u e e r . B e l i e f in t h e w i t c h c u l t w a s a l s o e n c o u r a g e d by c h a n g e s in i n f o r m a t i o n t e c h n o l o g y . a n d t o f e t c h s o m e c h a r m t o use a g a i n s t t h e enchanter . In lence of s u c h a c t i v i t i e s : t h e L u t h e r a n i n s p e c t o r s of t h e p r o v i n c e of W e i s b a d e n in G e r m a n y n o t e d t h e p r e v a - investigations Maleficarum into the alleged activities of V i e w e d in t h i s l i g h t . In 1 5 9 2 . does or refrains f r o m doing a n y t h i n g . w a s e m p l o y e d f o r a w i d e r a n g e of p r a c t i c a l p u r p o s e s . w h o w a s in t h e s h a p e of a c a t . a s i m i l a r affliction 'strangely w a s v i s i t e d o n L a d y C r o m w e l l o f H u n t i n g d o n s h i r e in E n g l a n d .

Henri Boguet. L o n d o n 1 9 8 3 ) . Notes 1 Fictitious accounts of English w i t c h c r a f t included later editions of the story of M o t h e r S h i p t o n . Daemonologie. Magic Witches' and Culture. Cohn. Montague Summers (John Rodker. (Women's 5 Press. 24 25 26 27 Daemonologie. The Night Seventeenth Centuries. e d . . controversy. w a s able to copulate with B r i t a i n between 1 9 8 2 evidence. m o s t of w h i c h c o l l a p s e d t h r o u g h of 'satanic in Part abuse' continues to arouse acceptable issue intense some about 12 13 witches w a s discussed Witchcraft. Routledge. m u c h as the Alan Kors and Edward Peters. The a n d 1 9 9 0 . e d . 1 9 8 9 ) . Alan (University of Massachusetts Daemonologie. W i t h t h e b e n e f i t o f h i n d s i g h t . H. If these claims Examen. Walinski-Keihl. twentieth Witchcraft. Witches' This has led h i s t o r i a n s like Robin Briggs and (University of N e v a d a Battles: C a r l o G i n z b u r g . it local witch-hunts appears that the among capacity our to 16 17 18 Princeton. Walinski-Keihl 5 6 psychotherRobert of Henningsen. 3 7 7 .7 Witchcraft in England. Philadelphia 1972). Kephart. and variants 5 7 15 Gabor Klaniczay. 1-3. J . 1999). 6. 74-5. 39. but w e s h o u l d r e m e m b e r t h a t the p o t e n t i a l l y d i s t o r t i n g effects of p r i n t c u l t u r e w e r e i m p o s s i b l e to a n t i c i p a t e . . Press 1 9 9 2 ) . see T . Continuity t h e p u r s u i t o f s a t a n i c c h i l d a b u s e r s s h o w s t h a t t h e b u s i n e s s o f w i t c h . Examen highly educated and women northern America western Europe. While it is p o s s i b l e t h a t s a t a n i c cults do exist. See. See also D o r e e n V a l i e n t e . Early Modern see J e n s European 1 0 9 . Reno Basque 1980). Boguet. Wellingborough Davies. w h i c h p r o v i d e s f u r t h e r e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e m a t t e r is n o d r e a m . Vivianne Crowley. and Agrarian Cults in the Sixteenth and Witchcraft and the Spanish t h e m h a v e p r o v e d t o be f a l s e . moveOxford F o r a fascinating account of the origins a n d c l a i m s of the m o d e r n w i t c h c r a f t ment. Witchcraft. d e s p i t e t h e p a s s i o n a t e a d v o c a c y o f s o m e apists and social w o r k e r s . R o m a n t i c s and Sorcery 101. An (2nd edn. found it is a p o w e r f u l r e m i n d e r that the Rather. Mary London R e m y o b s e r v e d t h a t w i t c h e s often d e s c r i b e d h o w they s m e a r e d an o i n t m e n t on t h e i r b o d i e s t o e n a b l e t h e m t o fly t o t h e s a b b a t . 29 Owen 1550-1750 r e m i n d s m o d e r n . Studies Wonderfull Children: Child Witch Trials in E a r l y Modern contemporaries'. Witchcraft in s u p e r s t i t i o n or hysteria. Henningsen. ch. Among Scholars of W i t c h c r a f t ' . Gouge. c h . James. 1 3 . James. 5. Witchcraft Thomas. e d . Oxford London Keith Religion the Decline of Magic M u r r a y ' s t h e o r y of a w i t c h c u l t w a s e c h o e d in e a r l y e d i t i o n s of C h r i s t o p h e r H i l l ' s t e x t b o o k Reformation to Industrial Revolution (2nd edn. 8. Advocate. in Tudor and and Stuart England (2nd edn. Instruments Hamilton. such beliefs were the p r o d u c t s today. and is e x a m i n e d in d e t a i l 10. trials in E n g l a n d . When the horrors they Germany'. Oxford Duties 1 9 9 3 ) . Pimlico. of the Witchcrafts of in Margaret England. The Witch and Cult Wonderful in Western History Europe of Mother Shipton (1682). 7 2 . (Crescent. 1921). H e n o t e d t h a t ' t h e y a r e e v e n p a r t i c u l a r i n d e s c r i b i n g its c o l o u r . m u r d e r a n d c a n n i b a l i s m of y o u n g c h i l d r e n and Great of led t o a s e r i e s o f legal proceedings in t h e United States lack 10 11 L o n d o n 1 9 2 9 ) . r e p r i n t e d in B a r b a r a R o s e n . 3 4 1 . Christian Johansen's Witchcraft. Inner Maleficarum. (London 1924).18 GENERAL INTRODUCTION GENERAL INTRODUCTION 19 into the g e n r e as ' e v i d e n c e ' . London 1 9 8 4 ) . R. J o h n a n d A n n e Tedeschi (Routledge. C h a p t e r 2 6 in this c o l l e c t i o n . 1626). 1 7 7 . and political circumstances that can recur even Ankarloo and and Gustav e d s . London 1971). Macfarlane. Uses of Supernatural Power (Princeton University Press. M a r w i c k . This late leads to one f i n a l p o i n t a b o u t the r a t i o n a l i t y of w i t c h b e l i e f s . trans. New Age (Aq uarian. . ch. ' T h e Devil's Change. Henningsen. In 1 5 9 5 . 2 5 9 . 5 5 Metaethics Feminism 1978). 5 1 . H e r w o r k w a s regarded as sufficiently Norman 3 Crowley Cohn's Europe's Inner Demons i m p o r t a n t t o m e r i t a d e t a i l e d c r i t i q u e in London 1993). Harmondworth 1982). w h i l e the a n t h r o p o l o g i s t P h i l i p Stevens has c l a i m e d t h a t ' a d e m o n o l o g y is flourishing. origins of w i t c h beliefs are not to of be Discoverie ( 1 6 1 9 ) . (Weidenfeld and (Clarendon. f o r e x a m p l e . See Kors and Peters. An Press 1 9 9 9 ) . m o t i v a t e d c h i e f l y by t h e i r compassion for the apparent victims of a t e r r i b l e crime. The Witchcraft to suggest that satanic abuse is a n u p d a t e d v e r s i o n o f t h e m y t h trans. s e e The and Phillip Flower d e s c r i b e p r o v e t o be n o m o r e s u b s t a n t i a l t h a n t h e i m a g i n e d s a b b a t s o f t h e s i x t e e n t h century. Early Modern European Witchcraft: Peripheries (Clarendon. it is t e m p t i n g t o 6 m o c k the a p p a r e n t n a i v e t y of s u c h c l a i m s . century. Advocate: Press. (1996). Witchcraft in Europe: A Documentary History (University of Pennsylvania 7 M . S e t o n . Nicholas 4 of Witchcraft (Robert Hale. s u c h a s The Strange 2 Margaret Murray. The means by w h i c h t h e Devil. J a m e s S h a r p e . F o r a non-religious work making Witches Daly. e d s . Gustav Inquisition 14 136-45. Of Domestical! 60. of Darkness: chapter in A n k a r l o o and Henningsen's For Denmark.4 . Examen. . The 152-60. (2nd edn. Harmondsworth 1969). 36. Penguin. men a set of strikingly in similar ideas attracted and the During support the of The ' R a t i o n a l i s t s vs. Press. Gyn/Ecology: New York The 1981). of Witches. Tudor F o r a n i c e e x a m p l e . 7. 5. social 21 22 1558-1618 James. for the 1 6 4 5 . Robert N J 1 9 9 0 ) . 19 20 and 11 (2). Persuasions to the Witches' Craft (Blackwell.W a t s o n . b e l i e v e in s a t a n i c w i t c h c r a f t w a s n o t c o n f i n e d t o t h e e a r l y m o d e r n p e r i o d . Boguet. L u h r m a n n . see (Hamish (2nd edn. 2 8 2 . 1989). it is u n d e n i a b l e t h a t m a n y of the s p e c i f i c a l l e g a t i o n s Europe's Demons. as a d i s e m b o d i e d at length i n t h e Malleus spirit. in M a x i m p a c t o f t h e i n t e r n e t c a n n o t be a d e q u a t e l y p r e d i c t e d t o d a y .f i n d i n g c a n be c o n d u c t e d by p e r f e c t l y r e a s o n a b l e a n d m e t h o d i c a l p e o p l e .d a y w i t c h e s t h a t t h o u s a n d s of t h e i r f e l l o w s p e r i s h e d in the Wicca: The Old Religion in the ABC L o n d o n 1 9 9 6 ) . b u t visible and perceptible to the e y e s ' . Examen. a w i t c h cult. 1736-1951 12-13. b e l i e f in s e c r e t s a t a n i c o r g a n i s a t i o n s d e v o t e d t o t h e s e x u a l a b u s e . see C o l i n W i l s o n . of it h a v e are inspired some accurate. 28 Nicolson. (Manchester University sixteenth a n d seventeenth centuries. 46-7. Penguin. Bengt Centres 23 William Boguet. 152-60. On o c c a s i o n s . for example. s c h o l a r l y w r i t e r s r e f e r r e d e x p l i c i t l y t o the c o n s i s t e n c y o f c o n f e s s i o n s a s p r o o f o f a s a t a n i c c u l t . c h . of Radical similar c l a i m s . Equally. Witchcraft 8 9 Kors and Peters. L o u i s e J a c k s o n .

M a r i a n n e H e s t e r a n d G a r e t h R o b e r t s . 55 56 Kors and Peters. 1 .20 GENERAL INTRODUCTION 30 For Luther's Between views on witchcraft a n d t h e D e v i l . b u t keeping Strauss. t h r e a d f r o m h e r b o s o m a n d t h r e w it o u t o f a l a r g e w i n d o w . or (Routledge and Kegan Witchcraft. 150r. .3 . W R I T I N G icler Ralph IN of T H E L A S T Q U A R T E R the of the t w e l f t h century. London The Occult in Early Modern Europe: A Documentary History them e x c l a i m e d . by t h e m i n i s t r y o f t h e e v i l s p i r i t s w h o o n c e c a u g h t Simon Magus up into the a i r . The w o m a n it unnamed R. 1989). 9 0 . Scare a n d D. 8. in 42 Early Modern Europe (Cambridge University Press 1 9 9 6 ) . A Department w i t h e r she w a s t r a n s p o r t e d . in A n g l o . 6 2 . Lauderdale The Certainty r e c o u n t e d t h i s s t o r y in a letter t o R i c h a r d of the World The Trial! of Spirits (1691). in M . leader w a s t r i e d a l o n g s i d e her. T h e t r i a l e n d e d w i t h t h e b u r n i n g o f a n y o u n g w o m a n . 66. . t h e n in a l o u d v o i c e . Newes Lyndal Modern from Scotland Oedipus (Edinburgh and the 1592). G. a u d i b l e t o a l l . 1991). in J . London 1996). Oxford 39 Thomas Anthony University 40 41 Baxter. t h e o n l o o k e r s c o u l d into allegations in B r i t a i n w a s c o n d u c t e d by involved in a This bizarre story underlined Ralph's conviction that of ' r i t u a l ' were satanism. 1999). Y o u n g . Oxford. 5 1 . in England. was a humble 45 46 47 48 49 R o y P o r t e r . A Social Boguet. The Satanism (Lexington Books. 6 (1986). F o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f a n i m a l t r i a l s in m e d i a e v a l a n d e a r l y m o d e r n Cohen. W h a t became of t h a t w i c k e d w o m a n in n o w i s e discover. she s u d d e n l y now to burn pulled a ball (Macmillan. h e l d by t h e t w o w o m e n . 34 35 Boguet. Conn. w h i c h c o n f o r m e d c l o s e l y t o t h e k n o w n b e l i e f s of t h e C a t h a r s . w h i c h he p u b l i s h e d in PART ONE 36 37 38 John Darrel. however. w h o f a c e d h e r d e a t h so ' s t e a d f a s t l y a n d e a g e r l y ' t h a t even those 82-93. H e r e he o f f e r e d a b r i e f e x p o s i t i o n of t h e B r o m l e y . Richardson. W h e n the to drag fire h a d b e e n l i g h t e d in t h e c i t y a n d t h e o f f i c i a l s w e r e to the punishment decreed. Europe Examen. Oberman. 102-6. 'Peasants Sex and Pastors'. The link between religious dissent and S a t a n was reinforced doctrines 'The Demonology of S a t a n i s m ' . B a x t e r . Devil: Witchcraft. History of Madness Mass. 245. 'Success and Failure'. Evidence'. Best heresy was the Devil. Art 'Evident Authority and Authoritative Paul. that mistress of vile about error me of F o r a n e x c e l l e n t c o l l e c t i o n o f s o u r c e s r e l a t i n g t o p o p u l a r a n d l e a r n e d m a g i c . Dorrell Edmund Lyndal Kern. ' L a w . 131r. Witchcraft. 29. Maxwell-Stuart. 47. N e w Haven. 'Many Reasons Why: Witchcraft and the Problem of Multiple Witchcraft E x p l a n a t i o n ' . Popular Cultures in England. a heretical community whose alleged sentenced to the flames. Witches Stevens. Past and Present.1 . London 1994). see P. Barry 130. With these w o r d s . E u r o p e . Luther: Man God and the Devil Witchcraft. Briggs. 54 Sydney Damned Anglo. Davies. (2nd edn. Household: Women and Morals in Reformation Augsburg (Clarendon. of Maist. (1599). 242-3. a n d w a s also T h e o l d e r w o m a n e s c a p e d her p u n i s h m e n t . 70-1. but d i s m i s s e d t h e idea of o r g a n i s e d 57 R o b i n B r i g g s . and Western Science'. . e d s . New York J .1 1 . and Neighbours the ultimate source of all (HarperCollins. 67 (1975). (Routledge. T . e d s . w e b e l i e v e . ch. 50 and Present. Robin Robisheaux.3 7 . London 1976). t h r o u g h 254. Subordination 1995). rumour . Witchcraft. A t t h e e n d of t h i s p a s s a g e . . 6 . Sexuality and Religion in Early Roper. 6 3 . Rosen. 41. The s u s t a i n e d . e d . Chapter Roper. The Holy 1 3 in this c o l l e c t i o n . from Gerald Strauss. 181-2. 'Oh f o o l i s h and unjust judges. Certainty. Fletcher. see H e i k o London 1993). in J o n a t h a n B a r r y . London 1998). Reay. T h i s f o u n d t h a t e l e m e n t s s m a l l n u m b e r of cases. 17. Phoenix. Folklore and A n i m a l Lore'. she s a i d ' C a t c h ! ' A t the w o r d . in t h e c o n c l u s i o n o f h i s a c c o u n t . t r i a l in t h e F r e n c h t o w n o f R h e i m s . a heretical C h r i s t i a n sect that flourished in s o u t h e r n F r a n c e in t h e l a t e t w e l f t h Ralph added a dark and e a r l y t h i r t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s . see E s t h e r 110 (1986). 51 52 53 Rosen. t h e e n d o f t h e t h r e a d in h e r h a n d s .150v. (Fontana. and Social History. 31 32 33 Kors and Peters. e d . Cambridge. 1500-1800 281-300. G . 3 5 . she w a s lifted f r o m the e a r t h r i g h t e v e r y o n e ' s e y e s a n d f o l l o w e d t h e b a l l o u t C o f ] t h e w i n d o w in r a p i d before flight. (Yale Mediaeval Origins Gender. 1971). 1550-1750 (Longman. Press. do you t h i n k in y o u r flames?' . Philip of Health investigation Jean L a Fontaine in 1 9 9 2 . London 1996). ' A f r i c a n Knowledge and Control Thought astonished member of (Addison Wesley.6 . 47-52. H o p t o n . Ashmole Traditional M S 4 1 2 . 'Success and Failure in t h e German the i n t e r v e n t i o n of a demon: report is t a k e n Past Reformation'. This Examen. the c h r o n extraordinary climax of a heresy Coggeshall described 43 44 Bodleian Library. responsible f o r her p r o s e c u t i o n . Witchcraft. 4 1 0 .3 1 .

when he h a d lost his m e m b e r . Kramer (1486) and is a s t o r y so s u r r e a l a n d c o m i c t h a t it is cause the invite their readers to consider i m p o s s i b l e t o f o r g e t . he a p p r o a c h e d a k n o w n w i t c h t o a s k h e r t o r e s t o r e it t o h i m . ' b e c a u s e it b e l o n g e d t o a p a r i s h priest'. The inclusion b l e d t h e c o n t e n t of c o n t e m p o r a r y j e s t b o o k s . For a certain man tells that. is t o be t h o u g h t of t h o s e w i t c h e s w h o . A n d w h e n he t r i e d t o t a k e a b i g one. On t h i s p o i n t t h e d e m o n o l o g i s t s w e r e . relentlessly misogynistic pages of Maleficarum men. as has been seen by m a n y a n d is a m a t t e r of c o m m o n r e p o r t ? . members. e a c h of w h i c h a d d e d w e i g h t t o t h e i r t h a t s u c h m a t e r i a l w a s a v a i l a b l e s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e s t e r e o t y p e of t h e f e m a l e a r g u m e n t s a b o u t t h e e x i s t e n c e of w i t c h e s a n d t h e d a n g e r s t h e y p o s e d .PART SEVEN W i t c h c r a f t and Gender B URIED the Malleus in A W A Y IN THE TURGID. . s o m e t i m e s c o l l e c t m a l e o r g a n s in g r e a t n u m b e r s . ' a d d i n g . t h e n . T h e w a s by no m e a n s c o n f i n e d t o t h e l e a r n e d e l i t e . w h e r e they m o v e t h e m s e l v e s like living m e m b e r s . o r s h u t t h e m up in a b o x . as m a n y as t w e n t y o r t h i r t y m e m b e r s t o g e t h e r . . S h e t o l d t h e a f f l i c t e d m a n t o c l i m b a c e r t a i n t r e e . culture than learned theories 2 anxieties popular of A t a n o t h e r . a n d p r o b a b l y o w e d m o r e t o about s u c h m a t e r i a l in t h e Malleus i n d i c a t e s t h e w i l l i n g n e s s of its a u t h o r s t o incorporate central fact witch t h e w i d e s t p o s s i b l e r a n g e of s o u r c e s . I n t e r r u p t i n g t h e i r d i s c u s s i o n of t h e w i t c h ' s p o w e r t o impotence following Sprenger information: A n d w h a t . a n d p u t t h e m in a b i r d ' s nest. a n d eat oats a n d c o r n . it is n o t e w o r t h y b e c a u s e it r e s e m the nature of w i t c h c r a f t . a n d t h a t he m i g h t t a k e w h i c h e v e r m e m b e r he l i k e d o u t of a nest in w h i c h t h e r e w e r e s e v e r a l t h a t o n e . t h i s s t r a n g e a n e c d o t e c a n be r e a d as a t e s t a m e n t t o m a l e a b o u t t h e s e x u a l p o w e r of w o m e n . ' Y o u m u s t n o t t a k e 1 A t one l e v e l . t h e w i t c h s a i d . . .

S h e a r g u e s t h a t a t t e m p t s t o e x p l a i n w i t c h . In C h a p t e r ecution of other w o m e n as w i t c h e s . a n d r e a d e r s w i l l h a v e t o d e c i d e w h i c h . a n d r e g i o n s l i k e H u n g a r y . 4 S u c h records have obliged h i s t o r i a n s to evaluate the relationship between w i t c h h u n t i n g a n d g e n d e r r e l a t i o n s in t h e e a r l y m o d e r n p e r i o d . One i m p o r t a n t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . s i n c e it w a s n e v e r d e n i e d t h a t m e n a s w e l l a s w o m e n c o u l d be g u i l t y of t h e c r i m e . T h u s a t y p i c a l w i t c h w a s t h e m i r r o r . however. T h i s a r g u m e n t c o m p l e m e n t s t h e v i e w s of L o u i s e involved r e v e r s a l of a c c e p t e d f e m a l e r o l e s : w i t c h e s w e r e p o i s o n e r s i n s t e a d of p r o v i d e r s of f o o d . less a m b i t i o u s a p p r o a c h is t o e x a m i n e t h e r e c o r d s of s p e c i f i c 22. who acknowledges that ordinary women frequently voiced concerns about attempts to deal with to the courts. w h e r e 9 0 per cent of w i t c h e s were f e m a l e . f o r e x a m p l e . were c e n t of t h e a c c u s e d w e r e w o m e n . by t h o s e f r o m Germany and Scotland. w o m e n were more exposed to accusations than men. a l i s a t i o n : did the e c o n o m i c circumstances that allegedly encouraged gender conflict in E n g l a n d a p p l y t o o t h e r c o u n t r i e s t h a t e x p e r i e n c e d p e r s e c u t i o n s ? A s L a r n e r p o i n t s o u t in C h a p t e r 2 0 . t h u s r e v e r s i n g t h e p o p u l a r i d e a t h a t m i d w i v e s w e r e c o m m o n l y a c c u s e d of 5 ruling groups to investigate 'secret c r i m e s ' against f a m i l y . h a r m e r s i n s t e a d of h e a l e r s .h u n t i n g ' f o r c e s its proponents to e x p l a i n 'why w o m e n appeared p a r t i c u l a r l y threatening to p a t r i a r c h a l o r d e r a t t h i s t i m e . 3 countries were per These figures o u t w e i g h e d .l e v e l accusations in C h a p t e r 2 3 by Clive the w a s in t h i s w o r l d of f e m a l e r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Europeans wider of the the c a m e t o a c c e p t t h e r e a l i t y of s a t a n i c w i t c h c r a f t . Like all monocausal explanations. F o r stopped short Holmes. t h e n t o c o n s i d e r w h y w o m e n w e r e Larner's politics W o m e n f e a t u r e d o f t e n as a c c u s e r s a n d v i c t i m s of w i t c h e s . he e m p h a s i s e s t h e i n f o r m a l e f f o r t s t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s m a d e t o p l a c a t e a n d c o e x i s t w i t h t h o s e s u s p e c t e d of maleficium: the witches at Pendle Y o r k s h i r e . S h a r p e ' s a r g u m e n t challenges the view that E n g l i s h w i t c h t r i a l s reprein e a r l y m o d e r n v i l l a g e s . a n y i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f w i t c h t r i a l s as ' w o m a n .h u n t s in t e r m s t h e s u p p r e s s i o n of w o m e n by m e n d i s t r a c t h i s t o r i a n s f r o m t h e w i d e r p o l i t i c a l r e l i g i o u s c o n t e x t of t h e p e r s e c u t i o n s : it is n e c e s s a r y f i r s t t o e x p l a i n w h y especially vulnerable to accusations.i m a g e of a ' g o o d w o m a n ' . A l l of t h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e i d e a of w i t c h c r a f t s t r o n g l y i m p l i e d f e m a l e c u l p a b i l i t y . i n f a n t i c i d e a n d w i t c h c r a f t . a n d s e e k s t o r e l o c a t e t h e p r o s e c u t i o n s in t h e c o n t e x t of t h e f e m a l e c o m m u n i t y cium were most frequently expressed. w h i l e p o s s e s s i n g a n e x c e s s of a r c h e t y p a l l y f e m a l e v i c e s . He s u g g e s t s t h a t w o m e n in England J i m S h a r p e e x p l o r e s a f a m i l i a r t h e m e in t h e d e b a t e : t h e r o l e of w o m e n in t h e p r o s unusually active in t h e p r o s e c u t i o n of w i t c h c r a f t in c o m p a r i s o n t o o t h e r crimes. t h e s o c i a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s of w o m e n w e r e e n o u g h in t h e m s e l v e s t o a c c o u n t f o r t h e i r t a r g e t i n g a s w i t c h e s . T h i s is a d i f f i c u l t t a s k . T h e t h e m e s r a i s e d in S h a r p e ' s c h a p t e r a r e r e v i e w e d witchcraft. women's encounters with formal witches Robin in of t a k i n g B r i g g s in C h a p t e r 3 . p e r s o n s a p p o i n t e d by t h e c o u r t s t o e x a m i n e t h e b o d i e s of t h o s e a c c u s e d f o r h i d d e n t e a t s used t o s u c k l e f a m i l i a r s p i r i t s . of t h e s e g e n e r a l i s a t i o n s t h e y find m o s t c o n v i n c i n g . w h o p o i n t s o u t in C h a p t e r 2 6 t h a t a c c u s a t i o n s of w i t c h c r a f t was a a l w a y s c l o s e l y i d e n t i f i e d w i t h w o m e n . It s e n t e d a n a t t e m p t by m e n t o c o n t r o l i n d e p e n d e n t w o m e n . i n c l u d i n g s e x u a l o f f e n c e s . normally and were often prominent in v i l l a g e . T h e b e s t recent estimates suggest that three-quarters of t h o s e e x e c u t e d f o r w i t c h c r a f t in E u r o p e were w o m e n . of c o u r s e . L i c e n c e d m i d w i v e s . M a r i a n n e H e s t e r o f f e r s a s t i m u l a t i n g c r i t i c i s m of L a r n e r ' s w o r k in C h a p t e r 2 1 . knowledge of f e m a l e a n a t o m y . t h e w i t c h t r i a l s of t h e e a r l y m o d e r n p e r i o d w e r e p a r t of a w i d e r m o v e m e n t t o r e c o n s t i t u t e g e n d e r r e l a t i o n s d u r i n g a t i m e of s o c i a l c h a n g e . w h i l e m e n o u t n u m b e r e d w o m e n as w i t c h c r a f t s u s p e c t s in s o m e on the periphery of t h e c o n t i n e n t like Iceland and Estonia. F o r H e s t e r . s i n c e p e r s e c u t i o n s t o o k p l a c e in so m a n y d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l a n d p o l i t i c a l c o n t e x t s . Hester suggests t h a t v i l l a g e r s a n d m a g i s t r a t e s m i g h t have been l o o k i n g for not w i t c h e s r a t h e r t h a n w o m e n . he s u g g e s t s . B u t d e s p i t e t h e c o n s i d e r a b l e a t t e n t i o n p a i d t o t h i s issue. M o r e o v e r . T h i s is t h e m e t h o d e m p l o y e d in t h e r e m a i n i n g c h a p t e r s in t h i s s e c t i o n . s o m e a l s o p l a y e d t h e s p e c i a l i s t r o l e of ' s e a r c h e r s ' . w e r e a p p e a s e d by t h e i r n e i g h b o u r s f o r d e c a d e s b e f o r e t h e i r . S h e a r g u e s t h a t w i t h c r a f t i n v o l v e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t w e r e s o c i a l l y c o n s t r u c t e d as ' f e m i n i n e ' . One o b j e c t i o n t o Hester's work is t h a t it t r i e s t o e x p l a i n w i t c h t r i a l s as t h e it is o p e n t o t h e c h a r g e of overgenerand T h i s a s s u m p t i o n is r e f l e c t e d in t h e s u r v i v i n g r e c o r d s of w i t c h t r i a l s . T h e y h a d t h e e f f e c t of m a r g i n a l i s i n g w o m e n i n v o l v e d in c e r t a i n t r a d e s . b u t t h e i r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t h e c r i m e i n c l i n e d t h e m t o l o o k f o r f e m a l e s u s p e c t s . h o l d s t h a t a c c u s a t i o n s w e r e a i m e d p r i m a r i l y a g a i n s t witches r a t h e r t h a n w o m e n as s u c h .s p e c i f i c ' .r e l a t e d ' but n o t ' s e x . M e n a n d w o m e n a p p e a r t o h a v e b e e n e q u a l l y v u l n e r a b l e t o a c c u s a t i o n s in p a r t s of F r a n c e . t h e r e is s t i l l no c o n s e n s u s a m o n g a c a d e m i c s in t h e f i e l d . a n d c h i l d k i l l e r s i n s t e a d of c h i l d p r o t e c t o r s . t h o u g h t h e s o c i a l p o s i t i o n of w o m e n m a d e t h e m u n u s u a l l y v u l n e r a b l e t o p r o s e c u tions. A c c o r d i n g to L a r n e r ' s f a m o u s f o r m u l a t i o n . with their specialist witchcraft. w e r e o f t e n e m p l o y e d in t h i s c a p a c i t y . t h o u g h the figures varied c o n s i d e r a b l y f r o m place to place. lust a n d p r i d e . if e i t h e r . a n d t h i s m e a n t t h a t t h e c r i m e J a c k s o n . In e a c h of t h e s e a r e a s . T h e s a m e o b j e c t i o n c o u l d . A n alternative.268 PART SEVEN: WITCHCRAFT AND GENDER PART SEVEN: WITCHCRAFT AND GENDER 269 a t one w i t h o r d i n a r y women. e v e n t h o u g h it w a s p o s s i b l e f o r m e n t o be i n v o l v e d a s well. r e p r e s e n t e d in C h a p t e r 2 0 by C h r i s t i n a L a r n e r . T h e potential influence of sexual stereotypes on prosecutions w a s illustrated in a list of ' p r e s u m p t i o n s against witches' d r a w n up f o r j u s t i c e s of t h e p e a c e ( J P s ) in Y o r k s h i r e in 1 5 9 2 : t h e f i r s t p r e s u m p tion was 'that they are most c o m o n l y weeke w o m e n ' . v i l l a g e r s : they assumed t h a t the m a j o r i t y of w i t c h e s were w o m e n a n d m e n c o u l d e n g a g e in i d e n t i c a l t y p e s of b e h a v i o u r b u t w i t h v e r y d i f f e r e n t outcomes: women who asked their neighbours for food and were turned away could s u b s e q u e n t l y be a c c u s e d of maleficium. t h a t a n x i e t i e s a b o u t malefi- Holmes. D e n m a r k a n d E n g l a n d . B o t h i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s i n v o l v e a c o n s i d e r a b l e d e g r e e of g e n e r a l i s a t i o n . be l e v e l l e d a g a i n s t L a r n e r ' s o w n v i e w t h a t t h e p r o s e c u t i o n s a r o s e f r o m t h e ' p o l i t i c i s a t i o n of r e l i g i o n ' in t h e early m o d e r n p e r i o d (see C h a p t e r 1 5 ) .s u c h as b r e w i n g a l l o w i n g m e n t o a s s u m e m o r e a u t h o r i t y in e x p a n d i n g a r e a s of t h e e c o n o m y . s u c h a s v e n g e a n c e . where some 70 o u t c o m e of a s i n g l e c a u s e : t h e r e s t r u c t u r i n g of g e n d e r r e l a t i o n s d u r i n g a p e r i o d of change. a n d w h y t h e y c e a s e d t o be so t h r e a t e n i n g a b o u t 1 7 0 0 ' . h o w e v e r . Like t h r e a t of h a r m f u l m a g i c . w i t c h c r a f t was ' s e x . w h i l e t h i s w a s less l i k e l y t o h a p p e n t o m e n . This a p p r o a c h c o m p l e m e n t s argument represented encouraged in C h a p t e r 15 of t h i s book that the Reformation of and w i t c h t r i a l s f o r e v i d e n c e of g e n d e r c o n f l i c t in p a r t i c u l a r s o c i a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s . In s o m e instances.

on the other instrumental in t h e p r o c e e d i n g s recent a c t s of t e s t i f i e d a b o u t m i s d e e d s t h a t h a d o c c u r r e d m a n y y e a r s b e f o r e t h e p r o s e c u t i o n itself. I n d e e d . restraints. Montague less i n c l i n e d t o m o v e b e y o n d t h i s s t r a t e g y of a c c o m m o d a t i o n seek l e g a l r e m e d i e s t h a n m e n . against hand. described more maleficia. o w n r e p u t a t i o n s . 1971). in t h e l e g a l d r a m a . h o w e v e r . By t a k i n g this prosecuting 3 w r i t e r s that w o m e n ' s weaknesses made t h e m m o r e susceptible to the Devil's t e m p t a tions. Publications. ' H i s t o r i a n s a s D e m o n o l o g i s t s : T h e M y t h o f t h e M i d w i f e . suggest. relationship . however. h o w e v e r . Society. b u t d i d so in a c u l t u r e t h a t a l l o w e d t h e m o n l y a l i m i t e d r a n g e of a l t e r n a t i v e m o d e l s by w h i c h t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e i r o w n f e e l i n g s a n d a c t i o n s . H o l m e s s e e k s t o r e t u r n o u r a t t e n t i o n t o w h a t he c a l l s ' t h e m i s o g y n o u s dimension 4 5 A r c h i v e s of the Y o r k s h i r e A r c h a e o l o g i c a l DD146/12/2/10.d e f i n i t i o n . (Macmillan. m o r e than those of a w o m a n . (Routledge. b u t t h e r e is a d a n g e r t h a t it o b s c u r e s t h e e x p e r i e n c e of t h e w i t c h h e r s e l f . T h e s t u d y of t h i s m a t e r i a l p r o v i d e s a f u r t h e r i n s i g h t i n t o t h e b e t w e e n g e n d e r a n d w i t c h c r a f t . j u s t b e c a u s e he w a s a m a n . a n d d e p i c t s h e r a s t h e p a s s i v e v i c t i m of f o r c e s c o m p l e t e l y b e y o n d h e r c o n t r o l .d i s t r i b u t i o n o f w i t c h c r a f t s u s p e c t s . W i t c h c r a f t may have t h e c o m p l a i n t s of a m a n a g a i n s t h a r s h o r u n c h a r i t a b l e t r e a t m e n t w o u l d sympathetically appeal for women held more w o m e n t h a n f o r m e n n o t b e c a u s e . ( 1 9 2 8 . w h o argues t h a t the c o n s t r a i n t s i m p o s e d by p a t r i a r c h a l culture London meant that w o m e n were more likely to resort to m a g i c than m e n : For men. Lyndal Modern Magic Roper. wickedness later trans. M e n . (1990). Europe sacrifices. were generally Holmes argues that women and often the He crucial account. Surviving A l l t h e c h a p t e r s in t h i s p a r t c o n c e n t r a t e on t h e a c c u s a t i o n a n d t r i a l of a l l e g e d w i t c h e s by o t h e r m e m b e r s of t h e i r c o m m u n i t y . Briggs. Social of Medicine and 3(1). as c o n t e m p o r a r i e s t h o u g h t . Seventeenth-Century t h o s e w h o f e l l u n d e r s u s p i c i o n of t h e c r i m e as w e l l as t h e i r a c c u s e r s : t h e s u p p o s e d p o w e r s of t h e P e n d l e w i t c h e s p r o b a b l y a f f o r d e d t h e m m o r e i n f l u e n c e in t h e i r c o m m u nity t h a n they w o u l d Geoffrey otherwise have enjoyed. w o m e n s u s p e c t e d of maleficium c o u l d p l a y a n a c t i v e r o l e in t h e f o r m a t i o n of t h e i r provided a cultural resource for 6 which claimed trial records David History Witchcraft. a n d it is p o s s i b l e h a v e b e e n l i s t e n e d t o . t h e i d e a of w i t c h c r a f t Geoffrey Scarre. and London 1994). a n d t h i s w i l l be p i c k e d up in P a r t 8 . 260-2. t h a t t h e Malleus' was absent in m o s t later demonologies. 121. repr. See H a r l e y . H e p o i n t s o u t t h a t f e m a l e w i t n e s s e s in t r i a l s suggesting t h a t these acts were not accused. of w i t c h c r a f t ' . encour- T h e i d e a t h a t m i d w i v e s w e r e c o m m o n l y a c c u s e d of w i t c h c r a f t w a s o r i g i n a l l y a g e d b y t h e e x c e s s i v e r e l i a n c e o f h i s t o r i a n s o n t h e Malleus that midwife witches abducted infants for ritual Maleficarum.W i t c h ' . 1-26. Witchcraft 1987). 201. preoccupation with female though there was a consensus a m o n g c o n c l u d e s t h a t it w a s m e n r a t h e r t h a n w o m e n w h o t o o k t h e l e a d in w i t c h e s : they were the p r i m a r y a c t o r s d e c i s i o n s a b o u t w h o s h o u l d be t r i e d f o r t h e c r i m e . Europe in Sixteenth Oedipus and the Devil: Sexuality Religion in Early and 53. a n d m a d e t h e into F o r a s u r v e y o f d a t a o n t h e s e x . Notes 1 Heinrich Summers 2 Kramer and James Dover Sprenger. A s t h e c h a p t e r by C l i v e H o l m e s s u g g e s t s . Malleus Maleficarum. that m i d w i v e s were not p a r t i c u l a r l y prone to accusations. 6 Scarre's interpretation r e s t o r e s t h e a g e n c y of w o m e n w h o t h o u g h t t h e m s e l v e s b u t p l a c e s t h i s in t h e c o n t e x t of w i d e r s o c i a l to be c a p a b l e of maleficium. b u t b e c a u s e t h e i r s o c i a l and e c o n o m i c position imposed greater c o n s t r a i n t s on their possibilities of a c t i o n . A l l e g a t i o n s of c a u s i n g i m p o t e n c e w e r e c o m p a r a t i v e l y r a r e in w i t c h trials. London 1996). see R o b i n Witches and Neighbours (HarperCollins. New York It s h o u l d be n o t e d . w e r e m o r e w i c k e d a n d m o r e e a s i l y led t h a n m e n . A s i m i l a r p i c t u r e h a s e m e r g e d f r o m t h e s t u d y of w i t c h c r a f t c o n f e s s i o n s in r e c e n t y e a r s : t h e s e t e x t s r e v e a l h o w s o m e w o m e n c a m e t o i n t e r n a l i s e t h e i d e a of w i t c h c r a f t a s a n a c t of s e l f . there were usually more direct methods for attaining their that e n d s o r r e v e n g i n g t h e m s e l v e s o n t h e i r e n e m i e s .270 PART SEVEN: WITCHCRAFT AND GENDER PART SEVEN: WITCHCRAFT AND GENDER 271 a c t i v i t i e s r e a c h e d t h e a t t e n t i o n of l o c a l m a g i s t r a t e s . T h i s a p p r o a c h is e s s e n t i a l f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e s o c i a l d y n a m i c s o f p e r s e c u t i o n s . T h i s idea has been developed by S c a r r e .

W a s this a t h i n l y d i s g u i s e d a t t a c k o n w o m e n as s u c h ? T h e c a s e t h a t t h e w i t c h . t h e s t e r e o t y p e o f a w i t c h in C h r i s t i a n E u r o p e has a l w a y s b e e n t h a t o f a w o m a n . T o what e x t e n t . she does n o t n u r t u r e m e n o r c h i l d r e n . T h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f a n y w o m a n as a w i t c h w i l l . n o r c a r e f o r t h e w e a k .h u n t ( b e t w e e n the late Middle Ages and t h e beginning o f the eighteenth c e n t u r v ) a response t o a perceived threat t o t h e s o c i a l o r d e r t h r o u g h s o m e c h a n g e in t h e s t a t u s o r p o w e r o f w o m e n ? D u r i n g those years. m o r e mysterious p o w e r s which do n o t derive f r o m the established order.h u n t is a s t r o n g o n e . refusing offers o f h e l p . t h e v a r r e s t e d all b u t t w o o f t h e . S h e is a s s e r t i v e . All w o m e n threaten m a l e h e g e m o n y with their exclusive therefore. In addition. and social o r d e r d e p e n d s o n w o m e n c o n f o r m i n g t o m a l e ideals o f f e m a l e b e h a v i o u r . In t w e l f t h . she m a y have o t h e r . s h e d o e s n o t r e q u i r e o r give love ( t h o u g h she m a y e n c h a n t ) . p o w e r t o give life.C h a p t e r 20 Christina Larner WAS WITCH-HUNTING HUNTING? WOMAN- m e m b e r o f t h e l o c a l L a b o u r P a r t y t o p r o t e s t t h a t this w a s s e x i s t . in L a n g e n d o r f in t h e R h i n e l a n d .h u n t w as a w o m a n . S h e has t h e p o w e r o f w o r d s — t o d e f e n d h e r s e l f o r t o c u r s e . w e r e put through a c o m p l e x judicial process administered bv m e n . b u t also c o n f o r m i n g f e m a l e s and their children. T h e y c h a n g e d i t t o ' D i t c h t h e B i t c h ' . T h e s a m e w e e k t h e d e a t h o f an e l d e r l y w o m a n f r o m s t a r v a t i o n w a s r e p o r t e d in t h e p r e s s . mostlv peasant w o m e n . and e x e c u t e d for witchcraft. asserting h e r p r i v a c y a n d i n d e p e n d e n c e . It w a s n o t e d t h a t s h e h a d b e e n t h e bane o f the social w o r k d e p a r t m e n t for vears. t h e a u t h o r i t i e s in o n e d i s t r i c t b e c a m e anxious about the prevalence o f witchcraft and began to round up the entire female p o p u l a t i o n . i t w a s l e f t t o a s c h o o l g i r l first p l a c e .c e n t u r v R u s s i a . set against h e r n o t only m a l e s . a n d t h e s c h o o l g i r l g a v e u p . In 1 4 9 2 . In t h e r W HEN THE ORGANISERS o f an u n e m p l o y m e n t r a l l v s u g g e s t e d 'Ditch t h e W i t c h ' [ M a r g e r e t T h a t c h e r ] as a b a n n e r s l o g a n . t h e n . O n l y t h e children? A n d w h a t do M a r g a r e t T h a t c h e r a n d a p a u p e r i s e d e s c a p e e f r o m t h e w e l f a r e s t a t e h a v e in c o m m o n ? T h e s t e r e o t y p e w i t c h is an i n d e p e n d e n t a d u l t w o m a n w h o d o e s n o t c o n f o r m t o t h e m a l e i d e a o f p r o p e r f e m a l e b e h a v i o u r . several thousands o f people. T h e r e p o r t a l s o n o t e d that the local children called h e r 'the w i t c h ' . a n d a b u s i n g all t h o s e w h o c a m e n e a r h e r . was the European w i t c h .

w o m e n .h u n t i n g in l a w and o r d e r c r i s e s . his d o g w o u l d be able to sniff out w h i c h o f t h e m was the w i t c h . n e v e r t h e l e s s .r e l a t e d . w o m e n w e r e a p r i m e symbol o f disorder. less s e x u a l l y . T h e last t e r m s e e m s t o h a v e had m u c h t h e s a m e p e j o r a t i v e m e a n i n g it c a r r i e s t o d a y : a l i b e r a t e d woman who w h o insists o n m a k i n g an i s s u e o f i t . t h e r e w a s n o t h i n g m i s o g vnous about witch-hunting. If you are looking for a w i t c h . o f the witch-hunt. persecutions than randomly w e n t to the stake during the w i t c h . archives France. W i t c h e s a r e c o n s p i c u o u s . W h e r e m e n m i g h t use knives. W i t c h e s . w e r e n o t ' n i c e p e o p l e ' . areas at the but reliable centre figures for particular criminal in Germany. D e p e n d e n t for their livelihood on the goodwill o f m e n . W e m u s t ask w h y w o m e n a p p e a r e d p a r t i c u l a r l y t h r e a t e n i n g t o p a t r i a r c h a l o r d e r a t this t i m e . sixteenth c e n t u r y d e m o n o l o g i s t s spent m u c h t i m e puzzling o v e r w h y w o m e n w e r e so m u c h m o r e w i c k e d than men. A witch to t h e m was a person w h o had r e n o u n c e d Christian baptism. It w a s n o t f o r n o t h i n g t h a t M a r g a r e t L i s t e r o f F i f e w a s d e s c r i b e d in h e r i n d i c t m e n t in 1 6 6 2 as 'a w i t c h . 8 0 per c e n t o f the accused w e r e f e m a l e . T h i s ignores the crucial p r o c e s s through w h i c h t h o s e w h o w e r e put on trial w e r e s e l e c t e d in t h e first p l a c e . f o r e x a m p l e was n e a r e r 9 5 — 1 0 0 per cent. the state and the p e o p l e . W h e t h e r anonvmous or publicly identified. ' i t a l w a y s l i g h t e d ' . m o s t w o m e n will n o t only c o n f o r m . floated suggests that. it m i g h t b e w o r t h a d d i n g t h a t w i t c h c r a f t ( t h e u l t i m a t e in h u m a n e v i l ) w a s s e x . a witch threatens the established o r d e r . T h e r e is m u c h t o s u g g e s t t h a t in t h e l a w . b u t it is n o t a b s u r d . T h e y w e r e t h e d i s t u r b e r s o f s o c i a l o r d e r . S h e c o u l d t e l l f o r t u n e s f r o m t h e way A more a person walked. a n d t h e l e g i t i m a c y o f p a r a l l e l s w i t h o t h e r g r e a t . W h i l e I a m c o n s i d e r i n g d u b i o u s b u t n o t q u i t e p o i n t l e s s s t a t i s t i c s . since male a b s u r d a r g u m e n t w h i c h has b e e n s u s p e c t s a p p e a r t o h a v e b e e n t r e a t e d w i t h t h e s a m e h a r s h n e s s as f e m a l e s o n c e t h e y r e a c h e d t h e c o u r t s . A b o u t 2 0 per cent o f suspects w e r e male. i f all t h e w o m e n in C o l l w e r e p l a c e d t o g e t h e r in a p e n . v o u a r e l o o k i n g f o r a w o m a n .h u n t i n g is t h a t it l e a d s us t o ask t o o n a r r o w a r a n g e o f q u e s t i o n s a b o u t i t . o f f the w e s t coast o f S c o t l a n d .h u n t was the prising out o f dangerous p e r s o n s w h o w e r e e n e m i e s o f G o d . T h o s e w h o w e r e p r o s e c u t e d for witchcraft w e r e n o t . c a m e in t h e w a k e o f n e w p u n i t i v e a t t i t u d e s t o s e x u a l were also particularlv vulnerable to the new laws first the proportion of females criminalization fighting with children. ' A n d w h e n I gave m y malison [the o p p o s i t e o f b e n i s o n j ' . O n the island o f C o l l . While were older women were for coming into the courts for The witchcraft offences women of or activity. F r o m this p e r s p e c t i v e .h u n t is p u t i n t o its c r i m i n a l c o n t e x t . t h e p u r s u i t of w i t c h e s was n o m o r e a p e r s e c u t i o n o f w o m e n than the p r o s e c u t i o n o f killers and m a i m e r s w a s a p e r s e c u t i o n o f m e n .a n d . against (including unofficial healing) and f o r k e e p i n g disorderly h o u s e s . T h e o b j e c t i o n t o v i e w i n g w i t c h .h u n t . T h e p a r a l l e l is n o t e x a c t .h u n t w a s n o t d i r e c t e d p r i m a r i l y b y m e n a g a i n s t w o m e n ? O n e l i n e o f a r g u m e n t is t h a t . certain activities o f w o m e n w e r e m a d e into c r i m e s for the time.h u n t w e n t cursing. U p t o this p e r i o d . F o r areas on t h e p e r i p h e r v — in E n g l a n d a n d R u s s i a . was n o t sex-specific. In t h e sixteenth c e n t u r v .h u n t was a straightf o r w a r d .h u n t was part o f the sex w a r . many accusations o f witchcraft w e r e between A t village l e v e l . d r a w a t t e n t i o n t o t h e m o r e s u b s t a n t i a l o b j e c tion that the c r i m e o f witchcraft. y o u n g e r being prosecuted infanticide and p r o s t i t u t i o n . H e said t h a t . she a r g u e d t h a t J e a n s h o u l d n o t b e a c c e p t e d as a w i t n e s s s i n c e she w a s as g r e a t a w i t c h h e r s e l f . given h i s / h e r s o u l t o t h e D e v i l .r e l a t e d t o f e m a l e s in j u s t t h e s a m e p r o p o r t i o n as s a n c t i t y ( t h e u l t i m a t e in h u m a n g o o d ) w a s s e x . a n d w h v t h e v c e a s e d t o b e s o t h r e a t e n i n g a b o u t 1 7 0 0 . often for the c r i m e o f cursing. a c h a r m e r a n d a l i b b e r ' . T h e ratio o f females to males put on trial for w i t c h c r a f t r e i n f o r c e s the t h e o r y that the w i t c h . b u t also attack w o m e n w h o by their n o n c o n f o r m i t y t h r e a t e n the s e c u ritv o f c o n f o r m i s t women. T h e fact that these ideological e n e m i e s t u r n e d out t o be 8 0 p e r cent f e m a l e could have added fuel t o the m i s o g y n y o f the age r a t h e r than b e a direct c o n s e q u e n c e o f it. a n d it c o u l d b e any w o m a n . p r e s s u r e s w h i c h c a m e l a r g e l y f r o m w o m e n . h o w e v e r . s i n c e w o m e n a c c u s e d o t h e r w o m e n a n d w e r e f r e q u e n t l y c h i e f w i t n e s s e s in t h e c o u r t s .o r d e r c r i s e s g e n e r a t e d b y the n e w regimes o f early m o d e r n E u r o p e . W h e n J a n e t M a c M u r d o c h . t h e y w e r e t h o s e w h o c o u l d n o t easilv c o o p e r a t e with o t h e r s . o u t a f u r t h e r r a n g e o f q u e s t i o n s a b o u t t h e f u n c t i o n o f C h r i s t i a n i t y as a p o l i t i c a l i d e o l o g y in this p e r i o d . n o bias a g a i n s t w o m e n c a n b e d e t e c t e d in t h e a u t h o r i t i e s . w o m e n used w o r d s . w o m e n t e n d e d t o b e r e g a r d e d in l a w as t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f t h e i r f a t h e r s o r t h e i r h u s b a n d s . r a n d o m l y s e l e c t e d (anv m o r e m a l e s w h o w e r e p r o s e c u t e d f o r c r i m e s o f v i o l e n c e in this p e r i o d w e r e selected). T h e r e are o t h e r reasons for doubting w h e t h e r the w i t c h . o n e Scottish w i t c h said at h e r t r i a l . W a s it b e c a u s e o f a r i s e in t h e i r s t a t u s a n d i n d e p e n d e n c e ? W a s t h e r e a s u p e r f l u o u s f e m a l e p o p u l a t i o n ? W a s it ( p a r a d o x i c a l l y ) because the Christianization o f the peasantry through the R e f o r m a t i o n and C o u n t e r Reformation i n c r e a s e d the individual responsibilitv o f w o m e n for their spiritual opens l i v e s ? W a s it b e c a u s e t h e r e l i g i o n so d i f f u s e d w a s r e l e n t l e s s l v p a t r i a r c h a l ? T h e thought that witch-hunting was actuallv witch-hunting.r e l a t e d to males during the 'sanctity e p i d e m i c ' o f the later Middle Ages. D e s p i t e the longt e r m s t e r e o t y p e . T h e p u r p o s e o f a w i t c h . e x c e p t during certain mass panics. t h e r o l e p l a v e d b v w i t c h . vounger w o m e n Women urban labouring. T h e p r i m e i n t e r e s t o f t h e a u t h o r i t i e s at t h e t i m e w a s t h e p u r s u i t o f w i t c h e s as such. while s e x .h u n t i n g s i m p l y as w o m a n . they w e r e aggressive. t h e i d e a t h a t t h e a u t h o r i t i e s in t h e s i x t e e n t h a n d s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s c o n s c i o u s l y s o u g h t t o t e r r o r i z e a n d i n t i m i d a t e w o m e n g a i n s f u r t h e r s t r e n g t h . a m a n c l a i m e d t o h a v e b e e n a t t a c k e d b v a w i t c h w h o h a d t u r n e d h e r s e l f i n t o an a n g r y s h e e p . lacking the male escape routes o f m e r c e n a r y v a g a b o n d s . a n d w a s in c o n s p i r a c y w i t h o t h e r w i t c h e s t o o v e r t h r o w the social o r d e r . T h e actual n u m b e r o f those involved is p e r m a n e n t l y suggest that in inaccessible. Male judges w e r e simply responding to pressures from b e l o w . W h e n t h e w i t c h . h o w e v e r . thinly disguised w o m a n . like m a l e bullies.274 CHRISTINA LARNER WAS WITCH-HUNTING W 0 MA N-HUNTING? 275 adult w o m e n . S o w h a t is t h e c a s e f o r a r g u i n g t h a t t h e w i t c h . It d o e s . T h e w o m e n w a s d e f e n d i n g h e r s e l f a g a i n s t t h e a c c u s a t i o n s o f J e a n S p r o t in D u m f r i e s in 1 6 7 1 . T h e cursing and b e w i t c h i n g w o m e n w e r e the f e m a l e equivalent o f violent m a l e s . Switzerland and Scotland. T h i s l i n e o f r e a s o n i n g is b a s e d on a failure to recognize that a patriarchal social structure divides women.s p e c i f i c and purges o f past and p r e s e n t .

' c h a n g e ' a l o n e c a n n o t e x p l a i n t h e w i t c h . T h i s c l a s s i c m o d e l o f w i t c h c r a f t a c c u s a t i o n has s i n c e b e e n shown t o have a w i d e r application than m e r e l y for E n g l a n d / although o n e might q u e s t i o n w h e t h e r it actually explains w h y it w a s w o m e n w h o p r e d o m i n a t e d a m o n g s t t h e a c c u s e d . L a r n e r did n o t give p r e c i s e definitions f o r these t e r m s . It w a s t h e a g e .h u n t s is h o w a c c u s a t i o n a n d p e r s e c u t i o n f o r w i t c h c r a f t In an a t t e m p t t o q u e s t i o n w h y t h e g r e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n o f t h o s e a c c u s e d this c h a p t e r seeks t o m o v e b e y o n d K e i t h of Magic Thomas's Focusing and the Decline ( 1 9 7 1 ) and also b e y o n d t h e d i c h o t o m y 2 c a m e t o b e largely d i r e c t e d against w o m e n . 6 states they H e p l a c e s w i t c h c r a f t w i t h i n its s o c i a l . a r g u i n g t h a t t h e a n s w e r t o w h o t h e w i t c h e s w e r e c a n b e f o u n d at the village level w h e r e allegations a r o s e . t h e a r e a o f h e r r e s e a r c h e s ) w e r e s e x . T h e accusation o f w o m e n w a s n o t m e r e l v a r e f l e c t i o n o f an a g e . ideology.s p e c i f i c . this s c e n a r i o o f s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s in a c o n t e x t o f c h a n g i n g . when formal witchcraft accusation w a s at its h e i g h t . d e s p i t e his c l a i m s t o t h e c o n t r a r y . but w e r e m o r e to do with the imposition o f a Christian p o l i t i c a l i d e o l o g y . slightly b e t t e r off. l i k e M a c f a r l a n e . c l e a r l y shies a w a y f r o m s e e i n g this o u t c o m e Marianne Hester PATRIARCHAL AND RECONSTRUCTION WITCH-HUNTING O NE OF T H E MOST CONSISTENT yet least u n d e r s t o o d aspects o f the f o r w o m e n as in a n y w a y r e l a t e d t o m a l e — f e m a l e c o n f l i c t . a p o o r w o m a n w o u l d ask f o r c h a r i t y o r t o b o r r o w e s s e n t i a l s u p p l i e s ( o f t e n f r o m a n o t h e r . t h r o u g h o u t E u r o p e and the so-called New World. village conflicts around neighbourliness g r e w especially acute. W i t h i n this context w i t c h p e r s e c u t i o n s e r v e d — in a d y n a m i c r a t h e r t h a n f u n c t i o n a l s e n s e — as a m e a n s o f r e c r e a t i n g t h e m a l e s t a t u s q u o in t h e e m e r g i n g s o c i a l o r d e r . w o u l d b e a c c u s e d o f using w i t c h c r a f t t o c a u s e t h e m i s f o r t u n e . T h e erosion o f the manorial system w i t h l o s s o f c u s t o m a r y t e n a n c i e s a n d c o m m o n l a n d c r e a t e d p o v e r t y w h i l e at t h e same t i m e b r e a k i n g up old c o o p e r a t i v e village c o m m u n i t i e s . Essentially. has r i g h t l y p o i n t e d o u t t h a t c h a n g e is n o t a f e a t u r e u n i q u e t o t h i s p e r i o d . h e d o e s n o t a c t u a l l y m a n a g e t o e x p l a i n w h y i t s h o u l d b e w o m e n r a t h e r t h a n m e n w h o a r e in this p o s i t i o n o f v u l n e r a b i l i t y . and o n e e x a m p l e of. turing o f society which created many uncertainties. 1 o f wdtchcraft w e r e w o m e n . m o r a l obligations does explain w h y t h e accused w e r e older. e c o n o m y . S h e c o n c l u d e s t h a t w h i l e t h e vast m a j o r i t y o f t h o s e a c c u s e d a m i d those p r o s e c u t e d for witchcraft w e r e w o m e n . n o r m e r e l y t h e b y .o l d s t e r e o t y p e . W i d o w s w e r e particularly adversely affected by these changes leaving t h e m vulnerable t o w i t c h c r a f t a c c u s a t i o n .r e l a t e d ' m e a n t that witch-hunts w e r e ' o n e degree r e m o v e d f r o m an a t t a c k o n w o m e n as s u c h ' . S i n c e Religion and the Decline of Magic w a s first p u b l i s h e d in t h e e a r l y 1 9 7 0 s t h e m a i n l y o n E n g l i s h m a t e r i a l . a r e h u m a n r a t h e r t h a n f e m a l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ' . conflictual. the witch-hunts w e r e n o t actually about w o m e n hunting. T h i s c h a p t e r e x a m ines s o m e o f the evidence for t h e relationship b e t w e e n witchcraft and patriarchal r e c o n s t r u c t i o n . T h i s is b e c a u s e his s o m e w h a t p o s i t i v i s t i c a p p r o a c h t o t h e m a t e r i a l detailing the accused and victims o f witchcraft does n o t allow him t o e x a m i n e the p r o c e s s o f g e n d e r i n g o f t h e social relations h e o t h e r w i s e so e l o q u e n t l y d e s c r i b e s . Keith T h o m a s . 8 e a r l v m o d e r n w i t c h . L a r n e r a r g u e d t h a t t h e w i t c h . b u t d e n i e d and eventually. F o r T h o m a s . Nonetheless.f e m a l e conflict with regard t o resources. talking o f course primarily about the English c o n t e x t . H e a r g u e s t h a t b e c a u s e t h e m i s o g y n i s t i c o r ' b l a t a n t l y s e x u a l a s p e c t s ' o f w i t c h c r a f t c o m m o n in c o n t i n e n t a l l i t e r a t u r e s u c h as t h e Malleus Maleflcarum w e r e n o t a feature o f English trials. t h e g e n d e r i n g o f expectations and meanings and m a l e . in p a r t i c u l a r l i n k s b e t w e e n ' t h e f e m a l e ' a n d t h e w i t c h . a n d in p r a c t i c e . t h a t is m a l i c e a n d a l l e g e d s u p e r n a t u r a l p o w e r . 3 It is g e n e r a l l y recognised Levack during and t h a t E u r o p e in t h e e a r l y m o d e r n p e r i o d e x p e r i e n c e d a v a r i e t y o f m a j o r c h a n g e s in t e r m s o f d e m o g r a p h y .r e l a t e d w i t h r e g a r d t o w o m e n b u t n o t s e x . T h o m a s argues that w i t c h c r a f t accusation was related t o failure t o carry o u t s o m e hitherto recognised social obliga t i o n . H e points o u t that during t h e late T u d o r and earlv Stuart period. religions and political systems. a n d t h a t 4 w o r k o f C h r i s t i n a L a r n e r has p r o b a b l y h a d t h e g r e a t e s t i m p a c t o n h i s t o r i a n s ' p e r c e p t i o n s o f w h y it w a s l a r g e l y w o m e n w h o w e r e a c c u s e d o f w i t c h c r a f t d u r i n g t h e e a r l y m o d e r n p e r i o d . that ' t h e judicial r e c o r d s reveal t w o essential facts a b o u t a c c u s e d w i t c h e s : w e r e p o o r . enon o f the witch-hunts w e have t o see male o f p o s s i b l e l i n k s b e t w e e n e a r l y m o d e r n s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s at t h e v i l l a g e l e v e l . ' t h e idea that w i t c h p r o s e c u t i o n s r e f l e c t e d a w a r between the sexes must be discounted'. the o n g o i n g m e c h a n i s m s for social c o n t r o l o f w o m e n within a general c o n t e x t o f social change and the r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a patriarchal s o c i e t y . i f m i s f o r t u n e h a p p e n e d t o t h e o n e w h o had d e n i e d h e r . E u r o p e e x p e r i e n c e d changes and a r e s t r u c ambiguities.h u n t s at this t i m e .o l d g e n d e r s t e r e o t v p e o f t h e w i t c h t h a t m a d e t h e m the sixteenth and s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s .PATRIARCHAL RECONSTRUCTION AND WITCH-HUNTING 277 C h a p t e r 21 e n v i r o n m e n t . 3 tensions conflicts n o t least with regard to m a l e female relations. p o o r and often w i d o w e d w o m e n .s p e c i f i c ' w o u l d b e a p p l i e d o n l v i f all t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e w i t c h w e r e a t t r i b u t a b l e t o w o m e n . b e l i e f s w o m e n ' s p o s i t i o n as d e p e n d e n t p o o r a n d e s p e c i a l l y as p o o r w i d o w s . but indicated that the t e r m ' s e x . about witchcraft and neighbourliness. and especially because the accusations w e r e often from o n e w o m a n t o another rather than b e t w e e n w o m e n and m e n . i t a r g u e s t h a t in o u r q u e s t t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e p h e n o m f e m a l e c o n f l i c t u a l r e l a t i o n s as a n integral part o f the process o f accusation and p e r s e c u t i o n .h u n t s in e a r l y m o d e r n E u r o p e ( a n d e s p e c i a l l y in S c o t l a n d . B u t . she a r g u e d . and they w e r e usually w o m e n ' . T h o m a s . this is n o t t h e c a s e b e c a u s e 'the t w o principal characteristics o f the w i t c h . o f d e p e n d e n c y a n d p o v e r t y . the witch-hunts w e r e a part of.p r o d u c t o f a patriarchal society. ' S e x . w o m a n ) . a n a l y s i s in Religion T h o m a s t h u s p r e s e n t s a c o m p l e x analysis and social change which incorporates o f 'sex-related versus sex-specific' set up by Christina Larner's w o r k .

T h e r e are.h u n t s . s u p p o s e d l y o f w i t c h e s . A s she says w h e n d i s c u s s i n g t h e l i n k b e t w e e n w i t c h c r a f t a n d t h e t y p e o f p e r s o n a c c u s e d . t o w a r d s w o m e n and in p a r t i c u l a r a c c u s a t i o n m u s t b e s e e n in this c o n t e x t o f w i d e s p r e a d f e a r s t h a t w o m e n w e r e b y . It is n o t e n o u g h . has o u t l i n e d t h e m a n y w a y s w o m e n ' s lives w e r e c u r t a i l e d by c o m p a r i s o n t o t h o s e o f m e n . N e i t h e r s e x has a m o n o p o l y o n a n y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o r b e h a v i o u r — e x c e p t as c o n s t r u c t e d a n d s p e c i f i e d at a n y p a r t i c u l a r t i m e . and how and w h y w i t c h . t h a t o f p l a c i n g as c e n t r a l t o w i t c h h u n t i n g t h e i m p o s i t i o n o f a C h r i s t i a n p o l i t i c a l i d e o l o g y and t h e a r g u m e n t t h a t t h e s e x . a m o n g s t t h e p e a s a n t r y . s o m e p r o b l e m s with L a r n e r ' s d i c h o t o m y ol sexrelated versus sex-specific. b u t — at d i f f e r e n t t i m e s a n d at d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s — b o t h r e l a t e d t o a n d s p e c i f i c t o w o m e n . t h e p a t r i a r c h a l i d e a l f o r w o m e n w a s t h a t they should b e quiet ( n o t scolds) and subservient t o their husbands ( n o t c u c k o l d i n g t h e l a t t e r ) . W i t h r e g a r d t o t h e e a r l y m o d e r n p e r i o d t h e r e is s o m e e v i d e n c e t o s u g g e s t t h a t t h e p r i n c i p a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e w i t c h were of 1 0 If w e are to understand was society at h o w a female w i t c h s t e r e o t y p e d e v e l o p e d . 9 p o o r e r .h u n t i n g is w o m e n h u n t i n g o r at l e a s t i t is t h e h u n t i n g o f w o m e n who h o w w o m e n ought to conduct t h e m s e l v e s ' . 1 9 d e e m e d the only a p p r o p r i a t e place f o r any sexual activity t o B u t in this p r e . e s p e c i a l l y p r i o r t o t h e w i t c h . W e n e e d in p a r t i c u l a r t o t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t t h e dynamic b e i n g p e r c e i v e d i n c r e a s i n g l y as f e m a l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . i n c l u d i n g b o t h m e n a n d w o m e n . a l b e i t l i m i t e d o n e s : ' W o m e n find w a y s o f c o p i n g w i t h their o p p r e s s i o n and ways o f resisting it. L a r n e r ' s use o f the d i c h o t o m y o f w e r e c o n s i d e r e d s e x u a l l y i n s a t i a b l e a n d p r o n e t h e r e f o r e t o sinful a n d d e v i a n t b e h a v i o u r . t h e w i t c h . sex under male control.s p e c i f i c has u n f o r t u n a t e l y s e t u p a d u a l i s m w h i c h it is o f t e n difficult to l o o k b e v o n d — w h e r e historians t e n d to c o n c u r emphatically with h e r a r g u m e n t o f s e x .h u n t i n g directly linked to s e x / g e n d e r . a n d a l s o a w a y f r o m t h e e l i t e . structures and discourses that characterise patriarchy for w o m e n . Formal witch accusations change from being m e r e l y sex-related to being 1 4 W e n e e d t o m o v e b e y o n d the d i c h o t o m y set up by L a r n e r ' s w o r k so that w e m a y d e v e l o p a m o r e s o p h i s t i c a t e d analysis o l w h y t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h o s e a c c u s e d o f w i t c h c r a f t d u r i n g t h e s i x t e e n t h a n d s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s w e r e w o m e n . M a l e s e x u a l i t v w as n o t d i s c u s s e d in a s i m i l a r l y n e g a t i v e m a n n e r . r 1 3 d o n o t fulfill t h e m a l e v i e w o f Secondly. for e x a m p l e . i n c l u d i n g a p e r c e p t i o n nature o f patriarchy. Witchcralt In m o s t o f t h e c o u n t r i e s a f f e c t e d b v w i t c h . w a s — as e x p r e s s e d in m a n y s e r m o n s .h u n t s . w e must take into a c c o u n t that European p r i o r t o .s p e c i f i c ' at a l l . older and often w i d o w e d w o m e n during the sixteenth and m o r e s e x .h u n t s w e s e e an o r i e n t a t i o n o f p e r s e c u t i o n a w a v f r o m m e n . seventeenth centuries.h u n t s w a s m a l e d o m i n a t e d o r p a t r i a r c h a l . p a m p h l e t s and o t h e r l i t e r ature at the t i m e take p l a c e .c e n t u r y E n g l a n d . that is. c o n s i d e r b e l i e f s a m o n g s t t h e l e a r n e d e l i t e a n d t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a legal f r a m e w o r k f o r d e a l i n g w i t h w i t c h c r a f t . I f w e are t o u s e t h e t e r m s ' s e x . b e l i e f s a n d a c t i v i t i e s a g a i n s t w i t c h e s w e r e — in m o s t E u r o p e a n c o u n t r i e s — s e x . societies that are m a l e dominated rely on constructions o f 'the f e m a l e ' which present w o m e n as b o t h d i f f e r e n t a n d i n f e r i o r t o m e n . eroticisation. p r o c r e a t i v e s e x u a l i t y u n d e r t h e c o n t r o l o f m e n . b u t also h o w w o m e n a c t e d w i t h i n this c o n t e x t as s u b j e c t s m a k i n g c h o i c e s . a s e x u a l d o u b l e s t a n d a r d w i t h f e m a l e s e x u a l i t v p r e s e n t e d as i n f e r i o r t o t h a t o i m e n . t h e r e is s o m e e v i d e n c e t o s u g g e s t t h a t t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p is d i r e c t : ' W i t c h . as t h e site o f a h e t e r o s e x u a l .r e l a t e d o r m e r e l v s e x . t h e n w e s h o u l d use the t e r m s to reflect a m o r e c o m p l e x situation. and t h e r e b y m a i n t a i n i n g . is o b v i o u s in t e x t s s u c h as t h e Malleus Malefcarum. for i n s t a n c e .s p e c i f i c . b u t this capitulation o r resist a n c e is n o t f r e e o r s e l f . w e see that u n e q u a l male—female social relations w e r e also r e f l e c t e d in a n d c o n s t r u c t e d b y t h e e m e r g i n g n o t i o n o f t h e w i t c h . and t h i s r e q u i r e s a d e e p e r l o o k at m a l e — f e m a l e r e l a t i o n s ( o r g e n d e r r e l a t i o n s ) d u r i n g t h i s period than most historians have so far a t t e m p t e d . t h a t all a p p e a r t o b e o f w o m e n . I w o u l d suggest that the witchh u n t s w e r e n o t m e r e l y s e x . C o h n . documents n T h e s e ideas w e r e e x p r e s s e d m o s t obviously by the middle and u p p e r c l a s s e s . w h i l e at a l o c a l l e v e l . T from Women Finally. I f w e f o c u s o n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e w i t c h c r a f t c o n s t r u c t a m o n g s t t h e l e a r n e d e l i t e in t h e c e n t u r i e s l e a d i n g up t o the w i t c h .w i t c h . o f ' t h e f e m a l e ' i n a v a r i e t y o f w a y s o v e r t i m e . a n d s e x u a l i s a t i o n .r e l a t e d v e r s u s s e x . social s t r u c t u r e s and discourses manv different levels. talking specifically about w o m e n ' s activities within the patriarchal c o n t e x t o f s e v e n t e e n t h .d e t e r m i n e d : it c a n n o r m a l l y o n l y o c c u r w i t h i n t h e l i m i t s and on t h e t e r m s o f t h e f r a m e w o r k set by the d o m i n a n t g r o u p . This misses the point (otherwise implicit in the q u o t a t i o n f r o m L a r n e r ) t h a t g e n d e r r e l a t i o n s a r e an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f C h r i s t i a n p o l i t ical i d e o l o g y . 11 procreative In r e c e n t v e a r s t h e r e has b e e n a t r e m e n d o u s d e v e l o p m e n t in t h e t h e o r i s i n g o f t h e p r o c e s s i n v o l v e d in w h a t T h o m a s t e r m s t h e ' w a r b e t w e e n t h e s e x e s ' . h e t e r o s e x u a l i n t e r c o u r s e outside m a r r i a g e . O n e o f t h e r e s u l t s . b u t t h e y w e r e a l s o r e f l e c t e d in a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s a n d d e c i s i o n s a b o u t t h e b e h a v i o u r o f w o m e n f r o m t h e l o w e r c l a s s e s as e x e m p l i f i e d b y c h u r c h c o u r t c a s e s : m a n y w o m e n w e r e p u n i s h e d t h r o u g h t h e s e c o u r t s f o r b e a r i n g an i l l e g i t i m a t e c h i l d and for f o r n i c a t i o n . men'. t h a t is the oppressive relations. M a r r i a g e . this d i f f e r e n c e . c o n s t r u c t i n g a n d b e i n g c o n s t r u c t e d b y t h i s . w h e r e continuity o f inequality b e t w e e n m e n and w o m e n relies on changing f o r m s o f oppression o v e r t i m e .h u n t p e r i o d t h e f o c u s o f p e r s e c u t i o n w a s t h o s e p e r s o n s c o n s i d e r e d b y t h e C a t h o l i c c h u r c h as ' h e r e t i c s ' . as s e x r e l a t e d . o r ing. n o m e a n s c o m p l y i n g w i t h the ideal o f the quiet c o m p l i a n t w i f e . For a start. 1 7 s e x .h u n t s . w h i l e n o t t h i n k i n g b e y o n d this a n d m e r e l y r i d i c u l i n g and marginalising the a r g u m e n t that the w i t c h .278 MARIANNE HESTER PATRIARCHAL RECONSTRUCTION AND WITCH-HUNTING 279 sex-related. t o u s e S c a r r e ' s w o r d s . As I have p o i n t e d o u t e l s e w h e r e . p e r s e c u t i o n o f t h o s e d e e m e d t o b e w i t c h e s was probablv m o r e specific to w o m e n even then.s p e c i f i c . defining 'sex-specific' by r e f e r e n c e to a set o f characteristics which c a n s e e m i n g l y a p p l y t o o n l y o n e s e x i g n o r e s t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f c h a n g e in t h e p e r c e p t i o n and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f anv characteristics a t t r i b u t a b l e t o m e n o r w o m e n . as w e l l as d u r i n g .r e l a t e d ' a n d ' s e x . 1 1 W h e r e the early m o d e r n witch-hunts r a r e c o n c e r n e d w e h a v e m u c h e v i d e n c e o f this s e x u a l i s i n g p r o c e s s . ' t o sav t h a t m o r e w o m e n t h a n m e n w e r e t r i e d f o r w i t c h c r a f t b e c a u s e the stereotypical witch was a w o m a n ' . is p a r t i c u l a r l y i m p o r t a n t in c o n s t r u c t 1 6 m a l i c e a n d u s e o f s u p e r n a t u r a l p o w e r as m o r e l i k e l y t o b e f e m a l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . a l t h o u g h at a l o c a l and i n f o r m a l l e v e l . h o w e v e r . b v c o n t r a s t t o t h e ' n o r m ' w h i c h w a s c o n s t r u e d as h e t e r o s e x u a l . 1 8 D u r i n g this p e r i o d o f t h e w i t c h .r e l a t e d n e s s o f a c c u s a t i o n s is s e p a r a t e f r o m this a n d m e r e l y t o d o w i t h t h e a g e old stereotype of the witch. T h i s l e a d s us t o a n o t h e r r e l a t e d p r o b l e m . We may. w h e r e it w as particularly female sexuality that was perceived to m a k e w o m e n different men. H o b b y . 2 0 i n s t a n c e s o f l o c a l l y n c h i n g s . with a resultant g e n d e r i n g o f social r e l a t i o n s .s p e c i f i c at t h i s t i m e .h u n t s w e r e indeed sex-specific. Larner's own work is actually more a m b i g u o u s t h a n t h e d i c h o t o m y t h a t has a r i s e n f r o m it s u g g e s t s .r e l a t e d n e s s .

witch's magistrates r e c o m m e n d e d that the pre-trial body search for 2 2 material f r o m England. and that accusations w e r e often directed by women women attrib'incaa g a i n s t w o m e n . so it is e a s i e r t o b e i n t r a p p e d in t h e s e g r o s s e s n a r e s o f t h e D e v i l l . b e c a u s e it p r o b a b l y a l l o w e d t h e m g r e a t e r a c c e s s t o r e s o u r c e s a n d p o t e n T h e b e l i e f in w i t c h c r a f t . u p o n w h i c h a c c u s a t i o n o f w i t c h c r a f t r e l i e d .f u l f i l l i n g . the process o f c o n s t r u c t i o n and positioning o f w o m e n ( b y t h e m s e l v e s . T h e p a m p h l e t f o r t h e t r i a l t e l l s us t h a t E l l e i n e S m i t h e i n h e r i t e d s o m e m o n e y from Alice. which Alice's widowed husband. usually a w o m a n . in a t e x t o f 1 6 1 7 . T h e p r o c e s s o f g e n d e r i n g is o f central i m p o r t a n c e : that is. t h a t it is t h e s e x o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l t h a t d e t e r m i n e s h o w a t a s k is p e r c e i v e d rather than the nature o f the task i t s e l f . W o m e n ' s supposedly insatiable and i m m o r a l sexuality was likely t o lead t h e m i n t o a l l e g i a n c e w i t h t h e D e v i l w h o c o u l d fulfill t h e i r s e x u a l d e s i r e s e v e n b e t t e r . H e w a n t s s o m e f o r his c h i c k e n s a n d t a k e s i t f r o m h e r . p r o v i d e d a fullv a r g u e d t h e o r y by lawyer o f this link. A n d d e v i a n c e . I h a v e a l r e a d v i n d i c a t e d t h a t T h o m a s in Religion and the Decline of Magic. a n d b e f o r e his d e a t h states that Elleine b e w i t c h e d h i m so that he was unable t o eat or digest m e a t . t h e r e was a g e n d e r i n g o f e x p e c tations and m e a n i n g s . w h e r e a p p a r e n t u s e o f w i t c h c r a f t b e c a m e an a l t e r n a t i v e f o r w o m e n physical v i o l e n c e . O n e p a t t e r n w e a r e all familiar w i t h f r o m the trial material involves the suspect asking s o m e o n e a n o t h e r h o u s e h o l d . f o r e x a m p l e . . r e s u l t is t h a t s h e e n d s u p as t h e a c c u s e d . conflict and discourse to gain a b e t t e r understanding o f h o w the c o n s t r u c t 'unneighbourly' others. w h e r e m e n and w o m e n carry out similar activities b u t only w o m e n end up accused o f witchcraft. M i c h a e l D a l t o n . that is. t h a n m e r e m o r t a l m e n . as T h o m a s s u g g e s t s . from for f o o d . 2 3 marks be 'focused upon the genital a r e a ' . does n o t agree that the witch-hunts m a y be linked directly t o male—female c o n f l i c t o r s e x s t r u g g l e . f r o m t h e s a m e t r i a l . B e r n a r d ' s Guide to Grand-Jury Men. as b o t h T h o m a s a n d L a r n e r i n d i c a t e . John Chaundeler.f e a r i n g a n d d e e p l y s u p e r s t i t i o u s s o c i e t y . W e have to look to the general c o n t e x t o f male—female r e l a t i o n s . b y t h e S e r p e n t s d e c e i v i n g o f E v e at t h e b e g i n n i n g . T h e a g e . O t h e r s have m o r e convincingly s o c i e t y . h e n c e s i n f u l b e i n g . or w h e r e it is w o m e n w h o e n d u p a c c u s e d o f m e n ' s m i s d e m e a n o u r s . makes him the h o m e l i e r with that sex ever s i n c e . 2 4 than m e n . s e x u a l l v d e v i a n t . t h e n d e m a n d e d f o r h i m s e l f . b u t t h e c o n s t r u c t o f t h e f e m a l e as an a c t i v e l v s e x u a l . It w a s m e n w h o s t o o d t o g a i n b y t h e l i n k i n g o f w i t c h c r a f t a n d ' t h e f e m a l e ' b e c a u s e it p r o v i d e d t h e m w i t h a g r e a t e r m o r a l and social status than w o m e n . w a s c o n s t r u e d as witchcraft. W e c a n s e e t h i s p r o c e s s c l e a r l v in t r i a l might ' m a d e an e x p l i c i t a t t e m p t t o c o n f l a t e t h e f a m i l i a r ' s s u c k i n g b l o o d f r o m t h e w i t c h with the continental discussion o f the coven and the w i t c h ' s relationship with Satan'. b u t a l s o i m p l i c i t in t h e s y m b o l i s m o f t h e f a m i l i a r a n d t h e w i t c h e s ' m a r k s in o t h e r t r i a l s .280 MARIANNE HESTER PATRIARCHAL RECONSTRUCTION AND WITCH-HUNTING 281 T h e w o m e n a c c u s e d o f w i t c h c r a f t m a y b e s e e n as v i c t i m s o f t h e w i t c h . Women were perceived to be morally weak by c o m p a r i s o n with m e n . In t h i s . as w a s w e l l p r o v e d t o b e t r u e . a n d t h e m a n y s u b t l e o r n o t so s u b t l e p r e s s u r e s u n d e r l y i n g s u c h c o n s t r u c t i o n s a n d p o s i t i o n i n g . s e l f .h u n t p e r i o d w o m e n w e r e p e r c e i v e d as m o r e l i k e l y t o b e s e x u a l l y d e v i a n t t h a n m e n b e c a u s e in a G o d . D e l p h y has p o i n t e d out. her mother. B u t i f a m a n m a k e s d e m a n d s o f a w o m a n t h e n it still t h e w o m a n w h o is a c c u s e d o f w i t c h c r a f t — as in t h e c a s e o f J o h n C h a u n d e l e r a n d E l l e i n e S m i t h e a t t h e 1 5 7 9 t r i a l in C h e l m s f o r d . serving the material interests of men a n d a l s o . in i t s e l f e x p l a i n w h y w o m e n p r e d o m i n a t e d a m o n g s t t h e a c c u s e d d u r i n g the early m o d e r n period. m u s t b e s e e n as a g e n d e r e d i d e o l o g y within m e r e l v . o t h e r household items and even m o n e y . to a more explicit focus on the genitals. so it w a s f e a r e d . G e n e r a l b e l i e f s a b o u t w i t c h c r a f t in t h e e a r l y m o d e r n p e r i o d w e r e l i n k e d t o s e x / g e n d e r in s u c h a w a y t h a t it w a s e x p e c t e d t h a t w o m e n a n d n o t m e n w o u l d u s e w i t c h c r a f t f o r r e t r i b u t i o n and t o cause h a r m — that is. b u t also changes B e r n a r d ' s insistence that w i t c h e s ' m a r k s m a y b e found a n y w h e r e — a l t h o u g h in ' v e r y h i d d e n p l a c e s ' Thereafter. that w o m e n w h o w e r e accused o f witchcraft largely used witchcraft against o t h e r w o m e n . tially l u c r a t i v e c r a f t s a n d t r a d e s t h a n w o m e n . T h e p a m p h l e t for the trial describes M o t h e r S t a u n t o n walking past T h o m a s P r a t ' s h o u s e w i t h s o m e g r a i n . 2 1 C l i v e H o l m e s n o t e s t h a t T h o m a s C o o p e r . the refuser o r her/his family subsequently suffers death o r i l l n e s s . as f o u n d patriarchal relations. u n a b l e t o use the m e a n s 2 6 usually e m p l o y e d by m e n . In a n o t h e r i n s t a n c e . H e has p r e v i o u s l y e q u i v o c a t e d a b o u t w h e t h e r o r n o t s h e is a w i t c h . as I shall d i s c u s s further b e l o w . T h e w o m a n m a k i n g t h e d e m a n d is t h e n a c c u s e d o f w i t c h c r a f t . S u b s e q u e n t l y J o h n C h a u n d e l e r d i e s . In t h e c i r c u l a r . as a m e a n s o f d e a l i n g w i t h g u i l t a f t e r behaviour. Here we have a direct example o f the link b e t w e e n 2 3 women w e r e b v d e f i n i t i o n ( l i k e E v e in t h e g a r d e n o f E d e n ) . J a m e s V I o f S c o t l a n d ( l a t e r a l s o J a m e s I o f E n g l a n d ) w r o t e . E u r o p e and N e w England. S i n c e w e find f r o m t h e t r i a l m a t e r i a l . g e n d e r d i s c o u r s e o f t h e w i t c h . D a l t o n c i t e s B e r n a r d ' w i t h e n t h u s i a s t i c a p p r o v a l ' . w i t h t h e p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h e f o u r t h e d i t i o n o f The Country Justice a n d J P . w i t h r e g a r d t o social relations in F r e n c h peasant s o c i e t y . supposedly providing t h a t she has b e w i t c h e d t h e m . s h o w s us t h a t w o m e n w e r e b y n o m e a n s c o n s i d ered passive or compliant. s t a t i n g at o n e t h a t she is n o t b u t h a v i n g o n a n o t h e r o c c a s i o n ' r a c e d h e r f a c e w i t h a N e d l e ' subsequently believed himself bewitched. T h o m a s a r g u e s t h a t this s h o w s t h e r e w a s a c o n f l i c t between rather than a struggle b e t w e e n the sexes. i t is T h o m a s P r a t w h o t a k e s M o t h e r S t a u n t o n ' s g r a i n b u t it is M o t h e r S t a u n t o n w h o e n d s u p a c c u s e d o f w i t c h c r a f t . a d e c a d e l a t e r . . b o t h E n g l i s h a n d other E u r o p e a n .o l d f e m a l e s t e r e o t y p e o f t h e w i t c h d o e s n o t . u t e d this s i t u a t i o n t o w o m e n ' s p o s i t i o n a n d g e n e r a l l a c k o f p o w e r in a p a t r i a r c h a l p a b l e o f u s i n g t h e m o r e n o r m a l o r s o c i a l l v a p p r o v e d m e a n s o f r e v e n g e s u c h as o r r e c o u r s e t o law c o u r t s ' . Daemonologie: T h e r e a s o n is e a s i e : f o r as t h a t s e x e is f r a i l e r t h a n m e n i s . b u t this c o u l d also m a k e t h e m appear u l t i m a t e l y stronger o f ' t h e f e m a l e ' b e c a m e s y n o n y m o u s w i t h t h e w i t c h . in his The which time and When his chickens eat Mother evidence amongst the construction of 'the Staunton's grain t h r e e o r four dozen o f t h e m die. f e m a l e ' as d i f f e r e n t a n d i n f e r i o r t o m e n a n d ' t h e w i t c h ' . In t h e E n g l i s h t r i a l m a t e r i a l this a l l e g i a n c e w a s e x p l i c i t w i t h s o m e o f t h e l a t e r t r i a l s s u c h as t h e 1 6 4 5 t r i a l s i n E s s e x i n v o l v i n g M a t t h e w H o p k i n s . A n d sexualisation o f t h e w i t c h e s ' m a r k was m a d e especially a p p a r e n t a f t e r 1 6 3 0 . It t r a n s p i r e s t h a t J o h n a n d E l l e i n e h a v e f a l l e n o u t o v e r his d e m a n d f o r t h e m o n e y . . and not d u r i n g t h e s i x t e e n t h a n d s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s .h u n t s . W h e n refused this. o t h e r w o m e n a n d m e n ) as i n f e r i o r a n d s u b o r d i n a t e t o m e n .

saw a deterioration o f w o m e n ' s r o l e in p r o d u c t i o n . T h o m a s g i v e s n u m e r o u s e x a m p l e s o f c u r s i n g l e a d i n g t o an a c c u s a t i o n o f w i t c h c r a f t . a n d h e n c e w i t c h c r a f t . and elite ideas a b o u t t h e unruliness o f w o m e n and the n e e d t o c o n t r o l t h e m . B y a c t i n g as m o r a l g a t e k e e p e r s t h e y m a v f e e l v a l u e d o r at l e a s t h a v e s o m e p o w e r . m a t e r i a l a n d p s v c h o l o g i c a l p r e s s u r e s o n t h e m t o d o s o . A t a l o c a l l e v e l . c a n b e u n d e r s t o o d in m o r e ' r a t i o n a l ' t e r m s w i t h o u t r e c o u r s e t o w i t c h c r a f t . W h e n w e l o o k use does link s o m e o f these e c o n o m i c changes t o the i m p o v e r i s h m e n t and d e p e n d e n c e o f c e r t a i n l o w e r . t o a l a r g e e x t e n t . Chris Middleton i n d i c a t e s t h a t it w a s specificin ally m e n w h o b e c a m e p r e d o m i n a n t in t h e o c c u p a t i o n s w h i c h w e r e f o r e m o s t in t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e earlier feudal p r o d u c t i o n ) . 3 4 Moreover. p o w e r . W e only o f language and m e a n i n g s . S h e is r e c o r d e d as s a v i n g t h a t A l e s w a s m e r e l y a n g r y at J o h n s o n . b e c a u s e h e did n o t g i v e h e r t h e h a n d o u t s h e r e q u i r e d . h o w e v e r . wdiile s o m e o f t h e w o m e n p r o b a b l y did b e l i e v e t h a t t h e y h a d o r c o u l d h a v e u s e d w i t c h c r a f t . h e m a k e s n o m e n t i o n o f this fact.n e u t r a l t e r m s t h a t c u r s i n g ' w a s a m e a n s b y w h i c h t h e w e a k and defenceless tried t o avenge themselves u p o n their e n e m i e s ' . b u t o f e x p e c t a t i o n s a b o u t w o m e n ' s At a local level w e thus see w o m e n S e e i n g w i t c h c r a f t as a f o r m o f n e g a t i v e p o w e r a v a i l a b l e t o w o m e n in a p a r t i c u l a r i n e g a l i t a r i a n c o n t e x t is an o v e r a l l p i c t u r e o f t h e w i t c h . b u t w e m u s t a l s o b e c a r e ful n o t t o l o s e sight o f t h e c o m p l e x i t y o f m a l e — f e m a l e r e l a t i o n s t h a t s u c h u s e o f w i t c h c r a f t b v w o m e n e n t a i l s . F u r t h e r m o r e . has a l s o s u g g e s t e d t h a t w h i l e m e n use physical Elizabeth Frauncis. and that t h e r e are vari o u s i d e o l o g i c a l . 3 0 a p a r t o f t h e c o n t e x t u a l b a c k g r o u n d t o t h e e a r l y m o d e r n w i t c h . b e s i t u a t e d (as T h o m a s s i t u a t e s t h e m ) w i t h i n t h e w o m e n ' s c o m m u nity. as a l r e a d y h i n t e d at b y t h e c a s e o f E l l e i n e S m i t h e ' s i n h e r i t a n c e a n d J o h n C h a u n d e l e r ' s c l a i m s on it. a m o n g s t o t h e r effects r e m o v 3 2 T h o m a s . F i n a l l y I w a n t t o l o o k at t h e m a l e female conflict around r e s o u r c e s that f o r m e d W e n e e d t o c o n s i d e r that w o m e n ' s social position m a d e t h e m vulnerable t o b e c o m i n g w i t c h e s . a l t h o u g h his e x a m p l e s a r e a l m o s t e x c l u s i v e l y o f w o m e n . at t h e 1 5 6 6 t r i a l at C h e l m s f o r d o n e o f t h e a c c u s e d . as i n d i c a t e d W i t h i n the particular patriarchal c o n t e x t o f early m o d e r n E u r o p e . T h e r o l e w o m e n h a v e in c o n t e m p o r a r y a n d h i s t o r i c a l M i d d l e E a s t e r n a n d N o r t h African societies. 2 8 s p e e c h e s ' — a r e at t h e s a m e t i m e c o n s t r u c t e d as a sign o f w o m e n ' s as c u r s i n g . for instance. In t h e t r i a l p a m p h l e t s f r o m E s s e x w e find t h a t . b u t also v u l n e r a b l e t o ' p o s s e s s i o n ' and t o b e c o m i n g b e w i t c h e d . the difficulties o f a g r o w i n g mass o f landless peasants. H e q u o t e s T h o m a s C o o p e r ' s ' s t o c k p a t t e r n ' o f t h e link b e t w e e n cursing and witchcraft accusation: ' W h e n a b a d . primarily m e n w h o b r o u g h t charges o f witchcraft. while w o m e n played a m o r e ancillary 2 9 s e e h e r e an e x a m p l e o f t h e g e n d e r i n g behaviour. T h o m a s d o e s n o t t a k e this u p . Yet while C o o p e r c l e a r l y t a k e s a g e n d e r e d v i e w o f t h e c u r s e r . t h a t w i t c h c r a f t b e l i e i s w e r e bv no means h e g e m o n i c among the w o m e n accused of witchcraft. using the m e a n s available t o t h e m to to i m p r o v e their c o n d i t i o n .c l a s s w o m e n . that is.t o n g u e d w o m a n shall c u r s e a p a r t y . with w o m e n outnumbering m e n . w o m e n a r e m o r e l i k e l y t o u s e v e r b a l v i o l e n c e as r e p r e s e n t e d b y c u r s i n g . It is t o o e a s y t o e n d u p b y f o c u s i n g o n w o m e n ' s a c c u s a t i o n s a g a i n s t o n e a n o t h e r as a p r o b l e m r e l a t e d l a r g e l y t o w o m e n a n d w o m e n ' s c o m m u n i t i e s . r a t h e r t h a t as an o u t c o m e o f a w i d e r p a t r i a r c h a l c o n t e x t . w o m e n a r e o f t e n p l a c e d in t h e p o s i tion o f m o r a l g a t e k e e p e r s w h o socially c o n t r o l o t h e r w o m e n . of carrying out clitorectomies on other w o m e n is a c a s e in p o i n t . e v e n i f t h e i r a c t i o n s at t h e s a m e t i m e p l a c e b o t h t h e m s e l v e s a n d o t h e r w o m e n m o r e firmly within p a t r i a r c h v . and r e s u l t a n t p r e s s u r e on r e s o u r c e s . s h e e p a n d a w e a l t h y h u s b a n d via t h e cat-familiar S a t a n . a n d 2 7 p r o c u r e . h e a r g u e s t h a t i t was role. the early m o d e r n p e r i o d . a n d it w a s b e t w e e n w o m e n t h a t t h e r e l a t e d t r a n s a c t i o n s o f l e n d i n g a n d b o r r o w i n g w e r e likely t o take p l a c e . e c o n o m i c change o f male—female conflict and witchcraft accusation — even if w e c a n n o t always establish a direct link b e t w e e n accused o f witchcraft and specific instances a r o u n d r e s o u r c e s and l i v e l i h o o d s . M a t e r i a l f r o m o t h e r societies and p e r i o d s also g i v e s us s o m e i m p o r t a n t c l u e s a b o u t t h e r o l e w o m e n m a y h a v e in r e l a t i o n t o o t h e r w o m e n . b u t they w e r e integrally linked t o and served t o r e i n f o r c e — o r r e c o n s t r u c t — the m a l e status q u o . 5 3 o f witchcraft was a m e a n s (albeit negative) bv which w o m e n could increase their using more c l o s e l y at w i t c h t r i a l m a t e r i a l . it is a l s o a p p a r e n t . w o m e n w e r e o f t e n t h e o n e s in c h a r g e o f t h e d o m e s t i c g o o d s t h e w i t c h r e q u e s t e d .282 MARIANNE HESTER PATRIARCHAL RECONSTRUCTION AND WITCH-HUNTING 283 Larner. W e find t h a t w i t h i n p a t r i a r c h a l s o c i e t i e s . o t h e r s a r e d e s c r i b e d as n o t s h a r i n g t h i s b e l i e f a n d a p p e a r e d t o b e m u c h m o r e sceptical a b o u t w i t c h c r a f t . C o n v e n t s had b e e n c l o s e d during the R e f o r m a t i o n . F o r e x a m p l e . A n u m b e r o f historians have d o c u m e n t e d h o w t h e p e r i o d o f pre-capitalism and early capitalism. a m o n g s t o t h e r t h i n g s . U s i n g d a t a f r o m t h e E n g l i s h h o m e c i r c u i t . this is a s h r e w d t o k e n t h a t s h e is a w i t c h ' .h u n t s . exacerbated earlier. H o l m e s provides s o m e interesting evidence o f m e n ' s and w o m e n ' s relative social positioning and the p r o c e s s o f formal w i t c h c r a f t accusation suggesting that w o m e n ' s accusations against each o t h e r w e r e indeed s e c o n d a r y to m e n bringing the c a s e s t o c o u r t . then. T h e r e a r e e x a m p l e s in t h e t r i a l p a m p h l e t s a n d r e c o r d s o f w o m e n w i t c h c r a f t t o b e t t e r t h e i r s i t u a t i o n in m a n y d i f f e r e n t w a y s . e n c l o s u r e o f c o m m o n l a n d ( a l r e a d y h a p p e n i n g in E s s e x at this t i m e ) ing the space for grazing for w o m e n ' s l i v e s t o c k . T h e r e appears to b e a link b e t w e e n m a l e individuals female relations. which r e i n f o r c e w o m e n ' s inferiority and sexual servitude to m e n . E l i z a b e t h B e n n e t ( w h o is said t o d e n y t h a t s h e h e r s e l f u s e d w i t c h c r a f t ) is s h o w n t o a t t e m p t t o e x p l a i n h o w s h e t h i n k s an a c c u s a t i o n a g a i n s t a n o t h e r w o m a n . and especially w i d o w s . u s e o f w i t c h c r a f t c a n b e s e e n as a p a r t o f t h e day t o d a y a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e ' w o m e n ' s c o m m u n i t y ' b u t — c r u c i a l l y — r e l y i n g o n w i d e r patriarchal g e n d e r e d n o t i o n s o f t h e w i t c h .l i k e b e h a v i o u r at t h e s a m e t i m e c o n s t r u c t e d t h e m as w i t c h e s — w h e t h e r t h e y w a n t e d this o r n o t . A l e s N e w m a n . b u t w e also see h o w the c o n s t r u c t s w h i c h led t h e m u s e w i t c h . in a 1 5 8 2 t r i a l at S t O s y t h . g r a n d m o t h e r s ) are the ones w h o have the 'privilege' to carry out these operations.h u n t s . and w o m e n w e r e b e i n g e x c l u d e d f r o m c r a f t s a n d t r a d e s s u c h as w e a v i n g a n d b r e w i n g as w e l l as f r o m t h e g u i l d s . because the words she uses t o signify a n g e r — ' h a r d e d misdemeanour. a l t h o u g h w h a t she says e n d s u p b e i n g t i e d i n t o t h e evidence against Ales. T h i s m a y also b e u n d e r s t o o d by the m o r e widely a c k n o w l e d g e d c o n c e p t o f the feminisation o f ' p o v e r t y ' — a c o n c e p t that also applies within the p r e s e n t global e c o n o m i c context. b u t . e c h o e d bv Sharpe. i n s t e a d c o n c l u d i n g in g e n d e r . t h e c o l l e c t o r f o r t h e p o o r . or those p r o v i d i n g e v i d e n c e . a p p e a r s t o b e l i e v e t h a t she c o u l d a n d did u s e w i t c h c r a f t to v i o l e n c e . In t a k i n g e a r l y m o d e r n E n g l a n d as o u r e x a m p l e . W i t c h c r a f t accusations m a y t h e r e f o r e . not 3 1 d e a t h shall s h o r t l y f o l l o w . t h a t is as w o m e n ' s p r o b l e m . w e h a v e t o t h i n k o f a s o c i e t y w i t h a r a p i d i n c r e a s e in p o p u l a t i o n . B y c o n t r a s t . yet with decreasing means o f livelihood for women. N a w a l El S a d a w i e x p l a i n s h o w o l d e r f e m a l e r e l a t i v e s ( m o t h e r s . H e argues that t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e e m e r g e n t c a p i t a l i s t p r o d u c t i o n (as h a d a l s o b e e n t h e c a s e capitalist .

e s p e c i a l l y w i d o w s . r 4 0 W i t h r e g a r d t o t h e d i s c u s s i o n in t h i s c h a p t e r t h e r e a r e a n u m b e r o f i m p o r t a n t issues w h i c h a r i s e f r o m t h e e x a m p l e o f t h e b r e w i n g i n d u s t r y . p r o p e r t y a n d / o r craft o r trade.b a s e d t r a d e was domii n h e r i t t h e i r f a t h e r s ' l a n d a n d p r o p e r t y o r e n g a g e in o t h e r p r o d u c t i v e Thus during the period o f the witch-hunts w o m e n ' s w o r k was largely defined by the institution o f marriage. b a l l a d s . and w o m e n ' s relative dependence on m e n ensured. Sylvia W a l b y s u g g e s t s in a d d i t i o n t h a t w h e n t h e r e a r e c h a n g e s in t h e such as changes in production methods. B e n n e t t argues that such popular representations u n d e r m i n e d t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e a l e w i f e b y q u e s t i o n i n g h e r g e n e r a l t r u s t w o r t h i n e s s . t a k i n g o n his c r a f t . J u d i t h B e n n e t t has d o c u m e n t e d h o w t h e e x c l u s i o n o f w o m e n f r o m b r e w i n g t o o k p l a c e o v e r a c o n s i d e r a b l e p e r i o d . in p r o s e . as w e l l as i m p r o v i n g t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e b e e r b r e w e d . the e m e r g i n g capitalist e c o n o m i c structure. 1 6 9 ) was linked t o her d e m i s e . we in t h e e x a m p l e o f E l y n o r R u m m y n g . M i c h a e l R o b e r t s d o c u m e n t s h o w t h e selling t o b e w i d o w s . t h e link o f this c o n s t r u c t i o n t o t h e w i t c h . suggests that t h e r e was a struggle b e t w e e n the sexes around making a living. with f e m a l e p o w e r r e l a t i o n s in t h e s i x t e e n t h a n d s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s d u e t o t h e m a j o r c h a n g e s t a k i n g p l a c e in t h e e c o n o m y a t t h a t t i m e . 3 7 Where the example of brewing is c o n c e r n e d . a n d p o o r . B e n n e t t suggests that the masculinisation o f t h e b r e w i n g trade had the effect o f changing the e c o n o m i c balance b e t w e e n husbands and w i v e s . w h o w e r e l i c e n s e d as a l e h o u s e k e e p e r s ( t h e p o o r e n d o f t h e m a r k e t ) b u t few as i n n k e e p e r s ( t h e r i c h e r p a r t o f t h e m a r k e t ) . and also o p e n i n g up n e w areas for m a l e c o n t r o l . patriarchy was maintained within the developing economy. conflict We d e p i c t s t h e a l e w i f e E l y n o r R u m m y n g as a g r o t e s q u e sphere. B e n n e t t s h o w s c o n v i n c i n g l y h o w t h e p o p u l a r and a l s o n e g a t i v e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e a l e w i f e . w h o w e r e m o r e a b l e t o d o s o . t h a t i s . a n d m o r e s p e c i f i c a l l y . S h e is a l m o s t a s t o c k figure in m i s o g y n i s t i c l i t e r a t u r e : 'a g r o t e s q u e o l d w i t c h . w h i c h had b e e n a h o m e . as i d e n t i f i e d b y T h o m a s . and thus c o n t r o l of. p o e t r y . w i d o w s . B r e w i n g is a c k n o w l e d g e d as an i m p o r t a n t i n d u s t r y in t h e e a r l y m o d e r n p e r i o d . F o r w o m e n during the early m o d e r n period m o r e likely to b e financially financial independence was genermarried ally l i n k e d t o t h e i r m a r i t a l s t a t u s . a n d ' t h e D e v i l a n d s h e b e s i b ' [like b r o t h e r a n d s i s t e r ] ( p . that is. w h i c h also had the effect o f ensuring that m e n r a t h e r than w o m e n o b t a i n e d the b e t t e r positions in. w e r e independent than married w o m e n because financially. For e x a m p l e .l i k e w o m a n ' . 4 3 nated by w o m e n four centuries earlier. in a r e a s s u c h as b r e w i n g and weaving. a n d d r a w i n g s v u l n e r a b l e in t h e e c o n o m y . Unmarried women w e r e also Alongside the other e c o n o m i c changes m e n t i o n e d by T h o m a s . she d r e s s e d u p ' a f t e r t h e S a r a c e n ' s g u i s e ' a n d l i k e an E g y p t i a n ' . T h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e a l e w i f e as d i f f e r e n t a n d i n f e r i o r t o t h e m a l e b r e w e r o f t e n r e l i e d . the changes to the b r e w i n g i n d u s t r y m u s t s e r i o u s l y h a v e r e d u c e d t h e e a r n i n g c a p a b i l i t i e s o f village women. at t h e of women. a w o m a n could only practise a craft alongside h e r h u s b a n d . W o m e n d i d t h e b r e w i n g o f ale n e e d e d f o r i m m e d i a t e consumption by the h o u s e h o l d . licenses and e c o n o m i c l e g i t i m a t i o n ' . 1 7 1 ) . O n the other hand. d r a m a . was b e c o m i n g a factory-based industry c o n t r o l l e d by a steadily shrinking g r o u p o f wealthy m a l e s . 4 4 It w a s o n l y w i d o w s w h o r e t a i n e d a c c e s s t o b r e w i n g t h r o u g h i n h e r i t a n c e o f ale b e c a m e an 3 9 The women. o c c u p a t i o n i n f o r m a l l y r e s e r v e d f o r p o o r w i d o w s d u r i n g this p e r i o d . E v i d e n c e o f w o m e n ' s w o r k . It is d i f f i c u l t t o t e l l w h e t h e r ale w i v e s o r w o m e n who brewed beer were accused of witchcrait directly. p a r t i c u l a r l y w i d o w s . g o v e r n m e n t with the aim o f imposing stricter regulation and supposedly Bennett concludes: w i t c h c r a f t : s h e e n t e r t a i n e d a c u s t o m e r w h o ' s e e m e d t o b e a w i t c h ' . D e p e n d e n t o r in . on her sexualisation or eroticisation. by 1 7 0 0 . t h a t i s . w o m e n c a r r y i n g o u t a c r a f t o r t r a d e . B u t t h e y m i g h t a l s o b e a m o n g s t t h o s e in c o m p e t i t i o n w i t h m e n f o r w o r k in l u c r a t i v e a r e a s s u c h as b r e w i n g . and. w i d o w e d a n d p o s s i b l y o l d e r . poem. w h i l e at t h e s a m e t i m e a l l o w i n g m e n t o b e s e e n in a m u c h m o r e p o s i t i v e l i g h t . b u t it w a s d u r i n g t h e s i x t e e n t h and s e v e n t e e n t h centuries that b r e w i n g brewing finallv changed from a female to a male of the a policy pursued bv occupation. Excluding w o m e n f r o m b r e w i n g o c c u r r e d alongside the separation ( b y m e n ) f r o m t h e sale ( b y w o m e n ) o f b e e r . and b o t h served t o justify the social c o n t r o l o f w o m e n and the m a i n t e n a n c e o r r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the patriarchal status quo s e c u r i n g m e n ' s d o m i n a n t position within t h e social o r d e r . w o m e n accused o f witchwho were among the most c r a f t t e n d e d t o b e t h o s e . a n d a m a l e — f e m a l e p o w e r r e l a t i o n s t a k e s p l a c e in o r d e r t o e n s u r e m a l e d o m i n a n c e . 3 8 b a d l y a f f e c t e d : ' T h e y b e c a m e less a n d less a b l e t o c o m p e t e w i t h m e n o r m a r r i e d c o u p l e s for c u s t o m e r s . T h e y w e r e vulnerable to misogynistic a t t a c k o r p o s s i b l y w i t c h c r a f t a c c u s a t i o n as a r e s u l t . w h o is o f d u b i o u s r e l i g i o u s a n d s e x u a l v i r t u e . and u n m a r r i e d w o m e n might All oi these changes w e r e v e r y s l o w and u n e v e n . a n d t h e p o s i t i o n o f w i d o w s as b o t h b r e w e r s a n d a l e . economic 3 5 expense around 3 6 (p. T h e s e i n c l u d e : t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f w o m e n as i n c a p a b l e o f b r e w i n g . Overall. allusions t o h e r also b e i n g associated find. b r e w i n g . B u t t h e i r o v e r a l l e f f e c t clear. c a n i n d e e d find s o m e e v i d e n c e o f a r e a l i g n m e n t o f m a l e h i g h l y u n s c r u p u l o u s t r a d e s w o m a n ( p . T h e c a s e o f b r e w i n g p r o v i d e s an i n t e r e s t i n g e x a m p l e .s e l l e r s .284 MARIAN NE HESTER PATRIARCHAL RECONSTRUCTION AND WITCH-HUNTING 285 p r o d u c t i o n d e v e l o p e d 'at t h e e x p e n s e o f sexual e q u a l i t y ' . For instance the earlv sixteenth-century The Tunning of Elynor Rummying and ridiculous old w o m e n . Sue Wright s i m i l a r l y p o i n t s o u t t h a t in t h e u r b a n e n v i r o n m e n t o f T u d o r a n d S t u a r t S a l i s b u r y t h e r e w e r e n u m e r o u s w o m e n . l a b o u r i n g w o m e n . W o m e n o n t h e i r o w n .e c o n o m i c c h a n g e s in t h e s i x t e e n t h a n d s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s w e find t h a t t h e p i c t u r e r e g a r d i n g w i t c h c r a f t a c c u s a t i o n a n d women becomes more complex. c a r v i n g s . w a s t h e s t a p l e d r i n k o f m e n . B y l o o k i n g a t m a t e r i a l c o n c e r n i n g s o c i o . 1 7 0 ) . and p r i o r t o the s i x t e e n t h and s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s w o m e n also b r e w e d ale f o r s a l e . land. 4 1 Y e t the construction of the alewife and the w i t c h relied on similar t e r m s . o r in h e r o w n r i g h t as a w i d o w o r as a s i n g l e woman living in h e r father's household. l i k e the construction o f the witch. s c u l p t u r e . f r o m t h e i r h u s b a n d s . the wife very likely b e c o m i n g m o r e d e p e n d e n t on h e r husband. p r o c e e d i n g o v e r the course o f several centuries and affecting different regions o f the c o u n t r v at d i f f e r e n t t i m e s a n d in d i f f e r e n t w a y s . b u t a l s o a c o r r u p t t r a d e s w o m a n w h o sells h e r c u s t o m e r s a d u l t e r a t e d d r i n k a t h a r d d r i v e n p r i c e s in a d i s g u s t i n g a t m o s p h e r e (p. w o m e n w e r e d e e m e d s u b o r d i n a t e t o t h e i r h u s b a n d s (as r e f l e c t e d in t h e l a w ) a n d under their husbands' control W i d o w s might inherit their husbands' occasionally activities. a n d in p a r t i c u l a r ale ( b r e w e d w i t h o u t h o p s ) . 1 7 0 ) . b e c a u s e b e e r . 4 2 simpli- f y i n g t h e c o l l e c t i o n o f t a x e s . w h o w e r e still a b l e t o b e b r e w e r s m i g h t t h e r e f o r e p o s e a t h r e a t t o the increasingly male m o n o p o l y o f the trade. w o m e n a n d c h i l d r e n a t m o s t m e a l s .

Religion. D i c k e r m a n . E. in A . D . 5 2 ) . p o t e n t i a l l y u n d e r t h r e a t in t h e r a p i d l y c h a n g i n g s o c i e t y . Virtue of Necessity S e e A m u s e n . The Main 1977). D u f f i n .. (Cambridge lists m a n y 1972). 5 7 .r e l a t e d t o ( C h i c a g o 1 9 8 6 ) . H . Society. f o r a discussion convicted specifically of of K e r m o d e and W a l k e r . 139-42.f e m a l e r e l a t i o n s at t h e t i m e . Women and the English Class Culture Church and P. S e e A m u s e n . Religion. Ind. original indictments o u t c o m e s : Before 21 22 23 24 25 the Bawdy Court ( L o n d o n S e e S h a r p e . Enemies K l a i t s . The Devil in the Shape 166-7. S e e also C . Working a l t h o u g h w i t h o u t using t h e s e t e r m s . An Ordered B . S e e A m u s s e n . Lewd Women. f o r i n s t a n c e . M i d d l e t o n . 8. c u r s i n g and in p a r t i c u l a r s c o l d i n g as a specifically f e m a l e o f f e n c e . W o o d b r i d g e . H. (London ( N u r e m b e r g 1 4 9 6 ) . Servants of Magic (Harmondsworth 1973). of a 183^. An Ordered H . d e s c r i b e s h o w s c r a t c h i n g t h e face and e s p e c i a l l y t h e n o s e o f a w o m a n was a p u n i s h m e n t i n d i c a t i n g that she w a s a w h o r e . Hester. 4 8 . S. Servants.i n d u s - . f r o m t h e mid-sixteenth to the mid-seventeenth century. Analysis S e e C h a p t e r 2 3 in this b o o k b y G i v e H o l m e s . The Witch-hunt Satan in Early Modern Europe (London 1 9 8 7 ) . Lewd Women in ally in a less advantageous situation than men within the changing economy. 18 19 E . the areas that w e r e particularly r e l e v a n t t o t h e e m e r g i n g capitalist e c o n o m y and also the g r o u p T o c o n c l u d e . 15 F o r a g o o d e x a m p l e o f an a p p r o a c h t o t h e w i t c h . 1 9 8 6 ) . 9 2 . 1975).c e n t u r v Century Journal. Europe's Inner Demons Maleficarum 1980). Witchcraft Society ( O x f o r d 1 9 8 8 ) .286 MARIANNE HESTER PATRIARCHAL RECONSTRUCTION AND WITCH-HUNTING 287 c o m p e t i t i o n . Women History of Women in the Seventeenth and Theory Century (London [1919] 1982). D e m o s . sex-specific. El S a d a w i . The Women's Renaissance England Marriage in Elizabethan Sex Hair and Sharp ( U r b a n a . 181—206. s e r v i n g as o n e m e a n s o f maintaining and r e c o n s t r u c t i n g male d o m i n a n c e and m a l e p o w e r women. and the Decline Satan ( O x f o r d 1 9 8 2 ) . E . Enemies C . See Ibid. Satan. e d s . 173-40. I n g r a m . H e a t t r i b u t e s t h e i n c r e a s e d f o c u s o n w o m e n as t h e a c c u s e d d u r i n g t h e early m o d e r n p e r i o d t o 'a d r a m a t i c rise in f e a r and hatred o f w o m e n during the era o f the R e f o r m a t i o n ' (p. e d s . Sixteenth 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 T h o m a s . W o m e n w ere g e n e r r r e l a t i o n s i n t o a c c o u n t at t h e h e a r t o f t h e discussion see C . in h e r discussion o f s l a n d e r litigation in early m o d e r n L o n d o n . T h o m a s . either way they might b e seen to pose a threat. K e r m i d e and G . 58-9. M . Hester. p o w e r and t h e l a w ' . 562. Instruments C i t e d in L a r n e r . H . W r i g h t . L a r n e r . Women and Work. of God ( L o n d o n 1 9 8 1 ) . Crime and the Courts (London 1994). 5 1 2 . punishment of women s c o l d i n g appears t o parallel w i t c h c r a f t a c c u s a t i o n in t h a t it b e c a m e m o r e s e v e r e in t h e s a m e p e r i o d as w i t c h c r a f t b e c a m e a m a j o r f e m a l e c r i m e . C h a r l e s and I. 28 Thomas. W e can s p e c u l a t e that t o ' r a c e Women. (Chapel Hill. H e s t e r . 4 5 6 7 B . S h e p h e r d . e x p e c t a t i o n s a n d d i s c l o s u r e s c o n c e r n i n g t h e w i t c h in t h e e a r l y m o d e r n p e r i o d w e m a y s u r m i s e t h a t w i t c h . in J . 56. Lewd Women. Malleus M e r c h a n t . S e e I. Revenge (London 1935). of Darkness. S e e ' L a n g u a g e . W i l l i a m M o n t e r suggests that sex remains the m o s t important feature o f m o s t witchcraft accusations. It thus appears t h a t d u r i n g t h e s i x t e e n t h and s e v e n t e e n t h centuries t h e r e w e r e a v a r i e t y o f a t t e m p t s t o c o n t r o l s e x u a l b e h a v i o u r in p a r t i c u l a r and w o m e n specifically. w o m e n a c c u s e d as w i t c h e s w e r e o f t e n p r e s e n t e d as s e x u a l l y deviant. S t e v e n s o n .h u n t s that t a k e s m a l e and f e m a l e 35 C . S e e also D e m o s . J . Courts. 1 4 7 . L e v a c k . 1981). L. of S e e S. in Women.6 8 . K a r l s o n . S c a r r e . F l e t c h e r and J . 51. and Wicked Witches (London 1992). L . Entertaining K a r l s o n . c h . C . ' S c o l d i n g w o m e n c u c k e d o r w a s h e d ' . 'The dynamics of male domination 13 ( 1 9 9 0 ) . K l a i t s . (London 1984). S p r e n g e r . U n d e r d o w n . 111.r e l a t e d ' witchcraft. 1 1 3 . t h r o u g h b o t h f o r m a l w i t c h c r a f t a c c u s a t i o n and b y legal r e t r i b u t i o n against o t h e r s e x u a l d e v i a n c e . Entertaining F r a n c e ' . O u r u n d e r s t a n d i n g is e n h a n c e d b y c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e c o n f l i c t u a l a n d d y n a m i c m a l e . in C h a r l e s and D u f f i n . that is. K r a m e r and J . The Feminisation Face of Eve ( L o n d o n Society. a n d b y t a k i n g a d e e p e r l o o k at t h e c o n t e x t o f m a l e female relations than historians h a v e o f t e n t e n d e d t o p u r s u e w i t h r e g a r d t o this p e r i o d a n d t o p i c . and ' W o m e n ' s l a b o u r and t h e t r a n s i t i o n t o p r e . C l a r k . Early 29 Modern England ( C a m b r i d g e 1 9 8 5 ) . M a r t i n I n g r a m p r o v i d e s e x t e n s i v e e x a m p l e s and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f such cases f r o m courts: 1987). Middle 20 the church (London 1 9 8 8 ) . The Crime and the Courts. A m u s s e n . and J . W a l k e r and E . Religion. England (London Life Woman. p . 5 3 4 — 5 4 . Review. ' A w o m a n u n d e r t h e i n f l u e n c e : a case o f alleged possession in s i x t e e n t h . W a l k e r . Order and Disorder H o l m e s p r e s e n t s this a r g u m e n t in C h a p t e r 2 3 . M . P .s p e c i f i c at t h i s t i m e . K e l l y . Women and Work in Pre-Industrial 1 9 8 5 ) . of God. Lewd Women. D70—1640 and using t h e w i t c h c r a z e in s i x t e e n t h and s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y E n g l a n d as case s t u d y ' .s p e c i f i c ' and ' s e x . A .1 4 ( 1 9 7 9 ) . Laura G o w i n g . 512. An Ordered K e i t h T h o m a s . Chapter 5. A . D e l p h y . 26 27 See M o n t e r . K l a i t s . The Hidden H e s t e r . 22 ( 1 9 9 1 ) . 'The in t a m i n g o f t h e s c o l d ' . Religion J . 520. New Left trial c a p i t a l i s m ' . Society. 1987). Forum. ' T h e s e x u a l division o f l a b o u r in feudal E n g l a n d ' . S e e C h a p t e r 2 0 f o r L a r n e r ' s d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n ' s e x . 1 16—36. especially within t h e peasantry and a m o n g s t artisans and traders amongst w h o m witchcraft accusations predominated. Servants. 93. 1 9 8 5 ) . S c o t t . The Death of Nature N o r m a n C o h n . An Ordered Women's Studies International M . Enemy: A Materialist of Women's Oppression (London women's Notes 1 2 3 In C h a p t e r 5 o f this c o l l e c t i o n . 1 9 8 5 ) . H e s t e r . [Mother S t a u n t o n ' s ] face w i t h a n e d l e ' similarly s y m b o l i s e d that she was b e i n g p r e s e n t e d in s e x u a l i s e d t e r m s . S e e M . e d s . of Poverty ( B l o o m i n g t o n . vis-a-vis was P a t r i a r c h y . H o b b y . (London G . 5 . by e x a m i n i n g the p r o c e s s e s involving g e n d e r i n g o f social relat i o n s .h u n t i n g b e c a m e s e x . The Devil the Shape 16 17 of a Woman (New York 1988). M o n t e r suggests that acts such as i n f a n t i c i d e w e r e also a f o c u s f o r p r o s e c u t i o n o f w o m e n in t h e e a r l y m o d e r n p e r i o d t o a g r e a t e r e x t e n t than had b e e n t h e case p r e v i o u s l y . and Magic in Sixteenth and Seventeenth Century Europe (London 30 31 32 33 34 563. e d s . N . Klaits also appears t o d o c u m e n t this c h a n g e f r o m s e x . N C in England 1 m e r e l y r e c o n s t r u c t e d t o m a i n t a i n t h e s t a t u s q u o .

R e w o r k i n g the 236 presentments for Essex. 162. 31 ( 1 9 9 1 ) . M . e d s . as a b u n d l e o f a s s u m p t i o n s o r a t t i t u d e s about h o w m e n and w o m e n should b e h a v e . and o f the o p e r a t i o n o f legal svstems. in I b i d . . W r i g h t . o f course. ' S p i n s t e r s \ Journal Women and Work. again at first sight. History C l a r k . T h e r e have. b e e n a n u m b e r o f w o r k s that have the potential fruitfulness o f various lines o f approach: the different r a t e s o f t h e t w o s e x e s in v a r i o u s t y p e s o f o f f e n c e . 1 0 0 — 2 1 . 2 T h e d i f f i c u l t i e s in f o l l o w i n g s u c h a course are. ch. M a c f a r l a n e gives t h e o c c u p a t i o n o f o n e husband o f an a c c u s e d w i t c h ( o u t o f f o r t y n i n e k n o w n f o r E s s e x ) as a b e e r b r e w e r . p o p u l a r c u l t u r e . 9 ( 1 9 8 4 ) . a n d t h e p u n i s h m e n t s i n f l i c t e d u p o n t h e m . 1986). and d e e d s t h e y are m e n " : I m a g e s o f w o r k and g e n d e r in early m o d e r n E n g l a n d ' . Life. 3. p e r h a p s m o s t n o t a b l y in c h u r c h c o u r t s l a n d e r c a s e s . unfortunately. W a l b y . as w e l l as in u s i n g c o u r t r e c o r d s t o h e l p t o u n d e r s t a n d g e n d e r as a s o c i a l c o n s t r u c t . a r o u n d 9 0 p e r c e n t o f p e r s o n s i n d i c t e d f o r w i t c h c r a f t at t h e H o m e C i r c u i t assizes b e t w e e n t h e p a s s i n g o f t h e E l i z a b e t h a n s t a t u t e in 1 5 6 3 t h e a b o l i t i o n o f l a w s a g a i n s t w i t c h c r a f t in 1 7 3 6 w e r e w o m e n . we discover that the Y e t even the first 4 and W o r k on compathis made 1630s r a b l e s o u r c e s s u g g e s t s t h a t this r a t e w a s f a i r l y u s u a l f o r t h e i n d i c t m e n t o f m a l e f i c 3 step that might be taken b e y o n d figures simple counting exercise exposes complications. of Family History. R o b e r t s . Working M . and the English c o m m o n law s e e m e d designed t o constrain t h e r i g h t s o f w o m e n as m u c h as p o s s i b l e . T HE PROBLEM OF GENDER is o n e t h a t has o n l y r e c e n t l y b e g u n t o a t t r a c t demonstrated participation the attention o f historians o f c r i m e . As is w e l l k n o w n . Patriarchy Journal. 182. S e e A m u s s e n . S e e H e s t e r . m o r e severe w h e n w o m e n are u n d e r consideration. s e e m m o r e conspicuously t r u e t h a n w h e n c o n s i d e r i n g t h e p r o s e c u t i o n o f w i t c h c r a f t in T u d o r a n d S t u a r t c o u r t s . 228. L . 'Misogyny'. h u s w y f e s and h u c k s t e r s " : T h e e m p l o y m e n t o f w o m e n in T u d o r and S t u a r t S a l i s b u r y ' . ' M i s o g y n y . at Work ( C a m b r i d g e 169. in C h a r l e s and D u f h n . a n d o n s u c h g e n d e r related (or indeed gender specific) matters as i n f a n t i c i d e and scolding. Women Work. 122-80. C h a r l e s and D u f f i n . WITCHCRAFT AND THE LEGAL PROCESS 40 41 42 43 44 S. B e n n e t t . Lewd S. m a l e a n d f e m a l e i n v o l v e m e n t i n l i t i g a t i o n . and Jim Sharpe WOMEN. " ' C h u r m a i d s . Society. it w o u l d s e e m t h a t h i s t o r i a n s s t u d y i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n w o m e n a n d t h e l e g a l p r o c e s s in t h e past have had their task r e s t r i c t e d t o doing little m o r e than cataloguing t h e ways in w h i c h w o m e n w e r e d i s a d v a n t a g e d . o f the l a w . W a t k i n s . Women. 3 A t first s i g h t t h e n . ' " W o r d s t h e y are w o m e n . and w o m e n ' s w o r k ' .288 MARIANNE HESTER C h a p t e r Workshop 22 36 37 38 39 S. for witchcraft or related matters b e f o r e the A r c h d e a c o n s o f Essex and C o l c h e s t e r b e t w e e n the 1 5 6 0 s and the . T h e E n g l i s h l e g a l s y s t e m w a s r u n b y m e n . 1 Yet it r e m a i n s c l e a r t h a t c o n s i d e r a b l e w o r k n e e d s t o b e d o n e b o t h in c h a r t i n g t h e s t a t i s t i c a l c o n t o u r s o f s u c h m a t t e r s as p r o s e c u t i o n s b r o u g h t a g a i n s t m e n a n d women. An Ordered Bennett. t h e s t a t u t e s it e n f o r c e d w e r e d r a w n u p a n d p r o m u l g a t e d by m e n . w i t c h c r a f t in E n g l a n d . Nowhere w o u l d this p r e m i s e .

A t t h a t p o i n t a j u s t i c e w h o h a d t a k e n c o n s i d e r a b l e i n t e r e s t in t h e c a s e . 'that keepes the Session House for the City o f L o n d o n . finger. on the strength o f N o r t h e r n C i r c u i t assize d e p o s i t i o n s . . Arthur R o b i n s o n . t o f e t c h in t h r e e w o m e n to search the body of Elizabeth S a w y e r ' . a n d e v e n t o s p e c u l a t e a b o u t w h a t w a s g o i n g o n o u t s i d e a r e a s c o v e r e d b y t h e legal r e c o r d . but whose services w e r e s o e a g e r l y s o u g h t b y t h e p o p u l a t i o n at l a r g e . cases T h e actual m e c h a n i c s by which w o m e n w e r e appointed t o search w i t c h e s varied e n o r m o u s l y .l i k e g r o w t h in t h e p u d e n d a . 1 3 it s e e m s safe t o t a k e as o u r s t a r t i n g p o i n t t h a t t h e o v e r w h e l m i n g m a j o r i t y o f p e r s o n s and that a study o f w i t c h c r a f t c o u l d o f f e r a p o t e n t i a l l y f r u i t f u l a p p r o a c h t o t h e s t u d y o f w o m e n ' s i n v o l v e m e n t in pause t o p r o c e s s ' . figures suggest that w e will have t o refine our standard notions o f the b e t w e e n w o m e n and w i t c h c r a f t at s o m e f u t u r e p o i n t . t h e r e f o r e . ' T h e Bench'. C o n t e m p o r a r y u s a g e d i c t a t e d t h a t i f t h e d i s c o v e r y o f s u c h a m a r k w a s t h o u g h t vital f o r p r o v i n g w i t c h c r a f t . w o m e n s h o w e d n o r e l u c t a n c e in a c c u s i n g other women of being witches. 'by a p p o i n t m e n t . T h e leet jury d i r e c t e d As this c a s e s u g g e s t s . WITCHCRAFT AND THE LEGAL PROCESS 291 reveal a male participation rate o f 2 9 per c e n t . t h e l e g a l p r o c e s s in e a r l y m o d e r n We must. o r o f giving e v i d e n c e against alleged witches. T o u n d e r s t a n d t h e o p e r a t i o n o f t h e l a w in its full c o n t e x t . the p r o s e c u t i o n o f w i t c h e s . 8 I n d e e d . 1 2 This being incident involved the searching o f a n u m b e r o f suspected witches by local w o m e n . T h e first p a m p h l e t 9 T h e d e c i s i o n t o s e a r c h s e e m s . was d e p e n d e n t on the initiative o f the p e r s o n o f f e n d e d against — the v i c t i m . w e a r e t o l d . c a n o n l y l e a d t o v e r y tentative conclusions. b u t t h e w o m e n c o n t i n u e d in t h e i r e f f o r t s . e x e c u t e d a f t e r t r i a l at t h e M i d d l e s e x S e s s i o n s in 1 6 2 1 . s e a r c h e d f o r m a r k s u p o n Some v e a r s l a t e r . t h e d i r e c t i o n s e e m s t o h a v e c o m e s i m p l y f r o m t h e l o c a l constable. a w i d d o w o f honest reputat i o n ' . It a l s o s e e m s t h a t i t g r a d u a l l y b e c a m e a c c e p t e d t h a t t h e m a r k . These connection however. T h e E n g l i s h c r i m i n a l l e g a l s y s t e m w a s an a c c u s a t o r y o n e . O n e a r e a w h e r e w o m e n w e r e o f u n i q u e i m p o r t a n c e in t h e j u d i c i a l t r i a l w i t c h c r a f t w a s in t h e i r b e i n g u s e d t o s e a r c h f o r t h e w i t c h ' s m a r k . s t r e s s e d t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e m a r k as a m e a n s o f e s t a b l i s h i n g p r o o f . w e r e a p p o i n t e d . T h e earliest k n o w n r e f e r e n c e to appointing w o m e n for this task c o m e s . r e c o r d e d h o w in 1 6 2 1 t h e s u s p e c t e d w o m e n w e r e t h e i r b o d i e s ' . A male witness r e c o r d e d h o w he w e n t with o n e o f R o d e s ' sons t o H e n r y T e m p e s t . b a s e d as it m u s t b e o n i m p e r f e c t a n d at t i m e s c o n t r a d i c t o r y m a t e r i a l s . M a r y Sikes. legal s y s t e m . ' t o p r o c u r e a w a r r a n t f o r s e a r c h i n g t h e said M a r y S i k e s a n d Susan B e a u m o n t ' .290 JIM SHARPE WOMEN. passing t h e r e b y c h a n c e ' . In this c h a p t e r I s h o u l d l i k e t o t a k e t h i n g s f u r t h e r . w hose m e m b e r s w e r e aware o f the n e e d t o search for the m a r k . A c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e s e t o p i c s . W h e r e a s o v e r 9 0 p e r c e n t o f t h o s e a c c u s e d at t h e E s s e x assizes f o r w i t c h c r a f t w e r e f e m a l e . A n o t h e r Y o r k s h i r e w i t n e s s . intervened. As I have argued e l s e w h e r e .t h i r d s o f t h e c u n n i n g f o l k w h o m M a c f a r l a n e w a s a b l e t o i d e n t i f y in his E s s e x s t u d y w e r e m e n . This e v i d e n c e p r o v e d decisive and swung the j u r y against S a w y e r . in a n o t h e r Y o r k s h i r e c a s e . in l a r g e m e a s u r e . w i d e r e v i d e n c e a b o u t f e m a l e i n v o l v e m e n t as w i n e s s e s in w i t c h c r a f t c a s e s . S h e w a s j o i n e d b y ' t w o g r a v e m a t r o n s . consider what we mean by the t e r m 'legal 7 T h a t t h e p r a c t i c e w a s w i d e l y k n o w n at t h i s t i m e is c o n f i r m e d 1 1 b y a t r a c t d e s c r i b i n g t h e p r o s e c u t i o n o f s e v e r a l w o m e n in E s s e x in 1 5 8 2 . along with o t h e r felons. at t h e h o u s e o f w i d o w P u l l e n s . m o s t c o m m o n l v t o o k t h e f o r m o f a t e a t . b r o u g h t in b y t h e o f f i c e r o u t o f t h e s t r e e t e . w h i c h s u g g e s t s a d e g r e e o f official s a n c t i o n i n g o f t h e p r o c e s s . h o w e v e r . w i t h n e i t h e r t h e j u d g e n o r the j u r y apparently having m u c h idea o f w h a t to m a k e o f the evidence b e f o r e t h e m . A l i c e P u r s t o n . and seek o t h e r points at w h i c h w e can delineate a distinctive f e m a l e contribution t o t h e p r o s e c u t i o n o f w i t c h e s : t h e r o l e o f w o m e n in s e a r c h i n g f o r t h e w i t c h ' s m a r k . S i x w o m e n . t o h a v e i n v o l v e d an i n t e r p l a y T b e t w e e n official a t t i t u d e s and t h e d e m a n d s o f t h e l o c a l c o m m u n i t y . F o r t h e p r e s e n t . f r o m w h i c h it w a s t h o u g h t t h a t t h e w i t c h ' s f a m i l i a r s u c k e d b l o o d . however. D o r o t h y R o d e s . by w h i c h suspition was c o n f i r m e d against h e r ' . w h i c h l o o k e d as t h o u g h it had r e c e n t l y b e e n s u c k e d . t h e c r e d e n t i a l s n e e d e d b y w o m e n s e a r c h e r s w e r e those resulting I r o m g o o d character rather than technical e x p e r t i s e . a n d t h e s u b s e q u e n t b e h a v i o u r o f c o n d e m n e d w i t c h e s o n t h e g a l l o w s . Four years earlier. in a n o t h e r Y o r k s h i r e c a s e . one such group o f searchers d e s c r i b e d as ' w o m e n o f c r e d i t e ' . it is n e c e s s a r y t o g o b e v o n d t h e c o u r t r o o m a n d t h e s t r i c t r u l e s o f legal p r o c e d u r e . including the alleged victims of witchcraft. at F u y s t o n e . a Y o r k s h i r e g e n t l e m a n w h o t h o u g h t t w o o f his d a u g h t e r s w e r e b e i n g b e w i t c h e d . t h e s e a r c h f o r it s h o u l d b e m a d e b y w o m e n . i n t e n d i n g t h e r e b y t o p r e v e n t t h e i r s e a r c h o f h e r ' . 6 F u r t h e r c o m p l i c a t i o n s arise w h e n that half a d o z e n h o n e s t m a t r o n s should b e a p p o i n t e d t o strip w i d o w W a l k e r and t o d e t e r m i n e i f s h e h a d ' e n y b l u d i e m a r k e o n h i r b o d i e w h i c h is a c o m o n t o k e n t o k n o w all w i t c h e s b y ' . in b o t h t h e s e a r e a s f e m a l e p a r t i c i p a t i o n in t h e l e g a l s y s t e m s e e m e d t o b e at l e a s t e q u a l t o t h a t o f m e n . w i t h w o m e n . England. 1 0 w e e x a m i n e c u n n i n g m e n a n d w o m e n . E d w a r d F a i r f a x . a n d as E n g l i s h t r i a l s p r o g r e s s e d its i m p o r t a n c e r e m a i n e d c e n t r a l . a Riding justice w h o s e e m s t o have b e e n m u c h i n v o l v e d in w i t c h c a s e s . This suggests that the legitimation f o r s e a r c h i n g o p e r a t e d at b o t h an official a n d a p o p u l a r l e v e l . a n d . S a w y e r resisted the s e a r c h e r s . accused of malefic witchcraft w e r e w o m e n . e a c h o f t h e m d e p o s i n g s e p a r a t e l y t o c o u r t about the results o f the e x e r c i s e . perhaps a little u n e x p e c t e d l y . t w o . behaving ' m o s t sluttish a n d l o a t h s o m e l y t o w a r d s t h e m . Perhaps the m o s t r e m a r k a b l e evidence w e have o f the dynamics o f the search f o r t h e m a r k c o m e s f r o m t h e c a s e o f E l i z a b e t h S a w y e r . a n o t h e r p a r e n t w h o t h o u g h t h e r child t o b e b e w i t c h e d . T h e y found a teat 'the bignesse o f the little and the length o f halfe a finger'. n o t e d h o w the suspected w i t c h . was ' s e a r c h e d by w e o m e n appointed bv a justice o f p e a c e ' . 1 4 W h a t it d o e s d e m o n s t r a t e is t h a t w i t c h c r a f t prosecutions dominated c a n n o t b e i n t e r p r e t e d p u r e l y as t h e o p p r e s s i o n o f w o m e n b y a m a l e a c c o u n t o f a w i t c h c r a f t trial in E n g l a n d . T h e m a r k w a s s e e n as a m e t h o d o f establishing g u i l t in some fifteenth-century Continental trials. S a w y e r ' s t r i a l w a s r a t h e r h a n g i n g fire. suggested that w o m e n with some type o f knowledge might be favoured. S o m e o t h e r cases. t o l d in 1 6 5 5 h o w she a n d o t h e r w o m e n w e r e appointed t o search K a t h e r i n e Earle on the direction o f the constable o f their township w h o was h i m s e l f acting under direction f r o m a justice. t h o s e ' g o o d ' w i t c h e s w h o a t t r a c t e d so m u c h hostility f r o m the writers o f English demonological tracts. T h e w o r d i n g o f t h e r e l e v a n t o r d e r suggests that the practice was already a familiar o n e . t h e b e h a v i o u r o f b o t h w i t c h e s a n d t h e i r a c c u s e r s in c o u r t . H e told the court that 'information was given unto h i m b y s o m e o f h e r n e i g h b o u r s . ' c o m m a n d e d o f f i c e r s a p p o i n t e d f o r t h o s e p u r p o s e s . O n e o f these was Margaret W e a v e r . f r o m t h e c o u r t l e e t o f S o u t h a m p t o n in 1 5 7 9 . p u b l i s h e d in 1 5 6 6 . a l t h o u g h t h e t h e n c u r r e n t c u s t o m o f s h a v i n g b o d y h a i r f r o m t h e s u s p e c t s t o facilit a t e t h e s e a r c h d o e s n o t s e e m t o h a v e b e e n f o l l o w e d in E n g l a n d . t h r e e m a r r i e d a n d t h r e e w i d o w s . t h a t this E l i z a b e t h S a w y e r h a d a p r i v a t e a n d s t r a n g e m a r k e o n her b o d y .

M a r y A r m i t a g e . w h e r e a t t h e w o m e n l a u g h i n g she p [ r e ] s e n t l v a f t e r said i t c a m e b y a b u r n e a n d s h e h a d it 3 6 y e a r e s . o n e o f t h o s e a c c u s e d o n t h e Isle o f E l y . T h u s w h e n . and t h e n tried by a trial j u r y o f a n o t h e r t w e l v e . w o u l d b e m a d e b v w o m e n in i n f a n t i c i d e a n d r a p e c a s e s . w a s t h e u s e m a d e b y f e m a l e j u r i e s in e x a m i n i n g w o m e n w h o c l a i m e d t o b e p r e g n a n t a f t e r conviction for felony. T h e s u s p e c t e d w i t c h a t t r i b u t e d this t o an i n j u r y s u s t a i n e d w h i l e c a r r y i n g a b u n d l e o f thorns. 1 6 S o m e m i d w i v e s clearly felt t h e m s e l v e s able t o give e x p e r t e v i d e n c e in w i t c h c r a f t 17 cases. a m a n f r o m B a r k i n g in E s s e x w a s p r e s e n t e d f o r i n c e s t w i t h his d a u g h t e r . Elizabeth Harvey. s e e m s t o h a v e a c q u i r e d a w i d e r r e p u t e as a r finder o f the witch's mark. A m i d w i f e T h e f r e q u e n c y o f r e f e r e n c e s in s u r v i v i n g d e p o s i t i o n s t o w o m e n s e a r c h i n g f o r t h e m a r k s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e p r a c t i c e . w h o have had the examinacion of the young w e n c h ' . M a r y P h i l i p s . T h e exceptionally rich documentation provided by the Matthew named and H o p k i n s t r i a l s o f 1 6 4 5 — 7 s h o w s a n u m b e r o f t h e m in a c t i o n . e x i s t i n g as it did o n t h e p e r i p h e r i e s o f t h e legal process. a n d t h a t t h e p e r s o n s a b u s i n g h e r s h o u l d b e b o u n d o v e r t o a p p e a r t h e r e . Earle asked w h y s h e did n o t t e l l t h e w o e m e n t h a t s e a r c h e d . or near juries. This practice seems to have b e e n discontinued by the sixteenth c e n t u r y . T o clear herself. witnesses or parties t o litigation. WITCHCRAFT AND THE LEGAL PROCESS 293 M i d w i v e s w e r e . severall w i c k e d & mallicious persons enveing the g o o d n a m e . d e p o s e d h o w t h e y f o u n d t h r e e t e a t s in h e r p r i v y p a r t s ' w h i c h t h e m i d w i f e a n d t h e rest o f these i n f o r m a n t s have n o t seen the like o n the b o d y o f any o t h e r w o m a n ' . T h e H o m e . b u t the o p e r a t i o n o f t h e c h u r c h c o u r t s still m a d e o c c a s i o n a l u s e o f w o m e n as e x p e r t s in s e x u a l c a s e s . A c r i m i n a l a c c u s a t i o n at t h e s e s s i o n s o r assizes t y p i c a l l y w o u l d b e s c r e e n e d b y a g r a n d j u r y o f t w e l v e o r so m e n . T h i s last c a s e r e m i n d s us t h a t t h e f e m a l e s e a r c h e r s o f f i c i a l l y s a n c t i o n e d t o s e a r c h w o m e n w e r e but one o f a n u m b e r of types o f juries. H e n c e . 2 1 investigators constitutes a part o f the legal p r o c e s s that m u s t m o d i f y the general assertion that w o m e n w e r e e x c l u d e d f r o m official p a r t i c i p a t i o n in i t . and w h o h e n c e h o p e d to delay o r evade being T o g e t h e r . a n d at this s o c i a l l e v e l . s o m e t i m e s w i t h o f f i c i a l s a n c t i o n . P h i l i p s w a s i n v o l v e d as a w i t n e s s in s o m e o f t h e e a r l y E s s e x t r i a l s in t h e s p r i n g o f 1 6 4 5 a n d . while several o f t h e m offered those searching t h e m f o r t h o s e p h y s i c a l p e c u l i a r i t i e s w h i c h r i s k e d b e i n g i d e n t i f i e d as t h e w a t c h ' s m a r k . a Y o r k s h i r e w i t c h . T h e y did n o t s e r v e as m a g i s trates or jurors b u t the authority derived f r o m the crucial evidence o f their 'special k n o w l e d g e ' w a s a d r a m a t i c r e v e r s a l o f t h e i r g e n e r a l l y p o w e r l e s s r o l e s as p e t i t i o n e r s . The English mediaeval ecclesiastical courts had sought female assistance in cases o f a n n u l m e n t o f m a r r i a g e o n the g r o u n d s o f the h u s b a n d ' s i m p o t e n c e . S o m e t h i n g o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e s e a r c h f o r t h e w i t c h ' s m a r k is c o n v e y e d in t h e e x a m i n a t i o n o f another Yorkshire witch. and was paid f o r such duties and also r e c e i v e d e x p e n s e s . a n d a s u s p i c i o u s h o l e a q u a r t e r o f an i n c h d e e p w a s f o u n d o n h e r r i g h t s h o u l d e r . t o t h e e f f e c t t h a t d e s p i t e L a t e r in t h e c e n t u r y . o f c o u r s e . T h i s she did. p e t i t i o n e d t h e b e n c h in t h a t y e a r . as t h e c a s e o f E l i z a b e t h S a w y e r s u g g e s t s . a n d t h a t in i t w e r e t w o l o n g b i g g s . W a l k e r obviously desired that the search that was intended to clear her n a m e should m i r r o r p r o p e r l e g a l p r o c e s s as f a r as p o s s i b l e . 1 5 o f a g e n t l e m a n . by ' s o m e t h a t w e r e t h e r e w h o p [ r e ] t e n d e d t o h a v e skill in t h e d i s c o v e r y o f w i t c h e s ' 1 8 T h e Hopkins episode a l s o s a w t h e e m e r g e n c e o f a w o m a n w h o c l e a r l y a t t a i n e d a r e g i o n a l r e p u t a t i o n as a s e a r c h e r f o r t h e w i t c h ' s m a r k . o f female e x p e r t s w h o w e r e c a l l e d in t o a d j u d i c a t e in a n u m b e r o f l e g a l m a t t e r s . b o t h c r i m inal and civil. o f a m a r k e b e t w e e n e h e r e t h i g h s as w e l l as t h a t o f b e h i n d h e r e a r e s h e at first a n s w e r e d t h a t s h e did n o t k n o w o f i t . J o a n S a l t e r e x p l a i n e d t o an i n v e s t i g a t i n g j u s t i c e t h a t ' t h e m a r k e s t h a t s h e h a t h a b o u t h e r a r e n o t t h e m a r k e s o f a w i t c h b u t c a u s e d as i t p l e a s e t h G o d s h e b e l e a v e t h b y c h i l d b e a r i n g ' . in 1 5 9 5 . by baring t h e i r breasts and kissing o r fondling the m a n . W o m e n w e r e a l s o f r e q u e n t l y i n v o l v e d as w i t n e s s e s a g a i n s t w i t c h e s .292 JIM SHARPE WOMEN. while W a l k e r ' s suggestion that she s h o u l d b e s e a r c h e d b y ' f o u r e & t w e n t y ' w o m e n is i n s t r u c t i v e . . N o t all o f t h e w o m e n s e a r c h e d . s h e w as b r o u g h t in b y t h e a u t h o r i t i e s o f A l d e b u r g h in S u f f o l k t o s u p e r vise o t h e r w o m e n searching s u s p e c t e d w i t c h e s t h e r e . C e r t a i n l y . She explained that the thorn ' c o n t i n e w e d t h e r e about a yeare b e f o r e itt could b e g o t t out and caused a great swelling and since that t y m e t h e r e hath b e e n e a little hole upon h e r s h o u l d e r ' . s u b m i t t e d willingly. it w a s r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e s u s p i c i o n w a s n o t f o u n d e d m e r e l y on ' c o m m o n r e p o r t ' . credit & reputacon fame. uniquely qualified t o c o m m e n t on irregularities in the female genitals. was widespread and culturally familiar. p e r h a p s . Five w o m e n g a v e e v i d e n c e a g a i n s t J o a n S a l t e r . w a s s e a r c h e d b y f o u r w o m e n in 1 6 5 8 . o u t o f w h i c h being pressed issued b l o o d : that they w e r e n e i t h e r piles n o r e m r o d s (for she k n e w b o t h ) b u t e x c r e s s e n c e s like t o biggs with nipples w h i c h s e e m e d as i f t h e y h a d b e e n f r e q u e n t l y s u c k e d . Katherine Earle. b u t also ' u p o n the assertion o f h o n e s t w o m e n . w h e n the accuracy o f the plea was tested by 'honest w o m e n ' w h o . it s e e m s c e r t a i n t h a t s i m i l a r s e a r c h e s . explanations 1 9 l i k e a m o u s e h o l e . t h e a t t e n t i o n o f t h e j u r y of women searchers w a s clearly r e c o g n i z e d . again in E s s e x . B y this t i m e . 2 0 Although the point needs further investi- g a t i o n . and i n f o r m e d the author o f the narration o f the case t h a t s h e n e v e r s a w t h e l i k e in h e r l i f e : t h a t h e r f u n d a m e n t w a s open o f your p e t i t i o n e r ] have uniustly & without g r o u n d o r c o l l o [ u ] r o f r e a s o n given o u t in s p e e c h e s that y o u r p e t i t i o n e r ] is a w i t c h w h i c h o d i o u s n a m e y o [ u ] r p e t i t i o n e r ] u t t e r l y a b h o r s & d e t e s t s & all t h e w o r k s o f t h e d e v i l l . f o r r e a s o n s w h i c h r e m a i n e l u s i v e . J o a n W a l k e r o f B i c e s t e r . one o f which penetrated her shoulder. any widow her Bridget Reynolds searched one o f the Essex witches. T h i s p o i n t is r e i n f o r c e d by a r e m a r k a b l e c a s e f r o m O x f o r d s h i r e in 1 6 8 7 . M o s t f a m i l i a r . again d u r i n g t h e H o p k i n s t r i a l s . w i d o w W a l k e r r e q u e s t e d that t h e b e n c h should o r d e r that she 'may be searched by foure & t w e n t y honest sober iudicious matrons & m a k e r e p o r t o f t h e i r o p i n i o n s at n e x t s e s s i o n s ' . O t h e r s m i g h t c l a i m a m o r e g e n e r a l e x p e r t i s e . t h e g o o d reputation and g o o d c o n d u c t . t h i s u s e o f f e m a l e j u r i e s o r less f o r m a l g r o u p s o f f e m a l e executed. a t t e m p t e d t o arouse h i m s e x u a l l y . A n n e t h e w i f e o f T h o m a s S a v o r y o f U p w e l l in N o r f o l k w a s e x a m i n e d w h o 'sayd that s o m e o f the divles i m p e s had sucked h e r ' . w e find a m i d w i f e b e i n g a p p o i n t e d t o s e a r c h the b o d y o f a s u s p e c t e d w i t c h 'in the p r e s e n c e o f s o m e s o b e r w o m e n ' . .

Cason. gave e v i d e n c e against h e r . b u t e v e n g i v i n g e v i d e n c e c o u l d b e a stressful e x p e r i e n c e . while depositions. a l l e g e d m a l i c e a n d an o l d g r u d g e a g a i n s t h e r at h e r t r i a l . t h e j u d g e m i g h t b e p r e s s u r e d i n t o c o n v i c t i n g a g a i n s t his i n c l i n a t i o n s . W e r e t u r n t o t h e n o t i o n t h a t t h e c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n w o m e n a n d w i t c h c r a f t lav j I f t h e t r e a t m e n t o f w o m e n w i t n e s s e s v a r i e d . one point made whole b e n c h ' . 3 0 John A u b r e y n o t e d t h a t at t h e t r i a l o f a w i t c h in 1 6 5 3 ' t h e s p e c t a t o r s m a d e s u c h a n o i s e that the judge could not hear the prisoner nor the prisoner the judge. from w o m e n t o 8 0 m e n in 1 6 0 0 — 0 9 . a r a t i o o f over twelve male witnesses to each f e m a l e . O f t h e s e . T h e c e n t u r v which witnessed the judicial style o f judge Jeffreys . denied bewitching the child t o death. o n e o f the Essex witches a c c u s e d in 1 6 4 5 . Such w o m e n w e r e unlikely t o m o u n t m u c h by way o f a c o h e r e n t d e f e n c e against the charges levelled against t h e m . Elizabeth W i l l o u g h b y was o n e o f those giving e v i d e n c e on Hathaway's behalf before the sceptical Chief Justice H o l t . of Northern 1657. t h e r e w e r e signs o f w o m e n w i t n e s s e s being t r e a t e d w i t h p o l i t e n e s s . T h u s in 1 5 8 6 J o a n C a s o n . witchcraft cases. so did t h a t o f t h e w o m e n a c c u s e d o f w i t c h c r a f t . In 1 7 0 2 R i c h a r d H a t h a w a y w a s t r i e d as a c h e a t f o r a c c u s i n g Sarah M o r d u c k o f w i t c h c r a f t . much more female c o m p l e x . C h a n d l e r .294 JIM SHARPE WOMEN. In t h a t d e c a d e 5 7 2 m e n a n d 3 6 women w e r e c a l l e d t o g i v e e v i d e n c e in f e l o n y c a s e s at t h e H e r t f o r d s h i r e a s s i z e s . w h e n c o n v i c t i o n s w e r e v e r y r a r e . Such instances t h r o w light o n w h a t is still o n e o f t h e p r o b l e m a r e a s o f E n g l i s h legal h i s t o r y : t h e v e r y b a s i c i s s u e o f h o w t r i a l s w e r e a c t u a l l y c o n d u c t e d . and w h o was subsequently to reprieve W e n h a m after c o n v i c t i o n . w a s t r i e d at t h e b o r o u g h s e s s i o n s f o r i n v o k i n g evil s p i r i t s a n d b e w i t c h i n g a c h i l d t o d e a t h . although invaluable for illustrating other m a t t e r s . i t did n o w a y d i s m a y m e ' . at l e a s t o f t h e g u i l t o f t h e individual old w o m e n b r o u g h t b e f o r e t h e m . r e c o r d e d h o w d u r i n g h e r t r a v e l s in C o r n w a l l s h e w a s i n v e s t i g a t e d as a w i t c h . T h e g e n e r a l p o i n t t o b e m a d e is t h a t c o u r t p r o c e e d i n g s w e r e m o r e d i s o r o f law. and the child had n o friends able t o b e a r the charges o f such a p r o s e c u t i o n ' .t r y i n g w o m a n l o o k e d in m v f a c e . judges w e r e . b u t a l s o in a m u c h w i d e r . d i a r i e s . as R o g e r N o r t h r e c o r d e d o f o n e p o s t . An o b v i o u s l y u n c o n v i n c e d j u d g e H o l t w a s v e r y r e s t r a i n e d in his s u b s e q u e n t q u e s t i o n i n g 2 8 In t h e s a m e d e c a d e . Holt asked her what skill s h e h a d in m a t t e r s o f w i t c h c r a f t . a n d s h e r e p l i e d t h a t s h e h a d b e e n b e w i t c h e d as a c h i l d . j u d g e s m u s t h a v e p l a y e d a m a j o r p a r t in h e l p i n g a c c u s e d w i t c h e s e v a d e e x e c u t i o n . s o m e t h i n g c a n b e c o n s t r u c t e d f r o m p a m p h l e t a c c o u n t s o f t r i a l s . t h a t she c o u l d n o t h e a r t h e e v i d e n c e a g a i n s t h e r ' . WITCHCRAFT AND THE LEGAL PROCESS 295 C i r c u i t assize r e c o r d s r e v e a l t h a t t h e r e w e r e 1 2 0 7 calls f o r w i t n e s s e s a t w i t c h t r i a l s between 1 6 0 0 and 1 7 0 2 . w h o was sceptical. examination by justices and m o b pressure on the way to the place o f trial. a n d less s e e m l y t h a n t h o s e o b t a i n i n g in a m o d e r n s u c h l i k e . O n these figures. S o m e n o t i o n o f typical conditions can b e gained f r o m the case o f M a r y S p e n c e r w h o . ' b u t though he and the w i t c h . broadly speaking. a n d f r o m i s o l a t e d r e f e r e n c e s in l e t t e r s . w e r e the accused being a Hertfordshire often browbeaten woman named or r i d i c u l e d b y t h e j u d i c i a r y . scatt e r e d e v i d e n c e s u g g e s t s t h a t a f e w w o m e n w e r e a b l e t o d e f e n d t h e m s e l v e s in c o u r t . In i s o l a t e d c a s e s . a n d t o r e c o n s t r u c t s o m e t h i n g o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f w o m e n in t h e c o u r t r o o m . t h e r e m i g h t b e a h e a v y p r e p o n d e r a n c e o f w o m e n w i t n e s s e s : 1 4 w o m e n t o 3 m e n in K e n t in 1 0 w o m e n t o 5 m e n in S u r r e y in 1 6 6 4 . t h a t w o m e n f e l t n o q u a l m s a b o u t g i v i n g 2 2 e v i d e n c e against f e m a l e w i t c h e s . 6 3 1 ( o r 52 per c e n t ) involved m e n and 576 ( o r 4 8 p e r c e n t ) w o m e n . asked sarcastically if Field had n o w g r o w n r i c h . O n e o f t h o s e giving e v i d e n c e against h e r was Elizabeth F i e l d . although a bungle o v e r legal technicalities led t o h e r e x e c u t i o n . a n d f e m a l e i n t e r a c t i o n in e a r l y m o d e r n England. at h e r t r i a l f o r w i t c h c r a f t . o n e o f t h r e e w i t c h e s e x e c u t e d at E x e t e r in A l l this w a s b a d e n o u g h f o r t h e a c c u s e d . L o w c o n v i c t i o n r a t e s at t h e assizes s u g g e s t t h a t t h r o u g h o u t t h e p e r i o d o f the operation o f the English witch statutes.w e s t . a n d as y e t b a r e l y i n v e s t i g a t e d w e b o f a s s u m p t i o n s a b o u t g e n d e r . t a k i n g t h e H o m e C i r c u i t as a w h o l e . 3 2 3 1 S o m e t i m e s t h e t h r o n g in t h e c o u r t d u r i n g a w i t c h c r a f t t r i a l m i g h t b e so o p p r e s s i v e . t h e r e 9 2 m e n a n d 8 2 w o m e n w e r e c a l l e d t o g i v e e v i d e n c e in w o m e n w e r e o v e r 11 t i m e s m o r e l i k e l y t o a c t as w i t n e s s e s in w i t c h c r a f t t r i a l s at t h e assizes t h a n t h e y w e r e in all f e l o n y c a s e s . In 1 7 1 2 t h e r e o c c u r r e d t h e last k n o w n assize t r i a l f o r in E n g l a n d . p o w e r . as w e shall s e e . Such in 1 6 8 5 w a s n o t o n e in w h i c h w i t n e s s e s m i g h t u s u a l l y e x p e c t i n d u l g e n t a t t i t u d e s from judges. on the strength C i r c u i t assize d e p o s i t i o n s . t h a t . i f n o t t h e a b s t r a c t p o s s i b i l i t y o f w i t c h c r a f t . but the words w e r e handed f r o m o n e to the o t h e r by M r R. a b o u t this c l a i m . It is p o s s i b l e t o p u s h b e y o n d s t a t i s t i c s o c c a s i o n a l l y . a n e a r l y e v e n s p l i t . witchcraft and w i t n e s s e s . m o r e r a m s h a c k l e . 2 7 cases w o u l d s e e m t o support the conclusion advanced e l s e w h e r e . to w h i c h she a n s w e r e d 'she was a p o o r w o m e n . T h e j u d g e . w e r e essentiallv pre-trial d o c u m e n t s that by their very n a t u r e u s u a l l y t e l l us n o t h i n g o f w h a t h a p p e n e d in c o u r t . while admitting c o n t a c t with what may have b e e n familiars. T h e j u d g e asked w h y she had n o t p r o s e c u t e d W e n h a m i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r this i n c i d e n t .R e s t o r a t i o n c a s e in t h e s o u t h . T h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e s e figures is e m p h a s i z e d w h e n w e c o m p a r e t h e m t o t h e g e n d e r r a t i o o f all w i t n e s s e s c a l l e d t o g i v e e v i d e n c e in f e l o n y c a s e s in Hertfordshire between 1 6 1 0 a n d 1 6 1 9 . a n d t h a t t h i s e x p e r i e n c e h a d g i v e n h e r i n s i g h t i n t o s u c h m a t t e r s . Y e t in o t h e r i n s t a n c e s w o m e n a c c u s e d o f w i t c h c r a f t in t h e c o n f u s i n g a n d h o s t i l e e n v i r o n m e n t o f t h e c o u r t m i g h t find t h e m s e l v e s u n d e r h e a v y p r e s s u r e . S e v e n w o m e n a n d o n e m a n . d e r l y . a n d t h a t a c l e r g y m e n h e l p e d t o f r a m e an i n d i c t m e n t against h e r . T h e official d o c u m e n t a t i o n e n g e n d e r e d b y an E n g l i s h c r i m i n a l trial in this p e r i o d r a r e l y s h e d s m u c h l i g h t o n t h e s e m a t t e r s . She told h o w W e n h a m had b e w i t c h e d a child o f hers a b o u t nine years previously. 8 w o m e n a l o n e in E s s e x in 1 6 5 0 . In m a n y c a s e s t h e a c c u s e d w e r e e l d e r l y w o m e n w h o h a d b e e n c o w e d b y the experiences o f c o m m u n i t y hostility. t o a p r e p o n d e r a n c e o f w o m e n w i t n e s s e s in t h e 1 6 6 0 s a n d 1 6 7 0 s . T h e H o m e C i r c u i t r e c o r d s also suggest that the 46 proportion of w o m e n witnesses increased over the seventeenth centurv. m a l e and f e m a l e alike. a n d t h e t h r o n g s o g r e a t . m e m o i r s . c o m p l a i n e d t h a t ' t h e w i n d w a s so l o u d . t h e I n t e r r e g n u m r e l i g i o u s v i s i o n a r y . N e v e r t h e l e s s . Jane W e n h a m . and s o m e t i m e s n o t truly reported'. H e r arguing convinced the R e c o r d e r o f Faversharn o f her i n n o c e n c e . 2 5 O t h e r cases o f w h a t a m o u n t e d a l m o s t t o defiance w e r e r e c o r d e d . scept i c a l a b o u t . p o o r p e o p l e b u t h e r n e a r n e i g h b o u r s . a w i d o w o f F a v e r s h a m in K e n t . a n d at ' a s t r a n g e h o w l i n g in t h e c o u r t t o t h e g r e a t d i s t u r b a n c e o f t h e Temperance L l o y d . 2 4 By the later seventeenth century. A n n a T r a p n e l . o f w h a t h a p p e n e d in t h e p u s h a n d s h o v e o f a c o u r t in s e s s i o n . T h e i n d i c t m e n t is a n o t o r i o u s l y a r i d d o c u m e n t . a n d d e m o n s t r a t e its h o s t i l i t y t o t h e a c c u s e d so f o r c e f u l l y . 2 6 steadfastly Margaret Landish. O t h e r sources can be and court m o r e r e v e a l i n g a n d . 2 9 n o t o n l y in t h e g e n d e r o f t h e a c c u s e d . claiming that h e r adversaries w e r e maliciously accusing h e r and that t h e r e w e r e e x i s t i n g d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e m in w h i c h h e r a c c u s e r s h a d a l r e a d y d o n e her w r o n g . 2 3 C o n v e r s e l y .

a n d b e i n g a s k e d w h e t h e r she d e s i r e d t h e p r a y e r s o f a n y o f t h e p e o p l e . b a s h f u l l g i r l e . and indeed h a v e b e e n r e g a r d e d as a d e e p e r a f f r o n t t o s o c i a l n o r m s t h a n t h a t o f y o u n g m a l e s . she h a d as m a n v p r a y e r s a l r e a d y as she i n t e n d e d . e x e c u t e d at S a l i s b u r y . A s h b y c o n f e s s e d t o c o p u l a t i o n t h e D e v i l . d a u g h t e r o f a L o n d o n s h o p k e e p e r . a n d in o p e n c o u r t ' f e l l i n t o an e x t a s i e b e f o r e t h e b e n c h . so a u d a c i o u s ' . exhorted nine or m o r e times to confess by the Ordinary o f N e w g a t e . f r e q u e n t l y i n v o l v i n g fits a n d c o n v u l s i o n s . Frequently these t o o k the form o f dramatic interventions on the first part o f the alleged sufferer w h e n the supposed witch entered the c o u r t or was noticed by the supposedly possessed girl. o n e witness referring to the 'gogling o f hir heade & eyes. S o m e t h i n g o f t h e d i v e r g e n c e in t h e n o r m a l e x p e c t a t i o n s o f a y o u n g w o m a n ' s b e h a v i o u r a n d t h a t o f t h e p o s s e s s e d a d o l e s c e n t g i r l in t h e p r e s e n c e o f a j u d g e c a n b e . not g l i m p s e d in t h e a c c o u n t o f t h e s u f f e r i n g s o f y e t a n o t h e r d a u g h t e r o f t h e gentry m i n d i n g w h a t s h o u l d b e c o m e o f h e r i m m o r t a l s o u l . like o t h e r c o n v i c t e d f e l o n s . w h i c h s h e d e c l a r e d t o b e t r u e 'in the hearing o f m a n y h u n d r e d s ' . 39 i n t o a m o n s t r o u s and vast b i g n e s s . and w e r e carried o u t ' . T h e girl and h e r m o t h e r w e r e a t t e m p t i n g t o persuade a sceptical j u d g e t o p r o s e c u t e t h e p e r s o n s s u s p e c t e d o f w i t c h c r a f t . a l t h o u g h c o n f e s s i n g h e r w i t c h c r a f t at h e r t r i a l . at t h e g a l l o w s s h e r e f u s e d t o c o n f e s s . h o w e v e r . w i t h o u t a n y c o n f i d e n c e at all w h e n s h e w a s o u t o f h e r fits'. 4 0 p e o p l e o f e i t h e r s e x m i g h t b e p o s s e s s e d . boldly. 4 1 Ideally. b u t r a t h e r i m p u d e n t l y a t . It w a s d e s i r a b l e t h a t t h e c o n d e m n e d w i t c h . As s h e w a l k e d t o t h e g a l l o w s . T h u s w h e n w a s t h e r e s u l t o f d i v i n e j u s t i c e . t h e i r c u r i o s i t y f o u n d n o t h i n g b u t s i n c e r i t y in m y children'. H e l e n and Elizabeth Fairfax. should ' m a k e a g o o d e n d ' . c a l l i n g f o r b e e r . a n d i n d u l g e in b a d b e h a v i o u r t h a t w a s n o t o n l v l i c e n s e d . a n d h a d n o t M r U n d e r s h e r i f f s p r u d e n c e b e e n s u c h as t o r e s t r a i n h e r f r o m it s h e w o u l d h a v e d i e d d r u n k ' . a n d c h e a r f u l l y ' . at t h e p l a c e of e x e c u t e d at T y b u r n in execution. it s e e m s t h a t m o s t o f t h e c a s e s o f fits a n d c o n v u l s i o n s o c c u r r i n g in c o u r t o f w h i c h d e t a i l s h a v e c o m e d o w n t o us i n v o l v e d young w o m e n . a n d w a s v e r y p a s s i o n a t e w h e n d e n y e d ' . a n d d u r s t d o n o o t h e r w i s e ' .296 JIM SHARPE WOMEN. Justices p r e s e n t f o l l o w e d the girls o u t . b a s h f u l l g i r l e ' t h e c h a n c e t o b e c o m e t h e c e n t r e o f a t t e n t i o n A f t e r trial and c o n d e m n a t i o n the w i t c h . s h e w e n t w i t h a s m a l l p i e c e o f s i l v e r in h e r h a n d . W h a t of is w r o n g f u l l y s u f f e r e d d e a t h . In f a c t . A p p r o p r i a t e l y e n o u g h . 3 6 C a s o n d i e d at F a v e r s h a m in 1 5 8 6 s h e m a d e a g a l l o w s s p e e c h a c c e p t i n g t h a t h e r f a t e B u t n o t all d i e d so e d i f y i n g l y . s h e ' d i d n o t k n o w w h a t w a s p a s t . and t h e girl fell i n t o fits b e f o r e t h e j u d g e . T w o d e c a d e s l a t e r t w o o t h e r daughters o f the g e n t r y . or by curious diseases inflicted on t h e m by witchcraft. w h o w a s t h o u g h t t o b e b e w i t c h e d in 1 6 0 2 . a r e s o m e t i m e s v e r y l o n g a n d v e r y h a r r o w i n g . t r i e d at t h e B e r k Gunter. w e l l as a f t e r h e r t r y a l . G o o d c o l e o f f i c i a t e d a t t h e e x e c u t i o n . w h i l e she w a s a l s o . i n f a c t . v o m i t i n g r Another distraction to the court was offered with swelled b y A n n e A s h b y . a n d m a d e s o g o d l y an e n d t h a t m a n y w h o previously b e e n her enemies lamented her d e a t h . as w i t h E l i z a b e t h S a w y e r . t r i e d at M a i d s t o n e in 1 6 5 2 . be excessive. b u t a l s o m a d e t h e m the centre of attention. a n d did l a m e n t e x t r e m e l y . t h e d u b l i n g & s w e l l i n g o f h i r b o d y ' in c o u r t . 3 b S o m e t i m e s this s o r t o f c l e r i c a l p r e s s u r e c o u l d 1 6 5 2 . likewise 'fell i n t o a t r a n c e b e f o r e the j u d g e . less t h a n e d i f y i n g . it is c l e a r t h a t b e i n g p o s s e s s e d a n d l a u n c h i n g a w i t c h c r a f t a c c u s a t i o n and t o e x e r c i s e p o w e r o v e r adults. h o w e v e r . ' w h o c o m f o r t e d her to bear death Christianly. a n d d e s i r e d t o d i e q u i e t l y ' . w a s w o r k e d on by a minister n a m e d Foster. h o w e v e r . T h e girls' father n o t e d t h a t ' r e p o r t said t h a t it w a s n o t s o c i v i l as I e x p e c t e d f r o m s u c h m e n . ' b y e v e r y h o u s e s h e w e n t b y . w a s ' p e r f e c t l y r e s o l u t e . she w a s ' v e r y d e s i r o u s f o r d r i n k . a n d is t o o c o m p l e x t o g o i n t o h e r e . t o w h i c h t h e c l e r g y m a n r e s p o n d e d t h a t ' h e w a s c o m m a n d e d t o d o s o . s c h r e e c h i n g and crying o u t very d o l e f u l l y ' . g a v e a d o l e s c e n t s a unique o p p o r t u n i t y t o cast off their characteristically submissive and repressed r o l e . 3 7 G i v e n the probability that girls w e r e m o r e likelv than possessed mav 3 8 boys to be deeply socialized into submissiveness. 4 2 Anne s i m i l a r l y w e n t i n t o fits at t h e t r i a l o f t w o o f t h e w o m e n w h o h a d a l l e g e d l y b e w i t c h e d h e r . f o r u n c l e a r r e a s o n s . the p r o g r e s s o f w i t c h trials was d i s t u r b e d b y sufferings of c r a f t . w o u l d b e p r e p a r e d f o r d e a t h . W h a t is s t r i k i n g . and die p e n i t e n t l y and w i t h d i g n i t y . T h i s s t o r y d o e s at l e a s t d e m o n strate that c o n v i c t e d w i t c h e s c o u l d b e o b d u r a t e at t h e g a l l o w s . t o confess t h e m a t t e r s f o r w h i c h she had b e e n c o n v i c t e d . as 3 3 M a r g a r e t M u s c h a m p . as w a s t y p i c a l in s u c h c a s e s . T h u s in o n e w e l l d o c u m e n t e d c a s e w e find M a r y G l o v e r . H e r e x e c u t i o n w a s . In S a w y e r ' s c a s e . f a l l i n g i n t o a fit w h e n s h e w a s c a l l e d t o g i v e e v i d e n c e in c o u r t . a n d at t h e g a l l o w s r e a d t o h e r t h e c o n f e s s i o n t h a t she h a d m a d e e a r l i e r . O n e o f t h e r e c u r r i n g t h e m e s o f English w i t c h c r a f t was the possession o f v o u n g p e o p l e by spirits sent by a w i t c h . T h e t h r e e s t r o n g m e n w h o c a r r i e d t h e g i r l out o f c o u r t declared that they had ' n e v e r carried a heavier b u r d e n ' . is t h e n u m b e r o f o c c a s i o n s w h e n s u c h b e h a v i o u r o c c u r r e d in t h e c o u r t r o o m . b e i n g r e g a r d e d ( a t l e a s t b y t h e a c c u s e r s ) as e v i d e n c e o f b e w i t c h m e n t . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e p a m p h l e t a c c o u n t . sometimes Although m a n y an ' i n n o c e n t . s h e a n s w e r e d . the turning o f h e r a r m e s a n d h a n d s . at o n e s t a g e . w a s . w h e t h e r in t h e c o u r t r o o m o r n o t . like any o t h e r f e l o n . and ' m a d e e x p e r i m e n t s to p r o v e if they c o u n t e r f e i t e d o r n o t ' . foreign b o d i e s . A t this p o i n t t h e e x e c u t i o n e r c o m m e n t e d t h a t ' t h e O r d i n a r y m i g h t b e a s h a m e d t o t r o u b l e a d y i n g w o m a n so m u c h ' . a n d t o m a k e a full c o n f e s s i o n . this last t y p e o n t h e p a r t o f t h e a l l e g e d v i c t i m s o f w i t c h c r a f t . Joan Peterson. an e x e c u t i o n w o u l d i n v o l v e t h e c o n v i c t e d w i t c h m a k i n g a ' g o o d e n d ' a n d b e h a v i n g in an a p p r o p r i a t e l y e d i f y i n g f a s h i o n . adding 'that she r yet T h e t h e m e o f t h e p o s s e s s i o n o f a d o l e s c e n t s is a m a j o r o n e in t h e h i s t o r y E n g l i s h w i t c h c r a f t in this p e r i o d . s h i r e assizes at a l m o s t the same time. A n n B o d e n h a m . B u t w h e n s h e c a m e o u t o f h e r fits. T h e accounts of t h e s u f f e r i n g s o f s u c h p o s s e s s e d p e r s o n s . v e r y a n n o y e d w h e n t h e s h e r i f f t o l d h e r s h e c o u l d n o t b e b u r i e d at t h e g a l l o w s . a n d d e s i r e d o b v i o u s is t h a t b e i n g p o s s e s s e d . H e m a n a g e d t o b r i n g h e r ' t o t h a t p i t c h as t o p r o m i s e h i m she w o u l d g o e a t r u e p e n i t e n t t o h e r p l a c e o f e x e c u t i o n . this p r o c e s s w o u l d b e e n t r u s t e d t o a c l e r g y m a n . a n d t o d i e as a l a m b ' . and 3 4 W h e n e x a m i n i n g g e n d e r as an a s p e c t o f w i t c h gave M o r e c o m m o n l y . Joan had In a n o t h e r c a s e . their behaviour w h e n attracted considerable c o m m e n t f r o m c o n t e m p o r a r y o b s e r v e r s . S h e r e f u s e d . a gentleman's daughter. as all t h e b e h o l d e r s did s e e o n e l y an i n n o c e n t . T h e R e c o r d e r o f L o n d o n a n d o t h e r officials t e s t e d t h e g e n u i n e n e s s o f h e r fit b y b u r n i n g h e r h a n d until it b l i s t e r e d : the girl r e m a i n e d i n s e n s i b l e . WITCHCRAFT AND THE LEGAL PROCESS 297 1 6 8 2 . H e n c e Henry G o o d c o l e w o r k e d on (to use the c o n t e m p o r a r y phrase) Elizabeth S a w y e r in 1 6 2 1 t o a c c e p t h e r s i n f u l n e s s a n d t h e d e a t h b y h a n g i n g t h a t it h a d d r a w n u p o n h e r . a n d on her r e c o v e r y claimed that h e r familiar had e n t e r e d h e r b o d y .

w e should r e m i n d ourselves that there w e r e other tribunals involved with witchcraft cases. w e m u s t k e e p o u r minds open t o the possibility that although women might have shared with men the experience of going t h r o u g h various stages o f the judicial p r o c e s s . I n d e e d . aspects o f the prosecution o f felony which w e r e either s p e c i f i c t o o r m o r e m a r k e d in t r i a l s o f w i t c h c r a f t . m o r e i m p o r tantly for our immediate purposes. and f e m a l e a c t i o n c o u l d r u n . but rather w e r e f r e q u e n t l y g e n e r a t e d f r o m t e n s i o n s b e t w e e n w o m e n . w h i c h w e r e t h e last w o r d s she s p o k e ' . WITCHCRAFT AND THE LEGAL PROCESS 299 to have. I w o u l d a r g u e . h a d f a l l e n i l l . a c c u s e r s o r w i t n e s s e s . Ecclesiastical law gave w o m e n greater o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r l i t i g a t i n g t h a n did t h e c o m m o n l a w . as w a s t h e c u s t o m . B u t m u c h o f w h a t s e e m s t o h a v e h a p p e n e d t o w o m e n i n v o l v e d in w i t c h c r a f t c a s e s . As I h a v e s u g g e s t e d e l s e w h e r e . but cursed those that detained her f r o m h e r death. deposed that W r i g h t claimed Briscoe h a d b e w i t c h e d h e r at t h e t i m e o f t h e c h i l d ' s c o n c e p t i o n . S h e a l s o c o m p l a i n e d at claimed a b o u t the s a m e t i m e o f being c o m p e l l e d 'to be a w i t n e s s against h e r husband for Margery Whishall. the quality o f that e x p e r i e n c e a n d t h e r e a c t i o n s a n d e m o t i o n s it m i g h t p r o v o k e c o u l d h a v e b e e n v e r y for them. a n d t o l d h e r ' h e w a s m u c h t r o u b l e d at it b u t h e c o u l d n o t r u l e h e r . and was i m p o r t u n a t e to g o e up the ladder. Unusually. s o r c e r y and charming might b e p r e s e n t e d b e f o r e these c o u r t s . a c r i m e w h i c h . a n d s o m e o f t h e b e t t e r d o c u m e n t e d cases reveal clearly h o w witchcraft accusations m i g h t f o r m part o f a w i d e r b o d v o f tensions and conflicts b e t w e e n women. notably the ecclesiastical c o u r t s . f e m a l e p o w e r . ' w h i c h t h e said M a r y h a d a g r e a t m i n d o f . a b o u t t w e l v e . W i t h W r i g h t and B r i s c o e w e obviously This creates problems for those investigating constraints on female b e h a v i o u r in e a r l v m o d e r n E n g l a n d . the p h e n o m e n o n o f c r o w d action or popular attitudes towards criminals o r at e x e c u t i o n s w a s n o t l i m i t e d t o w i t c h c r a f t c a s e s . W r i g h t a n d B r i s c o e w e r e c l e a r l y n o t v i c t i m s o f a patriarchal legal s y s t e m . reveal a social arena w h e r e channels o f f e m a l e f o r c e .298 JIM SHARPE WOMEN. w h e t h e r as a c c u s e d . a n d s h e did s w e l l m u c h in t h e b o d y a n d s o e d y e d ' . M a n y w i t c h c r a f t a c c u s a t i o n s . a n d ' w a s v e r y sadly a f f l i c t e d a n d i n a s t r a n g e m a n n e r d u r i n g w h i c h t i m e ' s h e w o u l d m a n y t i m e s say t h a t M a r y B r i s c o e p r i c k e d h e r t o t h e h e a r t w i t h p i n s a n d w o u l d h a v e h e r h e a r t a n d t h e l i k e . T h e r e w e r e . t h e n e i g h b o u r l y evaluation. however. B u t b e f o r e m o v i n g t o a n y c o n c l u s i o n s o n t h e e v i d e n c e p r e s e n t e d b y this c o n n e c tion. T h u s w e h a v e a c a s e w h i c h r e s e m b l e s so m a n y o t h e r s : t h e s t r a n g e d e a t h o f a child. a n d h e w a s v e r y m u c h a f r a i d t h a t s h e w o u l d c o m e t o t h e s a m e e n d as h e r did'. c o n c l u d e d the account o f her trial. T h o s e l e a s t t a k e c o n s o l a t i o n in B o d e n h a m ' s c a s e as o n e o f h e g e m o n y ' s failures. w h i c h e n d e d in W r i g h t p e r f o r m i n g p u b l i c p e n a n c e in h e r p a r i s h c h u r c h . T h i s d i s p u t e h a d a l r e a d y p r o v o k e d a suit w h i c h h a d b e e n a r b i t r a t e d b y a j u s t i c e o f t h e p e a c e . the focusing o f suspicion. She then tried to turn herself off on the gallows. T h e h i g h l e v e l o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f w o m e n w i t n e s s e s in w i t c h c r a f t c a s e s . a n d f e m a l e c o n c e r n o v e r reputation. w e r e a r e a s in w h i c h w o m e n c o u l d e n t e r t h e m a l e d o m i n a t e d m i l i e u o f l e g a l p r o c e s s . h a v e t w o r a t h e r c o n t e n t i o u s w o m e n . but was restrained by the e x e c u t i o n e r . has b e e n r e g a r d e d as h a v i n g a p e c u l i a r c o n n e c t i o n with h a v e a r g u e d t h a t w i t c h c r a f t a c c u s a t i o n s w e r e a m e a n s o f c o n t r o l l i n g w o m e n c a n at 4 3 T h i s c h a p t e r has c o n c e n t r a t e d o n w i t c h c r a f t a n d t h e s e c u l a r c r i m i n a l l a w c o u r t s . w h o h a d . O n e witness. F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i n t o this issue m i g h t lead to s o m e useful insights into attitudes t o g e n d e r . T h e m o s t o b v i o u s o f t h e s e . like women convicted of witchcraft. 4 4 R e s t o r a t i o n . of r e f e r e n c e s t o h o s t i l e m o b s is s t r i k i n g . ' t h e said M a r y B r i s c o e w as s u s p e c t e d b y m a n y n e i g h b o u r s t o b e t h e c a u s e r w o m e n . W e are examining witchcraft. and m a l e men convicted of felony. a n d t h e r e a d y p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f w o m e n in s e a r c h i n g f o r t h e w i t c h ' s mark. w h o a s k e d h e r f o r g i v e n e s s . h a d d i s c u s s e d t h e p r o b l e m w i t h C i c e l y W i n n e . shall b e f o r s a k e n o f h i m in t h e i r d e a t h s ' . B r i s c o e w a s d e s c r i b e d as a ' v e r y t r o u b l e s o m e a n d w r a n g l i n g w o m a n a m o n g h e r n e i g h b o u r s ' . e s p e c i a l l y s i n c e t h e y w e r e o n t h e f r i n g e s o f scratching o r o t h e r f o r m s o f popularly licensed v i o l e n c e . b u t t h e f r e q u e n c y the legal p r o c e s s . N e i t h e r w o m a n h a d an u n b l e m i s h e d r e p u t a t i o n . as I have stressed. 'She replyed forgive thee? that who A p o x o n t h e e . in f a c t . A n o t h e r r e c u r r i n g t h e m e in a c c o u n t s o f w i t c h c r a i t c a s e s w a s t h e frequent o c c u r r e n c e o f s o m e t h i n g a m o u n t i n g t o m o b a c t i o n . were witnesses 'worked g i v i n g e v i d e n c e in c o u r t . h e r husband. H o w e v e r . In c o n s e q u e n c e . w h i l e . diflerent b o t h o f h e r a f f l i c t i n g e a n d l i k e w i s e o f a b r o t h e r o f h e r s w h o w a s sadly a f f l i c t e d b e f o r e t h a t & d y e d in a s t r a n g e m a n n e r ' . was the use o f groups o f w o m e n to search suspected witches for the m a r k . A n o t h e r w o m e n . b u t r a t h e r t w o w o m e n w h o w e r e willing to use t h e law to pursue their own ends. But Wright h e r s e l f h a d g i v e n b i r t h t o an i l l e g i t i m a t e Moth[er] the child just after T h e w i l l i n g n e s s o f o t h e r w o m e n t o a c t a g a i n s t a l l e g e d w i t c h e s is a l s o a c o n s t a n t t h e m e . her wofull death. speaking t r e a s o n against the k i n g ' . o r as a ' v e r y wilfull high spirited w o m a n a m o n g s t h e r n e i g h b o u r s ' . the s u r v i v i n g d o c u m e n t a t i o n a l l o w s us t o p i e c e t o g e t h e r s o m e t h i n g o f t h e b a c k g r o u n d . W r i g h t ' s daughter. w o r r i e d about t h e s u s p i c i o n o f w i t c h c r a i t a g a i n s t his w i f e . o f t e n arising f r o m such t r a d i t i o n a l f e m a l e c o n c e r n s as c h i l d r e a r i n g . the allegation o f w i t c h c r a f t . It a r o s e f r o m p r o b l e m s b e t w e e n M a r y Briscoe and A n n W r i g h t . T h i s c a s e . aged O n e s u c h c a s e w a s t r i e d b e f o r e t h e C h e s t e r C o n s i s t o r v C o u r t in 1 6 6 2 . s e e m s v e r y s i m i l a r t o w h a t happened to their m a l e c o u n t e r p a r t s : m e n accused o f felony. S u s p e c t e d w i t c h e s m i g h t b e s u b j e c t e d to s w i m m i n g . by fitts'. a l r e a d y b e e n l o c k e d i n t o a d i s p u t e o v e r a h o u s e in w h i c h W r i g h t h a d d w e l t . m i g h t b e h e c t o r e d o r p r e s s u r e d b y a g g r e s s i v e j u d g e s . h a d r e i u s e d t o i d e n t i f y its f a t h e r t o t h e m i d w i f e a n d h a d r e f u s e d t o do p e n a n c e for it. interestingly. given that m o s t o f the p e o p l e t o w a r d s w h o m such v i o l e n c e was d i r e c t e d w e r e women. O f course. g o s s i p a m o n g w o m e n . d e m o n s t r a t e s h o w t h e e c c l e s i a s t i c a l l a w h e l p e d w o m e n to b e c o m e a g e n t s in l e g a l m a t t e r s . ' T h u s ' . T h o s e f o r s a k e G o d in t h e i r l i v e s . a n d w e r e o f t e n f o r m u l a t e d a n d r e f i n e d in t h e w o r l d o f f e m a l e s o c i a b i l i t y . that W r i g h t had slandered h e r f o r adultery. h o w e v e r . m a t e r i a l s f r o m Y o r k s h i r e d e m o n s t r a t e t h a t witchcraft accusations w e r e not simply foisted onto w o m e n by m e n . as a w i t n e s s n a m e d C i c e l y W i n n e d e p o s e d . T h i s a s s e r t i o n r e m i n d s us o f t h e p r o b l e m s o f d e t e r m i n i n g a s p e c i f i c a l l y f e m a l e e x p e r i e n c e b e f o r e t h e c o u r t s a n d legal p r o c e s s . defamation suits involving allegations of witchcraft might be pursued t h e r e . . o r at l e a s t p o p u l a r p r e s s u r e . 'you have her wicked life. c o r r e c t l y . Less serious f o r m s o f witchcraft. a n d o n ' b y c l e r g y m e n b e f o r e t h e i r e x e c u t i o n in h o p e s t h a t t h e y m i g h t p r o d u c e a m o d e l speech f r o m the gallows. the defamation suit in d e f e n c e of good name. t u r n m e o f f .

I b i d . J . family and t h e social o r d e r . C . ' S e x r o l e s and c r i m e in late E l i z a b e t h a n H e r t f o r d s h i r e ' . S h a r p e . 1 1 2 ( o r 2 2 p e r c e n t ) w e r e M a n v o t h e r s . (London 1 9 0 9 ) . late A true and exact relation witches arraigned of the severall informations. suffered lesser p e n a l t i e s . I ( S o u t h a m p t o n 1 9 0 6 ) . A D 1 5 7 8 — 1 6 0 2 . the hon Sir Dudley 130—1 North. 125. W e i n e r . Z . v o l . 18—37. 1—64. a n d in w h i c h w o m e n . w i t c h c r a f t at t h e H o m e C i r c u i t assizes. 89. see The of womens rights for (London 1 6 5 2 ) . B3v. and the witchcraft from (London 1 9 2 9 ) . 5 8 ( Y o r k 1 9 8 0 ) . Daemonologia: Goodcole. 8 0 — 1 1 6 . Before the Bawdy Court ( L o n d o n 1 9 7 2 ) . w h o had n e i t h e r d e x t e r i t y n o r spirit t o o p p o s e a p o p u l a r r a g e ' . Trapnel's report and plea (London 1 6 5 4 ) . L ' E s t r a n g e E w e n . A . E. examinations and confessions 1699 of the and executed in the county of Essex ( L o n d o n 1 6 4 5 ) . 3 . an o f f e n c e w h i c h . B e a t t i e . l i k e e v e r y t h i n g e l s e . and J . Hertfordshire indictments James I. For an i m p o r t a n t preliminary discussion. modern England. f o r i n f a n t i c i d e . of Assize Justice 189. e d s . witches (London 1 6 8 2 ) . eds A . see S. North. Landish was s e n t e n c e d t o d e a t h . Society (Oxford 1988). Witchcraft The examination before the queens Court leet records. T h i s l e a d s us t o a final p o i n t . Marriage (Cambridge 1 9 7 4 ) . W . sig D 4 . see C . Y e t in t h e p r e c e d i n g p a g e s w e h a v e s e e n w o m e n a c t i n g s t r o n g l y : d e f y i n g j u d g e s a n d e x e c u t i o n e r s . 6 ( 1 9 9 1 ) . L i k e all o f u s . ( L o n d o n 1 9 3 3 ) . in Tudor and Stuart England A . 79. 1 16—36. at S. 4 3 9 — 4 6 . J . 2 6 . s h o w s that o f 5 1 3 p e r s o n s a c c u s e d o f executed. Journal of Social History.c e n t u r y E n g l a n d ' . A true and just recorde taken 13 14 15 16 17 18 according H. J . a discourse discoverie on witchcraft (Harrogate 1 8 8 2 ) . A fall a n d impartial account Hathaway and of the discovery of sorcery and witchcraft practisd by Jane Wenhant (London 1 7 1 2 ) . see C h a p t e r s 3 and 6 in this b o o k . M . T h i s is e s p e c i a l l y r e l e v a n t w h e n w e w i t c h c r a f t . C . o f c o u r s e . WITCHCRAFT AND THE LEGAL PROCESS 301 a n d in w h i c h w o m e n . ' T h e and Sexual Slander in Early Modern and New England: c r i m i n a l i t y o f w o m e n in e i g h t e e n t h . Litigation in Medieval England Crime and the Courts Notes 1 F o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s . witches treated of certain v o l . w e r e d i s a d v a n t a g e d . e v e n i f w e e s c h e w s o m e o f t h e w o m e n ' s consider seem E w e n . Trials. T h e s e figures are d e r i v e d f r o m abstracts o f i n d i c t m e n t s given in A calendar records: 70-223. 5. T h i s w o u l d t o b e a line o f investigation w e l l w o r t h pursuing. Witchcraft 1969). P. part 2 . The case of witchcraft 21-2" at Coggeshall. 2 7 8 . ch. 31 32 33 163-7. w e r e v i e w e d n o t l e a s t in t h e i r s t a t u s b e f o r e c o m m o n l a w . Essex. n o r t h e r n e v i d e n c e ' . S. 24 25 26 Calendar of State Papers. some Give ' W i t c h c r a f t and w o m e n in s e v e n t e e n t h . H o f f e r and N . 30 T h e c o n t e m p o r a r y a c c o u n t o f this case is p r i n t e d in B . f o r d e f a m a t i o n l i t i g a t i o n . It is a c o m m o n p l a c e t h a t e a r l y m o d e r n in h i e r a r c h i c a l t e r m s . G e n d e r as a social c o n s t r u c t has so far r e c e i v e d little a t t e n t i o n f r o m historians o f early Amussen. (London Witch The tryal of Richard E w e n . B o r t h w i c k P a p e r s . A m u s s e n ' s An Ordered 3 4 resolution Trials: Circuit 5 6 7 8 F o r a c o n t e m p o r a r y i n t r o d u c t i o n t o w o m e n and t h e c o m m o n l a w . P. e d . Witchcraft The trval. R . 1 8 7 — 2 6 4 . G r a n g e . . w h e r e t h e j u d g e w a s 'a m i l d . ed. H a i r . a c c u s i n g o t h e r w o m e n as w i t c h e s . Witch Hunting C f . Circuit of assize 22 T h e s e figures are based o n an analysis o f abstracts o f assize cases given in E w e n . 7 8 . and execution T r a p n e l . see t h e original v e r s i o n in J e n n y K e r m o d e and G a r t h i n e W a l k e r . E . and Demonianism Ibid.c e n t u r y E n g l a n d : and Change. 3 vols ( L o n d o n 1 8 9 0 ) . a p p e n d i x L. Murdering t h e s c o l d ' . E w e n . 1 7 9 — 9 9 . sig of Elizabeth w r i t i n g s o n t h e s u b j e c t f r o m t h e 1 9 7 0 s . (London 1 9 7 0 ) . O l d h a m . Anna E w e n . c o u l d c a r v e o u t s o m e r o l e f o r t h e m s e l v e s in t h e p u b l i c s p h e r e . wytches at Chensford anno 1566 in the countie (London of Essex the xxvi day of July 1566). see C h a p t e r 1 4 bv G a r v K . Criminal Records: History. (London 1 7 0 2 ) . W a i t e . eds F . D . ed. F o r a slightly d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e . 63. 9 9 . H e a r n s h a w . F o r analysis o f t h e N o r t h e r n D e p o s i t i o n s . H u l l . 20. Stevenson ( C a m b r i d g e 1 9 8 5 ) . T h i s p r a c t i c e is discussed in A Calendar a h i s t o r y o f t h e j u r y o f m a t r o n s ' . ' T h e taming of in Early Modern England. S h a r p e . ( N e w Y o r k 1 9 8 1 ) . 1. lawes Witch Home 28 Witchcraft 29 27 1 5 6 0 — 1 7 2 5 ' . Continuity Holmes. see C h a p t e r 2 3 in this c o l l e c t i o n bv 2 5 6 . Y e t w i t h i n t h o s e c o n s t r a i n t s a n d l i m i t a t i o n s . g i v i n g e v i d e n c e a g a i n s t s u s p e c t e d w o m e n w i t c h e s . Oses in the countie to the determination The wonderfull movement of the law ( L o n d o n 1 5 8 2 ) . in t h e l e g a l p r o c e s s a n d b e f o r e t h e c o u r t s as e l s e w h e r e . and confession maiesties judges. Mothers: infanticide in England England 19 20 21 F o r a case o f this t y p e see R . Sawyer (London 1621). in the year F o r t h e a b s e n c e o f m i d w i v e s a m o n g w i t c h c r a f t s u s p e c t s . B2v. and Demonianism. a n d suing e a c h o t h e r f o r d e f a m a t i o n a r i s i n g f r o m allegations o f witchcraft. L ' E s t r a n g e E w e n . 28. J . of the information. Cockburn (London 1975). Witchcraft North. 8 ( 1 9 7 5 ) . in Early Modern England ( U C L Press. 187. Witch 23 Hunting and Witch Trials. N o r t h . for scolding. 4 . England the w a s a p a t r i a r c h a l s o c i e t y in w h i c h i s s u e s o f g e n d e r . T h e t h e m e s raised h e r e are discussed f u r t h e r in S. examination whereof some and confession were executed of all the and others iM. Witchcraft J . F l e t c h e r and J .300 JIM SHARPE 9 10 11 12 WOMEN. and Demonianism. of three condemnation . 1 2 1 — 3 . and Demonianism. H e a r n s h a w and D . S o u t h a m p t o n R e c o r d S o c i e t y . passive m a n . ' W i t c h c r a f t and w o m e n ' . t h e s e women f o u n d t h e m s e l v e s in a r e a l w o r l d t h a t i m p o s e d c o n s t r a i n t s u p o n t h e m . Domestic 1634— J . F o r full citations o f t h e archival s o u r c e s u s e d in this c h a p t e r . A. .. Women. introduction. Defamation the church 1558-1803 courts C . see S h a r p e . they nonetheless establish w o m e n as a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t s in t h e l e g a l s y s t e m . in Order and Disorder 2 at York. 117-18. the records of 1373 assizes held for F o r a list o f t h e s e i n d i c t m e n t s see C . London 1 9 9 4 ) . F o r a s o m e w h a t dif- f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e o n t h e s e issues. p e r h a p s w i t h i n p a r a m e t e r s d i c t a t e d a n d m a i n t a i n e d b y m e n . Baron Guildford. ' O n pleading t h e b e l l y : 6 ( 1 9 8 5 ) . U n d e r d o w n . M a c f a r l a n e . The lives of the right hon Francis and the hon and rev Dr John d e s c r i b e s this c a s e . B o v s . is s o m e h o w c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h e m a l e d o m i n a t i o n o f w o m e n . 24. H e l m h o l z . they w e r e historical actors.9 3 . in F l e t c h e r and S t e v e n s o n ( 1 9 8 5 ) 1 9 6 — 2 1 8 . Witch Hunting the indictments AD 1559-1736 117-265. R o s e n . of Essex. S. m a t e r i a l s f o r t h e W e s t e r n C i r c u i t p r i n t e d in C . H . Even though c o n t e m p o r a r y attitudes to gender probably m a d e those experiences different for the w o m e n involved. ' G e n d e r . J . S e e also J . C o c k b u r n ( L o n d o n 1 9 8 5 ) .

d o e s f o c u s o n this issue. . by J o h n D e m o s .p r o s e c u t i o n s r e f l e c t e d a w a r b e t w e e n the sexes m u s t b e d i s c o u n t e d .302 JIM SHARPE 34 35 A prodigious at Maidstone. s e e C h a p t e r 1 9 in this c o l l e c tion by M o s h e Sluhovsky. o f c o n s i d e r a b l e w i l l i l l u m i n a t e a n u m b e r o f issues r a i s e d b y t h e w i t c h c r a f t oi p r o s e c u t i o n s : t h e s h a p i n g r o l e o f t h e legal s y s t e m . passim. B o w e r . developed by theologians and lawyers. 123—4. B e f o r e d i s c u s s i n g t h e s e i n s t a n c e s . Carol Karlsen a n d . it w i l l b e n e c e s s a r y t o e x a m i n e a t h i r d . M a s s a c h u s e t t s . Sharpe.166—7. women might r e p o r t the results o f physical searches that they had b e e n instructed t o c o n d u c t upon the w i t c h ' s b o d y . Witch Hunting R o s e n . the misogvnous d e p r a v i t y . T w o o f these are very distinctive. like L a r n e r . n o t least. Sawyer. S t a r k e y . and Demonianism. F o r a w o r k w h i c h . 4 . Clive Holmes a modern enquiry T h i s p h e n o m e n o n is p e r h a p s m o s t familiar in t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e trials at S a l e m . as I shall a r g u e . Wonderfull G o o d c o l e . in r e l a t i o n t o t h e N e w England trials. most recently. Marianne 1 Feminist scholars. Secondly. L. Dr Lamb revived S h a r p e . about the question. Daemonologia. E . WOMEN: WITCHES AND WITNESSES 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 F o r t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n possession and g e n d e r . in Elizabethan London: Edward E w e n . 276. M . M a t e r i a l s r e l a t i n g t o this case are b r o u g h t and Hysteria 1990). 2 Hester. cultural complexity An exami- n a t i o n o f t h e p r o c e s s o f w i t n e s s i n g — a p r o c e s s . w o m e n m i g h t t e s t i f y as ' p o s s e s s e d ' v i c t i m s o f t h e w i t c h ' s m a l i c e . condemn'd (London 1 6 5 3 ) . displays s o m e o f t h e p o t e n t i a l o f t h e s u b j e c t . First. T HE ROLE PLAYED BY WOMEN in t h e l e g a l p r o c e s s a g a i n s t w i t c h e s . although n o w s o m e w h a t d a t e d . Witchcraft and the Mary Glover case ( L o n d o n 36 37 F a i r f a x . s e e M . ' W i t c h c r a f t and w o m e n ' . Wonderfull Ewen. h u n t i n g ? ' K e i t h T h o m a s has a r g u e d t h a t ' T h e i d e a t h a t w i t c h . 1 9 7 . a n d an essay b y J . 15-16. Witchcraft news from discoverie and Witch the North of Elizabeth Trials. confession and condemnation of six witches C h a p t e r 23 in Kent ( L o n d o n 1 6 5 2 ) . W e m a y d i s t i n g u i s h t h r e e w a y s in w h i c h w o m e n m i g h t p a r t i c i p a t e in t h e t r i a l p r o c e d u r e s against w i t c h e s . Witchcraft Jordan t o g e t h e r in M . M o o r e . c o n t r o l o f t h e i r m i n d s a n d b o d i e s h a d b e e n s e i z e d b y t h e D e v i l at t h e i n s t i g a t i o n o f t h e w i t c h . or witchcraft 192—5. and tragical! history of the try all. ' W a s witch-hunting women- as a c c u s e r s o r w i t n e s s e s . have found such reasoning 'simplistic'. in 1 6 9 2 . their greater elite theology and the c o n c e r n s o f the populace and. which emphasize female weakness greater susceptibility of women to satanic temptation. a n d has b e e n f o l l o w e d . t h e d y n a m i c i n t e r w e a v i n g dimension of witchcraft. (London 1 6 5 0 ) . A . sig D 2 v . T h i s argument is m i r r o r e d b y t h a t o f A l a n M a c f a r l a n e . Yet K a r l s e n ' s a c k n o w l e d g e m e n t t h a t t h e r o l e o f w o m e n as a c c u s e r s r e m a i n s o n e of t h e m o s t baffling q u e s t i o n s a b o u t w i t c h c r a f t d o e s suggest t h e n e e d for further discussion. M a c D o n a l d . has b e e n f r e q u e n t l y c i t e d in t h e c o u r s e o f s k i r m i s h e s as p o s e d b y C h r i s t i n a L a r n e r . examining the involvement of women 3 in Y o r k s h i r e p r o s e c u t i o n s . In b o t h instances the sensual t h e f e m a l e d e p o n e n t s a p p e a r t o a c q u i e s c e in a n d r e i n f o r c e t h e o r i e s o f w i t c h c r a f t . designed to discover the incriminating physical characteristics t h a t i n d i c a t e d h e r c o m p l i c i t y w i t h S a t a n a n d his m i n i o n s . n o t least b e c a u s e t h e victims and witnesses were themselves as l i k e l y t o b e w o m e n as m e n ' . The Devil in Massachusetts: into the Salem witch trials (New York 1950).

w e r e w e l l p l a c e d t o d e s c r i b e t h e recorded 4 on witchcraft i n d i c t m e n t s : almost half o f these ( 4 7 . 8 p e r c e n t o f all w i t c h c r a f t c a s e s c o m i n g t o t h e a t t e n t i o n o f t h e assizes i n v o l v e d an i n d i c t m e n t a l l e g i n g t h a t t h e a c c u s e d h a d d a m a g e d s t o c k . H o w e v e r . A n y s t a t i s t i c a l e x e r c i s e . burglary. 2 p e r c e n t o f witnesses against w i t c h e s n a m e s w e r e e n d o r s e d o n t h e i n d i c t m e n t s w e r e w o m e n . l i k e t h a t a g a i n s t M a r g e r y S t a n t o n o f W i m b i s h in 1 5 7 9 . H o w e v e r . u n l i k e its E l i z a b e t h a n p r e d e c e s s o r s . i n v a r i a b l y a n n o t a t e t h e d o c u m e n t w i t h t h e n a m e s o f all t h o s e w e r e e x p e c t e d t o t e s t i f y at t h e a s s i z e s . 6 8 per c e n t ) w e r e w o m e n . a l l e g i n g t h e d e s t r u c t i o n o f 'unum spandonem ( g e l d i n g ) colons white'. a n d this w a s u n i f o r m l y p r a c t i s e d a f t e r 1 6 0 0 . s u c h t e s t i m o n i e s c e r t a i n l y d i s p l a y t h e i n v o l v e m e n t o f w o m e n in t h e p r o c e s s o f a c c u s a t i o n . t h o u g h n o t in N o r f o l k C i r c u i t c a s e s ( 4 3 cent). 6 I T h e sources available for the study o f witnessing can b e divided into t w o cate- B u t this shift r e f l e c t s . t h e t e s t i m o n y of m e n p r e d o m i n a t e d : m e n f o r m e d 8 0 . T h i s r e s t r u c turing o f the o f f e n c e by magistrates and lawyers certainly does n o t indicate l a r y m a t e r i a l p r o d u c e d in t h e official i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e l a t e t h e i r p o w e r s in t h e d e s t r u c t i o n o f s t o c k o r t h e i n t e r r u p t i o n any f u n d a m e n t a l c h a n g e in t h e n a t u r e o f p o p u l a r b e l i e f c o n c e r n i n g w i t c h c r a f t . d o have the virtue o f surviving in a s u f f i c i e n t c h r o n o l o g i c a l s e r i e s . In t h e last v e a r s o f Elizabeth's reign ( 1 5 9 6 . e i t h e r a l o n e o r in c o n j u n c t i o n w ith o t h e r a c t s o f maleficium. disapmental l a t t e r . W h y did t h i s s i g n i f i c a n t shift in t h e p r o p o r t i o n s o f m a l e a n d f e m a l e d e p o n e n t s o c c u r in t h e c e n t u r y a f t e r 1 5 9 0 ? T h e p h e n o m e n o n is p a r a l l e l e d b y an i n c r e a s e in t h e i n v o l v e m e n t o f f e m a l e d e p o n e n t s in all c a s e s b e f o r e t h e a s s i z e s . a t t e n d a n t at t h e s i c k . 8 p e r c e n t o f witnesses t o these charges. in t h e o f f i c i a l files o f t h e c l e r k s o f assize a n d o f t h e p e a c e . i t l a c k s t h e i r c o n c e p t u a l c l a r i t y a n d s o p h i s t i c a t i o n .1 6 0 2 ) 3 8 .w i t c h c r a f t c a s e s in a s a m p l e o f s e s s i o n s o f t h e E s s e x assizes b e t w e e n 1 5 9 6 a n d 1 6 2 5 . W o m e n w e r e simply b e t t e r placed than m e n to describe the incidents and activities that c o n f o r m e d t o t h e a l t e r e d p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e n a t u r e o f w i t c h c r a f t as a c r i m i n a l o f f e n c e . In t h e r e i g n s o f E l i z a b e t h and per J a m e s 3 6 .b e d o f t h e v i c t i m . r o s e s l i g h t l y t o 2 5 p e r c e n t in t h e I n t e r r e g n u m . refracted through the pens and the assumptions o f their elite. w o u l d b e m i s l e a d i n g . r o o t e d in p o p u l a r r a t h e r t h a n e l i t e b e l i e f s . though these are. T h e r i s i n g p e r c e n t a g e o f w o m e n w i t n e s s e s in w i t c h c r a f t c a s e s is a l s o r e l a t e d . t h e r e d o e s n o t a p p e a r t o b e a n y g e n d e r bias in t h e d e t e r m i nation o f n a m e s for e n d o r s e m e n t on the earlier i n d i c t m e n t s . And they indicate the c o n c e r n s that exercised female witnesses. T h e a n c i l seventeenth-century exercise and now o f agricultural c a s e s d e m o n s t r a t e s t h a t at t h e l o c a l l e v e l w i t c h e s w e r e still b e l i e v e d t o i n v o l v e d in w i t c h c r a f t a c c u s a t i o n in t h e c o u r s e o f t h e p e r i o d . b e c a u s e it is t h e b a s i c f o r m o f f e m a l e e n g a g e m e n t in t h e c o u r t s . t o o f f e n c e s against p r o p e r t y . to calculate. t h o u g h tangentially. 9 p e r c e n t ) in t h e c o u n t i e s t h a t f o r m e d t h e H o m e C i r c u i t . B u t t h e s u r v i v a l o f t h e s e v a r i o u s s o u r c e s is s o r a n d o m t h a t a n y a t t e m p t to undertake a quantitative study. o f c o u r s e . W o m e n f o r m e d o n l y 1 0 p e r c e n t o f t h e w i t n e s s e s in n o n . stock-damage formed r the sole charge. to the interruption o f agricultural or domestic procedures. proportionally formally more whose t e s t i f y i n g in w i t c h c r a f t c a s e s i n t h e c o u r s e o f t h e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y . 8 p e r c e n t in C h a r l e s I ' s r e i g n . t h e n p l u m m e t e d t o a m e r e 2 . In t h e 1 5 9 0 s t h e c l e r k o f assize f o r t h e H o m e C i r c u i t b e g a n t o e n d o r s e o f the indictments upon which the accused w e r e tried with the names w i t n e s s e s in t h e c a s e . As the n u m b e r s o f p r o p e r t y o f f e n c e s b r o u g h t b e f o r e t h e assize c o u r t s w a n e d in t h e c o u r s e o f t h e c e n t u r y . a f t e r t h e R e s t o r a t i o n t h e p r o p o r t i o n had m o r e than doubled ( 2 2 p e r c e n t ) . a f t e r t h e R e s t o r a t i o n f e m a l e w i t n e s s e s w e r e in t h e m a j o r i t y ( 5 2 . dropped to 1 5 . B u t t h e legal e l i t e . H e r e . for instance. in 1 4 . As t h e c r i m e o f w i t c h c r a f t w a s i n c r e a s i n g l y p e r c e i v e d as i n v o l v i n g m y s t e r i o u s h u m a n a i l m e n t s a n d d e a t h . . m a l e interl o c u t o r s . First. transcriptions o f the testimony proffered to the examining magistrates o r in c o u r t . wdiere t h e a c c u s e d w a s d i r e c t l y a l l e g e d t o b e i n v o l v e d in d i a b o l i c p r a c t i c e s . is t h e e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h e g r o w i n g p r o p o r t i o n o f w o m e n Women. n o t a n y c h a n g e in t h e c o u r t s ' r e a d i n e s s t o a c c e p t f e m a l e t e s t i m o n y . and f r e q u e n t . Indictments of stock- d a m a g e . in l a t e r r e c o r d s s u c h o m i s s i o n s s e e m who less d o m e s t i c p r o c e d u r e s . b o t h i n v o l v i n g t h e g r e a t e s t n u m b e r o f d e p o n e n t s . in p u b l i s h e d w o r k s — a c a d e m i c t r e a t i s e s a n d p o p u l a r b r o a d s i d e s . e v e n plays a n d b a l l a d s . P r o p e r t y c r i m e s — l a r c e n y . E a r l y in t h e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y t h e c l e r k s did n o t . the proportion o f male a n d f e m a l e d e p o n e n t s in w i t c h c r a f t c a s e s . a n d o f t h e f u n c t i o n a r i e s o f t h e e c c l e s i a s t i c a l c o u r t s . it m u s t b e e x a m i n e d first. T h e rising p r o p o r t i o n o f f e m a l e d e p o n e n t s i n w i t c h c r a f t c a s e s in t h e c o u r s e o f t h e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y is n o t an o p t i c a l i l l u s i o n i n d u c e d b y c h a n g i n g c l e r i c a l p r a c t i c e . t h e n . as in all p r o p e r t y c r i m e s . S u c h e v i d e n c e s u r v i v e s in a m u l t i p l i c i t y o f f o r m s : in t h e p r i v a t e p a p e r s o f J P s a n d m i n i s t e r s . Y e t . m o r e r a r e l y . In t h e o f the f o l l o w i n g c e n t u r y s o m e nine h u n d r e d and seventy witnesses w e r e endorsements also suggest that women were becoming some of the course The 8 p e a r f r o m t h e r e c o r d . at l e a s t f o r t h e H o m e C i r c u i t . This k i n d o f t e s t i m o n y is m o r e i n c h o a t e t h a n t h e o t h e r t w o c a t e g o r i e s . in a n y o f t h e i n d i c t m e n t s f o r m a j o r c r i m inal o f f e n c e s . b u t s i m p l y t h e fall in t h e n u m b e r o f p r o p e r t y o f f e n c e s c o m i n g t o the a t t e n t i o n o f the assizes. t o o did t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f m a l e w i t n e s s e s a t t e n d i n g at C h e l m s f o r d . t h o u g h h i g h l y f o r m u l a i c a n d c o n s e q u e n t l y o p a q u e in t e r m s o f a n y s u b s t a n tive detail c o n c e r n i n g the cases that they r e c o r d . 4 p e r c e n t in t h e r e i g n o f J a m e s I. to stock or crops blighted. 7 gories. A f t e r 1660 the local justices and the courts w e r e reluctant t o admit charges o f witchcraft e x c e p t in c a s e s o f m y s t e r i o u s a n d t e r r i f y i n g i l l n e s s l e a d i n g t o d e a t h o r . T h e shift in t h e c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n o f t h e o f f e n c e w a s i n s t i g a t e d b y t h e l e g a l e l i t e . as i n d i c t m e n t s . so t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f f e m a l e w i t n e s s e s i n c r e a s e d . 4 3 . t o p e r m i t a p r e l i m inary analysis. 9 p e r c e n t a f t e r t h e R e s t o r a t i o n . t h e y d e c l i n e d m a r k e d l y a f t e r 1 6 6 0 . A n d in i n d i c t m e n t s c o n c e r n i n g m a l e f i c d a m a g e t o s t o c k . 3 per T h e a p p a r e n t r i s e in t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f f e m a l e w i t n e s s e s is n o t m e r e l v t h e p r o d u c t o f a c h a n g e in t h e r e c o r d i n g p r a c t i c e s o f t h e c l e r k s o f a s s i z e . has t o u n d e r t a k e n f r o m t h e s e c o n d o f t h e a v a i l a b l e s o u r c e s : t h e assize i n d i c t m e n t s . be The A n d in these p r o s e c u so tions the bulk o f the t e s t i m o n y was p r o v i d e d by m e n . T h e y w e r e a l s o in a m a j o r i t y in this l a t t e r p e r i o d in i n d i c t m e n t s e m a n a t i n g f r o m t h e assize c o u r t s o f t h e N o r t h e r n C i r c u i t ( 5 6 p e r c e n t ) . 3 cent of incidents. R i c h in d e t a i l . anguish and m o r t a l physical t o r m e n t s inflicted by the w i t c h . housebreaking — had d o m i n a t e d p r o c e e d i n g s f r o m the 1 5 9 0 s until the end o f t h e r e i g n o f J a m e s I.304 CLIVE HOLMES WOMEN: WITCHES AND WITNESSES 305 g r o u p o f w o m e n i n v o l v e d in c r i m i n a l p r o s e c u t i o n : t h o s e w h o t e s t i f i e d s i m p l v t o t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e w i t c h ' s maleficium — to children lamed or killed. an e s s e n t i a l g r o u n d b a s e t o a d i s c u s s i o n o f w i t c h c r a f t t e s t i m o n y .

. t h e figure f o r f e m a l e p a t i e n t s is 5 8 . S e c o n d l y . b u t e m p l o y e d t h e m r o u t i n e l y b o t h in d o m e s t i c i n d u s t r y a n d as h e a l e r s . Sawyer's figures further suggest that w o m e n w e r e quicker to n o m i n a t e those thev held responsible for their sufferings: 4 5 . t h r e e f o r k i l l i n g b v w i t c h c r a f t a n d o n e f o r e n t e r t a i n i n g evil s p i r i t s . T h e g i r l ' s affliction was studied and the charge o f w i t c h c r a f t against W e n h a m e n g i n e e r e d by local Anglican c l e r g y m e n . her neighbours 9 also of b e l i e v e d h e r t o b e guilty o f d e s t r o y i n g s t o c k and spoiling b r e w i n g . w i t h the s u s p e c t e d w i t c h c o m e t o t e s t i f y a g a i n s t h e r ? In b o t h K n a r e s b o r o u g h a n d P e n d l e t h a t t r a n s f o r mation was accomplished bv the direct intervention o f m e m b e r s o f the elite. Y e t w e m a y suggest a couple o f its f e a t u r e s s a l i e n t t o this e n q u i r y . 1 2 Women witches. B u t s u c h t r a n s m u t a t i o n w a s n o t p e c u l i a r t o t h e p o s t . n o r w o u l d . some s e c o n d l y . b e v o n d t h e s e . p a i n e i u l l in t h e s e r v i c e o i his C o u n t r e v ' . w h o e v e n t u a l l y a t t r i b u t e d h e r c o n d i t i o n t o t h e i r m a l e f i c e n c e . T h e c a s e . eager to use the opportunity to assert the reality o f witchcraft in t h e f a c e o f g r o w i n g i n t e l l e c t u a l s c e p t i c i s m . t h a t n o n e o f t h e m refused t o d o anything she r e q u i r e d . In t h e Wenham case the manipulation of popular concerns and belief by cases. S u s p i c i o n a g a i n s t W e n h a m h a d f e s t e r e d f o r y e a r s . 7 p e r c e n t ) . w h o believed themselves the victims o f witchcraft ( 5 9 . 1 0 obliged to explain the substantial plurality o f w o m e n In s o f a r as any a t t e n t i o n w a s p a i d at t h e . an i n d i c t m e n t f o r w i t c h c r a f t r e q u i r e d e i t h e r t h e d e a t h o i t h e v i c t i m o r p r o o f o f d i a b o l i c p r a c t i c e s . b o t h the T o r y divines crusading against infidelity and t h e c y n i c s o f t h e legal e s t a b l i s h m e n t w h o d e r i d e d a n d s o u g h t t o f r u s t r a t e t h e i r e f f o r t s . a g r o u p o f 1 0 9 p e r s o n s . it a p p e a r s t h a t it w a s t h o u g h t t o i n h e r e in m a t r i l i n e a l 'by discent m o t h e r .w i e l d i n g w o m e n . T h i s w a s . W e m u s t c o n s i d e r : h o w local fears and suspicions w e r e drawn t o the attention o f the magistracy. 7 per c e n t ) .c l a n s in t h e i r m i d s t . w a s a s k i r m i s h in t h e w i d e r b a t t l e a g a i n s t d e i s m a n d a g n o s t i c i s m . p e r h a p s t o c o n t r o l a n d d e p l o y it f o r t h e i r o w n p u r p o s e s . 5 per cent o f Napier's male patients w e r e ready to n a m e t h e w i t c h p e r s e c u t i n g t h e m . H e l e n . b u t it w a s o n e t h a t h a d b e g u n t o b e f a v o u r e d b y t h e j u d g e s in t h e 1 6 3 0 s . occasioned by abuse or r u m o u r s that suggested that they w e r e n a m e m e n a n d w o m e n in a l m o s t e q u a l n u m b e r s as t h e i r s l a n d e r e r s . T h e r e is l i t t l e o f t h e s o p h i s t i cated misogyny. for II It is d i f f i c u l t t o m a k e c o n f i d e n t a s s e r t i o n s a b o u t t h e n a t u r e a n d p a t t e r n s o f p o p u l a r b e l i e f s a b o u t w i t c h c r a f t . w e r e p r e f e r r e d a g a i n s t P h i l i p p a M u n n i n g s of Hartest but. L o c a l s u s p i c i o n s a n d c o n c e r n s h a d t o b e m o u l d e d t o t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f legal categorization and p r o c e d u r e and. h o w far the authorities tailored the e v i d e n c e t o the constraints i m p o s e d b y t h e c h a n g i n g a s s u m p t i o n s o f a s y s t e m in w h i c h t h e w i t n e s s e s w e r e . O l d C h a t t o x and O l d D e m d y k e . It c l e a r l y d i s p l a y s t h e c o m p l e x p r o c e s s w h i c h a t t e n d e d t h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f l o c a l c o n c e r n s i n t o f o r m a l legal p r o c e d u r e . s a r d o n i c f o r m t a k e n b y t h e ' c o n v e r s i n g f a m i l i a r l y w i t h t h e D e v i l in t h e s h a p e o f a c a t ' — o s t e n s i b l y e n t e r t a i n e e m p l o y f e e d e o r r e w a r d e a n y evill a n d w i c k e d s p i r i t ' . t h e c l e r k o f assize i n s i s t e d t h a t ' h e n e i t h e r c o u l d . is v e r y a p p a r e n t .1 6 6 0 c a s e s in w h i c h it e m e r g e s m o s t c l e a r l y . T h e latter n o t only tolerated the petty thefts. m a l e a n d f e m a l e .o p e r a t e d . 1 4 c o n c e r n i n g t h e analysis o f t h e r o l e o f w i t n e s s e s . only marginal participants. a n o t h e r local f a r m e r ' s sheep had died m y s t e r i o u s l y after he t h r e a t e n e d W e n h a m f o r s t e a l i n g his t u r n i p s . A l l t h e s o u r c e s a r e . though no charges w e r e formally levelled. t o the political and theological c o n c e r n s o f the elite which i n f o r m e d and shaped the juridical forms. 1 3 indictment bringing t h e o f f e n c e w i t h i n t h e c o m p a s s o f t h e c l a u s e o f t h e s t a t u t e t h a t m a d e it f e l o n y ' t o e l e m e n t s o f the elite. 2 p e r c e n t . F r o m a sample o f the cases c o m i n g t o the attention o f Richard 1601 1 6 2 7 . f o u n d g u i l t y a t t h e H e r t f o r d assizes in 1 7 1 2 f o r d i a b o l i c d e a l i n g s . tations. lineage: 1 1 e x a m p l e . m e n and w o m e n Napier. seeking t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f the ecclesiastical c o u r t s against the d a m a g e t o t h e i r r e p u - But a general fear o f a local w o m a n possessing the formidable p o w e r s attributed t o w i t c h e s does n o t automatically t r a n s m u t e i n t o legal p r o s e c u t i o n . t h e o d d . in measure. w a s m o v e d b y . Fairfax's e n g a g e m e n t in t h e p r o s e c u t i o n o f t h e K n a r e s b o r o u g h w i t c h e s s t e m m e d f r o m the m v s t e r i o u s i l l n e s s o f his d a u g h t e r . A similarly dense and long-standing n e t w o r k o f s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s is a p p a r e n t in P e n d l e F o r e s t b e t w e e n t h e r i v a l w i t c h . T h e case J a n e W e n h a m . a t t h e S u f f o l k assizes in 1 6 9 4 f o u r i n d i c t m e n t s . if uneasily. T h i s raises a critical fire. f o r t h e m . Edward Fairfax noted that the inhabitants o f K n a r e s b o r o u g h Forest c o e x i s t e d w i t h t h e w i t c h . m i g h t b e t r e a t e d w i t h an e l a b o r a t e i f c a u t i o u s d e f e r e n c e . R o n a l d S a w y e r has n o t i c e d t h e p l u r a l i t y o f w o m e n b o t h a m o n g t h o s e n a m e d as w i t c h e s ( 9 4 . begging and e x t o r t i o n o f the suspected w i t c h e s . and the villagers. T h e w i t c h . in t h e W e n h a m c a s e . 1 5 6 3 s u s p i c i o n s r o o t e d in f o l k l o r e had t o b e o r c h e s t r a t e d t o to the machinery accommodate point and the values o f the elite. . revealed longstanding popular suspicions o f a traditional kind that had little to do with the elite c o n c e r n s that i n f o r m e d the language o f the i n d i c t m e n t . and f r o m the m o t h e r t o the c h i l d r e n ' . O n e W a l k e r n y e o m a n b e l i e v e d that he had lost s t o c k t o the value o f £ 2 0 0 t h r o u g h h e r malefic e n c e o v e r the years. a p o w e r f u l b r e w o f biblical and Aristotelian emphases on female inferiority. a fear o f w i t c h e s . F i r s t . I u n b e s o u g h t thev p r o v i d e d h e r w i t h and m e a t f r o m their o w n t a b l e s ' . lay it s o ' . developed by elite c o m m e n t a t o r s in p r o s e c u t i o n . In L a n c a s h i r e t h e z e a l o u s m a g i s t r a t e . C o n f r o n t e d b v p o w e r . 'a v e r y r e l i g i o u s h o n e s t g e n t l e m a n . in c o n s e q u e n c e . From them first. It w a s a p e r m a n e n t f e a t u r e o f t h e f o r m a l p r o s e c u t i o n o f w i t c h c r a f t . from the grandmother to the p o p u l a r l e v e l t o q u e s t i o n s o f t h e o r i g i n o f this p o w e r . vea. t h e m y s t e r i o u s p o w e r s t h a t c o n s t i t u t e d w i t c h c r a f t w o u l d n o r m a l l y b e p o s s e s s e d b y w o m e n . b e t w e e n shared and T h e W e n h a m c a s e d e s e r v e s f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n . a n d a m o n g N a p i e r ' s p a t i e n t s . v i l l a g e r s at first i n s t a n c e m i g h t s e e k t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e y w e r e n o t t h e v i c t i m s o f s u c h p o w e r .306 CLIVE HOLMES WOMEN: WITCHES AND WITNESSES 307 r e f u s e d t o e n t e r t a i n f o r m a l a c c u s a t i o n s b a s e d o n this k i n d o f e v i d e n c e . R o g e r N o w e l l . as t h e c l e r i c a l p r o s e c u t o r s c o m p l a i n e d . a n d w a s r e i n f o r c e d in 1 7 1 1 b y t h e m y s t e r i o u s b e h a v i o u r a n d i l l n e s s o f a p o s s e s s e d m a i d s e r v a n t . So. H o w did villagers w h o m a y have c o . and w h i c h was revived after the peculiar c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f the Civil W a r and I n t e r r e g n u m H e n c e . in s o m e m e a s u r e .f a m i l i e s . T h e y sought p r o t e c t i o n f r o m the w i t c h e s ' p o w e r b o t h bv paying blackmail and bv recourse to counter-magic. B u t w h e n t h e d i v i n e s s o u g h t t o i n d i c t W e n h a m f o r ' w a s t i n g a n d c o n s u m i n g ' h e r v i c t i m . a n d t h a t t h e h e a d o f o n e o f t h e l a t t e r ' h a d so p o w e r f u l h a n d o v e r t h e w e a l t h i e s t n e i g h b o u r s a b o u t h e r . m i n i s t e r o f G r e a t Linford and astrological physician. an o d d r e a d i n g o f t h e J a c o b e a n l e g i s l a t i o n . h e a d e d bv their r e s p e c t i v e m a t r i a r c h s . d i s t o r t e d b y r e f r a c tion through the conceptual f r a m e w o r k o f the elite.

to demand the return o f b o r r o w e d articles or p a y m e n t . standing and c o n f i d e n c e . . subsequent t o . using a r e d . social relations w e r e m a i n t a i n e d w i t h the w i t c h e s . their Ursley suspected she a p p e a r e d n o w . c o u n t e r . but mirroring. Illness. a d m i t t e d l y f e w . c o m p l a i n i n g o f m y s t e r i o u s d e a t h s in t h e i r f a m i l i e s eighteen m o n t h s b e f o r e . w h o . A n n e S a n d e s w e l l r e c a l l e d an i n c i d e n t s e v e n o r e i g h t years b e f o r e . a L o w e s t o f t m e r c h a n t .m a g i c h e a t i n g a b e w i t c h e d s p i n d l e t o g e t i t t o w o r k a g a i n . w h i l e s p u r r e d one o f the accused the b o y a t t e m p t e d suicide - by T h e r o l e o f l o c a l m e n in o r g a n i z i n g t h e p r o c e s s w h e r e b y s u s p i c i o n a n d g o s s i p w e r e t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o f o r m a l a c c u s a t i o n . while the m e n referred to occasions 'not long s i n c e ' . i m m e d i a t e l y ? ' H e r a r t l e s s r e p l y was a p o o r w o m a n . as in K n a r e s b o r o u g h and P e n d l e . J o h n W a d d e .h o t i r o n t o g e t m i l k t o c h u r n and w o r t t o b r e w .e a s t e r n E s s e x in 1 5 8 2 p e r m i t s s o m e d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e l o c a l i n s t i g a t i o n o f p r o s e c u t i o n . b u r n i n g t h e e a r s o f an a f f l i c t e d pig t o c u r e it. h a d r e c o u r s e t o c o u n t e r . B u t t h e e f f e c t i v e d e c i s i o n t o t r a n s m u t e village s u s p i c i o n i n t o o f f i c i a l t e s t i m o n y . . had afflicted their enemies. ' t h a t h a t h b e e n as g o o d f o r t h e b r i n g i n g f o o r t h o f h e r b r o o d e as a n y g o o s e in W a l t o n ' . a n d had n o t d o n e so b e f o r e b e c a u s e ' s h e d r e w f r o m the judge a stinging a n d i n s e n s i t i v e r e t o r t : ' w a s [she] g r o w n r i c h s i n c e ? " Y e t h e r e x p e r i e n c e . b u t the accusation was driven on by her b r o t h e r . Men the The a n d w o m e n c o n c u r r e d in s u s p e c t i n g H e a r d a n d R o b i n s o n o f w i t c h c r a f t . the t o r m e n t s o f the Pacy girls. t w o m e n and a w o m a n . D a r c y . r a r e . behalf. e x c e p t s u c h a p e r s o n as this M r W e b b ' . A g n e s F r a n c v s K e m p .h u n t e r in n o r t h . John Swettson. In 1682 Temperance Lloyd was convicted for afflicting G r a c e T h o m a s o f B i d e f o r d . W h e n E l i z a b e t h F i e l d t e s t i f i e d that her child had died m a n y years ago upon J a n e W e n h a m ' s t o u c h i n g it. In t h e b u l k o f c a s e s t h e d e c i s i o n t o b r i n g a w i t c h t o t h e a t t e n t i o n o f t h e authorities appears t o have b e e n u n d e r t a k e n entirely within the n e i g h b o u r h o o d . t o r e f u s e t o l e n d o r sell t h e m i m p l e m e n t s or goods.l a w . T h e y w e r e joined by eight additional witnesses. a v e o m a n w h o had suffered heavy stock losses for several years. Samuel Pacy. t h a t o f h e r d a u g h t e r five v e a r s b e f o r e . encouraging the villagers of Oakley and W a l t o n to voice quickly s w a m p e d by a plethora o f importations f r o m the current theology o f witchcraft. N o w e l l ' s i n t e r v e n t i o n . w h e r e w e c a n r e c o n s t r u c t a narrative with s o m e confidence. a n d t o o r g a n i z e n e i g h b o u r s f o r t h i s . Y e t the energetic p r o s e c u t o r w o u l d n o t s t a n d a l o n e . swiftly t r a n s f o r m e d t h e m . O f the witnesses. H e had sought t h e advice o f a n u m b e r o f e m i n e n t physicians on G r a c e ' s with equal v i g o u r . the j u d g e a s k e d ' w h y she d i d n o t p r o s e c u t e . in c a s e s f r o m S t O s y t h . d r a w n i n t o the c o u r t to s u p p l e m e n t a case o r c h e s t r a t e d by o t h e r s .m a g i c to frustrate the w i t c h . a n d h e a n d o t h e r m e m b e r s o f his f a m i l y t e s t i f i e d t o t h e i r a f f l i c t i o n s at t h e a s s i z e s . o r perhaps suspicions against H e a r d and R o b i n s o n . w h e r e b y s u s p i c i o n b e c a m e p r o s e c u t i o n . figure like U p c h e r . Y e t a f e w cases provide significant indicators c o n c e r n i n g that p r o c e s s . s t o c k had sicke n e d . held A m v D u n y and R o s e C u l l e n d e r r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e m y s t e r i o u s i l l n e s s o f his t w o d a u g h t e r s . l o c a l b e l i e f s h i n t e d at in t h e e a r l i e s t d e p o s i t i o n s w e r e H o w e v e r . l i k e R o g e r N o w e l l . T h o m a s Eastchurch. t o the authorities. s o m e alleging malefic e n t a c t s u n d e r t a k e n y e a r s b e f o r e . . h e pursued L l o y d ' s d e s t r u c t i o n 1 6 local suspicions and t e n s i o n s .c o n s u m i n g and expensive a n d its f a i l u r e m i g h t l e a v e a c c u s e r s h o s t a g e t o t h e m a l i c e o f t h e w i t c h . to concentrate on m e r e l y to a c k n o w l e d g e their use of. H i s a c t i v i t i e s a c t e d as a c a t a their suspicions o f their n e i g h b o u r s . a n d its i m m e d i a t e v i c i n i t y . h a d b e c o m e his s t a r w i t n e s s . T h e v i l l a g e r s . W o m e n also s e e m r e a d i e r t o d e p l o y . D a r c y . and he p r o v e d a v i g o r o u s a n d i n v e n t i v e i n q u i s i t o r . e n c o u r Darcy. a n d h e l e d t h e W a l t o n p r o s e c u t i o n . indicted Margaret C o t t o n f o r t h e d e a t h o f his i n f a n t d a u g h t e r in t h e s u m m e r o f 1 6 0 8 . D a r c y ' s h o m e . c o u l d b e d a n g e r o u s . as in t h e 1 5 8 2 O s k l e v a n d W a l t o n d e n u n c i a t i o n s . in 1 5 7 2 at C h e l m s f o r d a s s i z e s . was the first f o r m a l l y t o d e n o u n c e H e a r d . is o p a q u e . a respected local m e r c h a n t . A l l w i t n e s s e s c o n c u r r e d t h a t t o c r o s s t h e s e w o m e n . b u t f e m a l e i n t e r r u p t i o n o f d o m e s t i c r o u t i n e s . i f t h e y d i d fall f o u l o f H e a r d o r R o b i n s o n . T h r e e . a local J P had r e p o r t e d that W i d o w P e a c o c k o f M a l m e s b u r y was ' o f very bad fame and very terrible to the p e o p l e ' . a wealthy m e m b e r o f the M a l m e s b u r y elite. in 1 6 5 7 . and t h e p r o c e s s o f t r a n s m u t a t i o n . d i e d . R e l e n t l e s s i n t e r r o g a t i o n o f eventually elicited the required confession o f diabolic activities. h a d r e f u s e d t o h a t c h her eggs). yet ' n o b o d y will e y t h e r b e at the c h a r g e to p r o s e c u t e h e r . T h r e e testified c o n c e r n i n g the ailments o f their children. n o t all t h e 1 5 8 2 c a s e s w e r e g e n e r a t e d d i r e c t l y b y D a r c y ' s lvst. s o . t o B r i a n . m a y have b e e n typical o f that o i m a n y w o m e n . given that p r o s e c u t i o n was t i m e . w a s t a k e n bv l o c a l men. B r i a n D a r c y ' s s e l f . w e have another W a d d e and E a s t c h u r c h : a m a n w i t h w e a l t h . f o r w h i c h she h a d s o u g h t h e l p f r o m a c u n n i n g .m a n . occasionally mortal. 1 8 In s o m e c a s e s t h e a n c i l l a r y t e s t i m o n v o f i e r e d b y w o m e n d e a l s w i t h i n c i d e n t s so r e m o t e as t o r o u s e t h e c o u r t ' s s u s p i c i o n s c o n c e r n i n g t h e w i t n e s s ' s m o t i v e s in c o m i n g f o r w a r d . b o t h m e n a n d w o m e n . t h e n . w a s w e l l v e r s e d in t h e c o n t i nental theories c o n c e r n i n g the satanic dimension o f witchcraft. c o n f e s s i n g s a t a n i c p r a c t i c e s a n d n a m i n g a w i d e c o v e n o f a c c o m p l i c e s . i f a c o m p l a i n t was to b e b r o u g h t t o the attention o f the authorities. It is s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t t h e w o m e n w h o b e c a m e i n v o l v e d in t h e p r o c e s s o f t e n r e t a i l e d older grievances and suspicions that had festered b u t previously g o n e u n r e m a r k e d to the authorities. In O a k l e y . tw'o p o o r w o m e n j o i n e d h i m in t h e p r o s e c u t i o n . and the child had n o friends' 9 a n d e d u c a t e d b v D a r c y ' s c r u s a d e at n e i g h b o u r i n g St O s y t h . Such e x a m p l e s o f direct elite orchestration are. thev c a m e t o the attention o f the authorities b e c a u s e the villagers w ere inspired r T e n years b e f o r e . inquisitorial long-held to t e c h n i q u e s o r r e f r a c t e d t h r o u g h his r i c h i m a g i n a t i o n . o r a c t e d u n n a t u r a l l y ( T h o m a s R i c e ' s g o o s e . Edward U p c h e r had long R o b i n s o n f o r t h e d e a t h o f his w i f e . a n d she a l s o t e s t i f i e d c o n c e r n i n g h e r i n f a n t s o n ' s i l l n e s s .c o n g r a t u l a t o r y a c c o u n t o f his s h o r t b u t s p e c t a c u l a r c a r e e r as a w i t c h . a Cambridge apothecary. d e d i c a t i n g his e n e r g i e s t o t h e p u r s u i t o f t h e S t O s y t h ' s c o v e n . 1 7 With Robert Webb. she r e a d i l y c o n f i r m e d U p c h e r ' s s u s p i c i o n . w e r e o b v i o u s l y o f long duration. Agricultural and d o m e s t i c r o u t i n e s had failed. u n d e r D a r c y ' s r e l e n t l e s s q u e s t i o n i n g . Annis H e a r d and J o a n R o b i n s o n . O n c e the w i t c h c r a f t diagnosis had b e e n suggested. o r r u n t h e hazard o f h e r r e v e n g e if she b e a c q u i t t e d . H e v i s i t e d t h e g a o l e d S t O s y t h w o m a n . T h e s e characteristics w e r e essential. ' t h e O p p o r t u n i t y p r e s e n t i n g i t s e l f . initially t o the ecclesiastical c o u r t . o n l y D o r o t h y D u r e n t b l a m e d t h e w i t c h e s f o r a d e a t h . e x p e r i e n c e o f their maleficence tended. deposed c o n c e r n i n g the interruption o f agricultural routines that t h e y a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e w i t c h e s . . his i m m e d i a t e c o m p l a i n t a g a i n s t t h e w i t c h w o u l d b e b a c k e d b y c o r r o b o r a t i v e t e s t i m o n y f r o m his n e i g h b o u r s . is a p p a r e n t in o t h e r c a s e s . h o w e v e r . g e n e r a l l y h e l d . 1 5 a g e d b y t h e St O s v t h ' s i n v e s t i g a t i o n . t h e b u l k o f the t e s t i m o n y was p r o v i d e d b y w o m e n w h o had a t t e n d e d the girl during h e r long sickness. Yet.308 CLIVE HOLMES WOMEN: WITCHES AND WITNESSES 309 l o c a l r u m o u r s t o l a u n c h an i n v e s t i g a t i o n . not surprisingly. In s e v e r a l c a s e s in t h e H o m e C i r c u i t in t h e E l i z a b e t h a n and J a c o b e a n period a witch w o u l d b e charged on a n u m b e r o f i n d i c t m e n t s . s e e m s have m a d e little a t t e m p t t o shape p r i m a r y t e s t i m o n y f r o m these peripheral c o m m u n i t i e s .i n .

As in N e w England. if r a r e r . Christianly. 7 p e r c e n t o f t h e m m e n a n d w o m e n t e s t i f i e d t o g e t h e r . t w o alleged r e c e n t incidents o f m u r d e r and the destruction o f stock. a D u n w i c h O n e further pattern that e m e r g e s last like a black boy 10 years old by a f r o m the H o m e Circuit indictments m a y reinforce the suggestion that w o m e n w e r e being mobilized by m e n . often explicitly designed for 'the capacity o f the simpler sort'. w e r e l a r g e l y p a s s i v e a c t o r s in whose Ill T h e m o s t s p e c t a c u l a r t e s t i m o n y in w i t c h . o r w i t h m y s t e r i o u s a i l m e n t s a n d d e a t h . o n t h e f a c e o f i t . A l i c e C r u t c h w a s a r r a i g n e d u p o n t w o i n d i c t m e n t s for the r e c e n t d e s t r u c t i o n o f t h e s t o c k . T h e s e groups w e r e c o n c e r n e d . guarding themselves by seeking to avoid conflict. w h e n b r o u g h t t o the attention o f magistrates and ministers. and m i g h t b e t r a n s f o r m e d . his skill as an i n q u i s i t o r . r e f l e c t e d a n d c o n f i r m e d i n t e l l e c t u a l e d i f i c e s — o f w i t c h c r a f t as d i a b o l i s m . met the divell midsomer r a r t l e s s a c c o u n t s o f t h e i r d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h S a t a n : so E l i z a b e t h S o u t h e r n e . b u t (as in t h e c a s e o f S m i t h ) w i t h d i a b o l i s m . s e e m s t o h a v e b e c o m e m o r e understood by the mid-seventeenth century. By the Civil w o m e n .v e a r . Protestant divines sought t o t r a n s f o r m the gross popular superstitions that Cases o f diabolic possession through t h e a g e n c y o f a w i t c h p r e s e n t e d t h e m a x i m u m o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r an e d i f y i n g a n d c a t h a r t i c d r a m a in t h e c o u r t T h e y a l s o e m p h a s i z e d t h e d i a b o l i c o r i g i n s o f t h e w i t c h ' s power upon w h i c h t h e d i v i n e s so p e r t i n a c i o u s l y insisted. The comprehensively M o s t o f the published accounts o f possession cases provide a narrative w h i c h d e s c r i b e s t h e v i c t i m ' s c o n f r o n t a t i o n w i t h t h e w i t c h as t h e first act o f the subse- . c o n t r a c t s d i r e c t l y w i t h his a c o l y t e . T h i s l a t t e r c a s e is n o t u n t y p i c a l o f t h o s e i n v o l v i n g s e v e r a l i n d i c t m e n t s in w h i c h t h e n a m e s o f w i t n e s s e s a r e i c e n c e than t o those o f m o r e r e c e n t p r o v e n a n c e . Nine w o m e n were c o n v i c t e d at L e i c e s t e r assizes in 1 6 1 6 u p o n t h e t e s t i m o n y o f t h e t h i r t e e n . T h i s e x t e n sive g r o u p o f d e p o s i t i o n s is a t r i b u t e . In c o n f e s s i o n s f r o m E n g l a n d in 1645—7 the Devil figures prominently: h e a p p e a r s in h u m a n eastern guise. but complayned of the hardnes of the t i m e s . 6 p e r c e n t o f t h e c a s e s did w o m e n t e s t i f y a g a i n s t an a c c u s e d w i t c h a l o n e . prosecution. d e g r e e o f i n v o l v e m e n t o f t h e s e g i r l s w h o in t h e i r t e s t i m o n y so reinforced academic theory. w h i c h . o n l y in 4 . 2 3 e m e r g e d in t h e w i t c h c r a f t t r i a l s . it s e e m s . particularly the pedlar. T h e i r m i s s i o n a r y e f f o r t s . a n o t h e r r e s p o n s e had b e e n m a d e available by the legislation of 1563. and. T h e i d e a t h a t a d i r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e D e v i l is t h e f o u n d a t i o n o f t h e w i t c h ' s p o w e r . 2 2 t h e f o r m a l legal p r o c e s s a g a i n s t w i t c h e s in t h e b u l k o f t h e c a s e s t h a t c a m e t o t h e a t t e n t i o n o f t h e j u d i c i a r v . bv elaborate d e f e r e n c e . cultural and a d e t a i l e d analysis s u g g e s t s t h a t a m o r e in w h i c h m i n i s t e r s a n d l a w y e r s p l a y e d a d i r e c t immediate role.m a g i c . it w a s c l a i m e d . This strategy. S u c h t e s t i m o n y .t r i a l s . a l s o w i t n e s s e d a g a i n s t w i t c h e s in t w o m o r e d e p o s i t i o n s . is a n o t h e r i n d i c a tion o f the general transformation However. Women. o f popular belief engineered by the complex process of divines. 2 1 he met her indeed. In 2 7 . w e r e r e i n f o r c e d by w o r k s that w e r e m o r e obviously popular chapbooks. l a r g e l y a b s e n t in e a r l y d e p o s i t i o n s . T h e i r treatises. w a s p r o v i d e d b y t h o s e w h o . w e r e possessed by the Devil through the agency o f a witch. 7 p e r c e n t o f t h e w i t c h craft accusations b e t w e e n 1 5 9 6 a n d 1 6 4 2 m e n a l o n e a c t e d as w i t n e s s e s . Jane T h r o c k m o r t o n . particularly adolescents. a n d his o w n p r u r i e n t f a n t a s i e s . T h e y treated such witches warily. T h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f this l a t t e r e m p h a s i s in t h e c o u r s e o f t h e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y e x p l a i n s t h e p r e p o n d e r a n c e o f f e m a l e w i t n e s s e s in l a t e r c a s e s . ' i n t h e s v g h t o i all t h e g r e a t e s t p a r s o n s h e r e . a f t e r r a v i n g in t h e p r e s e n c e o f t h e j u d g e s . and cases emanating f r o m local tensions and suspicions w o u l d have t o b e adjusted. a n d has c a r n a l r e l a t i o n s w i t h h e r . In 1 5 9 6 at H e r t f o r d . w h e n necessary. generally W e c o u l d s i m p l v a r g u e t h a t t h e t e s t i m o n y o f w o m e n in p o s s e s s i o n c a s e s o r as s e a r c h e r s . Y e t the elite w h o controlled the judicial m a c h i n e r y had their o w n agenda. upon the witch's c o u r t r o o m confession. as v i c t i m s o f d i a b o l i c p o s s e s s i o n t h r o u g h t h e i n s t i g a t i o n o f a w i t c h . D o e s this a r g u m e n t a l s o h o l d f o r t h o s e w o m e n elite? W o m e n contexts: first. s e c o n d l y . o f t h e i n f e r i o r i t y o f w o m e n as i n d i c a t e d by their g r e a t e r susceptibility t o satanic t e m p t a t i o n — c o n s t r u c t e d by the elite. ' c a m e t o his 'most periect terrible to be tolld'. and . w h o w e r e the driving force behind the decision t o bring l o c a l s u s p i c i o n s a n d f e a r s t o t h e a t t e n t i o n o f t h e c o u r t s . H o r r o r might be punctuated by m o m e n t s o f didactic piety. a n d s o l i c i t t h e c o n f i r m a t o r y testimony o f their neighbours.o l d E d w a r d S m i t h . spoke very discreetly. . as d y v e r s k n y g h t s a n d l a d i e s a n d m a n n y o t h a r s o i t h e b e t t a r s o r t ' . a p p a r e n t in t h e i n t e r r o gation o f M a r y S m i t h and the t r i u m p h a n t publication o f h e r eventual confession o f d i a b o l i s m . his fits d u r i n g t h e t r i a l . d e s p i t e t h e i r n u m e r i c a l i n v o l v e m e n t . t h a t s a t a n i c c o v e n a n t was the e s s e n c e o f the o f f e n c e . M e n and w o m e n b e l i e v e d that their f e m a l e n e i g h b o u r s c o u l d deploy malefic e n t p o w e r s . in w h i c h t h e y r e p e a t e d a n d c o n f i r m e d e l i t e t h e o r i e s . preponderate among 'possessed' a c c u s e r s . in p a r t . H o w e v e r . understanding. B u t m a n y o f t h e c o n f e s s i o n s are far f r o m s t e r e o t y p e d . with the trivia o f stock-loss or the interruptions of domestic and not agricultural w h i t e t h o r n e as s h e w e n t t o W e s t l e t o n a n d t h e r e h e p r o m i s e d h e r 2s 6 d a n d h e h a d i t n o t t h e n b u t said s h e s h o l d h a v e i t t h e n e x t t i m e she c a m e that way but he favled of his promise.310 CLIVE HOLMES WOMEN: WITCHES AND WITNESSES 311 was arraigned on four i n d i c t m e n t s . in this c a s e t w o m e n t e s t i f i e d t o t h e i r l o s s e s . s u g g e s t far m o r e e n g a g e m e n t in t h e c o n c e r n s ot t h e distinctive. and u p o n a third i n d i c t m e n t for m u r d e r by w i t c h c r a f t f o u r y e a r s p r e v i o u s l y . p r o c e s s e s . broadsides War and ballads — and by the t h e a t r e o f the c o u r t and the g a l l o w s . often w o m e n . is o v e r r e p r e s e n t e d in t h e p u b l i s h e d a c c o u n t s . w e r e d e s i g n e d t o insist o n t h e i r t h e o l o g i c a l c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n . the o t h e r t w o dealt with m u r d e r s respectively t h r e e and six y e a r s e a r l i e r . w h i l e in 6 7 . . e m e r g e d from h e r fit. as e x a m i n e r s f o r t h e p h y s i c a l m a r k s w h i c h w e r e i n c r e a s i n g l y s e e n as k e y e v i d e n c e in p r o s e c u t i o n . was usually pursued by s u b s t a n t i a l m e n in t h e c o m m u n i t y w h o w o u l d lay t h e c h a r g e . in c o n s e q u e n c e . w h i l e a w o m a n d e p o s e d c o n c e r n i n g t h e e a r l i e r d e a t h . deserves discussion. w e r e W i l l i a m A v e r y . k n e e l e d a n d a s k e d h e r f a t h e r ' s b l e s s i n g . s e r m o n s and editions o f confessions. and charitably t o e v e r y p o i n t ' . t o M a t t h e w H o p k i n s ' s acquaintance accused's w i t h c o n t i n e n t a l t h e o r i e s . construction was involved. listed: w o m e n f o r m e d a higher proportion o f the witnesses to the charges o f earlier malef2 0 t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l e f f o r t s a p p e a r t o h a v e b o r n e f r u i t . by erecting a p r o t e c tive shield o f c o u n t e r .

r e l i g i o u s d o u b t s . Elizabeth responded. w r i t i n g in 'ordinarily' sick'. themselves. other t h e s e . T h e witchcraft-possession . s e a r c h f o r t h e w i t c h ' s m a r k in E n g l a n d . 2 5 In o t h e r c a s e s . M a r g a r e t B y r o m . those w h o testified t o the physical m a r k s that w e r e to characterize a witch. s t r u c k J o a n V a u g h a n .a s . this w a s simply the f o r m u l a i c c o n v e n t i o n o f a substantial literary g e n r e . d e l i g h t e d in ' f i l t h i e a n d u n s a v o u r y s p e e c h e s ' . w h e n an a c c u s e d w i t c h h e l d in B o s t o n g a o l b e g g e d h e r f o r a l i t t l e t o b a c c o . awav with J o a n e Vaughan'. as w i t h [Catherine W r i g h t a n d A n n e G u n t e r . and from But while the possessed w e r e and a p p r o p r i a t i n g l a n g u a g e a n d b e h a v i o u r in w a y s t h a t w e r e i n t e n s e l y p e r s o n a l liberating. p h y s i c w a s u n a v a i l i n g . Nicholas S t a r k e y ' s c h i l d r e n . while c o n f o r m i n g t o a basic p a t t e r n . o f f i c i a l l y s a n c t i o n e d . T h e 1 6 3 4 c o n v i c t i o n s t r o u b l e d s o m e o f t h e a u t h o r i t i e s a n d undertaken: re-examHarvey.w o m a n ' . c r y i n g o u t in h e r fits. s a n c t i o n e d b y t h e P r i v y C o u n c i l . i n c l u d e d an e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e p h y s i o l o g i c a l e v i d e n c e . w i t h its a n c i l l a r y e m p h a s i s u p o n t h e m o m e n t n e v e r c e a s e d t o a c c u s e J o a n . T h e L a n c a s t e r c a s e p r o v i d e s t h e first i n s t a n c e o f t h e fullv d e v e l o p e d . T h e possessed themselves w e r e not simply malleable puppets articulating the c o n c e r n s o f o t h e r s in a p r o c e s s o f s o c i a l v e n t r i l o q u i s m . thought suppositions c o n c e r n i n g b o t h the diabolic nature o f witchcraft and female inferiority. The victim behavb e c a m e t h e f o c u s o f an i n t e n s e a t t e n t i o n . in t h e f o r m o f e a r l i e r 2 7 T h e b e h a v i o u r and testiother of o f the possessed w e r e thus entangled with the interests o f various chieflv f r o m t h e i r o w n familv n e t w o r k s . the structure to which m o s t accusations c o n f o r m e d . f r u s t r a tion with the constrictions i m p o s e d by social and g e n d e r r o l e s . t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l f o r m a t o f t h e n a r r a t i v e 'who b a r e l y c o n c e a l s t h e m o r e d i f f u s e r e a l i t y . levelled by a ten-year-old boy. a f t e r J o a n had m a d e an o b s c e n e g e s t u r e at h e r : a fewdays l a t e r E l i z a b e t h w a s p o s s e s s e d . ' s t r e n g t h e n e d and changed o v e r t i m e . And equally it is t h e e l e m e n t o f e l i t e c o n s t r u c t i o n a n d m a n i p u l a t i o n o f t h e i r t e s t i m o n y t h a t is most apparent. a n d t h e w i t c h . could b e individually s h a p e d t o p r o v i d e an o u t l e t f o r p e r s o n a l f e e l i n g s t h a t w o u l d n o t o t h e r w i s e a c h i e v e s a n c t i o n e d e x p r e s s i o n — s e x u a l f a n t a s i e s . ' a f f r o n t e d t h e h a g ' : all w e r e s u b s e q u e n t l y s u b j e c t e d t o f e a r f u l p h y s i c a l a n d mental t o r m e n t s . Richard Napier. T h e p o s s e s s e d adolescents w e r e the tools o f the divines. If the possession-through-witchcraft and diag- IV A s i m i l a r analysis is a l s o a p p r o p r i a t e in d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e e v i d e n c e o f t h e t h i r d g r o u p o f f e m a l e w i t n e s s e s . t h o s e a t t e n d i n g h e r b e g a n t o n o m i n a t e s u s p e c t s . b i b l e b a b l e ' . their families and neighbours. their dramatic performances f r a i l t y o f t h e ' w e a k e r s e x e ' in t h e f a c e o f s a t a n i c t e m p t a t i o n . b u t she r e f u s e d t o e n t e r t a i n this s u g g e s t i o n . F o u r o f the c o n v i c t e d w o m e n w e r e b r o u g h t to L o n d o n and in t h e p r e s e n c e o f a p a n e l o f d i s t i n g u i s h e d p h y s i c i a n s h e a d e d b y W i l l i a m ined. r a g e at p a r e n t s .s t a n d i n g found l o c a l s u s p i c i o n : it w a s c o r r o b o r a t e d b y e v i d e n c e o f t h e w i t c h . n o r a n y t h i n g e l y k e a t e a t e o r m a r k e . b u t also medical professionals and divines. shows h o w h e r s y m p t o m s . T h e ioural traits o f possession. 'Did she?'. 2 8 B u t . T h e y t o o confirmed. w e r e a v a i l a b l e in t h e s i c k r o o m . Then. M e r c v S h o r t . Y e t d e s p i t e this c r i t i q u e . ' n i c k n a m e d and t a u n t e d ' h e r b e n e f a c t o r s . a p o o r k i n s w o m a n w h o lived on the Starkey family's charity. A t L a n c a s t e r assizes in 1 6 3 4 s o m e t w e n t y p e o p l e w e r e c o n v i c t e d as w i t c h e s . (1603) 'undistinc- t i v e ' . if m o r e tangentially. w h i l e in s e v e r a l c a s e s p a r a d i g m s o f a p p r o p r i a t e b e h a v i o u r . A b a s i c p a t t e r n o f l a n g u a g e a n d g e s t u r e . was l e a r n e d b v t h e p o s s e s s e d . as w e r e t h e e f f o r t s o f the local practitioner o f astrological m e d i c i n e . they s c o f f e d at S c r i p t u r e as ' b i b l e b a b l e . including the assertion o f the responsibility o f a witch for the victim's e x p e r i e n c e . t h e d a u g h t e r o f a n o t o r i o u s l o c a l w i t c h . reinforced t h e w i t c h c r a i t . all w e r e r e j e c t e d until they n a m e d J o a n . 1619. A f e w documents e n a b l e us t o s e e this p r o c e s s d i r e c t l v . T h e girl n o m i n a t e d w i t c h e s o n l y a f t e r a s e v e r e i l l n e s s o f f o u r m o n t h s d u r i n g wdiich d e s p e r a t e m e d i c a l r e m e d i e s h a d b e e n u n s u c cessfullv a t t e m p t e d . demonstrably absent from their previous affective relations. o n t h e o t h e r t h r e e t h e v f o u n d ' n o t h i n g u n n a t u r a l l n e y t h e r in t h e s e c r e t s o r a n y p a r t e s o f t h e i r e b o d y e s . A manuscript offers a very different account. crucially. g a i n i n g d e f i n i t i o n in t h e c e n t u r y a f t e r 1 5 9 0 . so t o o w a s t h e s u b s e q u e n t b e h a v i o u r o f t h e v i c t i m s . T h e o r t h o d o x b e g i n n i n g o f t h e a c c o u n t of t h e p o s s e s s i o n o f t h e d a u g h t e r o f L a d v J e n n i n g s — h e r f e a r o f an o l d w o m a n s u d d a i n l y a p p e a r e d t o h e r att t h e d o r e a n d d e m a n d e d a pin o f h e r ' — s e e m s q u i t e i r r e l e v a n t t o t h e s u b s e q u e n t s t o r y . t h e s i c k w o m a n a s k e d . thirteen o f the w o m e n w e r e t o h a v e m a r k s o r p a p s . W i l l i a m P e r r v failed t o salute J o a n C o c k e with sufficient c o u r t e s y w h e n they m e t . initiallv clarity' a diagnosis o f possession through w i t c h c r a f t . E l i z a b e t h h a d b e e n s i c k f o r fifteen m o n t h s . 2 4 identification might prove seductive to those w h o s e s y m p t o m s bewildered medical experts. A c c o r d i n g t o a p a m p h l e t o f 1 6 1 2 M r s E l i z a b e t h B e l c h e r . a n d t h e s e w e r e l o c a t e d in t h e g e n i t a l a r e a o f e l e v e n o f t h e m . 'a v e r t u o u s a n d g o d l y g e n t l e . when the that E l i z a b e t h w a s in h e r fit. c u l m i n a t i n g in t h e i r c o u r t r o o m p e r f o r m a n c e s . was the p r o d u c t o f a s o c i a l p r o c e s s in w h i c h k e y r o l e s w e r e p l a y e d b y a d u l t s a n d m a l e s . 'Heere comes Joane Vaughan. b y t h e t i m e it w a s e m p l o v e d b y C o t t o n M a t h e r in his a c c o u n t s o f t h e p o s s e s s i o n o f t h e G o o d w i n c h i l d r e n a n d o f M e r c y S h o r t .312 CLIVE HOLMES WOMEN: WITCHES AND WITNESSES 313 q u e n t d r a m a . o f t e n . L a n c a s t e r s h o u l d a l s o h a v e b e e n t h e last i n s t a n c e o f t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n they sought a respite of execution while further investigations w e r e of s u c h e v i d e n c e in c o u r t . i n v o l v e d far m o r e c o m p l e x t r a n s a c t i o n s . t h e b o y b i t his m o t h e r a n d c a l l e d h e r ' w h o r e ' . M i c h a e l M a c D o n a l d . and. B e l c h e r ' s friends suspected witchcraft. T h e actual process w h e r e b v t h e s u f f e r e r ' s a f f l i c t i o n w a s r e c o g n i z e d as p o s s e s s i o n . a n d f u r t h e r q u e s t i o n s n o s i s is t h e p r o d u c t o f a d i a l o g u e i n v o l v i n g m a n v a c t o r s . a n d t h e i r u s u a l d i s c o v e r y in t h e p u d e n d a . a g e d n i n e a n d t e n . t e s t i f y i n g a t N o r t h a m p t o n assizes w h e r e t h e witch was c o n d e m n e d . was firmly r o o t e d in l o n g .d i a b o l i c . T h e accusation. T e n L o n d o n m i d w i v e s ' m a d e diligent search and inspeccion o f those w o m e n ' T h e y r e p o r t e d t h a t o n e o f t h e w o m e n had u n u s u a l b u t e x p l i c a b l e m a r k s . and t h e r e had b e e n m u c h discussion a m o n g the family visitors o f the possibilitv o f w i t c h c r a i t . n o r any s i g n e t h a t a n y s u c h e t h i n g e h a i t h e v e r b e e n e ' . T h o m a s D a r l i n g i n a d v e r t e n t l y f a r t e d as h e p a s s e d A l i c e G o o d e r i d g e . mony p a r t i c i p a n t s in t h e d r a m a . bystanders named Joan again: ' H a t h she d o n e i t ? ' . F o u r m e n and sixteen w o m e n w e r e accused. so that thev c o n f i r m e d with increasing 2 6 D r J o h n C o t t a .c o v e n a n t t h e o l o g y . l a r g e l v in r e s p o n s e t o t h e e x p e c t a t i o n s o f t h o s e w h o g a t h e r e d a b o u t t h e m t o o f f e r c o n s o l a t i o n and t o p a r t i c i p a t e v i c a r i o u s l y in t h e c o n f l i c t with Satan. c o m p l a i n e d that the actions and accusations o f the possessed involved 'the abusive impression o f s o m e indiscreete whispering about the p o s s e s s i o n n a r r a t i v e s .m a r k s o n t h e a c c u s e d . analysing D r S t e p h e n B r a d w e l l ' s a c c o u n t o f the possession o f M a r y G l o v e r .i n t e r m e d i a r v n o m i n a t e d .

it r e i n f o r c e s t h e g e n d e r . w e r e t h e v Having p o s e d t h e p r o b l e m . before 1634: e q u i v a l e n t t o t h e s e a r c h f o r t h e i n s e n s i b l e b r a n d in S c o t l a n d the earliest surviving instance is t h e demand of a or G e n e v a . t h e d e s i r e d p o s i t i v i s t i c t e s t o f g u i l t . 'the m o r e to aggravate the w i t c h ' s T h e w o r k o f the academics had b e e n to i n c o r p o r a t e local ' e x p e r i e n c e ' e m e r g i n g f r o m t h e s u b s t r a t e o f p o p u l a r b e l i e f i n t o a g e n e r a l t h e o r y . but in other writings and in local police practice the test was t r a n s i o r m e d . this i n v e r t e d E u c h a r i s t is d e s i g n e d t o ' p u t h e r in m i n d o f damnation'. t h o u g h r e w o r k e d t o accommod a t e p a r o c h i a l e x p e r i e n c e .t r i a l e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e a c c u s e d b y ' a n c i e n t skilfull m a t r o n s a n d m i d w i v e s ' c o n t i n u e d as a f e a t u r e o f t h e w i t c h a c c u s a t i o n s in E n g l a n d and the A m e r i c a n colonies into the eighteenth century. a n d t h u s m e r e l y a f o r m o f i l l i c i t c o u n t e r . 'odd performances'. These creatures.g i f t b o r e s o m e affinities t o the idea o f P r o t e s t a n t continental theorists. B y t h e e a r l y s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y s o m e l o c a l officials w e r e c l e a r l y t r o u b l e d b y the evidential p r o b l e m s p o s e d b y the usual f o r m o f w i t c h c r a f t a c c u s a t i o n . a l t h o u g h it s u r v i v e d as a v i g o r o u s e l e m e n t in t h e p o p u l a r r e s p o n s e t o w i t c h c r a f t . i n c r e a s i n g l y s e e m e d i n s u b s t a n t i a l . was n o w c o n f i r m e d ' . c o m b i n i n g continental cepts and insular f o l k l o r e . a full u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e c o n t e x t i n w h i c h t h e i r r o l e as w i t n e s s e s d e v e l o p e d a l l o w s us t o s e e t h e m a t r o n s a n d m i d w i v e s as m a r g i n a l p a r t i c i p a n t s in p r o c e d u r e s o r i g i n a t i n g in t h e c o n c e r n s o f e x c l u s i v e l y m a l e g r o u p s : t h e c l e r g y . A c c o u n t s o f the v i c t i m ' s sufferings that f o l l o w e d a c u r s e . t o a d s and w e a s i l s ' ? b e m i g h t i e t e r r i b l e s p i r i t s . it w a s an i m p o r t a t i o n f r o m c o n t i n e n t a l p r a c t i c e . 3 3 T h e t e s t i m o n y o f t h e s e ' k n o w i n g w o m e n ' r e s u l t e d in t h e c o n d e m n a t i o n o f a n u m b e r o f i n d i v i d u a l s . E u r o p e a n c o m m e n t a t o r s a s s e r t e d t h a t at t h e m a k i n g o f t h e c o v e n a n t t h e D e v i l c l a w e d o r b r a n d e d his n e o p h y t e . f a c e d with a difficult case. W h y . its lavish e m p l o y m e n t b y H o p k i n s a n d S t e a r n e h a r d e n e d o b j e c t i o n s t h a t had already b e e n e x p r e s s e d by a n u m b e r o f clerics. as did t h e D e r b y s h i r e J P s in 1 5 9 7 . T h e discovery o f the physical peculiarities thought to m a r k a w i t c h p r o v i d e d . w i t h its e m p h a s i s u p o n t h e f e m a l e g e n i t a l s . d r a w i n g b l o o d w i t h w h i c h t o sign t h e c o m p a c t a n d l e a v i n g an i n s e n s i b l e s c a r as its t a n g i b l e s y m b o l . h o w e v e r . l e a v i n g an i n s e n s i b l e s c a r . which according professional the original transaction. t h e n . S a t a n a n d his m i n i o n s w e r e d e s c r i b e d in S c r i p t u r e m a s q u e r a d i n g as ' s u c h p a l t r i e v e r m i n . in t h e 1 5 8 2 S t O s y t h i n v e s t i g a t i o n . T h e w i t c h e n t e r s a c o v e n a n t with Satan w h o m a r k s h e r and draws b l o o d . w a s r e w a r d e d w i t h a c h i c k e n and a d r o p o f h e r b l o o d . maintaining t h e m on b e e r . b u t it w a s o c c a s i o n a l l y s u p p l e Mother W a t e r h o u s e ' s fell p u r p o s e s . G i f f o r d s k e t c h e s an a n s w e r . from the m o r e detailed narrative o f the w i t c h ' s transaction with Satan that assimilates further as J o s e p h 3 1 popular belief system. and t h e t e c h n i q u e w a s u s e d e x t e n s i v e l y in t h e 1 6 4 5 — 6 w i t c h . after m a k i n g the c o v e n a n t . 3 2 l e e t j u r y in 1 5 7 9 t h a t W i d o w W a l k e r s h o u l d b e s e a r c h e d f o r a n y b l o o d y D e c o n t e x t u a l i z e d a n d a n a l y s e d in i s o l a t i o n . as did t h e w a t e r . l i k e t h e o r d e a l . and d e v e l o p e d . and r e s o n a t e s w i t h t h e m o r e o v e r t c o n t i n e n t a l d i s c u s s i o n s o f w o m e n ' s i n s a t i a b l e l u s t as a m a j o r e l e m e n t in t h e i r c o m p a c t a n d r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h S a t a n . H o w e v e r . w h o d e n o u n c e d t h e p r a c t i c e as u n w a r r a n t e d b y S c r i p t u r e . m i s e . their d i s c o v e r y b y q u a l i f i e d e x p e r t s w a s e s s e n t i a l f o r c o n v i c t i o n in s o m e j u r i s d i c t i o n s . T h e i r q u e s t t o o k a n u n i b e r o f d i r e c t i o n s . T h e i r theories w e r e to b e r e i n f o r c e d . full o f p o w e r . r e i n f o r c e d by various dubious bits o f c o n f i r m a t o r y c o u n t e r . p r e . In E n g l a n d . and the resultant problem synthesis uneasy. 3 0 T h i s e a r l y a n s w e r is f l e s h e d o u t b y l a t e r w r i t e r s i n t o a Glanvill ingenuously described them. As w i t h t h e p o s s e s s e d a d o l e s c e n t s . a n d d i v i n e s w e r e t a x e d t o e x p l a i n t h e i r p r e s e n c e in t e r m s o f t h e i r t h e o l o g y o f w i t c h c r a f t . the conEnglish c o m m e n t a t o r s d e v e l o p e d a syncretist t h e o r y . In 1 6 1 2 t h e N o r t h a m p t o n s h i r e J P s . So. h e r i a m i l i a r . d r a w i n g it i n t o a t e a t . and c o n s e q u e n t l y had t o b e read o r s h a p e d in a w a y t h a t p e r m i t t e d its i n c o r p o r a t i o n i n t o t h e i r t h e o r e t i c a l c o n s t r u c t s — h e n c e the misogynous explanations developed by the divines to a c c o u n t for the plurality o f female witches that e m e r g e d f r o m popular accusation. 'it is e v e n o f s u b t i l t i e ' . In 1 6 4 6 J u d g e G o d b o l t h a l t e d t h e u s e o f t h e w a t e r o r d e a l b y H o p k i n s a n d his e n t o u r a g e a n d . B r i a n D a r c v h a d s u s p e c t s s e a r c h e d 3 5 But the . In c o n s e q u e n c e t h e y w e r e o f t e n t h e b u t t o f t h e j i b e s o f s c e p t i c s . M o r e o v e r . It a p p e a r s in t h e e a r l i e s t t r i a l s t h a t it w a s c o m m o n l y t h o u g h t that the w i t c h h o u s e d and fed h e r familiars: U r s l e v K e m p l o d g e d h e r t w o c a t s . p r o p e r physical e x a m i n a t i o n could reveal such satanic stigmata and.m a g i c . and t h e m a g i s t r a c y . A f e w E n g l i s h t h e o r i s t s f o l l o w t h e i r c o n t i n e n t a l c o u n t e r p a r t s in d e s c r i b i n g t h e a n a e s thetic mark. after accomplishing diet s e e m s o r d i n a r y e n o u g h .o r i e n t e d d i m e n s i o n o f the a c a d e m i c t h e o r y o f w i t c h c r a f t . t h e d i s c o v e r y o f t h e s u c k e d t e a t b e c o m e s an a p p r o p r i a t e demonstration. w e r e a l m o s t u n i q u e t o E n g l i s h f o l k l o r e . cake and w h i t e b r e a d . that Satan. a n d 'the suspition that was b e f o r e n o t well g r o u n d e d . experimented with the water-ordeal as p r a c t i s e d on the C o n t i n e n t a n d a p p r o v e d b y K i n g J a m e s . A n d . T h e search was e m p l o y e d intermittently Southampton marks popular b e l i e f w e r e k e p t by t h e w i t c h and e m p l o y e d t o e x e c u t e h e r designs. its official e m p l o y m e n t c e a s e d save in v e r y r e m o t e jurisdictions. o f the w i t c h ' s pact with Satan. T h e d e v i l s a d o p t t h e s e b a s e g u i s e s s o as n o t t o t e r r i f y t h e i r d u p e s b y r e v e a l i n g t h e i r h o r r e n dous f o r m s and p o w e r . a l a m b a n d a t o a d in a l a r g e w o o l lined p o t . by 1 6 0 0 . A c c o r d i n g l y . T h a t the a c c o m m o d a t i o n o f p o p u l a r b e l i e f and intellectual t h e o r y o f t e n p r o v e d a w k w a r d . t h i s b l o o d . notably the influential W i l l i a m P e r k i n s .o r d e a l . by a n o t h e r g r o u p : lawyers and magistrates. a c a t . d u p l i c a t i n g t h e E n g l i s h a c c o u n t o f t h e c o v e n a n t b y an e m p h a s i s o n t h e f a m i l i a r . 2 9 c l a w e d his n e w d i s c i p l e . Yet 'that which by e x p e r i e n c e is found t o b e t r u e ' could n o t simply b e dismissed. is v e r y apparent in t h e divines' wrestling with the to posed by the witches' familiars.m a g i c . the D e v i l t h e n provides a familiar w h o regularly sucks b l o o d f r o m t h e r e s u l t i n g w o u n d . t h e t h r e e a c c u s e d w i t c h e s all f l o a t e d . r a g e a n d c r u e l t i e s ' . A c a d e m i c writers w e r e frequently embarrassed by aspects o f the popular beliefs a b o u t w i t c h c r a f t t h a t e m e r g e d in a c c u s a t i o n s . magistrates sought tangible p r o o f o f the w i t c h ' s status. in the absence o f a confession. i f e x t r a v a g a n t . G i f f o r d set o u t t h e d i f f i c u l t y : S a t a n was the efficient cause 'to o f t h e w i t c h ' s m a l e f i c e n c e . a g a i n . as c a t s . From this s t r u c t u r a l r e s e m b l a n c e .h u n t in e a s t e r n E n g l a n d . T h e mented with the witch's blood. ' w h i c h is a c o m o n t o k e n t o k n o w all w i t c h e s b y ' . w h i l e still m a i n t a i n i n g the c o h e r e n c e o f the latter.314 CLIVE HOLMES WOMEN: WITCHES AND WITNESSES 315 c o n c e r n i n g the reliability o f the search p r o c e d u r e during the wave o f prosecutions in E a s t A n g l i a in 1 6 4 5 — 6 . this she g a v e h i m b y p r i c k i n g h e r h a n d o r f a c e a n d p u t t i n g t h e b l o u d t o his m o u t h w h y c h e h e s u c k e d . 3 4 So effec- tive a litmus test p r o v e d attractive t o o t h e r magistrates b e f o r e the Civil W a r .

as D a l t o n ' s m i s r e a d i n g o f his s o u r c e p r o v e d e q u a l l y A similar a r g u m e n t may explain simply s o m e o f t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n s in s e a r c h e s f o r t h e w i t c h ' s m a r k s . p a s s i n g there bv c h a n c e ' . in t h e c o n t e x t . l i k e t h e m i d w i v e s in 1634. in a m a c a b r e s c e n e b e n e a t h t h e g a l l o w s . But a r g u m e n t s a m o n g the searchers and the ambiguous language with which they often hedged their findings m a y equally have led t o elite c o n c e r n that. D a l t o n cites B e r n a r d with enthusiastic approval a n d e m p h a s i z e s t h e u t i l i t y o f t h e d i s c o v e r y o f t h e m a r k s as i n c o n t r o v e r t i b l e proof — ' m a i n e points t o d i s c o v e r and c o n v i c t . were protecting their o w n precarious positions by associating themselves with o r t h o d o x 3 8 B u t this h y p o t h e s i s c a n n o t s u r v i v e D a v i d H a r l e y ' s d e m o n s t r a t i o n t h a t its the vulnerability of midwives to witchcraft prosecution. Y e t . confronted by the e v i d e n t i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s t h a t t y p i f i e d all w i t c h c r a f t a c c u s a t i o n s . for t h e y p r o v e fully that t h o s e w i t c h e s h a v e a f a m i l i a r a n d m a d e a l e a g u e w i t h t h e D e v i l ' . with three other w o m e n nominated by the constable o f Heath. e m p l o y e d t h e r e c o m m e n d e d b o d v s e a r c h as a r o u t i n e a s p e c t o f p r e . in t h e i r s e c r e t e s t p a r t s . in this c a s e t w o o f t h e t h r e e w o m e n w h o e x a m i n e d E l i z a b e t h S a w y e r w e r e ' b r o u g h t in b y t h e O f f i c e r s o u t o f t h e s t r e e t e . 'these the Devil's marks . found incriminating marks on M a r g a r e t M o r t o n . w h i c h sets o u t t h e full-fledged t h e o r y e x p r e s s i n g t h e r o l e o f the familiar in t e r m s o f the diabolic c o m p a c t . a n d e v e n t h e f u l l e r v e r d i c t s o f the 'Ansient and K n o w i n g W o m e n ' p e r c e i v e d t h e i r m a r g i n a l r o l e as s e a r c h e r s . 1 6 4 7 . B e r n a r d insists. 4 0 on the genital area. ' s o m e t h a t w e r e t h e r e t h a t p r e t e n d e d t o h a v e skill in t h e d i s c o v e r y o f w i t c h - . . 4 1 o f t h e s e a r c h e r s t h e r e a f t e r . It is t e m p t i n g t o fill t h e l a c u n a e b y i n t r o d u c i n g a c o m p a r a t i v e d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e o t h e r r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s w h e r e w o m e n p l a y e d a r o l e in t h e p e n u m b r a o f the legal s y s t e m . e v e n i n t h o s e c a s e s C o c k b u r n . In 1 6 4 5 B r i d g e t R e y n o l d s o f R a m s e y s e a r c h e d t h r e e l o c a l w o m e n .m e c u m f o r l o c a l m a g i s t r a t e s in t h e l i g h t o f t h e 1 6 2 7 Guide to Grand-Jury Men b y t h e d i v i n e . t h o s e s e a r c h e s in w h i c h n o i n c r i m i n a t i n g m a r k s w e r e f o u n d . in t h e s e e a r l y e x a m p l e s . J o h n H a l e . a n d r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e a c c u s e d . D a l t o n r e v i s e d his i n f l u e n t i a l v a d e . midwives and o t h e r s . o r t o t h e i r o w n e x p e r i e n c e o f h e r m a l e f i c e n c e . g e n e r ally s u p p o s e d t o b e a w i t c h . M r s Odill o f Fairfield. aryi t h e r e s p i t e u s u a l l y b e c a m e a r e p r i e v e . In 1653 another m i d w i f e . Y e t W a r d was hardly a neutral o b s e r v e r : she a t t r i b u t e d t h e d e a t h s o f t w o o f h e r c h i l d r e n t o M o r t o n . t h e n t o u r i n g t h e Isle o f E l y . the search must be diligent. a n d in 1 6 2 1 a J P h a d t o p r e s s his c o l l e a g u e s o n t h e M i d d l e s e x B e n c h t o i n s t i t u t e t h e s e a r c h o f a s u s p e c t . m i n i s t e r o f B e v e r l e y . Y e t l o n g s t a n d i n g p o p u l a r s u s p i c i o n s did n o t i n v a r i a b l y l e a d t o t h e d i s c o v e r y o f t h e conclusive physical e v i d e n c e . 3 9 o b v i o u s l y t o o k t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s s e r i o u s l y . a n d this m i g h t l e a d t o in g e n e r a l . b u t t h a t . t h o u g h s u c h o c c a s i o n s m a y have b e e n f r e q u e n t . W h e n Ellen Garrison o f U p w e l l was searched ambiguous. o t h e r s w e r e m o r e w a r y . t h e l o c a l m i d w i f e w a s f a r m o r e c i r c u m s p e c t in h e r t e s t i m o n y . h a d e x a m i n e d t h e c o r p s e o f an e x e c u t e d w i t c h a n d a r g u e d t h a t t h e g e n i t a l m a r k s w e r e ' s u c h as o t h e r women by in m i g h t h a v e ' . T h e key event behind the o r m a r k s in h e r s e c r e t s ' in t h e findings their emphasis on female sexuality. . lawyer T h e l a c o n i c r e f e r e n c e s in t h e E n g l i s h r e c o r d s . magistrates after 1 6 3 0 .316 CLIVE HOLMES W0MEN: WITCHES AND WITNESSES 317 p r a c t i c e w a s n o t u n i v e r s a l : in 1 5 9 3 M o t h e r S a m u e l ' s m a r k w a s d i s c o v e r e d after c r a f t sayd t h a t s o m e o f t h e d e v i l e s i m p e s h a d s u c k e d h e r ' . l e a v e f e w t r a c e s in t h e E n g l i s h r e c o r d s . s i n c e it is l i k e l y t o b e in hidden places'. w h o affirmed that their searches had revealed the D e v i l ' s m a r k r e i n f o r c e d . the intellectual regarding the b o t h the efficacy o f the test and. It has b e e n s u g g e s t e d . they w e r e most execuJ. d e s p i t e t h i s w e i g h t y p r o f e s s i o n a l o p i n i o n f r o m S t e a r n e a n d his c i r c u s . t h u s e x c u l p a t i n g an a c c u s e d w i t c h . a m o n g t h e m r e s u l t i n g f r o m t h e i r d o u b t s in i n d i v i d u a l c a s e s o r a b o u t t h e p r o c e d u r e i c a l m a r k s w e r e u n n a t u r a l . S. has argued that the j u r y o f w o m e n e m b o d i e d the s e n t i m e n t o f the c o u r t and the w i d e r c o m m u n i t y in f a v o u r o f m e r c y in a p a r t i c u l a r c a s e . C o n n e c t i c u t .p e r c e p t i o n of the w o m e n w h o p a r t i c i p a t e d in t h e search colonial search f o c u s e d u p o n t h e g e n i t a l a r e a . frequently employed on juries empanelled to test the claim that a w o m a n convicted o f a c a p i t a l f e l o n y w a s p r e g n a n t . 3 7 'very the shifts be often Fortified bv Dalton's confident p r o n o u n c e m e n t s . t i o n w a s d e l a y e d . e v e n l a n g u a g e in t h e i r d e p o s i t i o n s . the search o f the W i d o w C o m a n o f Coggeshall. t h e y w e r e expressions o f local s e n t i m e n t c o n c e r n i n g the i n n o c e n c e o r guilt o f the accused. in his s u m m a r y . were prepared to exculpate individuals. 3 6 N o r . Dalton. and the f r e q u e n t appearance o f similar t i o n o f t h e f o u r t h e d i t i o n o f The Countrey Justice by Michael Dalton. often unwittingly.t r i a l p r o c e d u r e . using a n e u t r a l . c o n s i d e r i n g t h e f r e q u e n c y w i t h w h i c h s u c h ' m i s t a k e s ' w e r e m a d e . authoritatively silenced those w o m e n w h o . a n d t o d e n o u n c e t h o s e t h e y s e a r c h e d as g u i l t y o f d i a b o l i c r e l a t i o n s . ministerial theories c o n c e r n i n g the satanic d i m e n s i o n o f w i t c h c r a f t and the inferiority o f w o m e n . . t h a t a p a r t i c u l a r l y a c t i v e p a r t w a s p l a y e d b y m i d w i v e s w h o . g i v e n an official d i s t r u s t o f t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a n d t h e s u s p i c i o n s o f w i t c h c r a f t t h a t f o c u s e d o n t h e i r presidency belief. a n d t e s t i f i e d a g a i n s t t h e m a t t h e a s s i z e s . r e p o r t e d t h e d o u b t s o f 'a skilful m i d w i f e ' c o n c e r n i n g t h e w i t c h ' s colonial j u r i e s . 4 2 p r o c e d u r e s d o n o t a d m i t o f e a s y a n a l y s i s . myth. W h i l e w o m e n w e r e a p p o i n t e d t o c o n d u c t physical e x a m i n a t i o n s in civil a n d c r i m i n a l cases turning on virginity or p r e g n a n c y . . w i t h c o p i o u s citation o f t h e available English c a s e s . language o f Bernard's argument: the teats. b u t . In t h e e v e n t o f a p o s i t i v e d e t e r m i n a t i o n where the jury's 'pregnant' verdict was subsequently proved incorrect. a n d t h e r e f o r e r e q u i r e d i l i g e n t a n d c a r e f u l s e a r c h ' . b e y o n d viability o f d e m o n o l o g i c a l s p e c u l a t i o n u p o n w h i c h i t r e s t e d so u n e a s i l y . T h e r o l e and s e l f . while s o m e midwives affirmed and r e i n f o r c e d the search p r o c e d u r e s t h a t h a d b e e n s h a p e d in t h e i n t e r s e c t i o n o f t h e o l o g y a n d j u r i s p r u d e n c e divines and l a w y e r s . w a s t h e s e a r c h s o c o n c e n t r a t e d 1 6 3 4 Lancaster proceedings with 'paps and Massachusetts. over the enclosed process of birth and their use of charms. h e r e x e c u t i o n . hardly p e r m i t any exhaustive analysis o f h o w London the or to question mark. in 1 6 3 0 . is t h e p u b l i c a - C a m b r i d g e s h i r e J P . b u t t o h e r r e p u t a t i o n as a w i t c h . validity o f the e n t i r e p r o c e d u r e . Y e t D a l t o n a l s o t r a n s f o r m s his s o u r c e in a k e v r e s p e c t . Searchers w e r e often p r e p a r e d t o testify n o t only t o the a c c u s e d ' s physical m a r k s . R i c h a r d B e r n a r d . f o u n d n o d i s c o v e r y o f t h a t n a t u r e . S o m e . d i a g n o s e d t h e i r m a r k s as s u s p i c i o u s . h e r m o t h e r a n d h e r s i s t e r w e r e 'all a l o n g t i m e s u s p e c t e d ' o f w i t c h c r a f t . A n d t h e authoritative. is a Certainly s o m e midwives w e r e prepared to assert categorically that physr The searchers arguments essential p r e m i s e . In p a r t i c u l a r . Frances W a r d . T h e s e a r c h e s w e r e an u n s t a b l e c r e a t i o n t h a t j u x t a p o s e d t h e c o n c e p t u a l s c h e m e s o f the theologians with a pragmatic response by the magistracy to increasingly troubling evidential p r o b l e m s . T h o s e w o m e n . t h a t t h e m a r k m a y b e a n y w h e r e .

proportionately. F o r f u r t h e r discussion o f this issue. W o m e n . T h e search for the w i t c h ' s m a r k by c o m m i t t e e s o f w o m e n . P o p u l a r belief. m o r e easily s e d u c e d b y s a t a n i c t e m p t a t i o n . L. S e e also Alan Stuart England (London 1970). six b e t w e e n 1 6 6 0 and 1 6 7 5 . In c o n s e q u e n c e . w e r e b e t t e r p l a c e d t o give e v i d e n c e . T h e c o n c e r n s o f t h e legal elite also e x p l a i n t h e i n v o l v e m e n t o f w o m e n in t h e s e a r c h e s f o r t h o s e p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s tics w h i c h indicated c o n j u n c t i o n with diabolic familiars. proved the m o s t enduring o f these o f f i c i a l c o n f i r m a t o r y t e s t s . Lewd Women (London 1 9 9 2 ) . e n g a g e d d i v i n e s u s e d e v e r y o p p o r tunity to educate the populace concerning their witchcraft-as-heresy formulation. T h e r e s p o n s e t o this p o w e r . p r o v i d e s syn- F o r full citations o f t h e archival s o u r c e s used in this c h a p t e r . 1630s S e e C h a p t e r 2 0 in this b o o k by C h r i s t i n a L a r n e r . T h e y c e r t a i n l y d o n o t e l i m i n a t e ' g e n d e r ' o r ' m i s o g y n y ' as k e y c a t e - Notes 1 K e i t h T h o m a s . a n d t h u s t h e r o l e o f w o m e n as w i t n e s s e s . Entertaining in the Shape Wicked 3 and the Decline in Tudor and of Magic ( L o n d o n 1 9 7 1 ) . T h e judiciary w e r e n o l o n g e r p r e p a r e d to entertain indictments for s t o c k . In 1 5 6 3 t h e e l i t e . w a s c r e a t e d . We can show that figures of a p r o s e c u t i o n was a c o m p l e x . 1 7 9 — 9 9 . t r o u b l e d by the absence o f evidence that m e t increasingly strict n o r m s for conviction. A . see t h e original v e r sion in Past and Present. also C a r o l F . 64. involving m a n y actors.. g r o w i n g in t h e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y .318 CLIVE HOLMES WOMEN: WITCHES AND WITNESSES 319 V T h e p r o s e c u t i o n o f w i t c h e s in e a r l y m o d e r n E n g l a n d . c o n s t r u c t e d a m a c h i n e r y o f p r o s e c u t i o n a n d so a d d e d a n e w w e a p o n in t h e a r m o u r y a g a i n s t w i t c h c r a f t . P R O . Some 6 ( 1 9 9 1 ) . t h e d i v i n e s . 160. in a q u a n d a r y . M u c h o f t h e p o p u l a r b e l i e f t h a t e m e r g e d in t h e c o u r t s s e e m e d t o t r i v i a l i z e w i t c h c r a f t a n d t o g i v e a m m u n i t i o n t o s c e p t i c s . F r o m this t h e o l o g i c a l r e a d i n g o f f o l k l o r e e m e r g e d t h e t e s t o f t h e w i t c h ' s m a r k in its i n s u l a r E n g l i s h f o r m . a p p a r e n t in t h e by the sessions presuppositions. t o h e a l t h . w e r e a n c i l l a r i e s in t h e f o r m a l p r o c e d u r e s o f q u a r t e r and assizes. S h a r p e . t o p r o p e r t y . C o n t e x t o f W i t c h c r a f t : T h e C a s e o f J a n e W e n h a m ' . T h o s e w h o c h o s e t o e m p l o y t h e official m a c h i n e r y a g a i n s t w i t c h e s w e r e o b l i g e d t o shape the local fears and r u m o u r s f r o m which the p r o s e c u t i o n e m a n a t e d t o the f o r m a l i t i e s o f t h e l a w as d e f i n e d b y t h e s t a t u t e s a n d t o t h e r e a d i n g o f t h e s e magistrates and j u d g e s . S e e also S h a r p e ' s and Witch Trials ( L o n d o n 1 9 2 9 ) . 2 2 6 . w e r e t h e m o r e e n g a g e d p a r t i c i p a n t s . S h a r p e . o f t e n at t h e i n s t i g a t i o n o f m e n . b u t m e n . b u t particularly those girls w h o d e s c r i b e d their possession and the m a t r o n s w h o discovered the genital m a r k s .7 1 . s o m e s u c c e s s . B u t t h e m a c h i n e r y in w h i c h t h e v b e c a m e i n v o l v e d . Witch Hunting o p s e s o f all t h e assize i n d i c t m e n t s . Religion Macfarlane. was essentially instrumental: t o placate o r 'curry favour' with the witch. s o easily r e a d . see Phyllis G u s k i n . T h e i r testimony apparently confirmed that w o m e n w e r e the w e a k e r s e x . t h o u g h a c t i v e in t h e c r e a t i o n o f l o c a l s u s p i c i o n s t h r o u g h g o s s i p . Kaplan ed. C . L ' E s t r a n g e E w e n . was that the m y s t e r i o u s . Y e t in t h i s p r o c e s s a s p e c t s o f p o p u l a r b e l i e f w e r e i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t h e t h e o r i e s o f t h e d i v i n e s . Witches and after 1 6 6 0 . A. 145-79. to secure an e f f e c t i v e c o u n t e r . (1982). a n d w i t h it t h e c o m m i t t e e s o f w o m e n w h o s e a r c h e d t h e a c c u s e d . fearful m o r t a l illness o r m e n t a l anguish a l o n e w o u l d sustain a p r o s e c u t i o n and w o m e n . in S. ' P o p u l a r C u l t u r e ? W i t c h e s . ' W i t c h c r a f t and W o m e n in S e v e n t e e n t h . s e e J . 94—5. F o r t h e local conflicts s u r r o u n d i n g this p r o s e c u t i o n . a t t e n d a n t at t h e s i c k b e d o f t h e v i c t i m . c o n t r o l l e d . see C l i v e H o l m e s . An Historical 5 9 . w e l l r e a d in t h e c o n t i n e n t a l t h e o r y o f t h e e s s e n t i a l l y d i a b o l i c o r i g i n s o f t h e o f f e n c e . Popular Culture (Berlin 1 9 8 4 ) . T h e changing c o n c e r n s o f t h e latter g r o u p s explain g r o w i n g p r o p o r t i o n o f f e m a l e w i t n e s s e s in w i t c h c r a f t t r i a l s . T h e f e a t u r e s o f w i t c h c r a f t t h a t e m e r g e d r e g u l a r l y in t h e t r i a l s c o u l d n o t easily b e d i s m i s s e d . M a r i a n n e H e s t e r . approved bv the leading practical manual for local magistrates. It i n v o l v e d a c o n t i n uous b u t shifting dialogue a m o n g a variety o f social and professional g r o u p s .m a g i c a g a i n s t a s s a u l t s . So the animals w h o frequently attended the witch w e r e diabolized as f a m i l i a r s p i r i t s o r e m a n a t i o n s o f S a t a n h i m s e l f .6 0 . T h e opportunity created by the legislation was e m p l o y e d by b o t h m e n and w o m e n . e x p e r i m e n t e d with a n u m b e r o f p r o c e d u r e s that might provide tangible p r o o f o f guilt or innoc e n c e . The of a Woman ( N e w Y o r k 1 9 8 7 ) . t o t h e t h r e a t s t h a t it p o s e d t o l i f e . Witchcraft (London 1720). A n d it w a s t h e y w h o r e a d l o c a l e x p e r i e n c e in t e r m s o f a p a r t i c u l a r i n t e l l e c t u a l s c h e m e . Crime in Early Modern T r a n s c r i b e d in E w e n . All w i t n e s s e s .C e n t u r y E n g l a n d : N o r t h e r n E v i d e n c e ' Continuity C h a p t e r 2 2 in this c o l l e c t i o n . organizing their neighbours t o testify t o earlier e x p e r i e n c e s o f the accused's m a l i c e . t o w h i c h m e n had testified. Its j u s t i f i c a t i o n lay in t h e d e v e l o p i n g t h e o r i e s o f t h e o t h e r m a j o r p r o f e s s i o n a l g r o u p i n v o l v e d in w i t c h c r a f t p r o s e c u t i o n . 11 to transform popular belief with. t w e n t y c o u r t s b e t w e e n 1 6 0 0 and 1 6 2 4 . and Change. W i t c h c r a f t p r o s e c u t i o n s a f t e r 1 5 6 3 p l a c e d t h e c l e r g y . Eighteenth (London 1 9 8 4 ) . 2 0 1 . B u t t h e s o c i a l m e a n i n g o f t h e s e gories for any discussion o f witchcraft beliefs and p r o s e c u t i o n s . ASSI 3 5 / 1 3 5 / 1 4 . a n d h a d t o b e a c c o m m o d a t e d t o theological 10 4 5 6 7 8 9 J . 140 (1993). John Devil and Satan (New York 1982). T h e s a m p l e consists o f t h o s e assizes at w h i c h E s s e x w i t c h c r a f t cases w e r e d e t e r m i n e d . a n d u l t i m a t e l y d i s c a r d e d b y t h e m a g i s t e r i a l a n d c l e r i c a l e l i t e . and the interfemale is n o t p a r t i c i p a t i o n as w i t n e s s in t h e E n g l i s h t r i a l s w a s e x t e n s i v e a n d . f o l l o w i n g t h e e x a m p l e o f t h e i r c o n t i n e n t a l c o u n t e r p a r t s . harmful p o w e r that c o n s t i t u t e d w i t c h c r a f t w o u l d i n h e r e in c e r t a i n w o m e n . Witch Hunting Francis Hutchinson. 2 Witchcraft D e m o s . ratified the misogynous rationalizations p r o f f e r e d bv the divines t o explain the p r e p o n d e r a n t n u m b e r s o f w o m e n accused o f witchcraft. 58—60. 5 6 8 . Essay Concerning property o f f e n c e s ' . 'The 15 and Witch Trials. V i c t i m s c o u l d n o w c h o o s e t o d e s t r o y t h e i r assailants t h r o u g h t h e f o r m a l l y s a n c t i o n e d p r o c e d u r e s o f t h e c o u r t s . T h e c o n s t r u c t i o n section of divergent and shifting systems o f ideas. It w a s t h e y w h o b r o u g h t c h a r g e s a n d w h o o r c h e s t r a t e d t h e p r o s e c u tion. a n d in t h e d e p l o y m e n t o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l p r o t e c t i v e t h e r a p i e s a n d t e c h n i q u e s t h a t r a t i f i e d a c c u s a t i o n . F o r a g e n e r a l discussion o f t h e 'fall in t h e levels o f i n d i c t m e n t f o r England 81. L a w y e r s . u s u a l l y t h o s e o f s o m e s t a t u s in t h e i r c o m m u n i t i e s . is a p r o c e s s o f c o n s i d e r a b l e c u l t u r a l c o m p l e x i t y . K a r l s e n . dialogic p r o c e s s . shared by m e n and w o m e n . Magistrates Understanding and Divines in Early Modern England'. to judge by the mid-seventeenth-century evidence. . a n d t o d o m e s t i c r o u t i n e s . 4 8 . Century Studies.d a m a g e .

S a n f o r d F o x . ed. ' O n Pleading t h e B e l l y : A H i s t o r y o f t h e J u r y o f M a t r o n s ' . p u b l i s h e d in 1 5 9 3 . in g e n e r a l . S e e C h a p t e r 1 9 in this b o o k f o r t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n p o s s e s s i o n and g e n d e r in F r a n c e . M d in llth-Century M i c h a e l D a l t o n . 1 9 8 4 ) . Saducismus 1. C o c k b u r n . Science Massachusetts Social and Justice: The Massachusetts Witchcraft. Criminal Justice Hist. to the Assize Calendars ( L o n d o n 1 9 8 5 ) . Witchcraft. 4 9 2 . Witchcraft Most Strange Discoverie 37 and Demonianism. The Wonderfull 1 6 1 3 ) . and t o Ann G u n t e r in B e r k s h i r e in 1 6 0 4 . W . in Narratives ed. 29 30 Dispossession is Applyed of the Strange Wherein Vexation by the Devil.2 3 . was m a d e available t o t h e d e m o n i a c W i l l i a m S o m m e r s at N o t t i n g h a m in 1 5 9 7 — 8 . W . In N e w E n g l a n d t h e figure is 8 6 p e r c e n t . E w e n . 23 T h e a u t h o r c a l c u l a t e s that in English cases that w e r e b e l i e v e d t o i n v o l v e p o s s e s sion t h r o u g h t h e a g e n c y o f a w i t c h . Witchcraft J o h n C o t t a . Rosen. 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 A True and Impartial esp. 1 7 0 2 ) . Sorts of Ignorant 6 9 . O v . sigs B 2 — B 3 . 239—97. s e e . M a t t h e w H o p k i n s . Richard Weisman. 9 . at the Assizes Held at Bury St Edmonds and Admirable Discoverie. ' W i t c h c r a f t in E s s e x ' . sigs B 2 — C I . R i c h a r d B a d d e l e y . E w e n . in Elizabethan London Practisers (London 1 9 9 1 ) .2 3 . William Grainge (Harrogate 1 8 8 2 ) . ' H i s t o r i a n s as D e m o n o l o g i s t s : T h e M y t h o f t h e M i d w i f e . Triumphatus. Three Witches ( E x e t e r 1 6 8 2 ) . The Most Wonderfull Goodenige Witchcraft and True Storie. The Countrey Justice. E d w a r d F a i r f a x . sigs C . Examination 278—301. 2 9 9 . p u b l i s h e d in t h e 1 0 2 pt T ( l 8 3 2 ) . 1648-1706. E w e n . T h o m a s P o t t s . see R o b e r t B a r t l e t t . The Boy of Bilson Cases. sigs C 3 . G e o r g e M o r e . 1-64. O l d h a m . W . ( L o n d o n 1 6 2 1 ) . 22—3. of a Certaine Witch Named of Alse the ( L o n d o n 1 5 9 7 ) . 24 I[ohn] D j e n i s o n ] . C o t t o n M a t h e r . G . Introduction into the Nature of Witchcraft (Boston.6 0 . Discoverie of Witches in the Countie of Lancaster (London of All sig. J o h n H a l e . G i l b e r t . 103—57. . 1 9 6 8 ) . A True Narration Persons in Lancashire of Demoniah. True and Just Recorde. Medicine. 3 . True and Just Recorde.. W . A True Discourse of 7 Persons in One Familie T h e s e a r c h was e m p l o y e d in a V i r g i n i a case o f 1 7 0 6 and in t h e a c c u s a t i o n against J a n e W e n h a m o f W a l k e r n in 1 7 1 2 . 8 8 . first p a g i n a t i o n . 7 2 . of the Information. The History and Admirable Discoverie (Amherst. Dialogue Concerning Witches and Witchcraftes. 1 2 2 . nation. 9 3 . 4 5 . D 3 . of the Three Witches of Warboys ( L o n d o n 1 5 9 3 ) . 185. 3 4 4 — 5 6 . Darrell Concerning the Pretended and Grevous the Doctrine Concerning Possession of W. Discovery Witches of Northamptonshire. J o h n N i c h o l s . 3 . A Short Discoverie x x x v i .es ination. 35 36 E w e n .W i t c h ' . Burr ( N e w Y o r k 1 9 1 4 ) . 2 . Water: sig. Oses in Essex ( L o n d o n 1 5 8 2 ) . Witchcraft Recorde. 28. E l v . 42 of Leicester. of Sorcery and Witchcraft 39 and Witch Trials. The Wonderfull ' a n o n y m o u s ' t r a c t is o b v i o u s l y D a r c y ' s o w n w o r k . Daemonologia. and Antiquities 127. 32—5. 1-26. in Tudor and Stuart England. A Modest Enquiry S. 2 1 2 . Mass. W . A Tryal of Witches. sig. 25 The Witches of Northamptonshire Witchcraft. G i f f o r d . x x x i i i — x x x i x . L. A True and Just the Witches. Mass. 4 vols ( L o n d o n Strange 41 2 0 9 — 1 2 . L e t t e r o f an a n o n y m o u s Magazine. and of 7 and W. and s e c o n d pagthe Certaine Possession in Lancashire (Middleburg). 2 1 1 . 2 5 9 . T h e r e is a 1 7 9 5 — 1 8 1 1 ) . Gentleman's 38 (London 1682). ' A B r a n d P l u c k ' d o u t o f t h e B u r n i n g ' . E 2 v . Anxiety and England (Cambridge 1 9 8 1 ) . Healing 26 27 in Seventeenth-Century ( L o n d o n 1 6 1 2 ) . and Religion F r a n c i s B r a g g e . 4 t h edn ( L o n d o n 1 6 3 0 ) . sig. D a v i d H a r l e y . . at S. Witchcraft v e r y useful discussion o f t h e various c o u r t . C 2 . 3 (1990). T h i s t e x t is in R o s e n . 0 4 . 1 7 . 101-3. This of the Informations Wiltshire JP of against 1672. 2 n d edn ( L o n d o n 1 6 8 2 . T h e t e x t is r e p r o d u c e d in B a r b a r a in England Relation (University of Massachusetts 1 9 9 1 ) . Henry Goodcole. 3. The Most Account of the Discovery 7 5 . 83—90. F o r m o r e g e n e r a l discussion o f t h e w a t e r by Fire and The Medieval Judicial Ordeal and Confession o r d e a l . J o h n D a r r e l l .320 CLIVE HOLMES WOMEN: WITCHES AND WITNESSES 321 12 13 14 15 B a s e d on an analysis o f t h e E s s e x d e f a m a t i o n cases listed in M a c f a r l a n e . (London 1622). Witch Hunting of Witches ( 1 6 4 7 ) . A Full and Impartial (London 1 7 1 2 ) . S e e M i c h a e l M a c D o n a l d . S a m u e l H a r s n e t . Trial (Oxford 1986). j u s t o v e r 8 0 p e r c e n t o f v i c t i m s w e r e f e m a l e . A Discovery the Fraudulent 28 Practices of J.. W . 6 (1985). 4 6 . (London 1 5 9 9 ) . W i n g G 8 2 3 ) pt and Witch Trials. 319. Mystical and Hysteria of Severall M i c h a e l M a c D o n a l d . 2 1 5 . Witch Hunting Ibid. 1 7 . T h e a c c o u n t o f t h e possession o f t h e T h r o c k m o r t o n c h i l d r e n . T h i s last t e x t is r e p r o d u c e d in R o s e n . ii pt 2 . 1 0 . [ 2 7 3 ] : s e c o n d pagiWitchcraft Magic Trials ( B a l t i m o r e . after 2 7 6 . . Witchcraft 31 32 33 34 J o s e p h G l a n v i l l . Hist.a p p o i n t e d b o d i e s m a d e up o f w o m e n in J a m e s C . A 3 . 40 of the County and Demonianism. Bedlam: Madness. (London 1619). . Somers: of Possession Dispossession and of Somers ( L o n d o n 1 6 0 0 ) .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful