*. . . a library of the subject in miniature, affording helpful insights and convenient material for students at all levels.'

N o t i o n s o f w i t c h c r a f t have h a u n t e d and fascinated the h u m a n m i n d fi h e i g h t o f w i t c h c r a f t persecutions in s i x t e e n t h - a n d s e v e n t e e n t h - c e n 5 0 , 0 0 0 people were executed, they were accused o f acts i n c l u d i n g m black m a g i c and devil worshipping :ction ters a selection o f the best historical writ :gan, a n d the social and cultural c o f historical perspectives is collect recent research o n the r in w i t c h trials, ideas a b o u t the

possession, a n d reasons for the decline o f w i t c h trials. T h e m a j o r t h e m e s and debates in the study o f w i t c h c r a f t are b r o general i n t r o d u c t i o n , w h i c h places the extracts in a critical c o n t e x t , wide range o f i m p o r t a n t w o r k in a single, accessible v o l u m e , The essential reading for a n y o n e intrigued by this c o m p l e x a n d fascinatin The Witchcraft Casement, Reader includes the w o r k o f W o l f g a n g Behringer, R o Clark, Norman Cohn, Owen Davies, Malcol Lou

Stuart

G e n t i l c o r e , C a r l o G i n z b u r g , M a r i a n n e Hester, Clive H o l m e s , Levack, Daniel Maier-Katkin, H.C.E. Midelfort, E.

J e n k i n s , E d m u n d K e r n , R i c h a r d Kieckhefer, G a b o r Klaniczay, C h r i William M u c h e m b l e d , D a v i d N i c h o l l s , Eva I o c s , Lyndal Roper, J i m oharpe

is L e c t u r e r

liversity C o l l e g e Worcester.

11 N e w Fetter Lane, L o n d o n E C 4 P 4 E E 2 9 West 35th Street, N e w York N Y 10001 www, routledge .com Printed in Great Britain
' * Franc'

ISBN

0-415-21493-9

9 '780415

214933

1

The Witchcraft Reader
Edited by

Darren Oldridge

NEWCASTLE 202

UNIVERSITY 0214 3 8 • Vv 6 0 ° .

LIBRARY

>vy,

London and New York

First published 2 0 0 2 bv R o u t l e d g e 11 N e w F e t t e r Lane, London E C 4 P 4 E E Simultaneously published in the U S A and Canada by Routledge 2 9 W e s t 35th S t r e e t , N e w Y o r k , N Y 1 0 0 0 1 Routledge is an imprint of the Taylor S^Francis Group

Individual chapters © the original copyright holders Selection and editorial m a t t e r © 2 0 0 2 D a r r e n Oldridge T y p e s e t in Perpetua and Bell Gothic by F l o r e n c e Production Ltd, Stoodleigh, D e v o n Printed and bound in Great Britain bv T J International Ltd, Padstow, Cornwall All rights reserved. N o part of this b o o k mav be reprinted or reproduced or utilised in anv form or bv anv e l e c t r o n i c , mechanical, o r o t h e r means, n o w k n o w n or hereafter invented, including photocopying and r e c o r d i n g , o r in anv information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publishers. British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data

A catalogue r e c o r d for this b o o k is available from the British Library Library of Congress Cataloging p. c m . Includes bibliographical r e f e r e n c e s and i n d e x . 1. W i t c h c r a f t — History. B F 1 5 6 6 . W 7 3 9 5 2001 1 3 3 . 4 ' 3 ' 0 9 — dc21 ISBN 0 - 4 1 5 - 2 1 4 9 2 - 0 (hbk) ISBN 0 - 4 1 5 - 2 1 4 9 3 - 9 (pbk) 2001048166 I. Oldridge D a r r e n , 1966in Publication Data

T h e W i t c h c r a f t R e a d e r / [edited bv] Darren Oldridge

Contents Acknowledgements General I n t r o d u c t i o n Darren Oldridge PART ONE Mediaeval Origins 1 Richard WITCH Kieckhefer IN MEDIAEVAL EUROPE TRIALS 2 Norman THE Cohn HERETICS D E M 0 N I Z A T I O N OF M E D I A E V A L PART TWO W i t c h c r a f t . Behringer HUNGER AND FEAR: ORIGINS OF T H E EUROPEAN WITCH-HUNTS IN C L I M A T E . THE William Monter OF J U R A WITCHCRAFT SOCIOLOGY . SOCIETY AND MENTALITY 5 E. Magic and Culture 3 Robin THE Briggs OF BEWITCHMENT EXPERIENCE 4 Wolfgang WEATHER.

Possession and the Devil 17 David THE Nicholls IN RENAISSANCE FRANCE HEARTLAND DEVIL 8 Carlo Ginzburg THE WITCHES' SABBAT 18 H. Erik Midelfort OF T H E WITCHCRAZE P A R T SIX W i t c h c r a f t . the State and Social Control 15 Christina THE CRIME Larner OF W I T C H C R A F T IN EARLY MODERN EUROPE WITCHCRAFT THE CASE OF M A R G A R E T MOORE . CATHOLIC WITCHCRAFT 21 Marianne Hester RECONSTRUCTION AND WITCH-HUNTING PATRIARCHAL 22 Jim Sharpe PROCESS PROTESTANT WOMEN. WITCHCRAFT AND THE LEGAL 13 Edmund Kern IDENTITY AND MAGIC BITHNER IN T H E AND LATE WITCHCRAFT 23 Clive Holmes WITCHES AND WITNESSES CONFESSIONAL SIXTEENTH IN STYRIA WOMEN: CENTURY: JAKOB PART 14 Gary K.C.viii CONTENTS 6 David Gentilcore NARRATIVES ITALY AND FOLKLORE MOTIFS 16 Brian Levack AND WITCH HUNTING IN EARLY WITCHCRAFT IN SOUTHERN STATE-BUILDING MODERN EUROPE PART THREE The Idea of a W i t c h Cult 7 H.C. BELIEFS 24 BETWEEN EIGHT Reading Confessions Lyndal OEDIPUS Roper AND THE DEVIL DIABOLICAL CONSPIRACIES PART FIVE 25 Malcolm Gaskill AND POWER IN EARLY MODERN ENGLAND: W i t c h c r a f t . THE Erik DEVIL Midelfort AND THE GERMAN PEOPLE DECIPHERING 9 Eva THE Pocs ALTERNATIVE WORLD OF T H E W I T C H E S ' SABBAT 19 Moshe A Sluhovsky APPARITION OR D E M O N I C POSSESSION? DIVINE 10 Robert SATANIC Muchembled MYTHS AND CULTURAL REALITIES PART SEVEN W i t c h c r a f t and Gender 11 Stuart Clark MISRULE AND THE MEANING OF WITCHCRAFT 20 Christina WAS Larner WOMAN-HUNTING? INVERSION. Waite THE DEVIL AND THE INQUISITOR: AND MAGICAL ANABAPTISTS. WITCH-HUNTING P A R T FOUR W i t c h c r a f t and the Reformation 12 Stuart Clark WITCHCRAFT.

W i t c h e s ' S a b b a t ' b y C a r l o G i n z b u r g f r o m Early by B e n g t A n k a l o o and Gustav H e n n i n g s e n t h e t i t l e Hdxomas Europa 1400—1100. . by permission 'Deciphering Witchcraft. History. p p . p p . o r i g i n a l l y p u b l i s h e d in 1 9 8 7 b y I n s t i t u t e t f o r R a t t s h i s t o r i s k F o r s k n i n g u n d e r by p e r m i s s i o n o f O x f o r d University Press and the Institutet for Rattshistorisk Forskning. pp. 1 2 1 — 3 5 . pp. 1—27. Modern 'Satanic M y t h s and European Witchcraft. Cultural edited by mission o f the Central European R e a l i t i e s ' b v R o b e r t M u c h e m b l e d f r o m Early B e n g t Ankaloo and Gustav H e n n i n g s e n ( O x f o r d University Press 1 9 9 3 ) . and mission of T h e G e r m a n History Society. European E r i k M i d e l f o r t f r o m History 27—36. by permission o f T a y l o r & Francis. b y p e r University Press. 1 3 9 — 6 0 . 'The Experience of Bewitchment' from (HarperCollins 1996).H u n t ? 30 Philip Jenkins and Daniel OCCULT SURVIVORS: THE 413 Maier-Katkin MAKING OF A MYTH 419 Popular and Learned Culture 1300—1500 by Richard Kieckhefer (Routledge & Kegan Inner Demons by N o r m a n Cohn (copy- Paul 1 9 7 6 ) . 5 1 — 7 8 . Bishop William M o n t e r (copyright © publisher 1 9 7 6 C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y ) . u s e d b y p e r University 'Witchcraft to Witch Narratives of the by David Gentilcore author. published by P i m l i c o and r e p r i n t e d bv p e r m i s s i o n o f T h e R a n d o m H o u s e G r o u p Ltd and P F D o n b e h a l f o f P r o f e s s o r Norman Cohn. 1 9 9 3 ) . Index 437 F o l k l o r e M o t i f s in S o u t h e r n I t a l y ' f r o m From (Manchester University Press 'Heartland o f the W i t c h c r a z e ' (February 1 9 8 1 ) . 31 the Today. ' T h e Alternative W o r l d of the W i t c h e s ' S a b b a t ' f r o m Between the Living and the Dead b y E v a P o c s ( 1 9 9 9 ) . C. WOMEN'S ENGLAND PART NINE The Decline of W i t c h c r a f t 27 Brian THE 367 Acknowledgements Levack OF WITCH TRIALS 373 END 28 Gabor THE Klaniczay OF WITCHES AND THE RISE OF VAMPIRES 387 DECLINE 29 Owen Davies AND OF THE DECLINE OF WITCHCRAFT: 399 URBANIZATION AN EXAMINATION LONDON T h e author and publishers wish t o thank the following for their permission to r e p r o duce copyright material: ' W i t c h T r i a l s in M e d i a e v a l E u r o p e ' f r o m European Witch Trials: Their Foundations in of PART TEN A New W i t c h . 63—95. by H.X CONTENTS 26 Louise AND Jackson WIVES AND MOTHERS: IN WITCHCRAFT PERSECUTION CONFESSIONS S E V E NT E E NT H-C E NT U R Y 353 WITCHES. Felicity Bryan and t h e a u t h o r . ' T h e D e m o n i z a t i o n M e d i a e v a l H e r e t i c s ' r e p r o d u c e d f r o m Europe's right © N o r m a n C o h n 1 9 7 S . ' W e a t h e r . Witches and by Neighbours permission by of Robin Briggs reproduced 31 Patrick THE Casement NOT TO KNOW 433 WISH H a r p e r C o l l i n s Publishers L t d . 'The Sociology of Jura Witchcraft' reprinted f r o m Witchcraft mission of the in France and Switzerland: Cornell The Borderlands Press. by permission o f History Modern Today. 238 5 8 . p p . pp. b y p e r during the Reformation by E. p p . p p . H u n g e r and F e a r ' b y W o l f g a n g B e h r i n g e r f r o m German 1 3 ( 1 9 9 5 ) . 115—4-1. 7 3 — 1 0 5 . 10—26. 1 9 9 2 ) . pp. edited ( O x f o r d University Press 1 9 9 3 ) . pp.

Today. p p .B u i l d i n g a n d W i t c h H u n t i n g in E a r l y M o d e r n E u r o p e ' b y B r i a n L e v a c k f r o m Witchcraft in Early Modern Europe: in Culture and Belief. pp. 8 . 597—617. J e n n y K e r m o d e and Garthine W a l k e r ( U C L Press 1 9 9 4 ) . ' C o n f e s s i o n a l I d e n t i t y a n d M a g i c in t h e L a t e S i x t e e n t h b y E d m u n d K e r n f r o m The Sixteenth mission. R e c o n s t r u c t i o n and W i t c h . 2 2 . ch.K a t k i n f r o m The edited by J a m e s T . by permission Forskning. 2 5 — 3 0 . p p . Packull and Geoffrey L. 8 . . 30 (November 1980).1 2 7 . I n c . copyright © Witchcraft 8 7 ( 1 9 8 0 ) . S t u a r t C l a r k 1 9 9 7 . by permission o f T a y l o r & F r a n c i s . 2 8 8 — 3 0 8 . E v e r y effort has b e e n m a d e t o obtain p e r m i s s i o n t o r e p r o d u c e c o p y r i g h t m a t e r i a l . N e w Y o r k . Dipple (Ashgate Witchcraft by and Religion permission by Christina of Blackwell edited by 1 9 9 9 ) . copyRadical U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . Misrule and the Meaning History. reprinted by permission o f Pearson Education L t d .. W i t c h c r a f t a n d t h e L e g a l P r o c e s s ' b y J i m S h a r p e f r o m Women. ' T h e Devil in R e n a i s s a n c e F r a n c e ' b y D a v i d N i c h o l l s f r o m History p p . ' T h e C r i m e o f W i t c h c r a f t in E a r l y M o d e r n E u r o p e ' a n d 'Was Witch-Hunting Woman-Hunting?' from Larner (Blackwell 1984). by permission o f T r u m a n State Sixteenth Century Journal. ' T h e D e c l i n e o f W i t c h e s a n d t h e R i s e o f V a m p i r e s ' f r o m The Uses of by permission of Princeton University Press. by permission mission o f O x l o r d University Press. of Social 'Urbanization History. Jonathan B a r r y .5 5 . 323—40. ' O c c u l t Survivors: T h e Satanism M a k i n g o f a M y t h ' b y P h i l i p J e n k i n s a n d D a n i e l M a i e r . edited by Women's 1 0 . and Reformation. p p . by permission o f Taylor & Francis. edited by J e n n y and K e r m o d e and Garthine W a l k e r ( U C L Press 1 9 9 4 ) . Reformation right © 1 9 9 4 by T h e Sixteenth Century Journal Publishers. p p . E r i k M i d e l f o r t f r o m Religion 11 o f Sixteenth Century Essays and Studies. p p . ch. pp. b y p e r m i s s i o n o f History H . ' T h e Devil and the G e r m a n P e o p l e ' by in the Renaissance edited by Steven O z m e n t (Sixteenth Centurv University The Journal Publishers 1 9 8 9 ) . Europe T r i a l s ' b y B r i a n L e v a c k f r o m The Witch Hunt in Early Modern ' T h e End of W i t c h (2nd edition copySupernatural of right © Longman G r o u p Ltd 1 9 9 5 ) . 35—67 and 79—91 Studies P u b l i s h e r s L t d . 2 7 ( 4 ) ( 1 9 9 6 ) . a n d t h e D e v i l ' f r o m Oedipus and the Devil 1 4 0 ( 1 9 9 3 ) . Crime and the Courts. reproduced by permission. I f a n y p r o p e r a c k n o w l e d g e m e n t has n o t b e e n m a d e . of Tavlor & Francis. ' W i t c h c r a f t a n d P o w e r in E a r l v M o d e r n E n g l a n d ' b y M a l c o l m G a s k i l l f r o m Women. pp. copyright edited by Valerie Sinason ( R o u t l e d g e 1 9 9 4 ) . M a r i a n n e H e s t e r and G a r e t h R o b e r t s ( C a m b r i d g e University Press 1 9 9 6 ) by permission o f C a m b r i d g e University Press and Brian Levack.5 . . and Culture Today. pp. ' W i t c h e s . ch. of Oxford University Press and the of for Rattshistorisk 'Inversion. Catholic W i t c h c r a f t ' . 2 5 ( 2 ) ( 1 9 9 4 ) . 45—78. ' S t a t e . 1 0 3 9 .Xii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS r e p r o d u c e d b y p e r m i s s i o n o f t h e Journal Scare. c h . 'Protestant Witchcraft. Inc. reproduced by per' B e t w e e n the Devil and the Inquisitor' by Gary K. r e p r i n t e d f r o m Thinking Modern Europe in Early by Stuart Clark ( 1 9 9 7 ) by permission o f O x f o r d Century' Century Journal. 'The W i s h N o t to K n o w ' by Patrick Casement from Abuse. 1 0 6 — 2 4 . Richardson. 9 8 . Crime and the Courts. 2. 'A Divine Apparition o r D e m o n i c Possession?' bv M o s h e Sluhovsky f r o m Sixteenth Century Journal Publishers. 'Oedipus by Lyndal R o p e r ( R o u t l e d g e 1 9 9 4 ) . C . 9 9 — 1 1 9 . W a i t e f r o m Studies. 1 9 9 6 by T h e 'Patriarchal in Early Witchcraft edited by Jonathan Barry. ' W o m e n . 1 2 0 — 4 0 . ' c o p y r i g h t © Press. by permission o f Louise Jackson. vol.H u n t i n g ' by Marianne H e s t e r f r o m Modern Europe: Studies in Culture and Belief. b y p e r m i s s i o n o f T a y l o r & F r a n c i s . ch. W i v e s and M o t h e r s ' by Louise Jackson f r o m History Review. Power b y G a b o r K l a n i c z a y ( c o p y r i g h t © 1 9 9 0 P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s ) . r e p r i n t e d and the Decline W i t c h c r a f t ' b y O w e n D a v i e s f r o m Journal 30 ( 1 9 9 7 ) . pp. of Social ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS xiii o r i g i n a l l y p u b l i s h e d in 1 9 8 7 b y I n s t i t u t e t f o r R a t t s h i s t o r i s k F o r s k n i n g u n d e r t h e t i t l e Hdxomas Institutet Europa 1400—1700. 2 2 6 — 4 8 . r e p r o d u c e d by permission o f Aldine D e G r u y t e r . J o e l Best and David G . pp. p p . by p e r m i s sion o f C a m b r i d g e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s a n d M a r i a n n e H e s t e r . 6 . Marianne Hester and G a r e t h R o b e r t s ( C a m b r i d g e U n i v e r s i t y Press 1 9 9 6 ) . w e w o u l d i n v i t e h o l d e r s t o i n f o r m us o f t h e o v e r s i g h t . by permission o f O x f o r d University Press. B r o m l e y (Aldine D e Treating Survivors of Satanist W i t c h c r a f t ' b y S t u a r t C l a r k f r o m Past and Present. by perwith Demons: The Idea of G r u y t e r 1 9 9 1 ) . 4 ( 1 ) ( 1 9 9 5 ) . edited by W e r n e r O . ' W o m e n : W i t c h e s a n d W i t n e s s e s ' b y C l i v e H o l m e s f r o m Past Present.

the t o p i c has e s t a b l i s h e d i t s e l f a s a g e n r e in its o w n r i g h t . r a n g i n g f r o m learned t r e a individuals entirely a c c u s e d of t h e c r i m e . a c a d e m i c t e x t s . t h a t b o o k s t h e s u b j e c t a r e c o m m o n l y d i s p l a y e d in a s e c t i o n of t h e i r o w n . the Kennedy a s s a s s i n a t i o n and the search f o r the H o l y G r a i l . m o d e r n e d i t i o n s of m u c h o l d e r books like the Malleus Maleficarum.General Introduction M OST P E O P L E I N T E R E S T E D in w i t c h c r a f t a r e f i r s t a t t r a c t e d t o t h e high films. d e m a n d w a s so g r e a t fictitious accounts were created. a n d v i e w e d t h e p e r s e c u t i o n of w i t c h e s a s a t o k e n of a less e n l i g h t e n e d a g e . a n d i n d i c a t e s its f a s c i n a t i o n f o r a w i d e a u d i e n c e . p r o f i l e in c h i l d r e n ' s b o o k s a n d T V . In s o m e 1 i n s t a n c e s . and religious speculation. m y t h . This mixture t h e e x t r e m e l y d i v e r s e r a n g e of i n t e r e s t s t h a t c o n v e r g e on t h e s u b j e c t . W i t c h e s e n j o y a Witch Project. f r o m the c a n o n Body and will s u b j e c t by s t o r i e s a n d i m a g e s f r o m p o p u l a r c u l t u r e . t h e r e satanic magic to ballads recounting the activities was of that a l r e a d y a large m a r k e t f o r p u b l i c a t i o n s on the subject. These texts attributed b e l i e f s t o t h e f o l l y a n d s u p e r s t i t i o n of t h e ' v u l g a r ' m a s s e s . R a t h e r l i k e J a c k t h e Ripper.p a g a n m o v e m e n t . w h i l e a c a d e m i c w o r k s on t h e subject generally assumed a more sceptical tone. S p i r i t ' d e p a r t m e n t of a n y l a r g e b o o k s h o p . a n d t h e y a r e t h e s u b j e c t of a n e c l e c t i c If y o u v i s i t t h e ' M i n d . y o u w i l l n o r m a l l y find a d i s p a r a t e c o l l e c t i o n of p u b l i c a t i o n s under the heading of ' W i t c h c r a f t ' . and reprints of e c c e n t r i c but still popular reflects on p u b l i c a t i o n s l i k e M o n t a g u e S u m m e r s ' History of Witchcraft. c o m b i n i n g e l e m e n t s of h i s t o r y . T h e w i d e s p r e a d i n t e r e s t in w i t c h c r a f t is n o t h i n g n e w . The texts displayed c o v e r a r a n g e of t o p i c s l o o s e l y r e l a t e d t o t h e h i s t o r y a n d p r a c t i c e of m a g i c . i n c l u d i n g w o r k s by t h e n e o . A t t h e t i m e of t h e m o s t intense w i t c h tises on the persecutions problem of in t h e s i x t e e n t h a n d s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s . t h e y p o p u l a t e i n n u m e r a b l e of W a l t D i s n e y t o The Blair and colourful sub-genre of p o p u l a r literature. P o p u l a r t a l e s of w i t c h c r a f t c o n t i n u e d t o magical c i r c u l a t e in t h e e i g h t e e n t h a n d n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s . p e r h a p s . B y t h e e a r l y y e a r s of t h e . It is a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t .

b u t c a n be e x t e n d e d t o e x p l a i n d e t a i l s of t h e w i t c h e s ' s a b b a t . hysteria. R e l a t i v e l y f e w w i t c h t r i a l s o c c u r r e d in the M i d d l e A g e s . the idea that w i t c h c r a f t w a s a n a n c i e n t f e r t i l i t y c u l t s u p p r e s s e d by t h e C h r i s t i a n c h u r c h a t t r a c t e d considerable publicity and some academic support.u p t h i n g s . when the phrase ' w i t c h . T h u s C a r l o G i n z b u r g a n d E v a P o c s a r g u e in t h i s b o o k t h a t t h e o r i g i n s of t h e s a b b a t c a n be f o u n d in f o l k b e l i e f s . w h i c h h a s a t t r a c t e d t h e a t t e n t i o n of h i s t o r i a n s a n d p h i l o s o p h e r s p r o v i d e a b r i e f s u r v e y of w h a t is k n o w n a b o u t w i t c h p e r s e c u t i o n s in Europe. Championed by t h e English Egyptologist Margaret Murray. extracts Muchembled and L a r n e r e m p h a s i s e t h e r o l e of t h e f a n t a s i e s of e d u c a t e d m e n from in v i e w s d e s c r i b e d a b o v e a r e . The led a g a i n s t a n y g r o u p o r p e r s o n w h o m a u t h o r i t i e s w a n t e d t o g e t r i d of f o r a n y r e a s o n ' .p r o c l a i m e d ' w i t c h e s ' . s o m e f e m i n i s t w r i t e r s h a v e s t r e s s e d t h e f e m a l e . d e r i v e d p a r t l y f r o m the is t h a t w i t c h c r a f t w a s a p a g a n c u l t d r i v e n u n d e r g r o u n d by t h e the t o r t u r e w h i c h w a s threatened.w o r s h i p p i n g c a n n i b a l s . . t h e y h a v e no h i s t o r ical or intellectual c o n n e c t i o n to the twentieth-century w i t c h c r a f t movement. T h e a t t e m p t t o l y i n g t h e m e s of w i t c h c r a f t research. a n u m b e r of g e n e r a l t h e m e s occur frequently w o r k of Murray. J . 1 6 9 2 . 6 In t h i s i n s t a n c e . It w i l l a l s o c o n s i d e r t h e p o p u l a r i m a g e of w i t c h c r a f t a s a n ' i r r a t i o n a l ' b e l i e f . F o r a l l t h i s I w a s f o r c e d t o s a y t h r o u g h f e a r of Pagan cults. T h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n w i l l e x p l o r e s o m e of t h e p r o b l e m s i n v o l v e d in g e t t i n g t h e b a l a n c e r i g h t . o v e r s i m p l i f i c a t i o n s of t h e h i s t o r y of w i t c h c r a f t .w e r e d e v e l o p e d by t h e m o s t e d u c a t e d m e n in E u r o p e a n s o c i e t y . Is it n e c e s s a r y t o a s s u m e t h a t a n y t h i n g ' r e a l ' lay b e h i n d a l l e g a t i o n s of w i t c h c r a f t ? on popular support. Wicca: The Old Religion in the New Age (1989). It w o u l d be t e m p t i n g a t t h i s p o i n t t o e x p l o d e t h e s e p o p u l a r c o n c e p t i o n s . it is a l t o g e t h e r less s i m p l e t o d i s c o u n t t h e i d e a t h a t n o n . w h o w i s h t o t r a c e t h e l i n e a g e of t h e i r b e l i e f s b a c k t o t h e a n c i e n t w o r l d . t h i s c l a i m f e a t u r e s m o s t o f t e n in t h e w o r k of n e o . h o w e v e r . h e r e s y a n d s u n d r y d i s g u s t i n g None of the writers in t h i s collection go quite so f a r . B e f o r e c o n s i d e r i n g t h e s e issues in d e t a i l . In t h i s v e r s i o n . t h e w i l l i n g n e s s o f t h e a u t h o r i t i e s t o use t o r t u r e w a s s u f f i c i e n t t o e n s u r e a c o n v i c t i o n . S o m e c o n f e s s i o n s w e r e e n t i r e l y f a l s e . d e c l a r i n g t h a t his c o n f e s s i o n t o t h e c r i m e w a s ' s h e e r lies a n d m a d e .2 GENERAL INTRODUCTION GENERAL INTRODUCTION 3 t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y . 4 male-dominated in A n o t h e r t h e m e in p o p u l a r a c c o u n t s is t h e c r e d u l i t y a n d ' s u p e r - s t i t i o n ' of t h o s e m e n a n d w o m e n w h o a c c e p t e d t h e e x i s t e n c e of h a r m f u l m a g i c t h e p a s t . 3 T h e p o p u l a r s t e r e o t y p e s of p a g a n c u l t s a n d e v i l w i t c h t h e best w a y t o e x p l a i n a l l e g a t i o n s of w i t c h c r a f t s i m p l i f i e d v e r s i o n s of p o s i t i o n s a v a i l a b l e t o a c a d e m i c h i s t o r i a n s . o b s e s s i o n s on t h e v i c t i m s of t o r t u r e r a i s e s p r o f o u n d q u e s t i o n s a b o u t t h e o r i g i n s of w i t c h t r i a l s . when western society was somehow less r a t i o n a l t h a n it is t o d a y . and recurs in d i f f e r e n t c o n t e x t s find t h e m o s t a p p r o p r i a t e p o s i t i o n b e t w e e n t h e s e t w o i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s is one of t h e u n d e r throughout t h i s b o o k . One c o m m o n a s s u m p t i o n .p a g a n s a n d s e l f . If a n y f e r t i l i t y c u l t s e x i s t e d in t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y . t h e p o p u l a r i m a g e of t h e c r u e l w i t c h finder who imposed By the 1 9 5 0 s . 2 Gardner.C h r i s t i a n reli- g i o u s p r a c t i c e s e x i s t e d in t h e e a r l y m o d e r n p e r i o d . i n v o l v i n g t h e i d e a of s e c r e t a s s e m b l i e s of w i t c h p e r s e c u t i o n s . E v e n M u r r a y ' s i d e a of a p a g a n f e r t i l i t y c u l t h a s s u r v i v e d Ginzburg and Klaniczay. J o h a n n e s J u n i u s . a n d w e r e s o m e t i m e s in m o d i f i e d f o r m in t h e w o r k of h i s t o r i a n s like C a r l o implicated Gabor his in a c c u s a t i o n s of w i t c h c r a f t . a m o r e r o m a n t i c v i e w of t h e s u b j e c t h a d e m e r g e d in s o m e q u a r ters. a n d s o m e of t h e m a r e s i m p l y u n t r u e . s o m e h i s t o r i a n s h a v e a r g u e d t h a t all t h e e l e m e n t s in w i t c h c r a f t a c c u s a t i o n s s h o u l d be r e g a r d e d a s l e a r n e d f a n t a s i e s . a n d t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t p r o s e c u t i o n s w e r e s i m p l y i m p o s e d by e l i t e g r o u p s . w h i c h w a s b a s e d l o o s e l y on t h e S a l e m w i t c h t r i a l s of have survived into the present age. In 1 6 2 8 in the a n d a r e r e p r e s e n t e d in t h e v a r i o u s b o o k s t h a t c o m p e t e f o r t h e a t t e n t i o n of r e a d e r s m a y o r of B a m b u r g .e x i s t e n t t h r e a t of a w i t c h c u l t . since the authorities were capable t h r o u g h t h e use of t o r t u r e alone? finders c a n be v i e w e d a s Did witch trials of securing depend convictions C h r i s t i a n a u t h o r i t i e s . T h e f a c t t h a t t h i s w a s p o s s i b l e p r e s e n t s h i s t o r i a n s w i t h s o m e a w k w a r d p r o b l e m s . T h e m a j o r i t y of h i s t o r i a n s o c c u p y g r o u n d s o m e w h e r e in b e t w e e n . E q u a l l y . u n d o u b t e d l y . w h i c h w a s i n v e n t e d in t h e 1 9 5 0 s by a r e t i r e d c i v i l s e r v a n t f r o m Gardner. K e p h a r t .c e n t r e d n a t u r e o f t h e ' o l d r e l i g i o n ' . . A t h i r d c o m m o n a s s u m p t i o n is t h e b e l i e f t h a t w i t c h . a l l e g a t i o n s of w i t c h c r a f t inevitably to torture. w h a t e v e r t h e o t h e r c i r c u m s t a n c e s of t h e c a s e . it is n e c e s s a r y t o D e v i l . T h i s p r i n c i p l e is o f t e n used t o a c c o u n t f o r a l l e g a t i o n s of h a r m f u l m a g i c . U n s u r p r i s i n g l y . a n d r e a c t e d ' h y s t e r i c a l l y ' t o t h e n o n . 5 England named Gerard Nonetheless. There w a s nothing inherently i r r a t i o n a l about w i t c h c r a f t a n d t h e m o s t e x t r e m e of t h e s e b e l i e f s beliefs. w i t c h p e r s e c u t i o n s w e r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e s u p p r e s s i o n of d e v i a n t g r o u p s by p o l i t i c a l e l i t e s . it w o u l d be w r o n g t o d i s m i s s t h e s e p o p u l a r assumptions e n t i r e l y . In o t h e r w o r d s .h u n t s w e r e p u r s u e d by r u t h l e s s a n d s a d i s t i c m e n w h o s t o p p e d a t n o t h i n g t o s e c u r e c o n v i c t i o n s f o r t h e c r i m e . but the behaviours 7 In a v a r i a t i o n of t h i s i d e a . in t h e g e n r e . T h i s n o t i o n is l i n k e d t o t h e t e n d e n c y t o a s s u m e t h a t m o s t w i t c h t r i a l s t o o k p l a c e in t h e Middle Ages. ' I f I'd l i v e d in t h e A g e s t h e y ' d h a v e b u r n t m e a s a w i t c h ' . Middle T h e s e i d e a s a r e c o m b i n e d in t h e c o m m o n E n g l i s h p h r a s e . it a p p e a r s t h a t t h e y s o m e t i m e s i m p o s e d t h e i r o w n v i e w s of t h e c r i m e t h e c o u r s e of i n t e r r o g a t i o n s . t h e y d o e n c a p s u l a t e s o m e s e r i o u s issues in t h e h i s t o r y of w i t c h c r a f t . in r e c e n t y e a r s . a c c o r d i n g t o M . ' w h e n w e a l r e a d y k n o w t h a t it w a s p e r f e c t l y easy t o f a b r i c a t e a c c u s a t i o n s of s o r c e r y . F o r m a n y s c h o l a r s .h u n t i n g ' w a s c o i n e d in A m e r i c a . On t h e o p p o s i t e e x t r e m e . A l l t h e s e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of w i t c h c r a f t d r a w n to the t o p i c . w h i c h w a s b r u t a l l y s u p p r e s s e d by t h e Christian church. T h i s a s p i r a t i o n is s u m m e d up n e a t l y in t h e t i t l e of a b o o k by V i v i a n n e C r o w l e y . T h i s v i e w w a s e x e m p l i f i e d in A r t h u r M i l l e r ' s play The Crucible. D e s p i t e t h e i r o b v i o u s s h o r t c o m i n g s . beyond w h a t I had already endured'. W h i l e t h o s e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p r o s e c u t i o n s w e r e n o r m a l l y s i n c e r e in t h e i r m o t i v e s . s m u g g l e d a t r a g i c l e t t e r t o his d a u g h t e r f r o m his c e l l in t h e t o w n ' s ' w i t c h p r i s o n ' . t h e y t r y t o s t r i k e a b a l a n c e b e t w e e n t h e e v i d e n c e s u g g e s t i n g t h a t w i t c h t r i a l s r e f l e c t e d t h e r e a l a c t i v i t i e s a n d b e l i e f s of o r d i n a r y p e o p l e . W h i l e it is e a s y t o d i s c r e d i t t h e c l a i m s o f M u r r a y a n d . is t o a s s u m e t h a t s o m e of t h e p r a c t i c e s d e s c r i b e d by e a r l y m o d e r n d e m o n o l o g i s t s w e r e b a s e d o n r e a l a c t i v i t i e s o r a s p e c t s of f o l k r e l i g i o n . enforced confession and death. T h e r e is no r e a s o n t o a s s u m e t h a t a n y c h a r g e s a g a i n s t w i t c h e s w e r e b a s e d o n f o l k t r a d i t i o n s . and evil witch finders D e s p i t e t h e d i v e r s i t y o f p o p u l a r w r i t i n g o n w i t c h c r a f t .

a F r e n c h w o m a n c o n v i c t e d in 1 5 9 8 . T h i s c a s e i n v o l v e d m a n y of t h e key e l e m e n t s f o u n d in l a t e r a l l e g a t i o n s of w i t c h c r a f t . h o w e v e r . S o m e t i m e s t h e y m a k e a r e v e r s a l of t h e h o l y c r o s s . S e c o n d . t h e N e t h e r l a n d s a n d t h r o u g h o u t the w h o l e period. Intense place persecutions in relatively o c c u r r e d in r e g i o n s s u f f e r i n g s u s t a i n e d w a r f a r e in t h e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y . she w a s i m p r i s o n e d f o r t h r e e d a y s b e f o r e m a k i n g h e r initial a d m i s s i o n of g u i l t . A l l e g a t i o n s o f t h i s k i n d m a d e up t h e b u l k o f t h e a c c u s a t i o n s l e v e l l e d by o r d i n a r y people against suspected witches. Prosecutions then declined until around w a v e of t r i a l s began. was F i r s t . the c h r o n o l o g y lady. t o u c h o r s i g n . J e a n B o d i n a n d K i n g J a m e s V I of S c o t l a n d . t h e f e r o c i t y of s o m e w i t c h p a n i c s in C a t h o l i c France was matched of by events but in Presbyterian witch Scotland. T h e r e w e r e r e l a t i v e l y f e w t r i a l s in I t a l y . In c o n t r a s t . T h e e a r l i e s t k n o w n p r o s e c u t i o n o c c u r r e d in K i l k e n n y in I r e l a n d in 1 3 2 4 . It is i m p o r t a n t t o n o t e t h a t t h e r e w e r e c o n s i d e r a b l e r e g i o n a l v a r i a t i o n s w i t h i n t h i s p a t t e r n . e x t e n d i n g t o F l a n d e r s a n d S c o t l a n d . A f t e r a p e r i o d of r e s p i t e in t h e e a r l y 1 6 0 0 s . rather than groups. . p a r t i c u l a r l y w h e n the legal a u t h o r i t i e s w e r e m o r e inter- sixteenth century. 1400-1750 T h a n k s to the w o r k of R i c h a r d K i e c k h e f e r and N o r m a n C o h n . T h i s i d e a p l a y e d a c e n t r a l r o l e in t h e w o r k s of l e a r n e d d e m o - This account lacks the i d e a of i n f a n t i c i d e a n d c a n n i b a l i s m t h a t f e a t u r e d promi- nologists like H e n r i Boguet. In 1 6 9 2 t h e f a m o u s e p i s o d e in S a l e m . l i k e t h e principalities Germany. In t h e i r s o r c e r y t h e y a r e n o t a f r a i d t o use t h e m a t e r i a l s o f b a p t i s m . 8 w h e l m i n g l y o n t h e h a r m c a u s e d by t h e w i t c h . a f i n a l w a v e of s e v e r e p e r s e c u t i o n s b e g a n a r o u n d 1 6 2 0 a n d c o n t i n u e d in m u c h of E u r o p e n u m b e r a n d i n t e n s i t y . t h e d e s t r u c t i o n of c r o p s o r d i s t u r b a n c e s in t h e w e a t h e r . u n i v e r s i t y . witch panics inquisitors Heinrich K r a m e r and J a c o b which Sprenger ingredients Malleus the of t h e R e n a i s s a n c e c o n c e p t of w i t c h c r a f t . T h i s e x p r e s s e d t h e c o n c e p t of w i t c h c r a f t m o r e f u l l y . he w a s a b l e t o p r e s e n t t h e ' p r i n c i p a l p o i n t s ' of h e r c o n f e s s i o n as f o l l o w s : New England. do h o m a g e to t h e m . A l l t h o s e w h o a c k n o w l e d g e d t h e e x i s t e n c e of w i t c h e s a c c e p t e d t h e i r a b i l i t y t o p e r f o r m h a r m f u l m a g i c . disparate n e n t l y in l a t e r d e s c r i p t i o n s of t h e c r i m e . one of t h e l a s t w i t c h p a n i c s in t h e w e s t e r n w o r l d . w a s a c c u s e d of p r a c t i s i n g h a r m f u l magic and participating in Alice diabolical idea idea a n d t h e N e t h e r l a n d s s u f f e r e d r e l a t i v e l y f e w p e r s e c u t i o n s . G e r m a n y Spain affairs suffered until in the last q u a r t e r of the seventeenth century. A n o t h e r o u t b r e a k o c c u r r e d t o w a r d s t h e e n d of t h e c e n t u r y . t h e v i c t i m s o f w i t c h c r a f t w e r e f a r m o r e w i t h t h e e f f e c t s of maleficium P r i m a r y a l l e g a t i o n s also tended to focus on individuals with posses- concerned The ranks t h a n the supposed pact between S a t a n and the w i t c h . this t i m e e x t e n d i n g beyond G e r m a n y a n d F r a n c e to S w i t z e r l a n d a n d E n g l a n d . o r maleficium. of in m u c h of E u r o p e by t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y . P r o t e s t a n t states like Poland England a n d H u n g a r y in t h e s a m e p e r i o d . W h i l e w i t c h t r i a l s had ended . a d o r e t h e m . c. In c o n t r a s t . Subsequently. major panics also took peaceful regions like As well as these Scandinavia. w h i c h by t h e i r i n v o c a t i o n s t h e y b a p t i s e o r c a u s e t o be b a p t i s e d . they s o m e t i m e s inflict upon the representations a n d o t h e r s i g n s of t h e c r o s s v a r i o u s s h a m e f u l t h i n g s by e x e c r a b l e m e a n s . Not h o n o u r i n g the mysteries. seek o u t a n d a c c e p t r e s p o n s e s f r o m t h e m . regional variations. t h a t she h a d l o n g s i n c e g i v e n h e r s e l f t o t h e D e v i l . it w a s e a s y f o r t h e s e e s t e d in t h e s a t a n i c a s p e c t s of w i t c h c r a f t t h a n s i m p l e maleficium. t h e y r e a c h e d t h e i r p e a k in impose a single-cause e x p l a n a t i o n f o r the t r a g e d y . o c c u r r e d d u r i n g t h e f i r s t w a v e of m a j o r lasted until the early y e a r s of 1 5 6 0 . t h o u g h s o m e of t h e m notably the of a p a c t w i t h t h e D e v i l . t h a t she h a d w i s h e d five d e v i l s o n L o y s e t h a t t i m e h a d t h e l i k e n e s s of a b i g b l a c k man. and m a k e w i t h t h e m a w r i t t e n a g r e e m e n t or a n o t h e r k i n d of p a c t t h r o u g h w h i c h . .w e r e o n l y i m p l i e d in t h e s u r v i v i n g d o c u m e n t s . as d i d S c o t l a n d after 1 6 2 0 . a n d o t h e r s a c r a m e n t s . T h e y m a k e i m a g e s of w a x o r o t h e r m a t e r i a l s . E v e n t u a l l y . idea that witchcraft was a collective enterprise involving nocturnal gatherings for Devil w o r s h i p . b u t i n c l u d e s m o s t of t h e o t h e r by t h e G e r m a n Maleficarum. A c c o r d i n g t o H e n r i B o g u e t ' s a c c o u n t of h e r i n t e r r o g a t i o n . desecration and m u r d e r w a s generally confined to the higher of E u r o p e a n s o c i e t y . m o s t o f t e n i n v o l v i n g d i s e a s e .4 GENERAL INTRODUCTION GENERAL INTRODUCTION 5 European witch trials. t h e e u c h a r i s t . she a d d e d n e w d e t a i l s t o t h i s s t a t e m e n t ' f r o m d a y t o d a y ' . c a n be i l l u s t r a t e d by t h e t e s t i m o n y of F r a n g o i s e S e c r e t a i n . u p o n w h i c h o u r s a v i o u r h a n g e d f o r us. and E n g l i s h t r i a l s t e n d e d t o be s m a l l . t h e y m a y p e r f o r m w h a t e v e r e v i l d e e d s o r s o r c e r y t h e y w i s h a n d be t r a n s p o r t e d to or away f r o m wherever they wish .s c a l e u n t i l a s p e c t a c u l a r e r u p t i o n of p e r s e c u t i o n in 1 6 4 5 . T h e s e v a r i a t i o n s h a v e t h w a r t e d m o s t a t t e m p t s t o E u r o p e a n w i t c h p e r s e c u t i o n s is n o w f a i r l y w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d . S u b s e q u e n t l y .t r a i n e d l a w y e r s a n d c h u r c h m e n t e n d e d t o s t r e s s t h e s a t a n i c n a t u r e of t h e w i t c h ' s m a g i c . Maillat. b u t e v e n in t h e s e c a s e s . w h e n a n a r i s t o c r a t i c K y t e l e r . when a second e l e m e n t s to m e r g e t o g e t h e r . b u t t h e s a m e c a n be s a i d f o r C a t h o l i c I t a l y a n d S p a i n . D u r i n g t h e c o u r s e of a t r i a l . T h e l a t e r f o u r t e e n t h c e n t u r y . a n d i n s i s t e d t h a t t h e i r a b i l i t i e s d e r i v e d f r o m a p a c t w i t h t h e D e v i l . w i t c h t r i a l s declined The confession of Frangoise Secretain ideas. r a t h e r t h a n t h e o r i g i n s of t h e i r p o w e r . E q u a l l y . In 1 4 8 6 t h e s e i n g r e d i e n t s w e r e c o m b i n e d in t h e T h e p u b l i c a t i o n of t h e Malleus in F r a n c e and Germany. and the p r o b l e m it p r e s e n t s f o r t h e inter- T h e c o n f l a t i o n of t h e s e v a r i o u s p r e t a t i o n o f w i t c h c r a f t c o n f e s s i o n s . T h e r e is s o m e e v i d e n c e t h a t f o l k t r a d i t i o n s l i n k e d maleficium the Devil. but w a s mostly absent f r o m the a l l e g a t i o n s brought by European villagers against their n e i g h b o u r s . a n d r e s u r f a c e d in 1 4 3 7 in a l e t t e r f r o m Pope of a s e c r e t s o c i e t y of D e v i l w o r s h i p p e r s a p p e a r s t o h a v e d e v e l o p e d s l o w l y in t h e Eugenius I V ' t o a l l i n q u i s i t o r s of h e r e t i c a l d e p r a v i t y ' . there were differences between social r i t e s w i t h a s m a l l g r o u p of a s s o c i a t e s . a n d d e s e r v e s t o be q u o t e d a t l e n g t h : g r o u p s a b o u t t h e m e a n i n g of w i t c h c r a f t i t s e l f . by a s i n g l e w o r d . p a r t i c u l a r l y in E n g l i s h w i t c h c r a f t a n d c a s e s i n v o l v i n g d e m o n i c s i o n . The emphasis in t h e s e allegations was over- T h e y s a c r i f i c e t o d e m o n s . w h o a t p a r t i c u l a r l y savage panics.

W h i l e w e c a n d o no m o r e like the confessions discussed by Roper s p e c u l a t e on t h e s u r v i v i n g e v i d e n c e . a n d t h a t she d i d so by t o u c h i n g t h e m w i t h h e r h a n d o r w i t h a w a n d w h i l e s a y i n g c e r t a i n words. and possibly beliefs was to of first i n c o r p o r a t e d m o r e p e r s o n a l e l e m e n t s a s w e l l .6 GENERAL INTRODUCTION GENERAL INTRODUCTION 7 T h i r d . The more* of c l a i m that S e c r e t a i n was responsible for a d e m o n i c possession was a little unusual. of m e a n i n g a p p e a r t o be p r e s e n t in B o g u e t ' s d o c u m e n t . it a p p e a r s S e c r e t a i n m i x e d d e t a i l s f r o m l o c a l f o l k l o r e i n t o h e r s t o r y . A s L o u i s e J a c k s o n p o i n t s o u t in C h a p t e r 2 6 . T h e i m a g e of S a t a n a s ' a b i g b l a c k m a n ' . S e v e n t h . M u r r a y ' s evidence was drawn entirely f r o m witchcraft confessions flying at in t h e f o l k l o r e F r a n c e . she c l a i m e d t o h a v e a t t e n d e d t h e s a b b a t a n d i n d u l g e d in s e x w i t h t h e D e v i l . a n d m a k e s e a c h a p p e a l i n g t o d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l a c t o r s in t h e d r a m a o f a p r o s e c u t i o n it e v e n h a r d e r in t e r m s of a s i n g l e c a u s e t h a t s h a p e d t h e b e h a v i o u r e x p l a i n the p h e n o m e n o n a l l t h e g r o u p s i n v o l v e d . in C h a p t e r 6 . T h e a l l e g a t i o n s of p o i s o n i n g a n d k i l l i n g l i v e s t o c k w e r e c o m m o n in c a s e s of s u s p e c t e d b e w i t c h m e n t in s i x t e e n t h . T h e t e n d e n c y of w i t c h e s t o c r a f t s t o r i e s o f d e m o n i c e n c o u n t e r s f r o m l o r e is n o t e d by D a v i d G e n t i l c o r e from some event in h e r o w n life. If t h e y w e r e reflect introduced Boguet's in t h e c o u r s e of own Secretain's with the sexual interrogation. A s Norman C o h n p o i n t e d o u t in Europe's Inner ( 1 9 7 5 ) . whose parents s u s p e c t e d p o s s e s s i o n w h e n she w a s s t r u c k by a m y s t e r i o u s s i c k n e s s . searched f o r it. this would certainly preoccupation w h i c h she e d i t e d s e l e c t i v e l y t o c r e a t e t h e i m p r e s s i o n t h a t t h e y d e s c r i b e d r e a l e v e n t s . In t h i s c a s e . C o h n ' s a r g u m e n t s have achieved general acceptance since t h e m i d . a c o n f e s s i o n t e x t is ' a p a l i m p s e s t m a d e of d i f f e r e n t l a y e r s of d e t a i l a n d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . G e r m a n y a n d E n g l a n d . It is i m p o s s i b l e t o k n o w f o r c e r t a i n t h e o r i g i n of t h e s e b i z a r r e d i s c l o s u r e s . t h a t a t t h e s a b b a t she h a d d a n c e d . W h e n t h e s e c o n f e s s i o n s a r e r e a d in f u l l .c e n t u r y F r a n c e . M e n a n d w o m e n w o u l d g a t h e r at s a c r e d sites to offer devotion to 'ancient had s u r v i v e d the advent Christianity. that she and Groz-Jacques Bocquet had caused Loys had M o n n e r e t t o d i e by m a k i n g h e r e a t a p i e c e of b r e a d w h i c h t h e y d u s t e d w i t h a p o w d e r g i v e n t o t h e m by t h e D e v i l . a c t s o f maleficium allegations poisoning against a woman Secretain. T h e t h e m e t o e x p l o r e is t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t w i t c h b e l i e f s w e r e i n s p i r e d by s o m e k i n d of real cultic activity. it b e c o m e s o b v i o u s t h a t t h e y a r e n o t s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d a c c o u n t s of a c t u a l h a p p e n i n g s . a n d t h a t she w e n t t h e r e o n a w h i t e s t a f f w h i c h she p l a c e d b e t w e e n her legs. w a s r e m i n i s c e n t of p o p u l a r t a l e s a b o u t t h e D e v i l . w h e n C h r i s t i a n s t h e m s e l v e s w e r e a c c u s e d of n o c t u r n a l g a t h 1 2 s u b j e c t . In c o n t r a s t t o t h e s e a c t s of m a l i c i o u s m a g i c . it is n o w t i m e t o c o n s i d e r some of the elements t h a t c o n t r i b u t e d to E u r o p e a n w i t c h persecutions. T h e r e l a t i v e t o l e r a n c e o f t h e a u t h o r i t i e s t o w a r d s t h i s p r a c t i c e e n d e d in t h e late M i d d l e A g e s . In t h i s p a r t i c u l a r c a s e . L y n d a l R o p e r a r g u e s in C h a p t e r 2 4 t h a t w i t c h c r a f t c o n f e s s i o n s c o u l d i n v o l v e a p r o c e s s of n e g o t i a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e a c c u s e d a n d h e r q u e s t i o n e r s . C o h n o b s e r v e d t h a t a l l e g a t i o n s s i m i l a r to those m a d e a g a i n s t w i t c h e s had been levelled at erings involving cannibalism and m u r d e r . A p a r t f r o m the allegations dissenting themselves such g r o u p s s i n c e a n t i q u i t y . p a r t i a l l y a s s i m i l a t e d by t h e m e d i a e v a l c h u r c h . S i m i l a r l y . t h a t she h a d c a u s e d s e v e r a l c o w s t o d i e . w h e n t h e o l d g o d s w e r e c o n d e m n e d as d e m o n s a n d t h e i r w o r s h i p p e r s w e r e r e d e f i n e d a s w i t c h e s . Even the lurid detail that his s e m e n was cold reflected the relationship between the accused w o m a n and the Devil owed m u c h to learned stereotheological since he assumption that Satan's earthly b o d y w a s c o m p o s e d of l i f e l e s s m a t t e r .1 9 7 0 s . B o g u e t r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e first allegation against Secretain came f r o m 8-year-old Loyse M a i l l a t . w h i c h he d e s c r i b e d a t l e n g t h e l s e w h e r e in h i s t e x t . t h a t the Devil h a d f o u r or five t i m e s k n o w n her c a r n a l l y . the 'witch cult' in of suppressed in the the been a g a i n s t n a m e d i n d i v i d u a l s . there are the death of Did a witch cult exist? In Margaret Murray's original formulation. t h a t she h a d c o u n t l e s s t i m e s been t o t h e s a b b a t a n d a s s e m b l y of w i t c h e s n e a r t h e v i l l a g e of C o y r i e r e s in a p l a c e c a l l e d C o m b e s by t h e w a t e r . a n d h a d b e a t e n w a t e r t o cause hail. F i f t h . a n d s o m e t i m e s o f a F o u r t h . region were 1610. but possession w a s closely associated w i t h w i t c h c r a f t f e r t i l i t y of harvests. W i t h t h i s n o t e of c a u t i o n in m i n d . M o r e o v e r . it is p o s s i b l e t h a t S e c r e t a i n ' s f a n t a s y folkthan and derived M a l c o l m G a s k i l l in C h a p t e r s 2 4 a n d 2 5 . T h i s i n t e r pretation Demons is n o w u n s u s t a i n a b l e . a n i n q u i s i t o r in t h e B a s q u e has s h o w n t h a t c o n t e m p o r a r i e s unable to p h y s i c a l e v i d e n c e of a l l e g e d s a b b a t s w h e n t h e y c a r e f u l l y W h i l e m a n y aspects of S e c r e t a i n ' s final c o n f e s s i o n were p r o b a b l y added to the i n i t i a l c l a i m s of maleficium. Sixth. meetings ever t o o k place. First. 1 1 a n d o c c a s i o n a l c o n f e s s i o n s e x t r a c t e d by f o r c e - t h e r e is no e v i d e n c e t h a t p o s s e s s e d no p h y s i c a l b o d y of his o w n . a n d t h a t his s e m e n w a s v e r y c o l d . She was accused 1 0 A t least t w o layers specific cattle. t h e r e f e r e n c e s t o t h e s a b b a t w e r e p r o b a b l y n o t p a r t of t h e o r i g i n a l allegations. find strikingly. c o m p l e t e w i t h d e t a i l s of w i t c h e s n i g h t a n d t r a n s f o r m i n g t h e m s e l v e s i n t o a n i m a l s . G u s t a v H e n n i n g s e n ' s w o r k o n A l f o n s o S a l a z a r . T h u s t h e c o n f e s s i o n c o m b i n e d i d e a s f r o m l e a r n e d d e m o n o l o g y w i t h m o r e w i d e l y h e l d c o n c e p t s of maleficium. f o w l . a n d m u c h of c o n t e m p o r a r y Europe. T h i s c o m b i n a t i o n of d i v e r s e t y p i c a l of w i t c h t r i a l s in t h e e a r l y m o d e r n p e r i o d . 9 o u t l i n e n a r r a t i v e p r o v i d e d by o f f i c i a l s o f t h e c o u r t s . M o s t of Spain in t h e e a r l y s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y . in This process a l l o w e d suspects to weave their own fantasies and beliefs into the that t h e f o r m s o m e t i m e s o f a d o g . A f t e r a g r o u p o f y o u n g w o m e n c o n f e s s e d t o a t t e n d i n g a s a b b a t in . o r a s a d o g o r c a t . a n d h a v e been r e i n f o r c e d by m u c h n e w r e s e a r c h . t h e types. s o m e t i m e s of a c a t . even t h o u g h t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e m w a s d e e p l y u n e q u a l . w h i c h p r o b a b l y c o n s t i t u t e d the initial of c a u s i n g to death and sending devils i n t o t h e b o d y of a y o u n g sixteenth century was a folk gods' which religion practised widely Europe to ensure and S e c o n d . a d d e d one o n t o p of a n o t h e r as d i f f e r e n t p e o p l e b e c a m e i n v o l v e d in t h e p r o c e s s of a c c u s a t i o n a n d c o n f e s s i o n ' . girl. it a p p e a r s t h a t t h e w o r d s of h e r t e s t i m o n y w e r e not s i m p l y i m p o s e d on h e r by t h e a u t h o r i t i e s .

w h o s e m e m b e r s p e r c e i v e d t h e m s e l v e s a n d t h e i r n o c t u r n a l f o e s in v e r y d i f f e r e n t t e r m s f r o m t h o s e u n d e r s t o o d by t h e m e n r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e i r p r o s e c u t i o n . a n d then his wife suddenly awoke. A n e a r l y e x a m p l e of f a i r y b e l i e f s w a s p r e s e r v e d in t h e r e g i s t e r o f t h e a r c h d e a c o n ' s c o u r t of N o r w i c h for consorting with spirits they described Three m e m b e r s of t h e C l e r k f a m i l y f r o m S u f f o l k w e r e c o n v i c t e d of ' h e r e t i c a l as ' g r a c i o u s Marion depravity' creatures to d e c a d e s . B o g u e t . S u p p o r t Klaniczay. w i t h o u t e v e n b r e a t h i n g . t h e benandante y e a r . he d e m o n s t r a t e s t h a t t h e benandante w e r e g r a d u a l l y r e d e f i n e d by t h e i n q u i s i t i o n as s a b b a t . fairies'. These to h a v e f o u n d t h e m i n c o m p r e h e n s i b l e . r e j e c t e d by e d u c t a t e d w r i t e r s on t h e s u b j e c t . d e s p i t e his c o n v i c t i o n t h a t they were merely d e l u s i o n s . s i d e of E u r o p e . Agrarian cults and fairies W h i l e M u r r a y ' s c o n c e p t of a w i t c h c u l t c a n be s a f e l y d i s g a r d e d . Gabor fight to death w i t h the c o n f e s s i o n t h a t they have been t r a n s p o r t e d w i t h the f a i r i e s such a hill. c u l t m e m b e r s . h e l p i n g t h e m t o c u r e d i s e a s e s a n d l o c a t e h i d d e n t r e a s u r e . I g o i n v i s i b l y in s p i r i t a n d t h e b o d y r e m a i n s b e h i n d . l i s h e d in S i c i l y d u r i n g t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y . a s e r i e s of e x t r a o r d i n a r y t e s t i m o n i e s w e r e r e c o r d e d t h e r e by t h e R o m a n I n q u i s i t i o n . . In t h i s t r a v e l l e d in s p i r i t t o r i v a l taltos for control compelling F o r those s y m p a t h e t i c to G i n z b u r g ' s case. T h e s e r e l a t e d t o a l o c a l c u l t k n o w n as t h e benandante. a r m e d w i t h t h e b u n c h e s of f e n n e l m e n t i o n e d in t h e d e p o s i t i o n . a n d t h i s n e w d e f i n i t i o n of t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s w a s e v e n t u a l l y a c c e p t e d by t h e c o m m u n i t i e s in w h i c h t h e y l i v e d . m e n a n d w o m e n f r o m b a c k g r o u n d s were organised into ' c o m p a n i e s ' . w h e r e u p o n he b e g a n t o s h a k e her. M o r e o v e r . and a n d it is q u i t e p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e y o r i g i n a t e d in p o p u l a r c u l t u r e . a n d w h e n he a s k e d h e r w h a t w a s a m i s s . she a n s w e r e d t h a t she w a s so t i r e d f r o m t h e w o r k she h a d d o n e t h e d a y b e f o r e t h a t she w a s w e i g h e d d o w n w i t h s l e e p a n d f e l t n o t h i n g of w h a t h e r h u s b a n d h a d d o n e t o h e r . G u s t a v 2 1 h a s i d e n t i f i e d s i m i l a r b e l i e f s in t h e c o n f e s s i o n s o f w i t c h e s in t h a t c o u n t r y . t h e r e w a s a m a n of O r g e l e t w h o b r o u g h t his w i f e t o t h i s p l a c e a n d a c c u s e d h e r of b e i n g a w i t c h . On t h e b a s i s of t h i s r i c h b o d y of m a t e r i a l . T h e i r p u r p o s e w a s t o fight t h e w i t c h e s . . w h e n he t r i e s t o e x t e n d t h i s m o d e l t o o t h e r a r e a s of Europe. d e s p i t e t h e f a c t t h a t t h e y h a d no p l a c e in t h e l e a r n e d s t e r e o t y p e o f t h e w i t c h . A s a d u l t s . w h e n t r a v e l l e d in s p i r i t o n c e r t a i n n i g h t s of t h e certain individuals were born with their 'cauls'. He o n l y e x p l a i n s u c h c l a i m s by a s s u m i n g t h e y w e r e s a t a n i c d e l u s i o n s . we w i t h b u n d l e s of f e n n e l a n d t h e y w i t h s o r g h u m stalks. for who G i n z b u r g ' s thesis has c o m e f r o m the v e r s i o n . H e p r o v i d e d a n o t h e r e x a m p l e o f t h e b e l i e f . w h o m she h a d t h r e a t e n e d . H e r e . r e f e r e n c e s t o f a i r i e s o c c u r q u i t e f r e q u e n t l y in c o n n e c t i o n t o w i t c h c r a f t c a s e s . or a m n i o t i c sacs. and travelled with . w h i c h s u g g e s t s t h a t it w a s a c c e p t e d in F r e n c h f o l k l o r e in t h e l a t e s i x t e e n t h century: c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e y c o u l d be r e g a r d e d o n l y as d e l u s i o n s .t o m e e t w i t h a s s e m b l i e s of e v i l s p i r i t s t h e y d e s c r i b e d as w i t c h e s . w h i c h o p e n i n g . F r o m 1 5 8 0 o n w a r d s . a t n i g h t . the most and were generally On t h e Henningsen has s h o w n t h a t f a i r y beliefs were w e l l e v i d e n c e c o m e s f r o m d e t a i l s in w i t c h c r a f t c o n f e s s i o n s t h a t c o n t r a d i c t e d t h e a s s u m p t i o n s of d e m o n o l o g i s t s . G i n z b u r g ' s thesis receives i n d i r e c t support f r o m a n o t h e r b o d y of e v i d e n c e . T h i s r e l a t e s t o s o . L i k e t h e b e l i e f t h a t w i t c h e s c o u l d t r a v e l a t n i g h t in s p i r i t f o r m . It a p p e a r s t h a t G i n z b u r g h a s u n c o v e r e d a n a g r a r i a n c u l t r e l a t e d t o w i t c h c r a f t . of t h e w e a t h e r . seventeenth c e n t u r y . T h e m a n t h e n s u p p o s e d t h a t she h a d been t o t h e s a b b a t . t h a t is d u r i n g t h e e m b e r d a y s . a n d t h e w i t c h e s [ g o f o r t h ] in t h e n a m e of t h e Devil. h a d been d y i n g . H i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n b e c o m e s m o r e c o n t r o v e r s i a l . T h e p r i n c i p a l a r c h i t e c t of t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n is C a r l o G i n z b u r g . d e s p i t e t h e f a c t t h a t one of t h e w i t c h e s a c c u s e d a l o n g s i d e Frangoise S e c r e t a i n c l a i m e d it w a s ' q u i t e p o s s i b l e ' t o d o s o . It is d i f f i c u l t t o see h o w t h e s e d e t a i l s c o u l d h a v e been i m p o s e d f r o m a b o v e . s a y i n g a m o n g other t h i n g s t h a t w h e n t h e y w e r e in bed t o g e t h e r o n e T h u r s d a y n i g h t he n o t i c e d t h a t his w i f e w a s a b s o l u t e l y s t i l l .8 GENERAL INTRODUCTION GENERAL INTRODUCTION 9 Salazar conducted an exhaustive investigation of t h e i r supposed 1 3 activities.a t t e n d i n g w i t c h e s .t h e ' e m b e r d a y s ' in D e c e m b e r . we fight 1 4 each other. o r taltos. they w e n t in. a m o r e s u b t l e a n d p e r s u a s i v e v e r s i o n of t h e t h e o r y h a s been d e v e l o p e d by o t h e r h i s t o r i a n s . 1 7 M e m b e r s h i p of t h e g r o u p w a s d e t e r m i n e d a t b i r t h . 2 0 1 9 Clerk through the air Fairies continued to figure in E n g l i s h w i t c h t r i a l s u n t i l t h e to In S c o t l a n d . then. w i t h t h e o u t c o m e of t h i s c o m b a t the fate torture. J a m e s V I n o t e d t h a t ' s u n d r y w i t c h e s h a v e g o n e could other estabhumble Hungarian historian. 1 5 p e r f o r m e d v a r i o u s f e a t s on t h e f a m i l y ' s b e h a l f . w h o s e w o r k is b a s e d l a r g e l y o n t h e F r i u l i r e g i o n of n o r t h e r n I t a l y . and there s a w a f a i r q u e e n ' . f o r e x a m p l e . f o r he n e i g h b o u r s . a n d its a c t i v i t i e s p r o v o k e d a c c u s a t i o n s of w i t c h c r a f t f r o m t h e a u t h o r i t i e s . one of its m e m b e r s : w h o s e b e l i e f s w e r e d e s c r i b e d as f o l l o w s by S o m e l i t t l e t i m e a g o . still intact around t h e i r b o d i e s . beliefJ a m e s V I of S c o t l a n d n o t e d v e r y s i m i l a r c l a i m s in 1 5 9 7 . G i n z b u r g h a s r e c o n s t r u c t e d t h e s y s t e m of t h e benandante. A g a i n .c a l l e d ' f a i r y c u l t s ' in e a r l y m o d e r n E u r o p e . had a l r e a d y h a d s o m e s u s p i c i o n of h e r b e c a u s e t h e c a t t l e of s o m e of t h e i r 1 6 I a m a benandante because I go w i t h the others to fight four times a y e a r . T h i s l a s t e d f o r t w o o r three hours until the c o c k c r o w e d . r e p u d i a t e d t h e i d e a t h a t ' f o r t h e m o s t p a r t it is o n l y in s p i r i t t h a t w i t c h e s g o t o t h e s a b b a t ' . n i g h t w e r e a l s o r e c o r d e d in G e r m a n y in t h e late s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y . a s w e l l as t r a n s p o r t i n g Canterbury cathedral. G i n z b u r g ' s w o r k reveals t h a t a f e r t i l i t y cult did exist. of t h e next harvest. details None of t h e s e t e s t i m o n i e s consistent were obtained of and their were remarkably over a period deciding through several R e p o r t s t h a t t h e s p i r i t s o f w i t c h e s left t h e i r b o d i e s a t little literature. h o w e v e r . t h o u g h c r e d e n c e w a s g i v e n t o t h i s i d e a in t h e r e g i o n ' s d e m o n o l o g i c a l 1 8 A s well as these i n t r i g u i n g details. His argument is p r e s e n t e d in C h a p t e r 8 . w e g o f o r t h in t h e s e r v i c e of C h r i s t . b u t c o u l d n o t w a k e n h e r . w h o o f t e n a p p e a r in E n g l a n d in 1 4 9 9 . A t a regional level. whose m e m b e r s believed they were conveyed through the a i r to attend joyful gatherings w i t h fairies. it is u n l i k e l y t h a t these details were i m p o s e d by l a w y e r s o r t h e o l o g i a n s .

10 GENERAL INTRODUCTION GENERAL INTRODUCTION 11 t h e c r e a t u r e s a s t h e y p e r f o r m e d g o o d d e e d s in t h e h o m e s of t h e i r n e i g h b o u r s . the e c o n o m i c changes e x p e r i e n c e d in E n g l a n d w e r e n o t m i r r o r e d in o t h e r c o u n t r i e s . were a r g u e d t h a t the c o n c e p t of w i t c h c r a f t c o u l d h a v e a r i s e n w i t h o u t a n y r e f e r e n c e t o p o p u l a r N o r m a n C o h n s h o w s in C h a p t e r 2 t h a t t h e m a j o r i n g r e d i e n t s of t h e s a b b a t t h e i d e a s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e w i t c h e s ' g a t h e r i n g . w h i c h s u f f e r e d m o r e i n t e n s e p e r s e c u t i o n s . t h e c o n v e n t i o n s of o f f i c i a l r e l i g i o n . Such a p p r o a c h can ignore the specific c u l t u r a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s of w i t c h e s occurred. A t a m o r e b a s i c l e v e l . some serious weaknesses in t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . s o m e of Devil-worship groups. or that the authorities prosecutions were imposed 'from were prepared to take t h e m more seriously for some reason. one a r g u e s t h a t t h e p e r s e c u t i o n s w e r e c a u s e d by f e a r s of maleficium a m o n g the European p o p u l a t i o n . There are. In t h e e a r l y m o d e r n p e r i o d . t h e n r e l e n t e d in t h e T h e r o l e of f a i r y beliefs notion in E u r o p e a n w i t c h c r a f t is a s u b j e c t t h a t a w a i t s f u l l e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n . b u t t h e r e is l i t t l e e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e y w e r e i n t e g r a t e d i n t o a c o h e r e n t b o d y of r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s . w h o c o n f i r m e d t h e d i a g n o s i s of p o s s e s s i o n . 2 2 Social and political contexts It is i n s t r u c t i v e a t t h i s p o i n t t o r e t u r n t o t h e c a s e o f F r a n g o i s e S e c r e t a i n . were occasionally attributed to entirely unrelated William p r e s e n t in m e d i a e v a l d e s c r i p t i o n s of h e r e t i c s . in c o n t r a s t . as S t u a r t Clark argues M a n y e l e m e n t s of t h e s a b b a t c o u l d h a v e d e r i v e d f r o m t h e f a n t a s y of a n ' a n t i . w h i c h c o u l d e a s i l y be t r a n s f e r r e d t o t h e p e r s o n w h o h a d been t u r n e d In M a c f a r l a n e ' s v i e w . t h e s t u d i e s of K e i t h T h o m a s a n d A l a n M a c f a r l a n e s u g g e s t e d t h a t a c c u s a tions typically occurred when a relatively wealthy neighbour. c l a i m e d t h a t a b l a s p h e m o u s p a r o d y o f a s e r m o n w a s t h e c e n t r e p i e c e of t h e w i t c h e s ' a s s e m b l y . A T h e s t r e n g t h of t h i s a p p r o a c h is t h a t it p r o v i d e s a p l a u is c o n s i s t e n t s i b l e a c c o u n t of t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s of l o c a l a c c u s a t i o n s . sacrificing their children and offering t h e m to d e v i l s ' . T h e s e t h e m e s of to explain witchcraft ' f r o m below'. A d i s p u t e b e t w e e n t w o w o m e n w a s f o l l o w e d by t h e i l l n e s s of a c h i l d . l i k e t h e p r a c t i c e of and infanticide. In t h e e a r l y 1 9 7 0 s . w h i c h c a u s e d c r o p f a i l u r e s a c r o s s m u c h of E u r o p e u n t i l t h e m i d d l e y e a r s of t h e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y . A s R i c h a r d M u c h e m b l e d p o i n t s o u t in C h a p t e r 1 0 .w h i c h w e r e n o t a c c o m p a n i e d by a n a d e q u a t e s y s t e m of 2 7 V I . A c c o r d i n g t o B o g u e t ' s a c c o u n t .s y s t e m s t h a t c o u l d h a v e i n s p i r e d t h e i d e a of t h e s a b b a t w e r e c o n f i n e d t o a r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l a r e a of E u r o p e . t h e C a t h o l i c B o g u e t e m p h a s i s e d t h e d e s e c r a t i o n of t h e m a s s in t h e s a b b a t . These points relate to t h e m u c h w i d e r q u e s t i o n of w h e t h e r w i t c h c r a f t to that question. Second. a b o v e ' o r s h o u l d be r e g a r d e d a s a r e s p o n s e t o p o p u l a r c o n c e r n s . t h e b e l i e f t h a t t h e o f w i t c h c r a f t . p r i n c i p a l l y t h e g r o w t h in p o p u l a t i o n a n d t h e of c a p i t a l i s m . T h e s e e v e n t s w e r e r e i n t e r p r e t e d by t h e i n q u i s i t i o n as s a b b a t s . d o w n t o s p e c i f i c d e t a i l s of c o n f e s s i o n a l p r a c t i c e . In C h a p t e r 4. and why popular beliefs were demonised at this p a r t i c u l a r time. S o m e days later. w h i c h m u c h o f t h e s u r v i v i n g e v i d e n c e . however.s c a l e w i t c h p a n i c s s u c h a s t h o s e in E a s t A n g l i a in 1 6 4 5 . Ideas Scotland f a c e of h e r v i s i t o r ' s p e r s i s t e n c e . T h i s w e a t h e r p a t t e r n w a s c o r r e c t l y p e r c e i v e d as a b n o r m a l by c o n t e m p o r a r i e s . 2 5 beginnings provision with T h e s e i m a g i n a r y r e v e r s a l s of a c c e p t e d b e h a v i o u r p r o v i d e a p l a u s i b l e . her parents began to suspect bewitchfor m e n t a n d t o o k h e r t o a p r i e s t . F i r s t of a l l . t h e e v e n t s l e a d i n g t o h e r a p p r e h e n s i o n b e g a n w h e n she v i s i t e d t h e h o u s e of H u m b e r t e a n d C l a u d e M a i l l a t t o a s k f o r o v e r n i g h t l o d g i n g s . Even if s u c h c u l t s e x i s t e d in Renaissance intolsimilar E u r o p e . Ginzburg in w h i c h t h e infer an T h e d y n a m i c s o f t h i s s t o r y w e r e f a i r l y t y p i c a l of v i l l a g e . h e r y o u n g d a u g h t e r L o y s e w a s a f f l i c t e d w i t h a s t r a n g e illness t h a t w e a k e n e d her l i m b s a n d t w i s t e d her m o u t h 'in a very s t r a n g e m a n n e r ' . it a p p e a r s t h a t t h e c a s e of F r a n g o i s e S e c r e t a i n s i t u a t i o n o f s o c i a l c o n f l i c t . B u t in c o m m o n w i t h m o s t o t h e r a c c u s a t i o n s o f h a r m f u l m a g i c . a l t e r n a t i v e s o u r c e f o r t h e m y t h of t h e s a b b a t . s i n c e t h e c o n d i t i o n w a s o f t e n a t t r i b u t e d t o w i t c h e s . 2 6 a n d F r a n c e . l i k e S c o t l a n d . s u b s e q u e n t l y a s c r i b e d t o maleficium. t h e r e is a d a n g e r t h a t h i s t o r i a n s c a n t a k e f r a g m e n t s f r o m p o p u l a r t r a d i t i o n a n d from them a composite belief-system critics that of never existed have as a whole. social t w o m a j o r f u n c t i o n s f o r t h e p e o p l e i n v o l v e d : it p r o v i d e d a n o u t l e t f o r a n g e r in a f o r a m i s f o r t u n e t h a t w a s o t h e r w i s e h a r d t o u n d e r s t a n d . M o r e o v e r . a n d p o s s i b l y a served remedy. during persecution learned beliefs. Humberte first r e f u s e d a n d a s k e d h e r t o l e a v e . Thus unnatural inverted 1 1 .l e v e l c a s e s In t h i s p a r t i c u l a r i n s t a n c e .b a s e d o n t h e n e e d of e a r l y m o d e r n s o c i e t i e s t o m a k e sense of n a t u r a l c a l a m i t i e s . w h i c h s e e m e d t o r e s e m b l e a d e m o n i c v e r s i o n of a Scots Protestant service. T h e o t h e r k i n d of e x p l a n a t i o n f o r w i t c h t r i a l s ' f r o m b e l o w ' . t h a t a b l a c k t u r n i p a n d urine w e r e o f f e r e d as the body a n d b l o o d of C h r i s t . its p r i n c i p a l w e a k n e s s is t h a t it is less a p p l i c a b l e t o l a r g e . w h o f o u n d it e a s y t o a t t r i b u t e t o w i t c h e s i n t e n t o n destroying o b j e c t i o n c a n be m a d e t o o t h e r a t t e m p t s t o e x p l a i n w i t c h t r i a l s in t e r m s of p o p u l a r b e l i e f s . B e h r i n g e r p o i n t s o u t t h a t t h e m o s t s a v a g e p e r i o d o f w i t c h p e r s e c u t i o n s f r o m 1 5 6 0 c o i n c i d e d w i t h t h e c l i m a t i c p h e n o m e n o n k n o w n as t h e ' l i t t l e ice a g e ' . T h e n e x t m o r n i n g . t h i s in i t s e l f c o u l d n o t e x p l a i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of a w i t c h p a n i c . W e c a n n o w t u r n . largely c h a r i t y t o a less f o r t u n a t e One c o n s e q u e n c e of t h i s w a s a f e e l i n g s t r i k i n g t h a t s c h o l a r l y a c c o u n t s of w i t c h c r a f t tended to reverse t h e i r a u t h o r s ' most c h e r i s h e d r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s . g i r l w a s p o s s e s s e d w i t h d e m o n s e n c o u r a g e d a n a l l e g a t i o n of w i t c h c r a f t .s o c i e t y ' w h i c h in C h a p t e r The view that w i t c h t r i a l s were a response to increased social tensions t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y is m o s t c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h E n g l i s h r e s e a r c h . b u t it is p o s s i b l e t h a t such p o p u l a r ideas p r o v i d e d the r a w m a t e r i a l f r o m w h i c h the learned of a w i t c h c u l t w a s f o r m e d . s i m i l a r t o t h o s e h e l d by t h e I t a l i a n benandante c a n be f o u n d in G e r m a n y . villager felt obliged to refuse of away. it w o u l d be n e c e s s a r y t o s h o w fifteenth that these fears increased f r o m the late century onwards. It w a s d u r i n g t h e g i r l ' s e x o r c i s m t h a t she n a m e d S e c r e t a i n a s t h e p e r s o n r e s p o n s i b l e her s u f f e r i n g . a l l e g i n g 2 4 g u i l t . it a p p e a r s t h a t t h e k i n d of f u l l y d e v e l o p e d b e l i e f . W i t h h e r husband away. f o r e x a m p l e . a n d in S c o t l a n d and central E u r o p e d u r i n g the seventeenth century. It is Thus James G o u g e a s s e r t e d in 1 6 2 6 t h a t A m e r i c a n t r i b e s m e n ' e x c e l l e d in 2 3 c o n f l i c t a n d t h e e x p l a n a t i o n of s u f f e r i n g h a v e p l a y e d a p r o m i n e n t r o l e in a t t e m p t s cruelty.h a s been a d v a n c e d m o s t p e r s u a s i v e l y by t h e G e r m a n h i s t o r i a n W o l f g a n g B e h r i n g e r . a n d it o f f e r e d a n e x p l a n a t i o n . t h e t e n s i o n s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i n e q u a l i t y w e r e c r e a t e d by e c o n o m i c t r a n s i t i o n s f o r t h o s e w h o lost o u t . it is p r o b l e m a t i c t o a r g u e t h a t t h e e x i s t e n c e of f e r t i l i t y cults gave rise to w i t c h p e r s e c u t i o n s . It w o u l d be n e c e s s a r y t o e x p l a i n w h y o f f i c i a l a t t i t u d e s c h a n g e d f r o m i n d i f f e r e n c e t o erance. If.

as h a p p e n e d in s i x t e e n t h - c e n t u r y B a v a r i a a n d T r i e r . one m a j o r f a c t o r t h a t e n c o u r a g e d b e l i e f c o n s p i r a c y w a s t h e d i v i s i o n of E u r o p e i n t o C a t h o l i c a n d P r o t e s t a n t f a c t i o n s . F o r a start. t h a t p o p u l a r a n x i e t i e s Lauderdale w a s a s k e d by a p r i e s t if t h e p o w e r of t h e J e s u i t e x o r c i s t s c o u l d p e r s u a d e h i m t o 3 5 P u r i t a n e x o r c i s t s in E n g l a n d w e r e c a u g h t in a t w o . t o i m p o s e C h r i s t i a n b e l i e f s on t h e p o p u l a t i o n a t l a r g e . w h i c h c o n s t i t u t e d by f a r t h e l a r g e s t w i t c h p e r s e c u t i o n in While England. in w h i c h t h i s i d e a c a m e t o be T h e r e l e v a n c e of t h e s e p r o p a g a n d a b a t t l e s w a s t h a t p o s s e s to w i t c h c r a f t in p o p u l a r belief. of maleficium a n d it a p p e a r s t h a t s i m i l a r b e l i e f s p e r s i s t e d in m u c h of m a i n l a n d witch beliefs were flourishing In t h e s a m e p e r i o d . In t h e c o n t e x t of c h u r c h . s i n c e t h e i d e a of a w i t c h c u l t e n c o u r a g e d t h e c o u r t s t o p u r s u e t h e a l l e g e d of c o n v i c t e d w i t c h e s . Moshe Sluhovsky R o p e r has s h o w n 19 B e h r i n g e r ' s w o r k s h o w s t h e m a j o r r o l e p l a y e d by p o p u l a r c o n c e r n s in s o m e w i t c h p e r s e c u t i o n s . D u r i n g a v i s i t t o t h e p o s s e s s e d c o n v e n t of L o u d o n in 1 6 3 4 . where at least t w o e x e c u t i o n s . witches had a special hatred he w i l l always have G o d a s his c h a m p i o n in 1 5 9 1 t h e p i o u s m a g i s t r a t e . it a p p e a r s t h a t m a j o r p a n i c s e n d e d w h e n local authorities ceased to regard witchcraft satanic witchcraft. it is h a r d t o see h o w t r i a l s c o u l d h a v e s p r e a d w i t h o u t t h e a c t i v e s u p p o r t of r u l i n g e l i t e s . w h o used t h e a c c u s t o m e d e x o r c i s m s of t h e R o m a n c h u r c h w i t h s u c h s i n c e r i t y t h a t t h e p o s s e s s e d w a s s o o n d e l i v e r e d ' . Similarly. t h e h a r d s h i p s i n d u c e d by t h e ' l i t t l e ice a g e ' c a n n o t p r o v i d e a complete explanation for Europe's witch trials. 3 4 in p a r t s of D e n m a r k a n d S p a i n a s late a s t h e 1 9 6 0 s . Regions where this concept was absent f r o m confederates learned witch these developments c a m p a i g n s against satanic w i t c h c r a f t could c o n f i r m their agents a s t h e c h a m p i o n s of t r u e r e l i g i o n . t r a d i t i o n a l b e l i e f s a b o u t g h o s t s .' d o w h a t t h e y c a n [ s o ] t h a t t h e t r u e c h u r c h of C h r i s t m a y n o t h a v e c r e d i t 3 6 c o u l d n o t s o m e t i m e s p r o v o k e j u d i c i a l a c t i o n . a n d t h e c o u r t s in m o s t c o u n t r i e s c e a s e d t o r e c o g n i s e it as a c r i m e . w h i c h o c c u r r e d in a g r e a t v a r i e t y of d i f f e r e n t c o n t e x t s : t h e r e d e f i n i t i o n of a g h o s t a s t h e D e v i l in 1 5 6 0 s F r a n c e ( C h a p t e r 1 9 ) . A t the same time. in t h e m s e l v e s . b u t it s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e r e s p o n s e of e l i t e g r o u p s t o s u c h a n x i e t i e s h e l p e d t o d e t e r m i n e t h e e x t e n t a n d s e v e r i t y of p a n i c s . w h o s h o u l d s t r i k e a g a i n s t t h e m ' w i t h c o n f i d e n c e . d o c t r i n e s of P r o t e s t a n t i s m d i d n o t .s o c i e t y ' w a s p a r t i c u l a r l y i m p o r t a n t h e r e . L y n d a l p o w e r of t h e Roman church. Indeed. In t h e l a t t e r c a s e . b o t h C a t h o l i c a n d P r o t e s t a n t . this entailed an a t t a c k on folk ideas and p r a c t i c e s a s p a r t of ' a n o v e r a l l m i s s i o n a r y e f f o r t t o r e f o r m t h e c o m m o n p e o p l e of 3 7 F r o m t h e 1 5 2 0 s o n w a r d s . B r o a d l y s p e a k i n g . d e s p i t e t h e e f f e c t s of c l i m a t i c c h a n g e . e d u c a t e d Europeans were allegations c o n t i n u e d t o be m a d e in E n g l a n d t h r o u g h o u t t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y . b u t a l s o h e l p e d s h a p e t h e b e h a v i o u r of Protestant and Catholic c l e r g y . and exorcisms in were and of t h e c r i m e . T h e p o p u l a r c l a m o u r f o r a c t i o n caused the p o l i t i c a l elites of central Europe to move against those b e l i e v e d t o be r e s p o n s i b l e . i n d u c e w i t c h p e r s e c u t i o n s . large-scale witch-hunts o f t e n o c c u r r e d w h e n t h e l e a r n e d c o n c e p t of c o l l e c t i v e w i t c h c r a f t w a s i n v o l v e d . t h e i m p o r t a n c e of t h e R e f o r m a t i o n lay in t h e m a n y elites across E u r o p e were forced to identify with one a n d p o p u l a r e x p r e s s i o n s of p i e t y l i k e p r o p h e t i c v i s i o n s . b e l i e f s e x p e r i e n c e d r e l a t i v e l y f e w t r i a l s . t h e v e r y e x i s t e n c e of w i t c h e s w a s s o m e t i m e s v i e w e d a s a h e l l i s h e n d o r s e m e n t of t h e a u t h o r i t y of r u l i n g g r o u p s . d e s p i t e M a r t i n L u t h e r ' s f i r m b e l i e f in t h e e x i s t e n c e of w i t c h e s a n d his i n s i s t e n c e on S a t a n ' s great earthly p o w e r . maleficium as a p r o b l e m . Furthermore. f a i r i e s a n d s a i n t s . k n o w i n g he T h e s a m e a r g u m e n t w a s a d v a n c e d in P r o t e s t a n t S c o t l a n d . t h e d e n u n c i a t i o n of f o l k m a g i c a s d i a b o l i s m . a n d it is n e c e s s a r y to consider the p o l i t i c a l and religious c i r c u m s t a n c e s a c c e p t e d by a s e c t i o n of E u r o p e ' s g o v e r n i n g c l a s s .12 GENERAL INTRODUCTION GENERAL INTRODUCTION 13 w h o l e c o m m u n i t i e s . h o w e v e r .p r o f i l e d i s p o s s e s s i o n s w e r e a p o w e r f u l t o o l of c o n f e s s i o n a l p r o p a g a n d a in F r a n c e . A s Edmund Europe'. t h e D u k e of convert to C a t h o l i c i s m . T h i s c o n f l i c t w a s e p i t o m i s e d in t h e 1 5 9 0 s by t h e e x o r c i s t J o h n Darrel. w h i c h f e a r e d t h a t s u c c e s s f u l d i s p o s s e s s i o n s c o u l d b o l s t e r t h e a u t h o r i t y of n o n c o n f o r m i n g m i n i s t e r s . w h e r e t h e V I f r o m a p l o t t o d e s t r o y h i m by w i t c h c r a f t d e l i v e r a n c e of J a m e s policies. T h i s w a s e v i d e n t in c a s e s of d e m o n i c p o s s e s s i o n . church was that 3 0 A s p a r t of t h i s p r o c e s s . T h i s w a s t h e c a s e Germany. S e v e r a l of t h e c o n t r i b u t o r s t o t h i s b o o k d e s c r i b e t h i s p r o c e s s . sion was often frequently English b i s h o p s . who claimed that papists and their 'secret friends' . Kern remarks in C h a p t e r 1 3 . D a r r e l ' s a c t i v i t i e s led t o a s e r i e s of w i t c h t r i a l s The effects of religious division in a satanic The A n o t h e r c o n s e q u e n c e of t h e R e f o r m a t i o n w a s t h e a t t e m p t by l o c a l e l i t e s . A t t h e level of r u r a l c o m m u n i t i e s . of c o u r s e . H e ' s e c r e t l y s e n t f o r a C a t h o l i c p r i e s t . A s Catholic demonologist is p u r s u i n g a v o c a t i o n defender'. A s Behringer of a c k n o w l e d g e s . about about p r o s e c u t i o n s e n d e d e a r l i e r in r e g i o n s l i k e S p a i n w h e r e e l i t e s w e r e s c e p t i c a l T h i s d o e s n o t m e a n .including some by c a s t i n g o u t d e v i l s ' . the first wave panics commenced some eighty years earlier. h o w e v e r . w e r e s u b j e c t e d t o pretation. One r e s u l t of t h e s p l i t in t h e m e d i a e v a l political d e n o m i n a t i o n a l f a c t i o n a g a i n s t a n o t h e r . 3 1 the of and was Nicholas in w h i c h Remy explained.w a y c o n f l i c t b e t w e e n t h e i r C a t h o l i c r i v a l s a n d t h e h i e r a r c h y of t h e e s t a b l i s h e d c h u r c h . they r e a d i l y e x p l a i n e d in t e r m s of d e m o n i c a c t i v i t y . conflict between C a t h o l i c s and P r o t e s t a n t s recast E u r o p e a n p o l i t i c s a s a c r u s a d e b e t w e e n t h e f o r c e s of G o d a n d H i s e n e m i e s . T h i s i m p r e s s i o n is s u p p o r t e d by t h e p a t t e r n of d e c l i n e in p r o s e c u t i o n s f r o m a r o u n d 1 6 8 0 . or a p p e a r e d to threaten the a u t h o r i t y i n d i r e c t c o n s e q u e n c e s of r e l i g i o u s d i v i s i o n . T h e l e a r n e d c o n c e p t of a s a t a n i c ' a n t i . ^interorthodox were If t h e y c o u l d n o t be incorporated within the f r a m e w o r k of t h e o f f i c i a l of R a t h e r . In one i n s t a n c e . B o g u e t t o l d t h e s t o r y of a H u g u e n o t g e n t l e m a n w h o s e s o n w a s p o s s e s s e d by a d e m o n b u t f o u n d t h a t his l o c a l p a s t o r ' h a d no p o w e r against d e v i l s ' . t h e c o n d e m n a t i o n of t h e benandante ( C h a p t e r 8 ) . a n d t h e p o l i t i c a l t h r e a t p o s e d by r e l i g i o u s d i s s e n t . religion. attributed a t t e n d e d by a l l e g a t i o n s France and England. t h e n o t i o n of t h e s a b b a t a c h i e v e d p r o m i n e n c e f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e d u r i n g t h e E a s t A n g l i a n t r i a l s of 1 6 4 5 . T h i s w a s t h e c a s e in D e n m a r k a n d E n g l a n d u n t i l t h e 1 6 4 0 s . 2 9 t h a t G e r m a n J e s u i t s in t h e l a t e r s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y used e x o r c i s m s t o v a l i d a t e t h e 3 3 n o t e s in C h a p t e r t h a t h i g h . increasingly reluctant to a c c e p t t h e r e a l i t y of s a t a n i c w i t c h c r a f t . By the same token. T h i s i n c r e a s e d t h e p o l i t i c a l i m p o r t a n c e of m a i n t a i n i n g r e l i g i o u s o r t h o d o x y . Europe. 2 8 p r e s e n t e d a s a v i n d i c a t i o n of his f a i t h a n d a t a c i t e n d o r s e m e n t of his e c c l e s i a s t i c a l 3 2 T h e p o l i t i c s of r e l i g i o u s d i v i s i o n n o t o n l y a f f e c t e d t h e p o l i t i c a l e l i t e s of e a r l y modern E u r o p e . I n d e e d .

m a y w e l l h a v e r e f l e c t e d t h e r e a l o r i g i n of t h e v i c t i m ' s s y m p t o m s in t h e i r relationship with another person.i n d u s t r i a l E u r o p e . In t h e c o n t e x t of t h e s e w i d e r c o n c e r n s . T h e l a s t section modern o u t b r e a k o f w i t c h c r a f t in E x e t e r . W h a t e v e r t h e l o c a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s of w i t c h p e r s e c u t i o n s . the various consequences of the s a m e c i r c u m s t a n c e s p r e v a i l e d in p r e . w h i c h r e p r e s e n t e d a n a t t a c k on t h e f a m i l y . a n d t h e also provided o p p o r t u n i t y t o r e l i e v e t h e i r c h i l d ' s s u f f e r i n g by a c t i n g a g a i n s t h e r . encouraged new s t a n d a r d s of ' G o d . d i s o r d e r l y w o m e n w e r e p e r c e i v e d as such t h e m a i n d a n g e r t o f a m i l y l i f e . In p a r t . w h i c h m e a n t t h a t h o u s e holds became the focus for religious devotion. u n m a r r i e d m o t h e r s a n d w o m e n a c c u s e d of While the impact of religious division offers an infanticide. in t h e e a r l y s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y . t h e y a c c u s e d t h e h e a l e r o f maleficium when the boy's fits returned. J o a n Fellow. It is a l s o r e l e v a n t . T h e c h a l l e n g e t o h i s t o r i a n s is t o e x p l a i n resisting the t e m p t a t i o n to impose a single theory to e x p l a i n the tragedy of t h e e x i s t e n c e of h a r m f u l magic. week. s i n c e t h e s t a b i l i t y of h o u s e h o l d s w a s v i e w e d as e s s e n t i a l t o t h e w e l f a r e of s o c i e t y a s a w h o l e . Lyndal assumed to and R o p e r h a s c h r o n i c l e d t h e r i s e of ' t h e h o l y h o u s e h o l d ' . f o r e x a m p l e . 4 4 a t t e m p t t o s u g g e s t t h a t t h e r e is a s i n g l e c a u s e . A f e w days later. a n d t h e s o c i a l a n d e n v i r o n m e n t a l c h a n g e s t h a t e n c o u r a g e d f e a r s of maleficium in s o m e p a r t s of E u r o p e : a l l c o n t r i b u t e d t o w i t c h p e r s e c u t i o n s in t h e . In s i x t e e n t h . A s a r e s u l t . of m a r r i a g e . modern Equally. s i c k n e s s f r e q u e n t l y a r i s e s f r o m a w e a k e n i n g of t h e i m m u n e s y s t e m . in t u r n . s u c h as p r o s t i t u t e s . as well as Similar accom- France England. O n c e it w a s e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t G i b s w a s a ' c u n n i n g m a n ' r a t h e r than a legitimate physician. p h y s i c a l i l l n e s s . In 1 6 3 4 . was afflicted with acute insomnia and 'light-headedness'. N a p i e r It is r e a s o n a b l e t o a s s u m e t h a t s u c h e x p e r i e n c e s w e r e c o m m o n it is p l a u s i b l e t o a r g u e t h a t t h e d i a g n o s i s of maleficium attributed 4 3 E u r o p e a n s . In a p a t r i a r c h a l was able to gain support a m o n g illicit educated sense of i n t e r d e p e n d e n c y . which occurred assume com- s p o r a d i c a l l y in e a r l y m o d e r n G e r m a n y a n d F r a n c e .c e n t u r y A u s t r i a ( C h a p t e r 1 3 ) . S u c h m e c h a n i s m s were i m p o r t a n t n e w r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s f o r t h e r e l i g i o u s e d u c a t i o n of t h e i r c h i l d r e n a n d s e r v a n t s . Richard Baxter. C r a b ' s master and parents began to suspect w i t c h c r a f t . f e l l i l l . of an who a s i x t e e n t h a n d s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s . t h e m o s t p l a u s i b l e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of w i t c h c r a f t i n v o l v e t h e i n t e r a c t i o n of n u m e r o u s causes. a n d a l l o w e d t h o s e w h o m some c o n t r o l over the s i t u a t i o n . in w h i c h p a r e n t s development family trends have 4 0 t i a l l y as a t h e o r y of c a u s a t i o n . W h e n a l o c a l a p p r e n t i c e n a m e d N a t h a n C r a b w a s a f f l i c t e d w i t h e p i l e p s y . M e d i c a l s t u d i e s s u g g e s t t h a t m a n y a d u l t s l i v i n g in t r a d i t i o n a l A f r i c a n societies have a high natural resistance to disease.w h i c h i n v o l v e d a s e c r e t c u l t d e v o t e d t o s e x u a l i t y a n d t h e m u r d e r of i n f a n t s w i t c h p e r s e c u t i o n s . 3 8 The rational basis for witch beliefs A t t h e level of v i l l a g e c o m m u n i t i e s . a n d in s o m e c a s e s t h e y led d i r e c t l y t o a c c u s a t i o n s of w i t c h c r a f t . and s o m e t i m e s provided the basis f o r w i t c h c r a f t a l l e g a t i o n s . his p a r e n t s t o o k h i m f o r t r e a t m e n t to one g a v e h i m ' a b a g t o h a n g a b o u t his n e c k ' w i t h instructions to remove it a f t e r of t h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n w i l l c o n s i d e r t h e s o c i a l c o n t e x t in w h i c h t h i s b e l i e f o p e r a t e d .f e a r i n g ' b e h a v i o u r w i t h i n the f a m i l y . explanation for 'any various physical s y m p t o m s to bad feelings between f a m i l y m e m b e r s or n e i g h b o u r s . since those lacking this quality o f t e n p e r i s h in i n f a n c y . this trend was p a n i e d by a rise in p r o s e c u t i o n s f o r ' s e c r e t c r i m e s ' l i k e i n f a n t i c i d e . S u c h e v e n t s w e r e s y m p t o m s of a g e n e r a l c l i m a t e of a n x i e t y a b o u t t h e D e v i l ' s p o w e r in t h e w o r l d . a n d t h e s u p p r e s s i o n of ' v i s i o n a r y ' w o m e n in I t a l y ( C h a p t e r 6 ) . servants or apprentices. in e a r l y c o m m u n i t i e s . s u c h as t h e w e a t h e r . maleficium i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of it a p p e a r s t h a t w i t c h c r a f t f u n c t i o n e d e s s e n Maillat an T h e d e s i r e of P r o t e s t a n t s a n d C a t h o l i c s t o r e f o r m p o p u l a r r e l i g i o n w a s a c c o m p a n i e d by a n x i e t i e s a b o u t s e x u a l c o n d u c t . A s a r e s u l t . concerning Mr Gibs. the desire t o e n f o r c e s e x u a l m o r a l i t y r e f l e c t e d t h e need t o m a i n t a i n s o c i a l o r d e r in a t i m e of p o l i t i c a l a n d r e l i g i o u s c h a n g e . m a n y c h a r g e s of w i t c h c r a f t strained R e f o r m a t i o n . Such a r r a n g e m e n t s created a tial to emotional and physical wellbeing. an how as a t h e s e v a r i o u s f a c t o r s i n t e r a c t e d in p a r t i c u l a r r e g i o n s a t p a r t i c u l a r m o m e n t s . W h e n t h e d a u g h t e r of H u m b e r t e a n d C l a u d e Frangoise S e c r e t a i n as t h e p e r s o n r e s p o n s i b l e w a s one of t h e p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n s a v a i l a b l e t o t h e m . They supplied an e x p l a n a t i o n it a f f e c t e d t o in r u r a l f o r a n o t h e r w i s e a r b i t r a r y event. a n d t h e h e a l t h of l i v e s t o c k a n d c r o p s . a l l e g a t i o n s of w i t c h c r a f t p l a y e d a s i m i l a r r o l e t o t h e less c o m m o n p r a c t i c e of p r o s ecuting animals for crimes against people and their 4 2 property. One s u c h i n s t a n c e w a s r e c o r d e d in 1 6 8 8 w h e n a g r o u p devout Protestants w r o t e to the English divine. a n d m e a n t t h a t g o o d p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s w e r e e s s e n ill health and f r i c t i o n w a s a c k n o w l e d g e d by t h e E n g l i s h p h y s i c i a n . however. h o w e v e r . R i c h a r d N a p i e r . T h e t e n d e n c y t o a t t r i b u t e m i s f o r t u n e t o o n e ' s n e i g h b o u r s w a s a l s o e n c o u r a g e d by a s o c i a l e n v i r o n m e n t in w h i c h m o s t p e o p l e w o r k e d a n d l i v e d in e x t e n d e d h o u s e h o l d s comprising profound social f a m i l y members. In t h i s r e s p e c t . t h i s a r o s e f r o m t h e a b o l i t i o n of m o n a s t i c i s m a n d p r i e s t l y c e l i b a c y in P r o t e s t a n t r e g i o n s . T h i s was been paralleled identified by o f f i c i a l in o t h e r intolerance of towards perceived threats 3 9 m u n i t i e s w h o s e l i v e l i h o o d s d e p e n d e d l a r g e l y on f o r c e s b e y o n d h u m a n c o n t r o l . The link between life. as p r o s t i t u t e s . w h i l e w h o l e . a h i d d e n key t o t h e m y s t e r y . w h o b e l i e v e d t h a t it m i g h t be a c h a r m . w h i c h t u r n e d o u t t o be a p a p e r inscribed w i t h m a g i c a l w o r d s . A s C h r i s t i n a L a r n e r p o i n t s o u t in C h a p t e r 15. s h o u l d be t r e a t e d w i t h g r e a t s u s p i c i o n ' . p e r h a p s . t h e y a l l depended on the general a c c e p t a n c e t h a t is w i d e l y r e g a r d e d a s u n t e n a b l e idea in w e s t e r n s o c i e t i e s t o d a y . this. it is h e l p f u l t o r e m e m b e r Robin Briggs' warning that m e d i c a l b a s i s . o r e v e n a d o m i n a n t one. a n d m a k e a c a s e f o r t h e e s s e n t i a l r a t i o n a l i t y of s u c h t h i n k i n g in t h e e a r l y period. A s B r i g g s p o i n t s o u t . M o r e g e n e r a l l y . he n o t e d t h a t one of his p a t i e n t s . attractive in s u c h c a s e s h a d a s o u n d E u r o p e a n w i t c h t r i a l s . a n d t h e a t t a c k o n w i t c h e s m i g h t be v i e w e d a s a n a d j u n c t t o t h e p r o s e c u t i o n of o t h e r f e m a l e e n e m i e s of t h e ' h o l y h o u s e h o l d ' . this m e d i c a t i o n a r o u s e d the s u s p i c i o n of the boy's G o d .f e a r i n g m a s t e r . w h i c h c a n be t r i g g e r e d by s t r e s s f u l s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s .c e n t u r y Augsburg. it is e a s y t o see h o w t h e i d e a of s a t a n i c w i t c h c r a f t .14 GENERAL INTRODUCTION GENERAL INTRODUCTION 15 in s i x t e e n t h . H e m a d e t h e b o y r e m o v e t h e b a g so he c o u l d i n s p e c t its c o n t e n t s . 4 1 If t h e The learned fantasy of the sabbat. and increased parts regulation Germany. adding that 'her m o t h e r in l a w h a t h used h e r v e r y u n k i n d l y ' . t h a t w o m e n w e r e t h e p r i n c i p a l t a r g e t s of c u l t u r e . On o t h e r o c c a s i o n s .

a m a n f r o m D o r s e t w a s t r i e d f o r a s s a u l t i n g a n o l d w o m a n w h o m he b e l i e v e d 4 8 In t h e s e a n d s i m i l a r c a s e s . undertakes. t h e y r u n a t o n c e t o t h e s o o t h s a y e r t o a s k w h o h a s s t o l e n it o r p u t a b a d s p e l l o n it. These c i t a t i o n s were g e n e r a l l y r e g a r d e d as a u t h o r i t a t i v e . a n d t h e e f f o r t s of e x o r c i s t s t o r e l i e v e t h e s y m p t o m s of s c h i z o p h r e n i c s psychiatrists 4 5 S i m i l a r p r a c t i c e s w e r e r e c o r d e d in F r a n c e . W h e n e v e r a n a r t i c l e of c l o t h i n g has b e e n m i s l a i d a n d c a n n o t be f o u n d . it w a s m u c h h a r d e r f o r a c a d e m i c s t o p r o v e t h e e x i s t e n c e of t h e c r i m e . T h e r e s u l t w a s a l a r g e l y s e l f . t h e a u t h o r of a recent study of popular 5 2 W i t c h c r a f t a l s o p r o v i d e d a n e x p l a n a t i o n f o r less s e v e r e h a l l u c i n a t o r y experiences English work has t h a t a r e s t i l l v e r y c o m m o n . w a s e m p l o y e d f o r a w i d e r a n g e of p r a c t i c a l p u r p o s e s . t h e r e w a s no e m p i r i c a l e v i d e n c e t o s u p p o r t t h i s b e l i e f . W h i l e it is r e l a t i v e l y e a s y t o a c c e p t t h e r a t i o n a l b a s i s f o r f e a r s of maleficium t h a t m o s t of t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s a r e s t i l l l i t t l e u n d e r s t o o d . . the verses f r o m the pracVirgin New tices with f a m i l i a r and unfamiliar words. w h e n s o m e o n e f e e l s s i c k l y o r a c o w a c t s q u e e r . a n e x p e r i e n c e t h a t w a s d e s c r i b e d in witchcraft awake extreme to confessions find in 1 6 4 5 . ities in m i n d . names. r e m a i n e l u s i v e . . 5 4 T h e f e a r o f maleficium many parts of b e c o m e s s t i l l e a s i e r t o u n d e r s t a n d w h e n it is p l a c e d in from wide1594 beliefs and practices were t h e c o n t e x t of p o p u l a r r e l i g i o n a s a w h o l e . T h e d e v e l o p m e n t of p r i n t f r o m t h e late fifteenth century a l l o w e d i n f o r m a t i o n about w i t c h c r a f t to spread quickly reproduced and in w i d e l y a m o n g t h e l i t e r a t e m i n o r i t y of t h e E u r o p e a n p o p u l a t i o n . and rhymes. t h e a n s w e r lies in t h e c o n v e n t i o n s of s c h o l a r l y d e b a t e in e a r l y m o d e r n E u r o p e . whatever 5 3 suffer hallucinations readily maleficium. These are spoken secretly or openly. e x c e p t t h e c o n f e s s i o n s of a l l e g e d c u l t m e m b e r s .p e r p e t u a t i n g b o d y of l i t e r a t u r e . . m u c h of t h e e v i d e n c e f o r s a t a n i c w i t c h c r a f t w a s d e r i v e d f r o m s c r i p t u r e a n d t h e w r i t i n g s of t h e c h u r c h f a t h e r s . w i t h the of Christ. In lence of s u c h a c t i v i t i e s : t h e L u t h e r a n i n s p e c t o r s of t h e p r o v i n c e of W e i s b a d e n in G e r m a n y n o t e d t h e p r e v a - investigations Maleficarum into the alleged activities of V i e w e d in t h i s l i g h t . t h o u g h he d e n i e d e v e r d o i n g s u c h t h i n g s . spell. a n d w e r e p r o b a b l y t y p i c a l of p o p u l a r c u l t u r e a c r o s s w e s t e r n g o o d a n d b a d p u r p o s e s .16 GENERAL INTRODUCTION GENERAL INTRODUCTION 17 The idea of w i t c h c r a f t c o u l d also e x p l a i n m e n t a l a n d p h y s i c a l e x p e r i e n c e s t h a t w e r e o t h e r w i s e v e r y h a r d t o d e f i n e o r c o m p r e h e n d . s i n c e a c c o u n t s of t r i a l s w e r e d e m o n o l o g i e s t h a t w e r e s u b s e q u e n t l y used by t h o s e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r c o n d u c t i n g f u r t h e r p r o s e c u t i o n s . t o r m e n t e d in h e r s l e e p ' by a w i t c h ' s f a m i l i a r had sent s p i r i t s to a t t a c k h i m at n i g h t . a s i m i l a r affliction 'strangely w a s v i s i t e d o n L a d y C r o m w e l l o f H u n t i n g d o n s h i r e in E n g l a n d . n u m e r o u s saints. c e r t a i n angels. 5 0 The general accepboth t a n c e o f m a g i c a l t e c h n i q u e s . they are w r i t t e n on s c r a p s of p a p e r . the Holy Trinity. It a l s o h e l p e d t o c o n s o l i d a t e t h e m y t h of a s a t a n i c c u l t . T h e r e a l i t y of m a g i c a s a sometimes of actual consequences Boguet described how a bewitched man was paralysed w a s e v e n u n a b l e t o c a l l t o his n e i g h b o u r s f o r h e l p . . a n d t o f e t c h s o m e c h a r m t o use a g a i n s t t h e enchanter . wholly reasonable response. D e v i l . In 1 5 9 2 . the twelve apostles. w h o w a s in t h e s h a p e of a c a t . r e s e a r c h E u r o p e has shown that m a g i c a l spread a m o n g the peasant p o p u l a t i o n . it a p p e a r s t h a t Given The credibility of a witch cult in e a r l y v i c t i m s of w i t c h c r a f t w e r e a t t r i b u t i n g r e a l e x p e r i e n c e s t o m a l i c i o u s m a g i c . Likewise. m a k e s it l i k e l y t h a t maleficium In 1 5 6 6 . T h e s y n d r o m e themselves sensations of f e a r witchcraft individuals or and Thus Henri W i t h such activin England culture c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h o s e a c c u s e d of w i t c h c r a f t w e r e n o t c h o s e n a t r a n d o m : ' t h e y w e r e t h o s e w h o h a d c u l t i v a t e d a r e p u t a t i o n f o r w i t c h c r a f t a s a m e a n s of s u r v i v a l . . o r w h o a c t u a l l y t h o u g h t t h a t t h e y p r a c t i s e d t h e a r t of b l a c k o r w h i t e w i t c h c r a f t ' . A f t e r a l l . 4 6 in his b e d o n e n i g h t . S i n c e t h e late 1 9 6 0 s . . O n c e t h e c i t a t i o n of c l a s s i c a l s o u r c e s w a s no l o n g e r r e g a r d e d a s s u f f i c e n t e v i d e n c e . W h y . A l l t h e p e o p l e h e r e a b o u t s e n g a g e in s u p e r s t i t i o u s God. s u c h a s s c h i z o p h r e n i a a n d syndromes today. w i t h o u t e m p l o y i n g some p a r t i c u l a r blessing. was linked to in w h i c h w a s sleep d i s t u r b a n c e . E n g l a n d a n d S p a i n . s o c i a l p r a c t i c e m a k e s it e n t i r e l y u n d e r s t a n d a b l e t h a t m e n a n d w o m e n the acts. charms 5 1 c o u l d be r e v e r s e d t o c r e a t e h a r m f u l s p e l l s . T h i s p o i n t is e s p e c i a l l y d e p r e s s i o n . A s Roy P o r t e r has noted. It is s t r i k i n g t h a t a l l e g a t i o n s of c o l l e c t i v e w i t c h c r a f t d i d n o t l e a d t o p r o s e c u t i o n s on t h o s e o c c a s i o n s w h e n t h e a u t h o r i t i e s s o u g h t c o r r o b o r a t i n g e v i d e n c e f o r c o n f e s s i o n s . M a l c o l m G a s k i l l p o i n t s o u t in C h a p t e r 2 5 t h a t b e r e a v e d p e o p l e o f t e n h a v e v i s i o n s o f t h e d e a d . the w o u n d s his s e v e n w o r d s on t h e c r o s s [and] T e s t a m e n t . or o t h e r s u c h h e a t h e n i s h m e a n s . B e l i e f in t h e w i t c h c u l t w a s a l s o e n c o u r a g e d by c h a n g e s in i n f o r m a t i o n t e c h n o l o g y . d i d t h e c o n c e p t of a w i t c h c u l t s e e m so c r e d i b l e t o e d u c a t e d E u r o p e a n s ? In p a r t . t h e n . does or refrains f r o m doing a n y t h i n g . a n d a c r o s s m u c h of w e s t e r n E u r o p e f r o m a r o u n d 1 6 8 0 . a s w a s t h e c a s e in S p a i n in 1 6 1 0 . the three kings. t h i s c a n be r e g a r d e d a s a m o d e r n E u r o p e . . a n d c a r r i e d at least as m u c h w e i g h t as e m p i r i c a l witches. it is m o r e d i f f i c u l t p e r h a p s t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e less c o m m o n b u t i m p o r t a n t i d e a of a c l a n d e s t i n e . s w a l l o w e d o r w o r n a s c h a r m s . 4 9 . the visitors to W e i s b a d e n c l a i m e d that spells were p e r f o r m e d 'to h a r m on others or to do good. w h i c h e n c o u r a g e d e x a c t l y t h e k i n d of c o n f e s s i o n s t h a t c o u l d be f e d b a c k m a n or w o m a n begins. a n d t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t t h e y c o u l d be u s e d f o r E n g l i s h m a g i c i a n J o h n W a l s h d e s c r i b e d h o w the w o r d s of was sometimes attempted. A n o t h e r a r e a o f e x p e r i e n c e of ' s l e e p p a r a l y s i s ' and sometimes to attributed immobilised. incantation. P o p u l a r magic.w o r s h i p p i n g c u l t . M a n y of t h e s e w e r e o b t a i n e d t h r o u g h t o r t u r e . often m i x e d with elements of o f f i c i a l r e l i g i o n . suspected magical their neighbours of witchcraft. t h e Malleus made a very strong case f o r T h e use o f s p e l l s is so w i d e s p r e a d a m o n g t h e p e o p l e h e r e t h a t n o t a t h e e x i s t e n c e of s a t a n i c w i t c h c r a f t .r e f e r e n t i a l a n d s e l f . I t a l y . s i n c e t h e g e n u i n e n e s s of its c l a s s i c a l s o u r c e s w a s b e y o n d q u e s t i o n . w h o w e r e l i n k e d t o s u c h p e o p l e by b l o o d o r h o u s e h o l d t i e s . b u t t h i s e m p h a s i s on e m p i r i c a l i n q u i r y w a s n o t w i d e l y a c c e p t e d a m o n g s c h o l a r s u n t i l t h e l a t t e r p a r t o f t h e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y . successful e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r these sometimes appear to have been as effective as those of relevant t o c o n d i t i o n s l a t e r d e f i n e d as p s y c h o l o g i c a l ' d i s o r d e r s ' . A s S y d n e y A n g l o h a s o b s e r v e d . 4 7 A s late as 1 8 7 1 . . to m a k e things better or w o r s e ' . t h e Europe. especially n a m e s of M a r y .

1736-1951 12-13. 46-7. trans. 36. b u t visible and perceptible to the e y e s ' . Gouge. it is u n d e n i a b l e t h a t m a n y of the s p e c i f i c a l l e g a t i o n s Europe's Demons. in M a x i m p a c t o f t h e i n t e r n e t c a n n o t be a d e q u a t e l y p r e d i c t e d t o d a y . 2 5 9 . s c h o l a r l y w r i t e r s r e f e r r e d e x p l i c i t l y t o the c o n s i s t e n c y o f c o n f e s s i o n s a s p r o o f o f a s a t a n i c c u l t . . Gustav Inquisition 14 136-45. social 21 22 1558-1618 James. as a d i s e m b o d i e d at length i n t h e Malleus spirit. twentieth Witchcraft. c h . Routledge. e d . w h i c h p r o v i d e s f u r t h e r e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e m a t t e r is n o d r e a m . r e p r i n t e d in B a r b a r a R o s e n .f i n d i n g c a n be c o n d u c t e d by p e r f e c t l y r e a s o n a b l e a n d m e t h o d i c a l p e o p l e . 3 7 7 . a w i t c h cult. R. If these claims Examen. Bengt Centres 23 William Boguet.18 GENERAL INTRODUCTION GENERAL INTRODUCTION 19 into the g e n r e as ' e v i d e n c e ' . of Witches. 1 9 8 9 ) .d a y w i t c h e s t h a t t h o u s a n d s of t h e i r f e l l o w s p e r i s h e d in the Wicca: The Old Religion in the ABC L o n d o n 1 9 9 6 ) . m o s t of w h i c h c o l l a p s e d t h r o u g h of 'satanic in Part abuse' continues to arouse acceptable issue intense some about 12 13 witches w a s discussed Witchcraft. Montague Summers (John Rodker. Among Scholars of W i t c h c r a f t ' . it local witch-hunts appears that the among capacity our to 16 17 18 Princeton. (2nd edn. Penguin. Philadelphia 1972). The 152-60. 3 4 1 . Early Modern see J e n s European 1 0 9 . New Age (Aq uarian.7 Witchcraft in England. 19 20 and 11 (2). F o r a non-religious work making Witches Daly. See. While it is p o s s i b l e t h a t s a t a n i c cults do exist. 6. d e s p i t e t h e p a s s i o n a t e a d v o c a c y o f s o m e apists and social w o r k e r s . Examen. Tudor F o r a n i c e e x a m p l e . m u r d e r a n d c a n n i b a l i s m of y o u n g c h i l d r e n and Great of led t o a s e r i e s o f legal proceedings in t h e United States lack 10 11 L o n d o n 1 9 2 9 ) . and is e x a m i n e d in d e t a i l 10. Early Modern European Witchcraft: Peripheries (Clarendon. In 1 5 9 5 . see T . 1-3. 29 Owen 1550-1750 r e m i n d s m o d e r n . Harmondsworth 1969). The Night Seventeenth Centuries. 5. (London 1924). L u h r m a n n . see C o l i n W i l s o n . (Manchester University sixteenth a n d seventeenth centuries. Witchcraft in Europe: A Documentary History (University of Pennsylvania 7 M . of the Witchcrafts of in Margaret England. 1989). of Radical similar c l a i m s . 2 8 2 . J o h n a n d A n n e Tedeschi (Routledge. M a r w i c k . 5 1 . Henningsen. 28 Nicolson. R o m a n t i c s and Sorcery 101. Vivianne Crowley. Wellingborough Davies. Walinski-Keihl 5 6 psychotherRobert of Henningsen. Boguet. Instruments Hamilton. Macfarlane. When the horrors they Germany'. 5. See Kors and Peters. and political circumstances that can recur even Ankarloo and and Gustav e d s . J a m e s S h a r p e . Kephart. 39. 1 7 7 . Examen. The Witch and Cult Wonderful in Western History Europe of Mother Shipton (1682). . Robert N J 1 9 9 0 ) . but w e s h o u l d r e m e m b e r t h a t the p o t e n t i a l l y d i s t o r t i n g effects of p r i n t c u l t u r e w e r e i m p o s s i b l e to a n t i c i p a t e . of it h a v e are inspired some accurate. An (2nd edn. James. origins of w i t c h beliefs are not to of be Discoverie ( 1 6 1 9 ) . Walinski-Keihl. trials in E n g l a n d . Press. H e n o t e d t h a t ' t h e y a r e e v e n p a r t i c u l a r i n d e s c r i b i n g its c o l o u r . London 1 9 8 4 ) . Mary London R e m y o b s e r v e d t h a t w i t c h e s often d e s c r i b e d h o w they s m e a r e d an o i n t m e n t on t h e i r b o d i e s t o e n a b l e t h e m t o fly t o t h e s a b b a t . This late leads to one f i n a l p o i n t a b o u t the r a t i o n a l i t y of w i t c h b e l i e f s . of Darkness: chapter in A n k a r l o o and Henningsen's For Denmark. 8. See also D o r e e n V a l i e n t e . ch. London 1971). moveOxford F o r a fascinating account of the origins a n d c l a i m s of the m o d e r n w i t c h c r a f t ment. found it is a p o w e r f u l r e m i n d e r that the Rather. W i t h t h e b e n e f i t o f h i n d s i g h t . Alan (University of Massachusetts Daemonologie. Witchcraft in s u p e r s t i t i o n or hysteria. Gyn/Ecology: New York The 1981). s e e The and Phillip Flower d e s c r i b e p r o v e t o be n o m o r e s u b s t a n t i a l t h a n t h e i m a g i n e d s a b b a t s o f t h e s i x t e e n t h century. w a s able to copulate with B r i t a i n between 1 9 8 2 evidence. for example. m u c h as the Alan Kors and Edward Peters. L o n d o n 1 9 8 3 ) . m o t i v a t e d c h i e f l y by t h e i r compassion for the apparent victims of a t e r r i b l e crime. Witches' This has led h i s t o r i a n s like Robin Briggs and (University of N e v a d a Battles: C a r l o G i n z b u r g . ' T h e Devil's Change. Nicholas 4 of Witchcraft (Robert Hale. Notes 1 Fictitious accounts of English w i t c h c r a f t included later editions of the story of M o t h e r S h i p t o n . Witchcraft. Penguin. The Witchcraft to suggest that satanic abuse is a n u p d a t e d v e r s i o n o f t h e m y t h trans. 5 5 Metaethics Feminism 1978). e d . Examen highly educated and women northern America western Europe. (Women's 5 Press. Pimlico. century. and Agrarian Cults in the Sixteenth and Witchcraft and the Spanish t h e m h a v e p r o v e d t o be f a l s e . 1921). . Oxford London Keith Religion the Decline of Magic M u r r a y ' s t h e o r y of a w i t c h c u l t w a s e c h o e d in e a r l y e d i t i o n s of C h r i s t o p h e r H i l l ' s t e x t b o o k Reformation to Industrial Revolution (2nd edn. Christian Johansen's Witchcraft. s u c h a s The Strange 2 Margaret Murray. H e r w o r k w a s regarded as sufficiently Norman 3 Crowley Cohn's Europe's Inner Demons i m p o r t a n t t o m e r i t a d e t a i l e d c r i t i q u e in London 1993). Harmondworth 1982). and variants 5 7 15 Gabor Klaniczay. b e l i e f in s e c r e t s a t a n i c o r g a n i s a t i o n s d e v o t e d t o t h e s e x u a l a b u s e . 1 3 .4 . 7 2 . (Crescent. Equally. . 1999). e d s . 74-5. controversy. Boguet. it is t e m p t i n g t o 6 m o c k the a p p a r e n t n a i v e t y of s u c h c l a i m s . Advocate: Press. Persuasions to the Witches' Craft (Blackwell. (Weidenfeld and (Clarendon. Oxford Duties 1 9 9 3 ) . such beliefs were the p r o d u c t s today. On o c c a s i o n s .W a t s o n . 152-60. for the 1 6 4 5 . The means by w h i c h t h e Devil. Press 1 9 9 2 ) . James. 1626). L o u i s e J a c k s o n . Of Domestical! 60. see (Hamish (2nd edn. men a set of strikingly in similar ideas attracted and the During support the of The ' R a t i o n a l i s t s vs. Henri Boguet. Uses of Supernatural Power (Princeton University Press. f o r e x a m p l e . Continuity t h e p u r s u i t o f s a t a n i c c h i l d a b u s e r s s h o w s t h a t t h e b u s i n e s s o f w i t c h . Witchcraft Thomas. C h a p t e r 2 6 in this c o l l e c t i o n . 7. (1996). Henningsen. Magic Witches' and Culture. w h i l e the a n t h r o p o l o g i s t P h i l i p Stevens has c l a i m e d t h a t ' a d e m o n o l o g y is flourishing. Inner Maleficarum. S e t o n . in Tudor and and Stuart England (2nd edn. Studies Wonderfull Children: Child Witch Trials in E a r l y Modern contemporaries'. The a n d 1 9 9 0 . Reno Basque 1980). H. b e l i e v e in s a t a n i c w i t c h c r a f t w a s n o t c o n f i n e d t o t h e e a r l y m o d e r n p e r i o d . Witchcraft 8 9 Kors and Peters. Daemonologie. An Press 1 9 9 9 ) . c h . 24 25 26 27 Daemonologie. Cohn. ch. J . Advocate. e d .

ch. see P. 17. h e l d by t h e t w o w o m e n . in t h e c o n c l u s i o n o f h i s a c c o u n t . 47. the c h r o n extraordinary climax of a heresy Coggeshall described 43 44 Bodleian Library. 70-1. 3 5 . London The Occult in Early Modern Europe: A Documentary History them e x c l a i m e d . This Examen. t h e o n l o o k e r s c o u l d into allegations in B r i t a i n w a s c o n d u c t e d by involved in a This bizarre story underlined Ralph's conviction that of ' r i t u a l ' were satanism. A t t h e e n d of t h i s p a s s a g e . Household: Women and Morals in Reformation Augsburg (Clarendon. 'Success and Failure'. Rosen. .3 7 . in England. w h i c h he p u b l i s h e d in PART ONE 36 37 38 John Darrel. a heretical C h r i s t i a n sect that flourished in s o u t h e r n F r a n c e in t h e l a t e t w e l f t h Ralph added a dark and e a r l y t h i r t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s .3 1 . Witches Stevens. Oxford 39 Thomas Anthony University 40 41 Baxter. 6 3 . t r i a l in t h e F r e n c h t o w n o f R h e i m s . 1 . by t h e m i n i s t r y o f t h e e v i l s p i r i t s w h o o n c e c a u g h t Simon Magus up into the a i r . Reay. however. The Satanism (Lexington Books. 1991). 4 1 0 . e d . 6 (1986). 150r.1 1 . 1989). 41. 55 56 Kors and Peters. 181-2. from Gerald Strauss. Y o u n g . A Social Boguet. a u d i b l e t o a l l . a heretical community whose alleged sentenced to the flames. London 1996). The link between religious dissent and S a t a n was reinforced doctrines 'The Demonology of S a t a n i s m ' . t h e n in a l o u d v o i c e . 6 . Past and Present. The w o m a n it unnamed R. Witchcraft. Sexuality and Religion in Early Roper. Conn. t h r o u g h 254. Cambridge.6 . H e r e he o f f e r e d a b r i e f e x p o s i t i o n of t h e B r o m l e y . w h i c h c o n f o r m e d c l o s e l y t o t h e k n o w n b e l i e f s of t h e C a t h a r s . Phoenix.1 . that mistress of vile about error me of F o r a n e x c e l l e n t c o l l e c t i o n o f s o u r c e s r e l a t i n g t o p o p u l a r a n d l e a r n e d m a g i c . Richardson. G. 245. 29. 242-3. Luther: Man God and the Devil Witchcraft. H o p t o n . W h e n the to drag fire h a d b e e n l i g h t e d in t h e c i t y a n d t h e o f f i c i a l s w e r e to the punishment decreed. she w a s lifted f r o m the e a r t h r i g h t e v e r y o n e ' s e y e s a n d f o l l o w e d t h e b a l l o u t C o f ] t h e w i n d o w in r a p i d before flight. B a x t e r . see E s t h e r 110 (1986). or (Routledge and Kegan Witchcraft. and Western Science'. London 1994). Barry 130. Oberman. N e w Haven. 50 and Present. 34 35 Boguet. and Neighbours the ultimate source of all (HarperCollins. in M . leader w a s t r i e d a l o n g s i d e her. London 1976). 102-6. and Social History. W R I T I N G icler Ralph IN of T H E L A S T Q U A R T E R the of the t w e l f t h century. rumour . (1599). w h o f a c e d h e r d e a t h so ' s t e a d f a s t l y a n d e a g e r l y ' t h a t even those 82-93. Robin Robisheaux. 5 1 . t h e e n d o f t h e t h r e a d in h e r h a n d s .3 . A Department w i t h e r she w a s t r a n s p o r t e d . T h i s f o u n d t h a t e l e m e n t s s m a l l n u m b e r of cases. G . The Holy 1 3 in this c o l l e c t i o n . 'Oh f o o l i s h and unjust judges. 'Success and Failure in t h e German the i n t e r v e n t i o n of a demon: report is t a k e n Past Reformation'. 31 32 33 Kors and Peters. Press. W h a t became of t h a t w i c k e d w o m a n in n o w i s e discover.150v. . (2nd edn. Newes Lyndal Modern from Scotland Oedipus (Edinburgh and the 1592). T . 6 2 . responsible f o r her p r o s e c u t i o n . but d i s m i s s e d t h e idea of o r g a n i s e d 57 R o b i n B r i g g s . Fletcher. London 1998). Witchcraft. Scare a n d D. was a humble 45 46 47 48 49 R o y P o r t e r . Subordination 1995). b u t keeping Strauss. Devil: Witchcraft. Popular Cultures in England. M a r i a n n e H e s t e r a n d G a r e t h R o b e r t s . of Maist. Briggs. 9 0 . Chapter Roper. Witchcraft. 131r. see H e i k o London 1993). London 1996). Philip of Health investigation Jean L a Fontaine in 1 9 9 2 . Davies. e d . 67 (1975). e d s . 54 Sydney Damned Anglo. Dorrell Edmund Lyndal Kern. she s a i d ' C a t c h ! ' A t the w o r d . The s u s t a i n e d . F o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f a n i m a l t r i a l s in m e d i a e v a l a n d e a r l y m o d e r n Cohen. t h r e a d f r o m h e r b o s o m a n d t h r e w it o u t o f a l a r g e w i n d o w . Oxford. Art 'Evident Authority and Authoritative Paul. T h e t r i a l e n d e d w i t h t h e b u r n i n g o f a n y o u n g w o m a n . e d s . . she s u d d e n l y now to burn pulled a ball (Macmillan. in 42 Early Modern Europe (Cambridge University Press 1 9 9 6 ) . 1550-1750 (Longman. 'Peasants Sex and Pastors'. w e b e l i e v e . 47-52. 66. Europe Examen. 1500-1800 281-300.20 GENERAL INTRODUCTION 30 For Luther's Between views on witchcraft a n d t h e D e v i l . ' A f r i c a n Knowledge and Control Thought astonished member of (Addison Wesley. 'Many Reasons Why: Witchcraft and the Problem of Multiple Witchcraft E x p l a n a t i o n ' . do you t h i n k in y o u r flames?' . E u r o p e . 8. 51 52 53 Rosen. (Fontana. Certainty. Best heresy was the Devil. in J . a n d w a s also T h e o l d e r w o m a n e s c a p e d her p u n i s h m e n t . ' L a w . Lauderdale The Certainty r e c o u n t e d t h i s s t o r y in a letter t o R i c h a r d of the World The Trial! of Spirits (1691). . New York J . Maxwell-Stuart. 1971). Evidence'. History of Madness Mass. (Routledge. Ashmole Traditional M S 4 1 2 . in A n g l o . 1999). (Yale Mediaeval Origins Gender. in J o n a t h a n B a r r y . With these w o r d s . Folklore and A n i m a l Lore'.

a n d p u t t h e m in a b i r d ' s nest. ' b e c a u s e it b e l o n g e d t o a p a r i s h priest'. ' a d d i n g . relentlessly misogynistic pages of Maleficarum men. A n d w h e n he t r i e d t o t a k e a b i g one. I n t e r r u p t i n g t h e i r d i s c u s s i o n of t h e w i t c h ' s p o w e r t o impotence following Sprenger information: A n d w h a t . . as m a n y as t w e n t y o r t h i r t y m e m b e r s t o g e t h e r . Kramer (1486) and is a s t o r y so s u r r e a l a n d c o m i c t h a t it is cause the invite their readers to consider i m p o s s i b l e t o f o r g e t . s o m e t i m e s c o l l e c t m a l e o r g a n s in g r e a t n u m b e r s . e a c h of w h i c h a d d e d w e i g h t t o t h e i r t h a t s u c h m a t e r i a l w a s a v a i l a b l e s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e s t e r e o t y p e of t h e f e m a l e a r g u m e n t s a b o u t t h e e x i s t e n c e of w i t c h e s a n d t h e d a n g e r s t h e y p o s e d . t h e w i t c h s a i d . when he h a d lost his m e m b e r . members. T h e w a s by no m e a n s c o n f i n e d t o t h e l e a r n e d e l i t e . . culture than learned theories 2 anxieties popular of A t a n o t h e r . . it is n o t e w o r t h y b e c a u s e it r e s e m the nature of w i t c h c r a f t .PART SEVEN W i t c h c r a f t and Gender B URIED the Malleus in A W A Y IN THE TURGID. t h i s s t r a n g e a n e c d o t e c a n be r e a d as a t e s t a m e n t t o m a l e a b o u t t h e s e x u a l p o w e r of w o m e n . a n d t h a t he m i g h t t a k e w h i c h e v e r m e m b e r he l i k e d o u t of a nest in w h i c h t h e r e w e r e s e v e r a l t h a t o n e . is t o be t h o u g h t of t h o s e w i t c h e s w h o . The inclusion b l e d t h e c o n t e n t of c o n t e m p o r a r y j e s t b o o k s . as has been seen by m a n y a n d is a m a t t e r of c o m m o n r e p o r t ? . a n d p r o b a b l y o w e d m o r e t o about s u c h m a t e r i a l in t h e Malleus i n d i c a t e s t h e w i l l i n g n e s s of its a u t h o r s t o incorporate central fact witch t h e w i d e s t p o s s i b l e r a n g e of s o u r c e s . S h e t o l d t h e a f f l i c t e d m a n t o c l i m b a c e r t a i n t r e e . On t h i s p o i n t t h e d e m o n o l o g i s t s w e r e . For a certain man tells that. he a p p r o a c h e d a k n o w n w i t c h t o a s k h e r t o r e s t o r e it t o h i m . a n d eat oats a n d c o r n . ' Y o u m u s t n o t t a k e 1 A t one l e v e l . o r s h u t t h e m up in a b o x . w h e r e they m o v e t h e m s e l v e s like living m e m b e r s . . t h e n .

he s u g g e s t s . normally and were often prominent in v i l l a g e . M e n a n d w o m e n a p p e a r t o h a v e b e e n e q u a l l y v u l n e r a b l e t o a c c u s a t i o n s in p a r t s of F r a n c e . w h i l e m e n o u t n u m b e r e d w o m e n as w i t c h c r a f t s u s p e c t s in s o m e on the periphery of t h e c o n t i n e n t like Iceland and Estonia. a n d s e e k s t o r e l o c a t e t h e p r o s e c u t i o n s in t h e c o n t e x t of t h e f e m a l e c o m m u n i t y cium were most frequently expressed. s i n c e it w a s n e v e r d e n i e d t h a t m e n a s w e l l a s w o m e n c o u l d be g u i l t y of t h e c r i m e . e v e n t h o u g h it w a s p o s s i b l e f o r m e n t o be i n v o l v e d a s well. t h e r e is s t i l l no c o n s e n s u s a m o n g a c a d e m i c s in t h e f i e l d . of c o u r s e . h o w e v e r . It s e n t e d a n a t t e m p t by m e n t o c o n t r o l i n d e p e n d e n t w o m e n . where some 70 o u t c o m e of a s i n g l e c a u s e : t h e r e s t r u c t u r i n g of g e n d e r r e l a t i o n s d u r i n g a p e r i o d of change. be l e v e l l e d a g a i n s t L a r n e r ' s o w n v i e w t h a t t h e p r o s e c u t i o n s a r o s e f r o m t h e ' p o l i t i c i s a t i o n of r e l i g i o n ' in t h e early m o d e r n p e r i o d (see C h a p t e r 1 5 ) . D e n m a r k a n d E n g l a n d . s o m e a l s o p l a y e d t h e s p e c i a l i s t r o l e of ' s e a r c h e r s ' .s p e c i f i c ' . S h e a r g u e s t h a t w i t h c r a f t i n v o l v e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t w e r e s o c i a l l y c o n s t r u c t e d as ' f e m i n i n e ' . less a m b i t i o u s a p p r o a c h is t o e x a m i n e t h e r e c o r d s of s p e c i f i c 22. with their specialist witchcraft. of t h e s e g e n e r a l i s a t i o n s t h e y find m o s t c o n v i n c i n g . Hester suggests t h a t v i l l a g e r s a n d m a g i s t r a t e s m i g h t have been l o o k i n g for not w i t c h e s r a t h e r t h a n w o m e n .l e v e l accusations in C h a p t e r 2 3 by Clive the w a s in t h i s w o r l d of f e m a l e r e l a t i o n s h i p s . a n d t h i s m e a n t t h a t t h e c r i m e J a c k s o n . w h i l e t h i s w a s less l i k e l y t o h a p p e n t o m e n . b u t t h e i r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t h e c r i m e i n c l i n e d t h e m t o l o o k f o r f e m a l e s u s p e c t s . f o r e x a m p l e . T h e s a m e o b j e c t i o n c o u l d . w i t c h c r a f t was ' s e x . F o r H e s t e r . T h e potential influence of sexual stereotypes on prosecutions w a s illustrated in a list of ' p r e s u m p t i o n s against witches' d r a w n up f o r j u s t i c e s of t h e p e a c e ( J P s ) in Y o r k s h i r e in 1 5 9 2 : t h e f i r s t p r e s u m p tion was 'that they are most c o m o n l y weeke w o m e n ' . Like all monocausal explanations.h u n t i n g ' f o r c e s its proponents to e x p l a i n 'why w o m e n appeared p a r t i c u l a r l y threatening to p a t r i a r c h a l o r d e r a t t h i s t i m e . a n d r e g i o n s l i k e H u n g a r y . i n f a n t i c i d e a n d w i t c h c r a f t . t h e s o c i a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s of w o m e n w e r e e n o u g h in t h e m s e l v e s t o a c c o u n t f o r t h e i r t a r g e t i n g a s w i t c h e s . t h o u g h the figures varied c o n s i d e r a b l y f r o m place to place. S h a r p e ' s a r g u m e n t challenges the view that E n g l i s h w i t c h t r i a l s reprein e a r l y m o d e r n v i l l a g e s . a n y i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f w i t c h t r i a l s as ' w o m a n . t h u s r e v e r s i n g t h e p o p u l a r i d e a t h a t m i d w i v e s w e r e c o m m o n l y a c c u s e d of 5 ruling groups to investigate 'secret c r i m e s ' against f a m i l y . In e a c h of t h e s e a r e a s . w o m e n were more exposed to accusations than men. w h i l e p o s s e s s i n g a n e x c e s s of a r c h e t y p a l l y f e m a l e v i c e s . a n d c h i l d k i l l e r s i n s t e a d of c h i l d p r o t e c t o r s . B u t d e s p i t e t h e c o n s i d e r a b l e a t t e n t i o n p a i d t o t h i s issue. w e r e o f t e n e m p l o y e d in t h i s c a p a c i t y . w h e r e 9 0 per cent of w i t c h e s were f e m a l e . T h e t h e m e s r a i s e d in S h a r p e ' s c h a p t e r a r e r e v i e w e d witchcraft. T h e y h a d t h e e f f e c t of m a r g i n a l i s i n g w o m e n i n v o l v e d in c e r t a i n t r a d e s . F o r stopped short Holmes. women's encounters with formal witches Robin in of t a k i n g B r i g g s in C h a p t e r 3 . t h a t a n x i e t i e s a b o u t malefi- Holmes. A l l of t h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e i d e a of w i t c h c r a f t s t r o n g l y i m p l i e d f e m a l e c u l p a b i l i t y . h o l d s t h a t a c c u s a t i o n s w e r e a i m e d p r i m a r i l y a g a i n s t witches r a t h e r t h a n w o m e n as s u c h . lust a n d p r i d e . t h e n t o c o n s i d e r w h y w o m e n w e r e Larner's politics W o m e n f e a t u r e d o f t e n as a c c u s e r s a n d v i c t i m s of w i t c h e s . i n c l u d i n g s e x u a l o f f e n c e s . w h o p o i n t s o u t in C h a p t e r 2 6 t h a t a c c u s a t i o n s of w i t c h c r a f t was a a l w a y s c l o s e l y i d e n t i f i e d w i t h w o m e n . t h o u g h t h e s o c i a l p o s i t i o n of w o m e n m a d e t h e m u n u s u a l l y v u l n e r a b l e t o p r o s e c u tions. a n d w h y t h e y c e a s e d t o be so t h r e a t e n i n g a b o u t 1 7 0 0 ' . t h e w i t c h t r i a l s of t h e e a r l y m o d e r n p e r i o d w e r e p a r t of a w i d e r m o v e m e n t t o r e c o n s t i t u t e g e n d e r r e l a t i o n s d u r i n g a t i m e of s o c i a l c h a n g e . He s u g g e s t s t h a t w o m e n in England J i m S h a r p e e x p l o r e s a f a m i l i a r t h e m e in t h e d e b a t e : t h e r o l e of w o m e n in t h e p r o s unusually active in t h e p r o s e c u t i o n of w i t c h c r a f t in c o m p a r i s o n t o o t h e r crimes. knowledge of f e m a l e a n a t o m y . a l i s a t i o n : did the e c o n o m i c circumstances that allegedly encouraged gender conflict in E n g l a n d a p p l y t o o t h e r c o u n t r i e s t h a t e x p e r i e n c e d p e r s e c u t i o n s ? A s L a r n e r p o i n t s o u t in C h a p t e r 2 0 . In s o m e instances. w e r e a p p e a s e d by t h e i r n e i g h b o u r s f o r d e c a d e s b e f o r e t h e i r . h a r m e r s i n s t e a d of h e a l e r s . M o r e o v e r . S h e a r g u e s t h a t a t t e m p t s t o e x p l a i n w i t c h . A n alternative. r e p r e s e n t e d in C h a p t e r 2 0 by C h r i s t i n a L a r n e r . v i l l a g e r s : they assumed t h a t the m a j o r i t y of w i t c h e s were w o m e n a n d m e n c o u l d e n g a g e in i d e n t i c a l t y p e s of b e h a v i o u r b u t w i t h v e r y d i f f e r e n t outcomes: women who asked their neighbours for food and were turned away could s u b s e q u e n t l y be a c c u s e d of maleficium.h u n t s in t e r m s t h e s u p p r e s s i o n of w o m e n by m e n d i s t r a c t h i s t o r i a n s f r o m t h e w i d e r p o l i t i c a l r e l i g i o u s c o n t e x t of t h e p e r s e c u t i o n s : it is n e c e s s a r y f i r s t t o e x p l a i n w h y especially vulnerable to accusations. who acknowledges that ordinary women frequently voiced concerns about attempts to deal with to the courts. were c e n t of t h e a c c u s e d w e r e w o m e n . he e m p h a s i s e s t h e i n f o r m a l e f f o r t s t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s m a d e t o p l a c a t e a n d c o e x i s t w i t h t h o s e s u s p e c t e d of maleficium: the witches at Pendle Y o r k s h i r e . This a p p r o a c h c o m p l e m e n t s argument represented encouraged in C h a p t e r 15 of t h i s book that the Reformation of and w i t c h t r i a l s f o r e v i d e n c e of g e n d e r c o n f l i c t in p a r t i c u l a r s o c i a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s . One o b j e c t i o n t o Hester's work is t h a t it t r i e s t o e x p l a i n w i t c h t r i a l s as t h e it is o p e n t o t h e c h a r g e of overgenerand T h i s a s s u m p t i o n is r e f l e c t e d in t h e s u r v i v i n g r e c o r d s of w i t c h t r i a l s .268 PART SEVEN: WITCHCRAFT AND GENDER PART SEVEN: WITCHCRAFT AND GENDER 269 a t one w i t h o r d i n a r y women. T h i s a r g u m e n t c o m p l e m e n t s t h e v i e w s of L o u i s e involved r e v e r s a l of a c c e p t e d f e m a l e r o l e s : w i t c h e s w e r e p o i s o n e r s i n s t e a d of p r o v i d e r s of f o o d . M a r i a n n e H e s t e r o f f e r s a s t i m u l a t i n g c r i t i c i s m of L a r n e r ' s w o r k in C h a p t e r 2 1 . Like t h r e a t of h a r m f u l m a g i c .r e l a t e d ' but n o t ' s e x . s i n c e p e r s e c u t i o n s t o o k p l a c e in so m a n y d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l a n d p o l i t i c a l c o n t e x t s . a n d r e a d e r s w i l l h a v e t o d e c i d e w h i c h . 4 S u c h records have obliged h i s t o r i a n s to evaluate the relationship between w i t c h h u n t i n g a n d g e n d e r r e l a t i o n s in t h e e a r l y m o d e r n p e r i o d . A c c o r d i n g to L a r n e r ' s f a m o u s f o r m u l a t i o n . T h i s is t h e m e t h o d e m p l o y e d in t h e r e m a i n i n g c h a p t e r s in t h i s s e c t i o n . T h e b e s t recent estimates suggest that three-quarters of t h o s e e x e c u t e d f o r w i t c h c r a f t in E u r o p e were w o m e n . T h u s a t y p i c a l w i t c h w a s t h e m i r r o r . B o t h i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s i n v o l v e a c o n s i d e r a b l e d e g r e e of g e n e r a l i s a t i o n . p e r s o n s a p p o i n t e d by t h e c o u r t s t o e x a m i n e t h e b o d i e s of t h o s e a c c u s e d f o r h i d d e n t e a t s used t o s u c k l e f a m i l i a r s p i r i t s . 3 countries were per These figures o u t w e i g h e d . if e i t h e r . L i c e n c e d m i d w i v e s . Europeans wider of the the c a m e t o a c c e p t t h e r e a l i t y of s a t a n i c w i t c h c r a f t . s u c h a s v e n g e a n c e .s u c h as b r e w i n g a l l o w i n g m e n t o a s s u m e m o r e a u t h o r i t y in e x p a n d i n g a r e a s of t h e e c o n o m y . One i m p o r t a n t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n .i m a g e of a ' g o o d w o m a n ' . by t h o s e f r o m Germany and Scotland. however. T h i s is a d i f f i c u l t t a s k . In C h a p t e r ecution of other w o m e n as w i t c h e s .

Society. described more maleficia. Publications. ( 1 9 2 8 . however. T h e s t u d y of t h i s m a t e r i a l p r o v i d e s a f u r t h e r i n s i g h t i n t o t h e b e t w e e n g e n d e r a n d w i t c h c r a f t .270 PART SEVEN: WITCHCRAFT AND GENDER PART SEVEN: WITCHCRAFT AND GENDER 271 a c t i v i t i e s r e a c h e d t h e a t t e n t i o n of l o c a l m a g i s t r a t e s . against hand. Montague less i n c l i n e d t o m o v e b e y o n d t h i s s t r a t e g y of a c c o m m o d a t i o n seek l e g a l r e m e d i e s t h a n m e n . a n d t h i s w i l l be p i c k e d up in P a r t 8 . there were usually more direct methods for attaining their that e n d s o r r e v e n g i n g t h e m s e l v e s o n t h e i r e n e m i e s .W i t c h ' . were generally Holmes argues that women and often the He crucial account. London 1996). as c o n t e m p o r a r i e s t h o u g h t . o w n r e p u t a t i o n s . suggest. 1-26. w h o argues t h a t the c o n s t r a i n t s i m p o s e d by p a t r i a r c h a l culture London meant that w o m e n were more likely to resort to m a g i c than m e n : For men. Briggs. Witchcraft 1987). m o r e than those of a w o m a n . encour- T h e i d e a t h a t m i d w i v e s w e r e c o m m o n l y a c c u s e d of w i t c h c r a f t w a s o r i g i n a l l y a g e d b y t h e e x c e s s i v e r e l i a n c e o f h i s t o r i a n s o n t h e Malleus that midwife witches abducted infants for ritual Maleficarum. Malleus Maleficarum. New York It s h o u l d be n o t e d . T h i s idea has been developed by S c a r r e . See H a r l e y . on the other instrumental in t h e p r o c e e d i n g s recent a c t s of t e s t i f i e d a b o u t m i s d e e d s t h a t h a d o c c u r r e d m a n y y e a r s b e f o r e t h e p r o s e c u t i o n itself. 201. that m i d w i v e s were not p a r t i c u l a r l y prone to accusations. By t a k i n g this prosecuting 3 w r i t e r s that w o m e n ' s weaknesses made t h e m m o r e susceptible to the Devil's t e m p t a tions. t h e i d e a of w i t c h c r a f t Geoffrey Scarre. h o w e v e r . ' H i s t o r i a n s a s D e m o n o l o g i s t s : T h e M y t h o f t h e M i d w i f e . a n d it is p o s s i b l e h a v e b e e n l i s t e n e d t o . and London 1994). a n d m a d e t h e into F o r a s u r v e y o f d a t a o n t h e s e x . of w i t c h c r a f t ' . in t h e l e g a l d r a m a . Europe sacrifices.d i s t r i b u t i o n o f w i t c h c r a f t s u s p e c t s . 260-2. t h a t t h e Malleus' was absent in m o s t later demonologies. H e p o i n t s o u t t h a t f e m a l e w i t n e s s e s in t r i a l s suggesting t h a t these acts were not accused. T h i s a p p r o a c h is e s s e n t i a l f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e s o c i a l d y n a m i c s o f p e r s e c u t i o n s . A s t h e c h a p t e r by C l i v e H o l m e s s u g g e s t s . H o l m e s s e e k s t o r e t u r n o u r a t t e n t i o n t o w h a t he c a l l s ' t h e m i s o g y n o u s dimension 4 5 A r c h i v e s of the Y o r k s h i r e A r c h a e o l o g i c a l DD146/12/2/10. h o w e v e r . (Routledge. Surviving A l l t h e c h a p t e r s in t h i s p a r t c o n c e n t r a t e on t h e a c c u s a t i o n a n d t r i a l of a l l e g e d w i t c h e s by o t h e r m e m b e r s of t h e i r c o m m u n i t y . a n d d e p i c t s h e r a s t h e p a s s i v e v i c t i m of f o r c e s c o m p l e t e l y b e y o n d h e r c o n t r o l . 1971). b u t d i d so in a c u l t u r e t h a t a l l o w e d t h e m o n l y a l i m i t e d r a n g e of a l t e r n a t i v e m o d e l s by w h i c h t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e i r o w n f e e l i n g s a n d a c t i o n s . Europe in Sixteenth Oedipus and the Devil: Sexuality Religion in Early and 53.d e f i n i t i o n . 121. (Macmillan. A s i m i l a r p i c t u r e h a s e m e r g e d f r o m t h e s t u d y of w i t c h c r a f t c o n f e s s i o n s in r e c e n t y e a r s : t h e s e t e x t s r e v e a l h o w s o m e w o m e n c a m e t o i n t e r n a l i s e t h e i d e a of w i t c h c r a f t a s a n a c t of s e l f . (1990). b u t t h e r e is a d a n g e r t h a t it o b s c u r e s t h e e x p e r i e n c e of t h e w i t c h h e r s e l f . I n d e e d . wickedness later trans. j u s t b e c a u s e he w a s a m a n . b u t b e c a u s e t h e i r s o c i a l and e c o n o m i c position imposed greater c o n s t r a i n t s on their possibilities of a c t i o n . relationship . A l l e g a t i o n s of c a u s i n g i m p o t e n c e w e r e c o m p a r a t i v e l y r a r e in w i t c h trials. w o m e n s u s p e c t e d of maleficium c o u l d p l a y a n a c t i v e r o l e in t h e f o r m a t i o n of t h e i r provided a cultural resource for 6 which claimed trial records David History Witchcraft. see R o b i n Witches and Neighbours (HarperCollins. Lyndal Modern Magic Roper. repr. restraints. preoccupation with female though there was a consensus a m o n g c o n c l u d e s t h a t it w a s m e n r a t h e r t h a n w o m e n w h o t o o k t h e l e a d in w i t c h e s : they were the p r i m a r y a c t o r s d e c i s i o n s a b o u t w h o s h o u l d be t r i e d f o r t h e c r i m e . Seventeenth-Century t h o s e w h o f e l l u n d e r s u s p i c i o n of t h e c r i m e as w e l l as t h e i r a c c u s e r s : t h e s u p p o s e d p o w e r s of t h e P e n d l e w i t c h e s p r o b a b l y a f f o r d e d t h e m m o r e i n f l u e n c e in t h e i r c o m m u nity t h a n they w o u l d Geoffrey otherwise have enjoyed. Social of Medicine and 3(1). Notes 1 Heinrich Summers 2 Kramer and James Dover Sprenger. w e r e m o r e w i c k e d a n d m o r e e a s i l y led t h a n m e n . M e n . W i t c h c r a f t may have t h e c o m p l a i n t s of a m a n a g a i n s t h a r s h o r u n c h a r i t a b l e t r e a t m e n t w o u l d sympathetically appeal for women held more w o m e n t h a n f o r m e n n o t b e c a u s e . 6 Scarre's interpretation r e s t o r e s t h e a g e n c y of w o m e n w h o t h o u g h t t h e m s e l v e s b u t p l a c e s t h i s in t h e c o n t e x t of w i d e r s o c i a l to be c a p a b l e of maleficium.

mostlv peasant w o m e n . m o r e mysterious p o w e r s which do n o t derive f r o m the established order. a n d t h e s c h o o l g i r l g a v e u p . t h e n . In 1 4 9 2 . In addition. a n d a b u s i n g all t h o s e w h o c a m e n e a r h e r . set against h e r n o t only m a l e s . T h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f a n y w o m a n as a w i t c h w i l l .C h a p t e r 20 Christina Larner WAS WITCH-HUNTING HUNTING? WOMAN- m e m b e r o f t h e l o c a l L a b o u r P a r t y t o p r o t e s t t h a t this w a s s e x i s t . and e x e c u t e d for witchcraft. i t w a s l e f t t o a s c h o o l g i r l first p l a c e . p o w e r t o give life. she does n o t n u r t u r e m e n o r c h i l d r e n . in L a n g e n d o r f in t h e R h i n e l a n d . several thousands o f people. T h e r e p o r t a l s o n o t e d that the local children called h e r 'the w i t c h ' . S h e has t h e p o w e r o f w o r d s — t o d e f e n d h e r s e l f o r t o c u r s e . refusing offers o f h e l p . b u t also c o n f o r m i n g f e m a l e s and their children. n o r c a r e f o r t h e w e a k . t h e a u t h o r i t i e s in o n e d i s t r i c t b e c a m e anxious about the prevalence o f witchcraft and began to round up the entire female p o p u l a t i o n .h u n t ( b e t w e e n the late Middle Ages and t h e beginning o f the eighteenth c e n t u r v ) a response t o a perceived threat t o t h e s o c i a l o r d e r t h r o u g h s o m e c h a n g e in t h e s t a t u s o r p o w e r o f w o m e n ? D u r i n g those years. and social o r d e r d e p e n d s o n w o m e n c o n f o r m i n g t o m a l e ideals o f f e m a l e b e h a v i o u r . w e r e put through a c o m p l e x judicial process administered bv m e n . she m a y have o t h e r .h u n t w as a w o m a n . T o what e x t e n t .h u n t is a s t r o n g o n e . T h e y c h a n g e d i t t o ' D i t c h t h e B i t c h ' . was the European w i t c h . S h e is a s s e r t i v e . In t w e l f t h .c e n t u r v R u s s i a . In t h e r W HEN THE ORGANISERS o f an u n e m p l o y m e n t r a l l v s u g g e s t e d 'Ditch t h e W i t c h ' [ M a r g e r e t T h a t c h e r ] as a b a n n e r s l o g a n . All w o m e n threaten m a l e h e g e m o n y with their exclusive therefore. O n l y t h e children? A n d w h a t do M a r g a r e t T h a t c h e r a n d a p a u p e r i s e d e s c a p e e f r o m t h e w e l f a r e s t a t e h a v e in c o m m o n ? T h e s t e r e o t y p e w i t c h is an i n d e p e n d e n t a d u l t w o m a n w h o d o e s n o t c o n f o r m t o t h e m a l e i d e a o f p r o p e r f e m a l e b e h a v i o u r . t h e v a r r e s t e d all b u t t w o o f t h e . t h e s t e r e o t y p e o f a w i t c h in C h r i s t i a n E u r o p e has a l w a y s b e e n t h a t o f a w o m a n . W a s this a t h i n l y d i s g u i s e d a t t a c k o n w o m e n as s u c h ? T h e c a s e t h a t t h e w i t c h . It w a s n o t e d t h a t s h e h a d b e e n t h e bane o f the social w o r k d e p a r t m e n t for vears. T h e s a m e w e e k t h e d e a t h o f an e l d e r l y w o m a n f r o m s t a r v a t i o n w a s r e p o r t e d in t h e p r e s s . asserting h e r p r i v a c y a n d i n d e p e n d e n c e . s h e d o e s n o t r e q u i r e o r give love ( t h o u g h she m a y e n c h a n t ) .

h o w e v e r . b u t also attack w o m e n w h o by their n o n c o n f o r m i t y t h r e a t e n the s e c u ritv o f c o n f o r m i s t women. T h e ratio o f females to males put on trial for w i t c h c r a f t r e i n f o r c e s the t h e o r y that the w i t c h . T h e cursing and b e w i t c h i n g w o m e n w e r e the f e m a l e equivalent o f violent m a l e s . W h e t h e r anonvmous or publicly identified. ' i t a l w a y s l i g h t e d ' . D e s p i t e the longt e r m s t e r e o t y p e . n e v e r t h e l e s s . T h o s e w h o w e r e p r o s e c u t e d for witchcraft w e r e n o t . T h e r e are o t h e r reasons for doubting w h e t h e r the w i t c h .o r d e r c r i s e s g e n e r a t e d b y the n e w regimes o f early m o d e r n E u r o p e . ' A n d w h e n I gave m y malison [the o p p o s i t e o f b e n i s o n j ' . T h e o b j e c t i o n t o v i e w i n g w i t c h . o f f the w e s t coast o f S c o t l a n d . often for the c r i m e o f cursing. S o w h a t is t h e c a s e f o r a r g u i n g t h a t t h e w i t c h . W h e n J a n e t M a c M u r d o c h . o f the witch-hunt. less s e x u a l l y . It w a s n o t f o r n o t h i n g t h a t M a r g a r e t L i s t e r o f F i f e w a s d e s c r i b e d in h e r i n d i c t m e n t in 1 6 6 2 as 'a w i t c h . w o m e n . since male a b s u r d a r g u m e n t w h i c h has b e e n s u s p e c t s a p p e a r t o h a v e b e e n t r e a t e d w i t h t h e s a m e h a r s h n e s s as f e m a l e s o n c e t h e y r e a c h e d t h e c o u r t s . it m i g h t b e w o r t h a d d i n g t h a t w i t c h c r a f t ( t h e u l t i m a t e in h u m a n e v i l ) w a s s e x . a witch threatens the established o r d e r . A witch to t h e m was a person w h o had r e n o u n c e d Christian baptism.h u n t w e n t cursing.h u n t i n g s i m p l y as w o m a n .s p e c i f i c and purges o f past and p r e s e n t . W h e n t h e w i t c h . d r a w a t t e n t i o n t o t h e m o r e s u b s t a n t i a l o b j e c tion that the c r i m e o f witchcraft. W i t c h e s a r e c o n s p i c u o u s . like m a l e bullies. e x c e p t during certain mass panics. T h e p r i m e i n t e r e s t o f t h e a u t h o r i t i e s at t h e t i m e w a s t h e p u r s u i t o f w i t c h e s as such. a c h a r m e r a n d a l i b b e r ' . o u t a f u r t h e r r a n g e o f q u e s t i o n s a b o u t t h e f u n c t i o n o f C h r i s t i a n i t y as a p o l i t i c a l i d e o l o g y in this p e r i o d . 8 0 per c e n t o f the accused w e r e f e m a l e . n o bias a g a i n s t w o m e n c a n b e d e t e c t e d in t h e a u t h o r i t i e s . T h e r e is m u c h t o s u g g e s t t h a t in t h e l a w . s i n c e w o m e n a c c u s e d o t h e r w o m e n a n d w e r e f r e q u e n t l y c h i e f w i t n e s s e s in t h e c o u r t s . F o r areas on t h e p e r i p h e r v — in E n g l a n d a n d R u s s i a . was n o t sex-specific. p r e s s u r e s w h i c h c a m e l a r g e l y f r o m w o m e n . If you are looking for a w i t c h . vounger w o m e n Women urban labouring. T h i s ignores the crucial p r o c e s s through w h i c h t h o s e w h o w e r e put on trial w e r e s e l e c t e d in t h e first p l a c e . m o s t w o m e n will n o t only c o n f o r m . T h e p u r p o s e o f a w i t c h . floated suggests that. a m a n c l a i m e d t o h a v e b e e n a t t a c k e d b v a w i t c h w h o h a d t u r n e d h e r s e l f i n t o an a n g r y s h e e p .h u n t was part o f the sex w a r . T h e fact that these ideological e n e m i e s t u r n e d out t o be 8 0 p e r cent f e m a l e could have added fuel t o the m i s o g y n y o f the age r a t h e r than b e a direct c o n s e q u e n c e o f it. against (including unofficial healing) and f o r k e e p i n g disorderly h o u s e s . U p t o this p e r i o d . many accusations o f witchcraft w e r e between A t village l e v e l . lacking the male escape routes o f m e r c e n a r y v a g a b o n d s . a n d it c o u l d b e any w o m a n . Switzerland and Scotland. a n d w a s in c o n s p i r a c y w i t h o t h e r w i t c h e s t o o v e r t h r o w the social o r d e r . t h e y w e r e t h o s e w h o c o u l d n o t easilv c o o p e r a t e with o t h e r s .r e l a t e d to males during the 'sanctity e p i d e m i c ' o f the later Middle Ages. It d o e s . T h i s l i n e o f r e a s o n i n g is b a s e d on a failure to recognize that a patriarchal social structure divides women.h u n t i n g is t h a t it l e a d s us t o ask t o o n a r r o w a r a n g e o f q u e s t i o n s a b o u t i t . b u t it is n o t a b s u r d . w o m e n w e r e a p r i m e symbol o f disorder. f o r e x a m p l e was n e a r e r 9 5 — 1 0 0 per cent. Male judges w e r e simply responding to pressures from b e l o w . persecutions than randomly w e n t to the stake during the w i t c h .274 CHRISTINA LARNER WAS WITCH-HUNTING W 0 MA N-HUNTING? 275 adult w o m e n . S h e c o u l d t e l l f o r t u n e s f r o m t h e way A more a person walked.h u n t i n g in l a w and o r d e r c r i s e s .h u n t w a s n o t d i r e c t e d p r i m a r i l y b y m e n a g a i n s t w o m e n ? O n e l i n e o f a r g u m e n t is t h a t . archives France. W h e r e m e n m i g h t use knives. T h e w o m e n w a s d e f e n d i n g h e r s e l f a g a i n s t t h e a c c u s a t i o n s o f J e a n S p r o t in D u m f r i e s in 1 6 7 1 . F r o m this p e r s p e c t i v e .a n d . W a s it b e c a u s e o f a r i s e in t h e i r s t a t u s a n d i n d e p e n d e n c e ? W a s t h e r e a s u p e r f l u o u s f e m a l e p o p u l a t i o n ? W a s it ( p a r a d o x i c a l l y ) because the Christianization o f the peasantry through the R e f o r m a t i o n and C o u n t e r Reformation i n c r e a s e d the individual responsibilitv o f w o m e n for their spiritual opens l i v e s ? W a s it b e c a u s e t h e r e l i g i o n so d i f f u s e d w a s r e l e n t l e s s l v p a t r i a r c h a l ? T h e thought that witch-hunting was actuallv witch-hunting.r e l a t e d . a n d t h e l e g i t i m a c y o f p a r a l l e l s w i t h o t h e r g r e a t . thinly disguised w o m a n . W h i l e I a m c o n s i d e r i n g d u b i o u s b u t n o t q u i t e p o i n t l e s s s t a t i s t i c s . o n e Scottish w i t c h said at h e r t r i a l .h u n t was a straightf o r w a r d . T h e y w e r e t h e d i s t u r b e r s o f s o c i a l o r d e r . she a r g u e d t h a t J e a n s h o u l d n o t b e a c c e p t e d as a w i t n e s s s i n c e she w a s as g r e a t a w i t c h h e r s e l f .h u n t . w o m e n t e n d e d t o b e r e g a r d e d in l a w as t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f t h e i r f a t h e r s o r t h e i r h u s b a n d s . t h e p u r s u i t of w i t c h e s was n o m o r e a p e r s e c u t i o n o f w o m e n than the p r o s e c u t i o n o f killers and m a i m e r s w a s a p e r s e c u t i o n o f m e n .h u n t was the prising out o f dangerous p e r s o n s w h o w e r e e n e m i e s o f G o d . his d o g w o u l d be able to sniff out w h i c h o f t h e m was the w i t c h . r a n d o m l y s e l e c t e d (anv m o r e m a l e s w h o w e r e p r o s e c u t e d f o r c r i m e s o f v i o l e n c e in this p e r i o d w e r e selected).r e l a t e d t o f e m a l e s in j u s t t h e s a m e p r o p o r t i o n as s a n c t i t y ( t h e u l t i m a t e in h u m a n g o o d ) w a s s e x . H e said t h a t . h o w e v e r . W e m u s t ask w h y w o m e n a p p e a r e d p a r t i c u l a r l y t h r e a t e n i n g t o p a t r i a r c h a l o r d e r a t this t i m e . T h e last t e r m s e e m s t o h a v e had m u c h t h e s a m e p e j o r a t i v e m e a n i n g it c a r r i e s t o d a y : a l i b e r a t e d woman who w h o insists o n m a k i n g an i s s u e o f i t . a n d w h v t h e v c e a s e d t o b e s o t h r e a t e n i n g a b o u t 1 7 0 0 . while s e x . t h e i d e a t h a t t h e a u t h o r i t i e s in t h e s i x t e e n t h a n d s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s c o n s c i o u s l y s o u g h t t o t e r r o r i z e a n d i n t i m i d a t e w o m e n g a i n s f u r t h e r s t r e n g t h . T h e p a r a l l e l is n o t e x a c t . T h e actual n u m b e r o f those involved is p e r m a n e n t l y suggest that in inaccessible. c a m e in t h e w a k e o f n e w p u n i t i v e a t t i t u d e s t o s e x u a l were also particularlv vulnerable to the new laws first the proportion of females criminalization fighting with children.h u n t is p u t i n t o its c r i m i n a l c o n t e x t . W i t c h e s . w e r e n o t ' n i c e p e o p l e ' . O n the island o f C o l l . v o u a r e l o o k i n g f o r a w o m a n . certain activities o f w o m e n w e r e m a d e into c r i m e s for the time. w o m e n used w o r d s . t h e r o l e p l a v e d b v w i t c h . i f all t h e w o m e n in C o l l w e r e p l a c e d t o g e t h e r in a p e n . t h e r e w a s n o t h i n g m i s o g vnous about witch-hunting. D e p e n d e n t for their livelihood on the goodwill o f m e n . the state and the p e o p l e . sixteenth c e n t u r y d e m o n o l o g i s t s spent m u c h t i m e puzzling o v e r w h y w o m e n w e r e so m u c h m o r e w i c k e d than men. y o u n g e r being prosecuted infanticide and p r o s t i t u t i o n . While were older women were for coming into the courts for The witchcraft offences women of or activity. given h i s / h e r s o u l t o t h e D e v i l . In t h e sixteenth c e n t u r v . areas at the but reliable centre figures for particular criminal in Germany. A b o u t 2 0 per cent o f suspects w e r e male. they w e r e aggressive.

this s c e n a r i o o f s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s in a c o n t e x t o f c h a n g i n g . and they w e r e usually w o m e n ' . m o r a l obligations does explain w h y t h e accused w e r e older.r e l a t e d w i t h r e g a r d t o w o m e n b u t n o t s e x . o f d e p e n d e n c y a n d p o v e r t y . a r e h u m a n r a t h e r t h a n f e m a l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ' . talking o f course primarily about the English c o n t e x t .p r o d u c t o f a patriarchal society. Nonetheless. that ' t h e judicial r e c o r d s reveal t w o essential facts a b o u t a c c u s e d w i t c h e s : w e r e p o o r . w o m a n ) . W i t h i n this context w i t c h p e r s e c u t i o n s e r v e d — in a d y n a m i c r a t h e r t h a n f u n c t i o n a l s e n s e — as a m e a n s o f r e c r e a t i n g t h e m a l e s t a t u s q u o in t h e e m e r g i n g s o c i a l o r d e r . religions and political systems. a r g u i n g t h a t t h e a n s w e r t o w h o t h e w i t c h e s w e r e c a n b e f o u n d at the village level w h e r e allegations a r o s e .f e m a l e conflict with regard t o resources. slightly b e t t e r off. i t a r g u e s t h a t in o u r q u e s t t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e p h e n o m f e m a l e c o n f l i c t u a l r e l a t i o n s as a n integral part o f the process o f accusation and p e r s e c u t i o n . ' c h a n g e ' a l o n e c a n n o t e x p l a i n t h e w i t c h . 6 states they H e p l a c e s w i t c h c r a f t w i t h i n its s o c i a l . t h a t is m a l i c e a n d a l l e g e d s u p e r n a t u r a l p o w e r . t h e a r e a o f h e r r e s e a r c h e s ) w e r e s e x . a n d t h a t 4 w o r k o f C h r i s t i n a L a r n e r has p r o b a b l y h a d t h e g r e a t e s t i m p a c t o n h i s t o r i a n s ' p e r c e p t i o n s o f w h y it w a s l a r g e l y w o m e n w h o w e r e a c c u s e d o f w i t c h c r a f t d u r i n g t h e e a r l y m o d e r n p e r i o d . t h e g e n d e r i n g o f expectations and meanings and m a l e . H e points o u t that during t h e late T u d o r and earlv Stuart period. a n d in p r a c t i c e . T h e erosion o f the manorial system w i t h l o s s o f c u s t o m a r y t e n a n c i e s a n d c o m m o n l a n d c r e a t e d p o v e r t y w h i l e at t h e same t i m e b r e a k i n g up old c o o p e r a t i v e village c o m m u n i t i e s . in p a r t i c u l a r l i n k s b e t w e e n ' t h e f e m a l e ' a n d t h e w i t c h . B u t . village conflicts around neighbourliness g r e w especially acute. conflictual. i f m i s f o r t u n e h a p p e n e d t o t h e o n e w h o had d e n i e d h e r . but w e r e m o r e to do with the imposition o f a Christian p o l i t i c a l i d e o l o g y . It w a s t h e a g e . a p o o r w o m a n w o u l d ask f o r c h a r i t y o r t o b o r r o w e s s e n t i a l s u p p l i e s ( o f t e n f r o m a n o t h e r . c l e a r l y shies a w a y f r o m s e e i n g this o u t c o m e Marianne Hester PATRIARCHAL AND RECONSTRUCTION WITCH-HUNTING O NE OF T H E MOST CONSISTENT yet least u n d e r s t o o d aspects o f the f o r w o m e n as in a n y w a y r e l a t e d t o m a l e — f e m a l e c o n f l i c t . T h o m a s argues that w i t c h c r a f t accusation was related t o failure t o carry o u t s o m e hitherto recognised social obliga t i o n . 8 e a r l v m o d e r n w i t c h . has r i g h t l y p o i n t e d o u t t h a t c h a n g e is n o t a f e a t u r e u n i q u e t o t h i s p e r i o d . 1 o f wdtchcraft w e r e w o m e n . h e d o e s n o t a c t u a l l y m a n a g e t o e x p l a i n w h y i t s h o u l d b e w o m e n r a t h e r t h a n m e n w h o a r e in this p o s i t i o n o f v u l n e r a b i l i t y .PATRIARCHAL RECONSTRUCTION AND WITCH-HUNTING 277 C h a p t e r 21 e n v i r o n m e n t . 3 tensions conflicts n o t least with regard to m a l e female relations. a n a l y s i s in Religion T h o m a s t h u s p r e s e n t s a c o m p l e x analysis and social change which incorporates o f 'sex-related versus sex-specific' set up by Christina Larner's w o r k . about witchcraft and neighbourliness. b u t d e n i e d and eventually. T h e accusation o f w o m e n w a s n o t m e r e l v a r e f l e c t i o n o f an a g e .h u n t s at this t i m e . T h i s c l a s s i c m o d e l o f w i t c h c r a f t a c c u s a t i o n has s i n c e b e e n shown t o have a w i d e r application than m e r e l y for E n g l a n d / although o n e might q u e s t i o n w h e t h e r it actually explains w h y it w a s w o m e n w h o p r e d o m i n a t e d a m o n g s t t h e a c c u s e d . Essentially. t h r o u g h o u t E u r o p e and the so-called New World. W i d o w s w e r e particularly adversely affected by these changes leaving t h e m vulnerable t o w i t c h c r a f t a c c u s a t i o n .o l d s t e r e o t y p e . H e a r g u e s t h a t b e c a u s e t h e m i s o g y n i s t i c o r ' b l a t a n t l y s e x u a l a s p e c t s ' o f w i t c h c r a f t c o m m o n in c o n t i n e n t a l l i t e r a t u r e s u c h as t h e Malleus Maleflcarum w e r e n o t a feature o f English trials. ' S e x .h u n t s in e a r l y m o d e r n E u r o p e ( a n d e s p e c i a l l y in S c o t l a n d . she a r g u e d . Keith T h o m a s . w o u l d b e a c c u s e d o f using w i t c h c r a f t t o c a u s e t h e m i s f o r t u n e . the o n g o i n g m e c h a n i s m s for social c o n t r o l o f w o m e n within a general c o n t e x t o f social change and the r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a patriarchal s o c i e t y . L a r n e r did n o t give p r e c i s e definitions f o r these t e r m s . E u r o p e e x p e r i e n c e d changes and a r e s t r u c ambiguities. ' t h e idea that w i t c h p r o s e c u t i o n s r e f l e c t e d a w a r between the sexes must be discounted'. F o r T h o m a s . ideology. b e l i e f s w o m e n ' s p o s i t i o n as d e p e n d e n t p o o r a n d e s p e c i a l l y as p o o r w i d o w s . S h e c o n c l u d e s t h a t w h i l e t h e vast m a j o r i t y o f t h o s e a c c u s e d a m i d those p r o s e c u t e d for witchcraft w e r e w o m e n .s p e c i f i c . T h i s is b e c a u s e his s o m e w h a t p o s i t i v i s t i c a p p r o a c h t o t h e m a t e r i a l detailing the accused and victims o f witchcraft does n o t allow him t o e x a m i n e the p r o c e s s o f g e n d e r i n g o f t h e social relations h e o t h e r w i s e so e l o q u e n t l y d e s c r i b e s . turing o f society which created many uncertainties. but indicated that the t e r m ' s e x . enon o f the witch-hunts w e have t o see male o f p o s s i b l e l i n k s b e t w e e n e a r l y m o d e r n s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s at t h e v i l l a g e l e v e l . T h o m a s . S i n c e Religion and the Decline of Magic w a s first p u b l i s h e d in t h e e a r l y 1 9 7 0 s t h e m a i n l y o n E n g l i s h m a t e r i a l . p o o r and often w i d o w e d w o m e n . and o n e e x a m p l e of. d e s p i t e his c l a i m s t o t h e c o n t r a r y .r e l a t e d ' m e a n t that witch-hunts w e r e ' o n e degree r e m o v e d f r o m an a t t a c k o n w o m e n as s u c h ' . this is n o t t h e c a s e b e c a u s e 'the t w o principal characteristics o f the w i t c h .s p e c i f i c ' w o u l d b e a p p l i e d o n l v i f all t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e w i t c h w e r e a t t r i b u t a b l e t o w o m e n .h u n t s is h o w a c c u s a t i o n a n d p e r s e c u t i o n f o r w i t c h c r a f t In an a t t e m p t t o q u e s t i o n w h y t h e g r e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n o f t h o s e a c c u s e d this c h a p t e r seeks t o m o v e b e y o n d K e i t h of Magic Thomas's Focusing and the Decline ( 1 9 7 1 ) and also b e y o n d t h e d i c h o t o m y 2 c a m e t o b e largely d i r e c t e d against w o m e n . L a r n e r a r g u e d t h a t t h e w i t c h . and especially because the accusations w e r e often from o n e w o m a n t o another rather than b e t w e e n w o m e n and m e n . the witch-hunts w e r e a part of. 3 It is g e n e r a l l y recognised Levack during and t h a t E u r o p e in t h e e a r l y m o d e r n p e r i o d e x p e r i e n c e d a v a r i e t y o f m a j o r c h a n g e s in t e r m s o f d e m o g r a p h y . when formal witchcraft accusation w a s at its h e i g h t . T h i s c h a p t e r e x a m ines s o m e o f the evidence for t h e relationship b e t w e e n witchcraft and patriarchal r e c o n s t r u c t i o n .o l d g e n d e r s t e r e o t v p e o f t h e w i t c h t h a t m a d e t h e m the sixteenth and s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s . the witch-hunts w e r e n o t actually about w o m e n hunting. n o r m e r e l y t h e b y . l i k e M a c f a r l a n e . e c o n o m y .

o r ing. T h i s l e a d s us t o a n o t h e r r e l a t e d p r o b l e m .h u n t p e r i o d t h e f o c u s o f p e r s e c u t i o n w a s t h o s e p e r s o n s c o n s i d e r e d b y t h e C a t h o l i c c h u r c h as ' h e r e t i c s ' .h u n t s . older and often w i d o w e d w o m e n during the sixteenth and m o r e s e x . and how and w h y w i t c h . is o b v i o u s in t e x t s s u c h as t h e Malleus Malefcarum. a n d a l s o a w a y f r o m t h e e l i t e . h e t e r o s e x u a l i n t e r c o u r s e outside m a r r i a g e . 9 p o o r e r . a n d s e x u a l i s a t i o n . b u t also h o w w o m e n a c t e d w i t h i n this c o n t e x t as s u b j e c t s m a k i n g c h o i c e s . is p a r t i c u l a r l y i m p o r t a n t in c o n s t r u c t 1 6 m a l i c e a n d u s e o f s u p e r n a t u r a l p o w e r as m o r e l i k e l y t o b e f e m a l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . We may.h u n t i n g directly linked to s e x / g e n d e r .s p e c i f i c . societies that are m a l e dominated rely on constructions o f 'the f e m a l e ' which present w o m e n as b o t h d i f f e r e n t a n d i n f e r i o r t o m e n . as t h e site o f a h e t e r o s e x u a l . W e n e e d in p a r t i c u l a r t o t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t t h e dynamic b e i n g p e r c e i v e d i n c r e a s i n g l y as f e m a l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . 1 7 s e x . a l t h o u g h at a l o c a l and i n f o r m a l l e v e l . H o b b y .w i t c h . this d i f f e r e n c e . I w o u l d suggest that the witchh u n t s w e r e n o t m e r e l y s e x . T from Women Finally. Formal witch accusations change from being m e r e l y sex-related to being 1 4 W e n e e d t o m o v e b e y o n d the d i c h o t o m y set up by L a r n e r ' s w o r k so that w e m a y d e v e l o p a m o r e s o p h i s t i c a t e d analysis o l w h y t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h o s e a c c u s e d o f w i t c h c r a f t d u r i n g t h e s i x t e e n t h a n d s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s w e r e w o m e n . For a start.h u n t s w e s e e an o r i e n t a t i o n o f p e r s e c u t i o n a w a v f r o m m e n . s o m e p r o b l e m s with L a r n e r ' s d i c h o t o m y ol sexrelated versus sex-specific. t o u s e S c a r r e ' s w o r d s .h u n t s . structures and discourses that characterise patriarchy for w o m e n .278 MARIANNE HESTER PATRIARCHAL RECONSTRUCTION AND WITCH-HUNTING 279 sex-related.d e t e r m i n e d : it c a n n o r m a l l y o n l y o c c u r w i t h i n t h e l i m i t s and on t h e t e r m s o f t h e f r a m e w o r k set by the d o m i n a n t g r o u p . r 1 3 d o n o t fulfill t h e m a l e v i e w o f Secondly. t h e n w e s h o u l d use the t e r m s to reflect a m o r e c o m p l e x situation. 1 9 d e e m e d the only a p p r o p r i a t e place f o r any sexual activity t o B u t in this p r e . b u t this capitulation o r resist a n c e is n o t f r e e o r s e l f . O n e o f t h e r e s u l t s . t h e w i t c h .r e l a t e d n e s s . a m o n g s t t h e p e a s a n t r y . As I have p o i n t e d o u t e l s e w h e r e .r e l a t e d v e r s u s s e x . p r o c r e a t i v e s e x u a l i t y u n d e r t h e c o n t r o l o f m e n . N e i t h e r s e x has a m o n o p o l y o n a n y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o r b e h a v i o u r — e x c e p t as c o n s t r u c t e d a n d s p e c i f i e d at a n y p a r t i c u l a r t i m e . w h e r e it w as particularly female sexuality that was perceived to m a k e w o m e n different men. T h e r e are. p a m p h l e t s and o t h e r l i t e r ature at the t i m e take p l a c e . 1 1 W h e r e the early m o d e r n witch-hunts r a r e c o n c e r n e d w e h a v e m u c h e v i d e n c e o f this s e x u a l i s i n g p r o c e s s . b v c o n t r a s t t o t h e ' n o r m ' w h i c h w a s c o n s t r u e d as h e t e r o s e x u a l . men'. t h e p a t r i a r c h a l i d e a l f o r w o m e n w a s t h a t they should b e quiet ( n o t scolds) and subservient t o their husbands ( n o t c u c k o l d i n g t h e l a t t e r ) . W i t h r e g a r d t o t h e e a r l y m o d e r n p e r i o d t h e r e is s o m e e v i d e n c e t o s u g g e s t t h a t t h e p r i n c i p a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e w i t c h were of 1 0 If w e are to understand was society at h o w a female w i t c h s t e r e o t y p e d e v e l o p e d . w e must take into a c c o u n t that European p r i o r t o . seventeenth centuries. social s t r u c t u r e s and discourses manv different levels. n o m e a n s c o m p l y i n g w i t h the ideal o f the quiet c o m p l i a n t w i f e . t o w a r d s w o m e n and in p a r t i c u l a r a c c u s a t i o n m u s t b e s e e n in this c o n t e x t o f w i d e s p r e a d f e a r s t h a t w o m e n w e r e b y . M a r r i a g e . e s p e c i a l l y p r i o r t o t h e w i t c h . a s e x u a l d o u b l e s t a n d a r d w i t h f e m a l e s e x u a l i t v p r e s e n t e d as i n f e r i o r t o t h a t o i m e n .c e n t u r y E n g l a n d . and t h e r e b y m a i n t a i n i n g . A s she says w h e n d i s c u s s i n g t h e l i n k b e t w e e n w i t c h c r a f t a n d t h e t y p e o f p e r s o n a c c u s e d . 2 0 i n s t a n c e s o f l o c a l l y n c h i n g s .h u n t s . 11 procreative In r e c e n t v e a r s t h e r e has b e e n a t r e m e n d o u s d e v e l o p m e n t in t h e t h e o r i s i n g o f t h e p r o c e s s i n v o l v e d in w h a t T h o m a s t e r m s t h e ' w a r b e t w e e n t h e s e x e s ' . w e see that u n e q u a l male—female social relations w e r e also r e f l e c t e d in a n d c o n s t r u c t e d b y t h e e m e r g i n g n o t i o n o f t h e w i t c h . w h i l e n o t t h i n k i n g b e y o n d this a n d m e r e l y r i d i c u l i n g and marginalising the a r g u m e n t that the w i t c h . talking specifically about w o m e n ' s activities within the patriarchal c o n t e x t o f s e v e n t e e n t h . I f w e f o c u s o n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e w i t c h c r a f t c o n s t r u c t a m o n g s t t h e l e a r n e d e l i t e in t h e c e n t u r i e s l e a d i n g up t o the w i t c h . Larner's own work is actually more a m b i g u o u s t h a n t h e d i c h o t o m y t h a t has a r i s e n f r o m it s u g g e s t s . o f ' t h e f e m a l e ' i n a v a r i e t y o f w a y s o v e r t i m e .h u n t s w e r e indeed sex-specific. b u t — at d i f f e r e n t t i m e s a n d at d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s — b o t h r e l a t e d t o a n d s p e c i f i c t o w o m e n . s u p p o s e d l y o f w i t c h e s .r e l a t e d ' a n d ' s e x . and t h i s r e q u i r e s a d e e p e r l o o k at m a l e — f e m a l e r e l a t i o n s ( o r g e n d e r r e l a t i o n s ) d u r i n g t h i s period than most historians have so far a t t e m p t e d . t h a t o f p l a c i n g as c e n t r a l t o w i t c h h u n t i n g t h e i m p o s i t i o n o f a C h r i s t i a n p o l i t i c a l i d e o l o g y and t h e a r g u m e n t t h a t t h e s e x . defining 'sex-specific' by r e f e r e n c e to a set o f characteristics which c a n s e e m i n g l y a p p l y t o o n l y o n e s e x i g n o r e s t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f c h a n g e in t h e p e r c e p t i o n and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f anv characteristics a t t r i b u t a b l e t o m e n o r w o m e n . documents n T h e s e ideas w e r e e x p r e s s e d m o s t obviously by the middle and u p p e r c l a s s e s . with a resultant g e n d e r i n g o f social r e l a t i o n s .h u n t i n g is w o m e n h u n t i n g o r at l e a s t i t is t h e h u n t i n g o f w o m e n who h o w w o m e n ought to conduct t h e m s e l v e s ' . i n c l u d i n g b o t h m e n a n d w o m e n . a l b e i t l i m i t e d o n e s : ' W o m e n find w a y s o f c o p i n g w i t h their o p p r e s s i o n and ways o f resisting it. It is n o t e n o u g h . This misses the point (otherwise implicit in the q u o t a t i o n f r o m L a r n e r ) t h a t g e n d e r r e l a t i o n s a r e an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f C h r i s t i a n p o l i t ical i d e o l o g y .h u n t s w a s m a l e d o m i n a t e d o r p a t r i a r c h a l . i n c l u d i n g a p e r c e p t i o n nature o f patriarchy. L a r n e r ' s use o f the d i c h o t o m y o f w e r e c o n s i d e r e d s e x u a l l y i n s a t i a b l e a n d p r o n e t h e r e f o r e t o sinful a n d d e v i a n t b e h a v i o u r .s p e c i f i c ' at a l l . C o h n . w a s — as e x p r e s s e d in m a n y s e r m o n s .s p e c i f i c has u n f o r t u n a t e l y s e t u p a d u a l i s m w h i c h it is o f t e n difficult to l o o k b e v o n d — w h e r e historians t e n d to c o n c u r emphatically with h e r a r g u m e n t o f s e x .s p e c i f i c at t h i s t i m e . sex under male control. b u t t h e y w e r e a l s o r e f l e c t e d in a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s a n d d e c i s i o n s a b o u t t h e b e h a v i o u r o f w o m e n f r o m t h e l o w e r c l a s s e s as e x e m p l i f i e d b y c h u r c h c o u r t c a s e s : m a n y w o m e n w e r e p u n i s h e d t h r o u g h t h e s e c o u r t s f o r b e a r i n g an i l l e g i t i m a t e c h i l d and for f o r n i c a t i o n . t h a t all a p p e a r t o b e o f w o m e n . 1 8 D u r i n g this p e r i o d o f t h e w i t c h . p e r s e c u t i o n o f t h o s e d e e m e d t o b e w i t c h e s was probablv m o r e specific to w o m e n even then. I f w e are t o u s e t h e t e r m s ' s e x . for i n s t a n c e . Witchcralt In m o s t o f t h e c o u n t r i e s a f f e c t e d b v w i t c h .r e l a t e d o r m e r e l v s e x . w h e r e continuity o f inequality b e t w e e n m e n and w o m e n relies on changing f o r m s o f oppression o v e r t i m e . w h i l e at a l o c a l l e v e l . c o n s i d e r b e l i e f s a m o n g s t t h e l e a r n e d e l i t e a n d t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a legal f r a m e w o r k f o r d e a l i n g w i t h w i t c h c r a f t .s p e c i f i c . M a l e s e x u a l i t v w as n o t d i s c u s s e d in a s i m i l a r l y n e g a t i v e m a n n e r . eroticisation. b e l i e f s a n d a c t i v i t i e s a g a i n s t w i t c h e s w e r e — in m o s t E u r o p e a n c o u n t r i e s — s e x . has o u t l i n e d t h e m a n y w a y s w o m e n ' s lives w e r e c u r t a i l e d by c o m p a r i s o n t o t h o s e o f m e n . h o w e v e r . that is. as s e x r e l a t e d . t h e r e is s o m e e v i d e n c e t o s u g g e s t t h a t t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p is d i r e c t : ' W i t c h .r e l a t e d n e s s o f a c c u s a t i o n s is s e p a r a t e f r o m this a n d m e r e l y t o d o w i t h t h e a g e old stereotype of the witch. for e x a m p l e . as w e l l as d u r i n g . c o n s t r u c t i n g a n d b e i n g c o n s t r u c t e d b y t h i s . ' t o sav t h a t m o r e w o m e n t h a n m e n w e r e t r i e d f o r w i t c h c r a f t b e c a u s e the stereotypical witch was a w o m a n ' . t h a t is the oppressive relations.

as w a s w e l l p r o v e d t o b e t r u e . and not d u r i n g t h e s i x t e e n t h a n d s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s . Here we have a direct example o f the link b e t w e e n 2 3 women w e r e b v d e f i n i t i o n ( l i k e E v e in t h e g a r d e n o f E d e n ) .f e a r i n g a n d d e e p l y s u p e r s t i t i o u s s o c i e t y . T h e w o m a n m a k i n g t h e d e m a n d is t h e n a c c u s e d o f w i t c h c r a f t . In t h e c i r c u l a r . b u t a l s o i m p l i c i t in t h e s y m b o l i s m o f t h e f a m i l i a r a n d t h e w i t c h e s ' m a r k s in o t h e r t r i a l s . D e l p h y has p o i n t e d out.280 MARIANNE HESTER PATRIARCHAL RECONSTRUCTION AND WITCH-HUNTING 281 T h e w o m e n a c c u s e d o f w i t c h c r a f t m a y b e s e e n as v i c t i m s o f t h e w i t c h .f u l f i l l i n g . b y t h e S e r p e n t s d e c e i v i n g o f E v e at t h e b e g i n n i n g . as I shall d i s c u s s further b e l o w . In t h e E n g l i s h t r i a l m a t e r i a l this a l l e g i a n c e w a s e x p l i c i t w i t h s o m e o f t h e l a t e r t r i a l s s u c h as t h e 1 6 4 5 t r i a l s i n E s s e x i n v o l v i n g M a t t h e w H o p k i n s . It t r a n s p i r e s t h a t J o h n a n d E l l e i n e h a v e f a l l e n o u t o v e r his d e m a n d f o r t h e m o n e y . B e r n a r d ' s Guide to Grand-Jury Men. makes him the h o m e l i e r with that sex ever s i n c e . In a n o t h e r i n s t a n c e . serving the material interests of men a n d a l s o . S u b s e q u e n t l y J o h n C h a u n d e l e r d i e s . o t h e r w o m e n a n d m e n ) as i n f e r i o r a n d s u b o r d i n a t e t o m e n . o t h e r household items and even m o n e y . t h a n m e r e m o r t a l m e n . the process o f c o n s t r u c t i o n and positioning o f w o m e n ( b y t h e m s e l v e s . in i t s e l f e x p l a i n w h y w o m e n p r e d o m i n a t e d a m o n g s t t h e a c c u s e d d u r i n g the early m o d e r n period. m u s t b e s e e n as a g e n d e r e d i d e o l o g y within m e r e l v . T h e p r o c e s s o f g e n d e r i n g is o f central i m p o r t a n c e : that is. as b o t h T h o m a s a n d L a r n e r i n d i c a t e . u p o n w h i c h a c c u s a t i o n o f w i t c h c r a f t r e l i e d . It w a s m e n w h o s t o o d t o g a i n b y t h e l i n k i n g o f w i t c h c r a f t a n d ' t h e f e m a l e ' b e c a u s e it p r o v i d e d t h e m w i t h a g r e a t e r m o r a l and social status than w o m e n . 2 4 than m e n . W o m e n ' s supposedly insatiable and i m m o r a l sexuality was likely t o lead t h e m i n t o a l l e g i a n c e w i t h t h e D e v i l w h o c o u l d fulfill t h e i r s e x u a l d e s i r e s e v e n b e t t e r . s e l f . g e n d e r d i s c o u r s e o f t h e w i t c h . to a more explicit focus on the genitals. b u t this c o u l d also m a k e t h e m appear u l t i m a t e l y stronger o f ' t h e f e m a l e ' b e c a m e s y n o n y m o u s w i t h t h e w i t c h . as T h o m a s s u g g e s t s . w a s c o n s t r u e d as witchcraft. M i c h a e l D a l t o n . O t h e r s have m o r e convincingly s o c i e t y . a n d t h e m a n y s u b t l e o r n o t so s u b t l e p r e s s u r e s u n d e r l y i n g s u c h c o n s t r u c t i o n s a n d p o s i t i o n i n g . the refuser o r her/his family subsequently suffers death o r i l l n e s s . so it w a s f e a r e d . t h a t it is t h e s e x o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l t h a t d e t e r m i n e s h o w a t a s k is p e r c e i v e d rather than the nature o f the task i t s e l f . which Alice's widowed husband. a d e c a d e l a t e r . her mother. witch's magistrates r e c o m m e n d e d that the pre-trial body search for 2 2 material f r o m England. b u t t h e c o n s t r u c t o f t h e f e m a l e as an a c t i v e l v s e x u a l . Women were perceived to be morally weak by c o m p a r i s o n with m e n .o l d f e m a l e s t e r e o t y p e o f t h e w i t c h d o e s n o t . John Chaundeler. s h o w s us t h a t w o m e n w e r e b y n o m e a n s c o n s i d ered passive or compliant. B u t i f a m a n m a k e s d e m a n d s o f a w o m a n t h e n it still t h e w o m a n w h o is a c c u s e d o f w i t c h c r a f t — as in t h e c a s e o f J o h n C h a u n d e l e r a n d E l l e i n e S m i t h e a t t h e 1 5 7 9 t r i a l in C h e l m s f o r d . 2 3 marks be 'focused upon the genital a r e a ' . In t h i s . that w o m e n w h o w e r e accused o f witchcraft largely used witchcraft against o t h e r w o m e n . b o t h E n g l i s h a n d other E u r o p e a n . r e s u l t is t h a t s h e e n d s u p as t h e a c c u s e d . w h e r e a p p a r e n t u s e o f w i t c h c r a f t b e c a m e an a l t e r n a t i v e f o r w o m e n physical v i o l e n c e . h e n c e s i n f u l b e i n g . u t e d this s i t u a t i o n t o w o m e n ' s p o s i t i o n a n d g e n e r a l l a c k o f p o w e r in a p a t r i a r c h a l p a b l e o f u s i n g t h e m o r e n o r m a l o r s o c i a l l v a p p r o v e d m e a n s o f r e v e n g e s u c h as o r r e c o u r s e t o law c o u r t s ' . D a l t o n c i t e s B e r n a r d ' w i t h e n t h u s i a s t i c a p p r o v a l ' . f e m a l e ' as d i f f e r e n t a n d i n f e r i o r t o m e n a n d ' t h e w i t c h ' . does n o t agree that the witch-hunts m a y be linked directly t o male—female c o n f l i c t o r s e x s t r u g g l e . w i t h t h e p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h e f o u r t h e d i t i o n o f The Country Justice a n d J P . S i n c e w e find f r o m t h e t r i a l m a t e r i a l . a n d b e f o r e his d e a t h states that Elleine b e w i t c h e d h i m so that he was unable t o eat or digest m e a t . in a t e x t o f 1 6 1 7 . f r o m t h e s a m e t r i a l . u n a b l e t o use the m e a n s 2 6 usually e m p l o y e d by m e n . as a m e a n s o f d e a l i n g w i t h g u i l t a f t e r behaviour. tially l u c r a t i v e c r a f t s a n d t r a d e s t h a n w o m e n . or w h e r e it is w o m e n w h o e n d u p a c c u s e d o f m e n ' s m i s d e m e a n o u r s .h u n t p e r i o d w o m e n w e r e p e r c e i v e d as m o r e l i k e l y t o b e s e x u a l l y d e v i a n t t h a n m e n b e c a u s e in a G o d . that is. s e x u a l l v d e v i a n t . b u t also changes B e r n a r d ' s insistence that w i t c h e s ' m a r k s m a y b e found a n y w h e r e — a l t h o u g h in ' v e r y h i d d e n p l a c e s ' Thereafter. and that accusations w e r e often directed by women women attrib'incaa g a i n s t w o m e n . in his The which time and When his chickens eat Mother evidence amongst the construction of 'the Staunton's grain t h r e e o r four dozen o f t h e m die. as f o u n d patriarchal relations. W h e n refused this. so it is e a s i e r t o b e i n t r a p p e d in t h e s e g r o s s e s n a r e s o f t h e D e v i l l . t h e r e was a g e n d e r i n g o f e x p e c tations and m e a n i n g s . E u r o p e and N e w England. H e has p r e v i o u s l y e q u i v o c a t e d a b o u t w h e t h e r o r n o t s h e is a w i t c h . p r o v i d e d a fullv a r g u e d t h e o r y by lawyer o f this link. W e c a n s e e t h i s p r o c e s s c l e a r l v in t r i a l might ' m a d e an e x p l i c i t a t t e m p t t o c o n f l a t e t h e f a m i l i a r ' s s u c k i n g b l o o d f r o m t h e w i t c h with the continental discussion o f the coven and the w i t c h ' s relationship with Satan'. T h e p a m p h l e t for the trial describes M o t h e r S t a u n t o n walking past T h o m a s P r a t ' s h o u s e w i t h s o m e g r a i n . 2 1 C l i v e H o l m e s n o t e s t h a t T h o m a s C o o p e r . f o r e x a m p l e .h u n t s . A n d sexualisation o f t h e w i t c h e s ' m a r k was m a d e especially a p p a r e n t a f t e r 1 6 3 0 . T h o m a s a r g u e s t h a t this s h o w s t h e r e w a s a c o n f l i c t between rather than a struggle b e t w e e n the sexes. supposedly providing t h a t she has b e w i t c h e d t h e m . i t is T h o m a s P r a t w h o t a k e s M o t h e r S t a u n t o n ' s g r a i n b u t it is M o t h e r S t a u n t o n w h o e n d s u p a c c u s e d o f w i t c h c r a f t . b e c a u s e it p r o b a b l y a l l o w e d t h e m g r e a t e r a c c e s s t o r e s o u r c e s a n d p o t e n T h e b e l i e f in w i t c h c r a f t . t h e n d e m a n d e d f o r h i m s e l f . G e n e r a l b e l i e f s a b o u t w i t c h c r a f t in t h e e a r l y m o d e r n p e r i o d w e r e l i n k e d t o s e x / g e n d e r in s u c h a w a y t h a t it w a s e x p e c t e d t h a t w o m e n a n d n o t m e n w o u l d u s e w i t c h c r a f t f o r r e t r i b u t i o n and t o cause h a r m — that is. . usually a w o m a n . O n e p a t t e r n w e a r e all familiar w i t h f r o m the trial material involves the suspect asking s o m e o n e a n o t h e r h o u s e h o l d . w i t h r e g a r d t o social relations in F r e n c h peasant s o c i e t y . conflict and discourse to gain a b e t t e r understanding o f h o w the c o n s t r u c t 'unneighbourly' others. from for f o o d . H e w a n t s s o m e f o r his c h i c k e n s a n d t a k e s i t f r o m h e r . . J a m e s V I o f S c o t l a n d ( l a t e r a l s o J a m e s I o f E n g l a n d ) w r o t e . w h e r e m e n and w o m e n carry out similar activities b u t only w o m e n end up accused o f witchcraft. A n d d e v i a n c e . s t a t i n g at o n e t h a t she is n o t b u t h a v i n g o n a n o t h e r o c c a s i o n ' r a c e d h e r f a c e w i t h a N e d l e ' subsequently believed himself bewitched. I h a v e a l r e a d v i n d i c a t e d t h a t T h o m a s in Religion and the Decline of Magic. . Daemonologie: T h e r e a s o n is e a s i e : f o r as t h a t s e x e is f r a i l e r t h a n m e n i s . W e have to look to the general c o n t e x t o f male—female r e l a t i o n s . T h e p a m p h l e t f o r t h e t r i a l t e l l s us t h a t E l l e i n e S m i t h e i n h e r i t e d s o m e m o n e y from Alice. T h e a g e .

not 3 1 d e a t h shall s h o r t l y f o l l o w . it is a l s o a p p a r e n t . at t h e 1 5 6 6 t r i a l at C h e l m s f o r d o n e o f t h e a c c u s e d .n e u t r a l t e r m s t h a t c u r s i n g ' w a s a m e a n s b y w h i c h t h e w e a k and defenceless tried t o avenge themselves u p o n their e n e m i e s ' . 3 4 Moreover. b e s i t u a t e d (as T h o m a s s i t u a t e s t h e m ) w i t h i n t h e w o m e n ' s c o m m u nity. and that t h e r e are vari o u s i d e o l o g i c a l . W e find t h a t w i t h i n p a t r i a r c h a l s o c i e t i e s . and w o m e n w e r e b e i n g e x c l u d e d f r o m c r a f t s a n d t r a d e s s u c h as w e a v i n g a n d b r e w i n g as w e l l as f r o m t h e g u i l d s . g r a n d m o t h e r s ) are the ones w h o have the 'privilege' to carry out these operations. saw a deterioration o f w o m e n ' s r o l e in p r o d u c t i o n . B y a c t i n g as m o r a l g a t e k e e p e r s t h e y m a v f e e l v a l u e d o r at l e a s t h a v e s o m e p o w e r . the difficulties o f a g r o w i n g mass o f landless peasants. because the words she uses t o signify a n g e r — ' h a r d e d misdemeanour. b u t they w e r e integrally linked t o and served t o r e i n f o r c e — o r r e c o n s t r u c t — the m a l e status q u o . w o m e n a r e m o r e l i k e l y t o u s e v e r b a l v i o l e n c e as r e p r e s e n t e d b y c u r s i n g . w o m e n w e r e o f t e n t h e o n e s in c h a r g e o f t h e d o m e s t i c g o o d s t h e w i t c h r e q u e s t e d . has a l s o s u g g e s t e d t h a t w h i l e m e n use physical Elizabeth Frauncis. a p p e a r s t o b e l i e v e t h a t she c o u l d a n d did u s e w i t c h c r a f t to v i o l e n c e .c l a s s w o m e n . b u t w e also see h o w the c o n s t r u c t s w h i c h led t h e m u s e w i t c h . w o m e n a r e o f t e n p l a c e d in t h e p o s i tion o f m o r a l g a t e k e e p e r s w h o socially c o n t r o l o t h e r w o m e n . r a t h e r t h a t as an o u t c o m e o f a w i d e r p a t r i a r c h a l c o n t e x t . C o n v e n t s had b e e n c l o s e d during the R e f o r m a t i o n . b u t also v u l n e r a b l e t o ' p o s s e s s i o n ' and t o b e c o m i n g b e w i t c h e d . which r e i n f o r c e w o m e n ' s inferiority and sexual servitude to m e n . o t h e r s a r e d e s c r i b e d as n o t s h a r i n g t h i s b e l i e f a n d a p p e a r e d t o b e m u c h m o r e sceptical a b o u t w i t c h c r a f t . m a t e r i a l a n d p s v c h o l o g i c a l p r e s s u r e s o n t h e m t o d o s o . as a l r e a d y h i n t e d at b y t h e c a s e o f E l l e i n e S m i t h e ' s i n h e r i t a n c e a n d J o h n C h a u n d e l e r ' s c l a i m s on it. b u t w e m u s t a l s o b e c a r e ful n o t t o l o s e sight o f t h e c o m p l e x i t y o f m a l e — f e m a l e r e l a t i o n s t h a t s u c h u s e o f w i t c h c r a f t b v w o m e n e n t a i l s . e c o n o m i c change o f male—female conflict and witchcraft accusation — even if w e c a n n o t always establish a direct link b e t w e e n accused o f witchcraft and specific instances a r o u n d r e s o u r c e s and l i v e l i h o o d s . a n d 2 7 p r o c u r e . this is a s h r e w d t o k e n t h a t s h e is a w i t c h ' . A l e s N e w m a n . for instance. e n c l o s u r e o f c o m m o n l a n d ( a l r e a d y h a p p e n i n g in E s s e x at this t i m e ) ing the space for grazing for w o m e n ' s l i v e s t o c k . using the m e a n s available t o t h e m to to i m p r o v e their c o n d i t i o n . then. and especially w i d o w s . F i n a l l y I w a n t t o l o o k at t h e m a l e female conflict around r e s o u r c e s that f o r m e d W e n e e d t o c o n s i d e r that w o m e n ' s social position m a d e t h e m vulnerable t o b e c o m i n g w i t c h e s . a m o n g s t o t h e r t h i n g s . 3 0 a p a r t o f t h e c o n t e x t u a l b a c k g r o u n d t o t h e e a r l y m o d e r n w i t c h . a l t h o u g h w h a t she says e n d s u p b e i n g t i e d i n t o t h e evidence against Ales. h e a r g u e s t h a t i t was role. T h i s m a y also b e u n d e r s t o o d by the m o r e widely a c k n o w l e d g e d c o n c e p t o f the feminisation o f ' p o v e r t y ' — a c o n c e p t that also applies within the p r e s e n t global e c o n o m i c context. b u t . In t a k i n g e a r l y m o d e r n E n g l a n d as o u r e x a m p l e . In t h e t r i a l p a m p h l e t s f r o m E s s e x w e find t h a t . and r e s u l t a n t p r e s s u r e on r e s o u r c e s . t h a t w i t c h c r a f t b e l i e i s w e r e bv no means h e g e m o n i c among the w o m e n accused of witchcraft. t h a t is as w o m e n ' s p r o b l e m . in a 1 5 8 2 t r i a l at S t O s y t h . wdiile s o m e o f t h e w o m e n p r o b a b l y did b e l i e v e t h a t t h e y h a d o r c o u l d h a v e u s e d w i t c h c r a f t . t h e c o l l e c t o r f o r t h e p o o r . as i n d i c a t e d W i t h i n the particular patriarchal c o n t e x t o f early m o d e r n E u r o p e . a l t h o u g h his e x a m p l e s a r e a l m o s t e x c l u s i v e l y o f w o m e n . T h e r e appears to b e a link b e t w e e n m a l e individuals female relations. A t a l o c a l l e v e l . W h e n w e l o o k use does link s o m e o f these e c o n o m i c changes t o the i m p o v e r i s h m e n t and d e p e n d e n c e o f c e r t a i n l o w e r . i n s t e a d c o n c l u d i n g in g e n d e r . that is. s h e e p a n d a w e a l t h y h u s b a n d via t h e cat-familiar S a t a n . T h o m a s g i v e s n u m e r o u s e x a m p l e s o f c u r s i n g l e a d i n g t o an a c c u s a t i o n o f w i t c h c r a f t . N a w a l El S a d a w i e x p l a i n s h o w o l d e r f e m a l e r e l a t i v e s ( m o t h e r s . while w o m e n played a m o r e ancillary 2 9 s e e h e r e an e x a m p l e o f t h e g e n d e r i n g behaviour. w e h a v e t o t h i n k o f a s o c i e t y w i t h a r a p i d i n c r e a s e in p o p u l a t i o n . e c h o e d bv Sharpe. H e q u o t e s T h o m a s C o o p e r ' s ' s t o c k p a t t e r n ' o f t h e link b e t w e e n cursing and witchcraft accusation: ' W h e n a b a d . Chris Middleton i n d i c a t e s t h a t it w a s specificin ally m e n w h o b e c a m e p r e d o m i n a n t in t h e o c c u p a t i o n s w h i c h w e r e f o r e m o s t in t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e earlier feudal p r o d u c t i o n ) . F o r e x a m p l e . e v e n i f t h e i r a c t i o n s at t h e s a m e t i m e p l a c e b o t h t h e m s e l v e s a n d o t h e r w o m e n m o r e firmly within p a t r i a r c h v . yet with decreasing means o f livelihood for women. W i t c h c r a f t accusations m a y t h e r e f o r e . T h e r o l e w o m e n h a v e in c o n t e m p o r a r y a n d h i s t o r i c a l M i d d l e E a s t e r n a n d N o r t h African societies. exacerbated earlier.h u n t s . 5 3 o f witchcraft was a m e a n s (albeit negative) bv which w o m e n could increase their using more c l o s e l y at w i t c h t r i a l m a t e r i a l . and elite ideas a b o u t t h e unruliness o f w o m e n and the n e e d t o c o n t r o l t h e m . T h o m a s d o e s n o t t a k e this u p . c a n b e u n d e r s t o o d in m o r e ' r a t i o n a l ' t e r m s w i t h o u t r e c o u r s e t o w i t c h c r a f t . U s i n g d a t a f r o m t h e E n g l i s h h o m e c i r c u i t . the early m o d e r n p e r i o d . h o w e v e r . Yet while C o o p e r c l e a r l y t a k e s a g e n d e r e d v i e w o f t h e c u r s e r . W e only o f language and m e a n i n g s . with w o m e n outnumbering m e n . b u t o f e x p e c t a t i o n s a b o u t w o m e n ' s At a local level w e thus see w o m e n S e e i n g w i t c h c r a f t as a f o r m o f n e g a t i v e p o w e r a v a i l a b l e t o w o m e n in a p a r t i c u l a r i n e g a l i t a r i a n c o n t e x t is an o v e r a l l p i c t u r e o f t h e w i t c h . a n d it w a s b e t w e e n w o m e n t h a t t h e r e l a t e d t r a n s a c t i o n s o f l e n d i n g a n d b o r r o w i n g w e r e likely t o take p l a c e . B y c o n t r a s t . a n d h e n c e w i t c h c r a f t . of carrying out clitorectomies on other w o m e n is a c a s e in p o i n t . S h e is r e c o r d e d as s a v i n g t h a t A l e s w a s m e r e l y a n g r y at J o h n s o n . T h e r e a r e e x a m p l e s in t h e t r i a l p a m p h l e t s a n d r e c o r d s o f w o m e n w i t c h c r a f t t o b e t t e r t h e i r s i t u a t i o n in m a n y d i f f e r e n t w a y s . p o w e r .t o n g u e d w o m a n shall c u r s e a p a r t y . E l i z a b e t h B e n n e t ( w h o is said t o d e n y t h a t s h e h e r s e l f u s e d w i t c h c r a f t ) is s h o w n t o a t t e m p t t o e x p l a i n h o w s h e t h i n k s an a c c u s a t i o n a g a i n s t a n o t h e r w o m a n . 2 8 s p e e c h e s ' — a r e at t h e s a m e t i m e c o n s t r u c t e d as a sign o f w o m e n ' s as c u r s i n g . or those p r o v i d i n g e v i d e n c e . H o l m e s provides s o m e interesting evidence o f m e n ' s and w o m e n ' s relative social positioning and the p r o c e s s o f formal w i t c h c r a f t accusation suggesting that w o m e n ' s accusations against each o t h e r w e r e indeed s e c o n d a r y to m e n bringing the c a s e s t o c o u r t . t o a l a r g e e x t e n t .h u n t s .l i k e b e h a v i o u r at t h e s a m e t i m e c o n s t r u c t e d t h e m as w i t c h e s — w h e t h e r t h e y w a n t e d this o r n o t . primarily m e n w h o b r o u g h t charges o f witchcraft. A n u m b e r o f historians have d o c u m e n t e d h o w t h e p e r i o d o f pre-capitalism and early capitalism. b e c a u s e h e did n o t g i v e h e r t h e h a n d o u t s h e r e q u i r e d . It is t o o e a s y t o e n d u p b y f o c u s i n g o n w o m e n ' s a c c u s a t i o n s a g a i n s t o n e a n o t h e r as a p r o b l e m r e l a t e d l a r g e l y t o w o m e n a n d w o m e n ' s c o m m u n i t i e s . H e argues that t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e e m e r g e n t c a p i t a l i s t p r o d u c t i o n (as h a d a l s o b e e n t h e c a s e capitalist . a m o n g s t o t h e r effects r e m o v 3 2 T h o m a s . h e m a k e s n o m e n t i o n o f this fact. u s e o f w i t c h c r a f t c a n b e s e e n as a p a r t o f t h e day t o d a y a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e ' w o m e n ' s c o m m u n i t y ' b u t — c r u c i a l l y — r e l y i n g o n w i d e r patriarchal g e n d e r e d n o t i o n s o f t h e w i t c h . F u r t h e r m o r e . M a t e r i a l f r o m o t h e r societies and p e r i o d s also g i v e s us s o m e i m p o r t a n t c l u e s a b o u t t h e r o l e w o m e n m a y h a v e in r e l a t i o n t o o t h e r w o m e n .282 MARIANNE HESTER PATRIARCHAL RECONSTRUCTION AND WITCH-HUNTING 283 Larner.

t h e link o f this c o n s t r u c t i o n t o t h e w i t c h . and b o t h served t o justify the social c o n t r o l o f w o m e n and the m a i n t e n a n c e o r r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the patriarchal status quo s e c u r i n g m e n ' s d o m i n a n t position within t h e social o r d e r . the changes to the b r e w i n g i n d u s t r y m u s t s e r i o u s l y h a v e r e d u c e d t h e e a r n i n g c a p a b i l i t i e s o f village women. T h e c a s e o f b r e w i n g p r o v i d e s an i n t e r e s t i n g e x a m p l e . w h i c h had b e e n a h o m e . a n d m o r e s p e c i f i c a l l y . a n d d r a w i n g s v u l n e r a b l e in t h e e c o n o m y . w o m e n accused o f witchwho were among the most c r a f t t e n d e d t o b e t h o s e . and u n m a r r i e d w o m e n might All oi these changes w e r e v e r y s l o w and u n e v e n . E v i d e n c e o f w o m e n ' s w o r k . by 1 7 0 0 . T h e s e i n c l u d e : t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f w o m e n as i n c a p a b l e o f b r e w i n g . a n d a m a l e — f e m a l e p o w e r r e l a t i o n s t a k e s p l a c e in o r d e r t o e n s u r e m a l e d o m i n a n c e . M i c h a e l R o b e r t s d o c u m e n t s h o w t h e selling t o b e w i d o w s . p a r t i c u l a r l y w i d o w s . o c c u p a t i o n i n f o r m a l l y r e s e r v e d f o r p o o r w i d o w s d u r i n g this p e r i o d . b r e w i n g . Sue Wright s i m i l a r l y p o i n t s o u t t h a t in t h e u r b a n e n v i r o n m e n t o f T u d o r a n d S t u a r t S a l i s b u r y t h e r e w e r e n u m e r o u s w o m e n . d r a m a . t h a t i s . in a r e a s s u c h as b r e w i n g and weaving. c a r v i n g s . conflict We d e p i c t s t h e a l e w i f e E l y n o r R u m m y n g as a g r o t e s q u e sphere. 1 7 0 ) .e c o n o m i c c h a n g e s in t h e s i x t e e n t h a n d s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s w e find t h a t t h e p i c t u r e r e g a r d i n g w i t c h c r a f t a c c u s a t i o n a n d women becomes more complex. 4 4 It w a s o n l y w i d o w s w h o r e t a i n e d a c c e s s t o b r e w i n g t h r o u g h i n h e r i t a n c e o f ale b e c a m e an 3 9 The women. w h o w e r e l i c e n s e d as a l e h o u s e k e e p e r s ( t h e p o o r e n d o f t h e m a r k e t ) b u t few as i n n k e e p e r s ( t h e r i c h e r p a r t o f t h e m a r k e t ) . T h e y w e r e vulnerable to misogynistic a t t a c k o r p o s s i b l y w i t c h c r a f t a c c u s a t i o n as a r e s u l t . at t h e of women. we in t h e e x a m p l e o f E l y n o r R u m m y n g . she d r e s s e d u p ' a f t e r t h e S a r a c e n ' s g u i s e ' a n d l i k e an E g y p t i a n ' . B e n n e t t argues that such popular representations u n d e r m i n e d t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e a l e w i f e b y q u e s t i o n i n g h e r g e n e r a l t r u s t w o r t h i n e s s . the wife very likely b e c o m i n g m o r e d e p e n d e n t on h e r husband. B r e w i n g is a c k n o w l e d g e d as an i m p o r t a n t i n d u s t r y in t h e e a r l y m o d e r n p e r i o d . D e p e n d e n t o r in . O n the other hand. that is. with f e m a l e p o w e r r e l a t i o n s in t h e s i x t e e n t h a n d s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s d u e t o t h e m a j o r c h a n g e s t a k i n g p l a c e in t h e e c o n o m y a t t h a t t i m e . 1 7 0 ) . S h e is a l m o s t a s t o c k figure in m i s o g y n i s t i c l i t e r a t u r e : 'a g r o t e s q u e o l d w i t c h . 1 6 9 ) was linked t o her d e m i s e . Overall. w h i l e at t h e s a m e t i m e a l l o w i n g m e n t o b e s e e n in a m u c h m o r e p o s i t i v e l i g h t . w e r e independent than married w o m e n because financially. w h o w e r e m o r e a b l e t o d o s o . a n d ' t h e D e v i l a n d s h e b e s i b ' [like b r o t h e r a n d s i s t e r ] ( p . suggests that t h e r e was a struggle b e t w e e n the sexes around making a living. b u t it w a s d u r i n g t h e s i x t e e n t h and s e v e n t e e n t h centuries that b r e w i n g brewing finallv changed from a female to a male of the a policy pursued bv occupation. B e n n e t t s h o w s c o n v i n c i n g l y h o w t h e p o p u l a r and a l s o n e g a t i v e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e a l e w i f e . g o v e r n m e n t with the aim o f imposing stricter regulation and supposedly Bennett concludes: w i t c h c r a f t : s h e e n t e r t a i n e d a c u s t o m e r w h o ' s e e m e d t o b e a w i t c h ' . was b e c o m i n g a factory-based industry c o n t r o l l e d by a steadily shrinking g r o u p o f wealthy m a l e s . 4 1 Y e t the construction of the alewife and the w i t c h relied on similar t e r m s . W o m e n o n t h e i r o w n . in p r o s e . For instance the earlv sixteenth-century The Tunning of Elynor Rummying and ridiculous old w o m e n . l i k e the construction o f the witch. a n d t h e p o s i t i o n o f w i d o w s as b o t h b r e w e r s a n d a l e . a n d in p a r t i c u l a r ale ( b r e w e d w i t h o u t h o p s ) . w i d o w e d a n d p o s s i b l y o l d e r . w o m e n a n d c h i l d r e n a t m o s t m e a l s . Unmarried women w e r e also Alongside the other e c o n o m i c changes m e n t i o n e d by T h o m a s . patriarchy was maintained within the developing economy. as i d e n t i f i e d b y T h o m a s . 3 7 Where the example of brewing is c o n c e r n e d . on her sexualisation or eroticisation. a n d p o o r . w o m e n w e r e d e e m e d s u b o r d i n a t e t o t h e i r h u s b a n d s (as r e f l e c t e d in t h e l a w ) a n d under their husbands' control W i d o w s might inherit their husbands' occasionally activities. f r o m t h e i r h u s b a n d s . the e m e r g i n g capitalist e c o n o m i c structure. B y l o o k i n g a t m a t e r i a l c o n c e r n i n g s o c i o . and. and p r i o r t o the s i x t e e n t h and s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s w o m e n also b r e w e d ale f o r s a l e . 3 8 b a d l y a f f e c t e d : ' T h e y b e c a m e less a n d less a b l e t o c o m p e t e w i t h m e n o r m a r r i e d c o u p l e s for c u s t o m e r s . w h o w e r e still a b l e t o b e b r e w e r s m i g h t t h e r e f o r e p o s e a t h r e a t t o the increasingly male m o n o p o l y o f the trade. B u t t h e y m i g h t a l s o b e a m o n g s t t h o s e in c o m p e t i t i o n w i t h m e n f o r w o r k in l u c r a t i v e a r e a s s u c h as b r e w i n g .s e l l e r s . For e x a m p l e . B u t t h e i r o v e r a l l e f f e c t clear. licenses and e c o n o m i c l e g i t i m a t i o n ' . and thus c o n t r o l of. and also o p e n i n g up n e w areas for m a l e c o n t r o l . B e n n e t t suggests that the masculinisation o f t h e b r e w i n g trade had the effect o f changing the e c o n o m i c balance b e t w e e n husbands and w i v e s . w h o is o f d u b i o u s r e l i g i o u s a n d s e x u a l v i r t u e . T h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e a l e w i f e as d i f f e r e n t a n d i n f e r i o r t o t h e m a l e b r e w e r o f t e n r e l i e d . o r in h e r o w n r i g h t as a w i d o w o r as a s i n g l e woman living in h e r father's household. w o m e n c a r r y i n g o u t a c r a f t o r t r a d e . 4 3 nated by w o m e n four centuries earlier. t a k i n g o n his c r a f t . 1 7 1 ) . It is d i f f i c u l t t o t e l l w h e t h e r ale w i v e s o r w o m e n who brewed beer were accused of witchcrait directly. Excluding w o m e n f r o m b r e w i n g o c c u r r e d alongside the separation ( b y m e n ) f r o m t h e sale ( b y w o m e n ) o f b e e r . allusions t o h e r also b e i n g associated find. r 4 0 W i t h r e g a r d t o t h e d i s c u s s i o n in t h i s c h a p t e r t h e r e a r e a n u m b e r o f i m p o r t a n t issues w h i c h a r i s e f r o m t h e e x a m p l e o f t h e b r e w i n g i n d u s t r y . F o r w o m e n during the early m o d e r n period m o r e likely to b e financially financial independence was genermarried ally l i n k e d t o t h e i r m a r i t a l s t a t u s . as w e l l as i m p r o v i n g t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e b e e r b r e w e d . w i d o w s .l i k e w o m a n ' . and w o m e n ' s relative dependence on m e n ensured. economic 3 5 expense around 3 6 (p. w a s t h e s t a p l e d r i n k o f m e n . e s p e c i a l l y w i d o w s . b a l l a d s . land. p r o p e r t y a n d / o r craft o r trade. Sylvia W a l b y s u g g e s t s in a d d i t i o n t h a t w h e n t h e r e a r e c h a n g e s in t h e such as changes in production methods. c a n i n d e e d find s o m e e v i d e n c e o f a r e a l i g n m e n t o f m a l e h i g h l y u n s c r u p u l o u s t r a d e s w o m a n ( p . W o m e n d i d t h e b r e w i n g o f ale n e e d e d f o r i m m e d i a t e consumption by the h o u s e h o l d . J u d i t h B e n n e t t has d o c u m e n t e d h o w t h e e x c l u s i o n o f w o m e n f r o m b r e w i n g t o o k p l a c e o v e r a c o n s i d e r a b l e p e r i o d . s c u l p t u r e . a w o m a n could only practise a craft alongside h e r h u s b a n d . b e c a u s e b e e r . p r o c e e d i n g o v e r the course o f several centuries and affecting different regions o f the c o u n t r v at d i f f e r e n t t i m e s a n d in d i f f e r e n t w a y s .284 MARIAN NE HESTER PATRIARCHAL RECONSTRUCTION AND WITCH-HUNTING 285 p r o d u c t i o n d e v e l o p e d 'at t h e e x p e n s e o f sexual e q u a l i t y ' .b a s e d t r a d e was domii n h e r i t t h e i r f a t h e r s ' l a n d a n d p r o p e r t y o r e n g a g e in o t h e r p r o d u c t i v e Thus during the period o f the witch-hunts w o m e n ' s w o r k was largely defined by the institution o f marriage. 4 2 simpli- f y i n g t h e c o l l e c t i o n o f t a x e s . p o e t r y . b u t a l s o a c o r r u p t t r a d e s w o m a n w h o sells h e r c u s t o m e r s a d u l t e r a t e d d r i n k a t h a r d d r i v e n p r i c e s in a d i s g u s t i n g a t m o s p h e r e (p. t h a t i s . poem. l a b o u r i n g w o m e n . w h i c h also had the effect o f ensuring that m e n r a t h e r than w o m e n o b t a i n e d the b e t t e r positions in.

S e e also D e m o s . 1 1 3 . Virtue of Necessity S e e A m u s e n . in Women. The Witch-hunt Satan in Early Modern Europe (London 1 9 8 7 ) . 1 9 8 5 ) . Working a l t h o u g h w i t h o u t using t h e s e t e r m s . 520. of God. Society. The Devil the Shape 16 17 of a Woman (New York 1988). D u f f i n . 18 19 E . 512. See Ibid. in C h a r l e s and D u f f i n . Religion. D e m o s . Sixteenth 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 T h o m a s . W e can s p e c u l a t e that t o ' r a c e Women. 1987). S e e C h a p t e r 2 0 f o r L a r n e r ' s d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n ' s e x . Entertaining F r a n c e ' . Religion J . Middle 20 the church (London 1 9 8 8 ) . S t e v e n s o n . ' S c o l d i n g w o m e n c u c k e d o r w a s h e d ' . e d s . 5 1 2 . P . K l a i t s . e x p e c t a t i o n s a n d d i s c l o s u r e s c o n c e r n i n g t h e w i t c h in t h e e a r l y m o d e r n p e r i o d w e m a y s u r m i s e t h a t w i t c h . H. Klaits also appears t o d o c u m e n t this c h a n g e f r o m s e x .h u n t i n g b e c a m e s e x . e d s . S e e ' L a n g u a g e . (Chapel Hill. Religion. Lewd Women in ally in a less advantageous situation than men within the changing economy. that is. An Ordered K e i t h T h o m a s .r e l a t e d t o ( C h i c a g o 1 9 8 6 ) . 5 7 . J . Hester. especially within t h e peasantry and a m o n g s t artisans and traders amongst w h o m witchcraft accusations predominated. A . f o r i n s t a n c e . E. 1 9 8 5 ) . and the Decline Satan ( O x f o r d 1 9 8 2 ) . 51. E . L . 8. d e s c r i b e s h o w s c r a t c h i n g t h e face and e s p e c i a l l y t h e n o s e o f a w o m a n was a p u n i s h m e n t i n d i c a t i n g that she w a s a w h o r e . W r i g h t . 1975). original indictments o u t c o m e s : Before 21 22 23 24 25 the Bawdy Court ( L o n d o n S e e S h a r p e . M . S c a r r e . M . W a l k e r and E . S e e I. in A . Ind. and Wicked Witches (London 1992). Entertaining K a r l s o n . F l e t c h e r and J . S h e p h e r d . 9 2 . Servants. (London ( N u r e m b e r g 1 4 9 6 ) . C . (London 1984). Witchcraft Society ( O x f o r d 1 9 8 8 ) . 5 . O u r u n d e r s t a n d i n g is e n h a n c e d b y c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e c o n f l i c t u a l a n d d y n a m i c m a l e . 'The dynamics of male domination 13 ( 1 9 9 0 ) ..s p e c i f i c at t h i s t i m e . S. 56. 1 16—36. by e x a m i n i n g the p r o c e s s e s involving g e n d e r i n g o f social relat i o n s . C l a r k . Enemies C . Lewd Women. sex-specific. N C in England 1 m e r e l y r e c o n s t r u c t e d t o m a i n t a i n t h e s t a t u s q u o . [Mother S t a u n t o n ' s ] face w i t h a n e d l e ' similarly s y m b o l i s e d that she was b e i n g p r e s e n t e d in s e x u a l i s e d t e r m s . 562. The Feminisation Face of Eve ( L o n d o n Society. of God ( L o n d o n 1 9 8 1 ) . of a 183^. Women and Work. A m u s s e n . 181—206. Religion.1 4 ( 1 9 7 9 ) . England (London Life Woman. H . p o t e n t i a l l y u n d e r t h r e a t in t h e r a p i d l y c h a n g i n g s o c i e t y . 1981). c h . and ' W o m e n ' s l a b o u r and t h e t r a n s i t i o n t o p r e . Order and Disorder H o l m e s p r e s e n t s this a r g u m e n t in C h a p t e r 2 3 . of S e e S. Early 29 Modern England ( C a m b r i d g e 1 9 8 5 ) . 'The in t a m i n g o f t h e s c o l d ' . Women History of Women in the Seventeenth and Theory Century (London [1919] 1982). Instruments C i t e d in L a r n e r . A . L. Chapter 5. punishment of women s c o l d i n g appears t o parallel w i t c h c r a f t a c c u s a t i o n in t h a t it b e c a m e m o r e s e v e r e in t h e s a m e p e r i o d as w i t c h c r a f t b e c a m e a m a j o r f e m a l e c r i m e . 26 27 See M o n t e r . Review. t h r o u g h b o t h f o r m a l w i t c h c r a f t a c c u s a t i o n and b y legal r e t r i b u t i o n against o t h e r s e x u a l d e v i a n c e . The Hidden H e s t e r . The Devil in the Shape 166-7. f r o m t h e mid-sixteenth to the mid-seventeenth century. f o r a discussion convicted specifically of of K e r m o d e and W a l k e r . a n d b y t a k i n g a d e e p e r l o o k at t h e c o n t e x t o f m a l e female relations than historians h a v e o f t e n t e n d e d t o p u r s u e w i t h r e g a r d t o this p e r i o d a n d t o p i c . in h e r discussion o f s l a n d e r litigation in early m o d e r n L o n d o n . Revenge (London 1935). S e e also C . M i d d l e t o n . Society. An Ordered H . 22 ( 1 9 9 1 ) .h u n t s that t a k e s m a l e and f e m a l e 35 C .286 MARIANNE HESTER PATRIARCHAL RECONSTRUCTION AND WITCH-HUNTING 287 c o m p e t i t i o n .6 8 . ' A w o m a n u n d e r t h e i n f l u e n c e : a case o f alleged possession in s i x t e e n t h . D70—1640 and using t h e w i t c h c r a z e in s i x t e e n t h and s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y E n g l a n d as case s t u d y ' . Enemies K l a i t s . p . 1 9 8 6 ) . Lewd Women. w o m e n a c c u s e d as w i t c h e s w e r e o f t e n p r e s e n t e d as s e x u a l l y deviant. in J . H o b b y . The Death of Nature N o r m a n C o h n .r e l a t e d ' witchcraft. Enemy: A Materialist of Women's Oppression (London women's Notes 1 2 3 In C h a p t e r 5 o f this c o l l e c t i o n . Servants of Magic (Harmondsworth 1973). D . 93. (Cambridge lists m a n y 1972).f e m a l e r e l a t i o n s at t h e t i m e . S e e A m u s s e n . An Ordered Women's Studies International M . and Magic in Sixteenth and Seventeenth Century Europe (London 30 31 32 33 34 563. K a r l s o n . 111. Servants. S e e A m u s e n . c u r s i n g and in p a r t i c u l a r s c o l d i n g as a specifically f e m a l e o f f e n c e . K e r m i d e and G . Hester. 58-9. L a r n e r . Laura G o w i n g . of Darkness. K e l l y . K l a i t s . of Poverty ( B l o o m i n g t o n . e d s . (London G . Women and the English Class Culture Church and P. Malleus M e r c h a n t . 173-40. H e s t e r . I n g r a m . The Crime and the Courts. W o m e n w ere g e n e r r r e l a t i o n s i n t o a c c o u n t at t h e h e a r t o f t h e discussion see C . U n d e r d o w n . Europe's Inner Demons Maleficarum 1980). the areas that w e r e particularly r e l e v a n t t o t h e e m e r g i n g capitalist e c o n o m y and also the g r o u p T o c o n c l u d e . s e r v i n g as o n e m e a n s o f maintaining and r e c o n s t r u c t i n g male d o m i n a n c e and m a l e p o w e r women. vis-a-vis was P a t r i a r c h y .i n d u s - . W o o d b r i d g e . 139-42. H e a t t r i b u t e s t h e i n c r e a s e d f o c u s o n w o m e n as t h e a c c u s e d d u r i n g t h e early m o d e r n p e r i o d t o 'a d r a m a t i c rise in f e a r and hatred o f w o m e n during the era o f the R e f o r m a t i o n ' (p. 28 Thomas.c e n t u r v Century Journal. Crime and the Courts (London 1994). El S a d a w i . H . Women and Work in Pre-Industrial 1 9 8 5 ) . The Women's Renaissance England Marriage in Elizabethan Sex Hair and Sharp ( U r b a n a . ' T h e s e x u a l division o f l a b o u r in feudal E n g l a n d ' . Forum. Courts. N . S p r e n g e r . Lewd Women. It thus appears t h a t d u r i n g t h e s i x t e e n t h and s e v e n t e e n t h centuries t h e r e w e r e a v a r i e t y o f a t t e m p t s t o c o n t r o l s e x u a l b e h a v i o u r in p a r t i c u l a r and w o m e n specifically. Analysis S e e C h a p t e r 2 3 in this b o o k b y G i v e H o l m e s . and J . C h a r l e s and I. S c o t t . M o n t e r suggests that acts such as i n f a n t i c i d e w e r e also a f o c u s f o r p r o s e c u t i o n o f w o m e n in t h e e a r l y m o d e r n p e r i o d t o a g r e a t e r e x t e n t than had b e e n t h e case p r e v i o u s l y . W i l l i a m M o n t e r suggests that sex remains the m o s t important feature o f m o s t witchcraft accusations. p o w e r and t h e l a w ' . 4 8 . 5 3 4 — 5 4 . An Ordered B . L e v a c k .s p e c i f i c ' and ' s e x . D e l p h y . W a l k e r . S e e M . M a r t i n I n g r a m p r o v i d e s e x t e n s i v e e x a m p l e s and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f such cases f r o m courts: 1987). T h o m a s . either way they might b e seen to pose a threat. e d s . D i c k e r m a n . 4 5 6 7 B . 1 4 7 . Satan. K r a m e r and J . The Main 1977). 5 2 ) . 15 F o r a g o o d e x a m p l e o f an a p p r o a c h t o t h e w i t c h . H e s t e r . New Left trial c a p i t a l i s m ' .

L . t h e s t a t u t e s it e n f o r c e d w e r e d r a w n u p a n d p r o m u l g a t e d by m e n . again at first sight. R o b e r t s . 1986). 1 Yet it r e m a i n s c l e a r t h a t c o n s i d e r a b l e w o r k n e e d s t o b e d o n e b o t h in c h a r t i n g t h e s t a t i s t i c a l c o n t o u r s o f s u c h m a t t e r s as p r o s e c u t i o n s b r o u g h t a g a i n s t m e n a n d women. and d e e d s t h e y are m e n " : I m a g e s o f w o r k and g e n d e r in early m o d e r n E n g l a n d ' . unfortunately. 9 ( 1 9 8 4 ) . W r i g h t . ' " W o r d s t h e y are w o m e n . 228. 182. 2 T h e d i f f i c u l t i e s in f o l l o w i n g s u c h a course are. m a l e a n d f e m a l e i n v o l v e m e n t i n l i t i g a t i o n . s e e m m o r e conspicuously t r u e t h a n w h e n c o n s i d e r i n g t h e p r o s e c u t i o n o f w i t c h c r a f t in T u d o r a n d S t u a r t c o u r t s . T HE PROBLEM OF GENDER is o n e t h a t has o n l y r e c e n t l y b e g u n t o a t t r a c t demonstrated participation the attention o f historians o f c r i m e . Nowhere w o u l d this p r e m i s e . w i t c h c r a f t in E n g l a n d . a r o u n d 9 0 p e r c e n t o f p e r s o n s i n d i c t e d f o r w i t c h c r a f t at t h e H o m e C i r c u i t assizes b e t w e e n t h e p a s s i n g o f t h e E l i z a b e t h a n s t a t u t e in 1 5 6 3 t h e a b o l i t i o n o f l a w s a g a i n s t w i t c h c r a f t in 1 7 3 6 w e r e w o m e n . h u s w y f e s and h u c k s t e r s " : T h e e m p l o y m e n t o f w o m e n in T u d o r and S t u a r t S a l i s b u r y ' . 3 A t first s i g h t t h e n . Women. for witchcraft or related matters b e f o r e the A r c h d e a c o n s o f Essex and C o l c h e s t e r b e t w e e n the 1 5 6 0 s and the . B e n n e t t . R e w o r k i n g the 236 presentments for Essex. we discover that the Y e t even the first 4 and W o r k on compathis made 1630s r a b l e s o u r c e s s u g g e s t s t h a t this r a t e w a s f a i r l y u s u a l f o r t h e i n d i c t m e n t o f m a l e f i c 3 step that might be taken b e y o n d figures simple counting exercise exposes complications. as a b u n d l e o f a s s u m p t i o n s o r a t t i t u d e s about h o w m e n and w o m e n should b e h a v e . ' S p i n s t e r s \ Journal Women and Work. at Work ( C a m b r i d g e 169. Women Work. " ' C h u r m a i d s . C h a r l e s and D u f f i n . M a c f a r l a n e gives t h e o c c u p a t i o n o f o n e husband o f an a c c u s e d w i t c h ( o u t o f f o r t y n i n e k n o w n f o r E s s e x ) as a b e e r b r e w e r . ch. and w o m e n ' s w o r k ' . . ' M i s o g y n y . Lewd S. in C h a r l e s and D u f h n . History C l a r k . in I b i d . 31 ( 1 9 9 1 ) .288 MARIANNE HESTER C h a p t e r Workshop 22 36 37 38 39 S. An Ordered Bennett. a n d t h e p u n i s h m e n t s i n f l i c t e d u p o n t h e m . of Family History. 162. 1 0 0 — 2 1 . S e e A m u s s e n . Working M . As is w e l l k n o w n . it w o u l d s e e m t h a t h i s t o r i a n s s t u d y i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n w o m e n a n d t h e l e g a l p r o c e s s in t h e past have had their task r e s t r i c t e d t o doing little m o r e than cataloguing t h e ways in w h i c h w o m e n w e r e d i s a d v a n t a g e d . T h e E n g l i s h l e g a l s y s t e m w a s r u n b y m e n . W a l b y . o f the l a w . b e e n a n u m b e r o f w o r k s that have the potential fruitfulness o f various lines o f approach: the different r a t e s o f t h e t w o s e x e s in v a r i o u s t y p e s o f o f f e n c e . and Jim Sharpe WOMEN. and o f the o p e r a t i o n o f legal svstems. p e r h a p s m o s t n o t a b l y in c h u r c h c o u r t s l a n d e r c a s e s . Life. M . 'Misogyny'. p o p u l a r c u l t u r e . o f course. S e e H e s t e r . e d s . 3. as w e l l as in u s i n g c o u r t r e c o r d s t o h e l p t o u n d e r s t a n d g e n d e r as a s o c i a l c o n s t r u c t . T h e r e have. 122-80. and the English c o m m o n law s e e m e d designed t o constrain t h e r i g h t s o f w o m e n as m u c h as p o s s i b l e . Patriarchy Journal. m o r e severe w h e n w o m e n are u n d e r consideration. WITCHCRAFT AND THE LEGAL PROCESS 40 41 42 43 44 S. a n d o n s u c h g e n d e r related (or indeed gender specific) matters as i n f a n t i c i d e and scolding. Society. W a t k i n s .

t h e s e a r c h f o r it s h o u l d b e m a d e b y w o m e n . A c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e s e t o p i c s . w h i c h l o o k e d as t h o u g h it had r e c e n t l y b e e n s u c k e d . T h e first p a m p h l e t 9 T h e d e c i s i o n t o s e a r c h s e e m s . These connection however.t h i r d s o f t h e c u n n i n g f o l k w h o m M a c f a r l a n e w a s a b l e t o i d e n t i f y in his E s s e x s t u d y w e r e m e n . i n t e n d i n g t h e r e b y t o p r e v e n t t h e i r s e a r c h o f h e r ' . This e v i d e n c e p r o v e d decisive and swung the j u r y against S a w y e r . figures suggest that w e will have t o refine our standard notions o f the b e t w e e n w o m e n and w i t c h c r a f t at s o m e f u t u r e p o i n t . T h e E n g l i s h c r i m i n a l l e g a l s y s t e m w a s an a c c u s a t o r y o n e . e x e c u t e d a f t e r t r i a l at t h e M i d d l e s e x S e s s i o n s in 1 6 2 1 . t h a t this E l i z a b e t h S a w y e r h a d a p r i v a t e a n d s t r a n g e m a r k e o n her b o d y . This suggests that the legitimation f o r s e a r c h i n g o p e r a t e d at b o t h an official a n d a p o p u l a r l e v e l . t h e r e f o r e . 1 0 w e e x a m i n e c u n n i n g m e n a n d w o m e n . o r o f giving e v i d e n c e against alleged witches. a Riding justice w h o s e e m s t o have b e e n m u c h i n v o l v e d in w i t c h c a s e s . 8 I n d e e d . w e a r e t o l d . ' c o m m a n d e d o f f i c e r s a p p o i n t e d f o r t h o s e p u r p o s e s . t o f e t c h in t h r e e w o m e n to search the body of Elizabeth S a w y e r ' . F o r t h e p r e s e n t . w i t h n e i t h e r t h e j u d g e n o r the j u r y apparently having m u c h idea o f w h a t to m a k e o f the evidence b e f o r e t h e m . T o u n d e r s t a n d t h e o p e r a t i o n o f t h e l a w in its full c o n t e x t . C o n t e m p o r a r y u s a g e d i c t a t e d t h a t i f t h e d i s c o v e r y o f s u c h a m a r k w a s t h o u g h t vital f o r p r o v i n g w i t c h c r a f t . s t r e s s e d t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e m a r k as a m e a n s o f e s t a b l i s h i n g p r o o f . A n o t h e r Y o r k s h i r e w i t n e s s . in l a r g e m e a s u r e . w i t h w o m e n . it is n e c e s s a r y t o g o b e v o n d t h e c o u r t r o o m a n d t h e s t r i c t r u l e s o f legal p r o c e d u r e . was d e p e n d e n t on the initiative o f the p e r s o n o f f e n d e d against — the v i c t i m . Arthur R o b i n s o n . s e a r c h e d f o r m a r k s u p o n Some v e a r s l a t e r . 1 4 W h a t it d o e s d e m o n s t r a t e is t h a t w i t c h c r a f t prosecutions dominated c a n n o t b e i n t e r p r e t e d p u r e l y as t h e o p p r e s s i o n o f w o m e n b y a m a l e a c c o u n t o f a w i t c h c r a f t trial in E n g l a n d . w i d e r e v i d e n c e a b o u t f e m a l e i n v o l v e m e n t as w i n e s s e s in w i t c h c r a f t c a s e s . r e c o r d e d h o w in 1 6 2 1 t h e s u s p e c t e d w o m e n w e r e t h e i r b o d i e s ' . w hose m e m b e r s w e r e aware o f the n e e d t o search for the m a r k . ' t o p r o c u r e a w a r r a n t f o r s e a r c h i n g t h e said M a r y S i k e s a n d Susan B e a u m o n t ' . f r o m t h e c o u r t l e e t o f S o u t h a m p t o n in 1 5 7 9 . was ' s e a r c h e d by w e o m e n appointed bv a justice o f p e a c e ' . w h i c h s u g g e s t s a d e g r e e o f official s a n c t i o n i n g o f t h e p r o c e s s . f r o m w h i c h it w a s t h o u g h t t h a t t h e w i t c h ' s f a m i l i a r s u c k e d b l o o d . intervened. but whose services w e r e s o e a g e r l y s o u g h t b y t h e p o p u l a t i o n at l a r g e . Perhaps the m o s t r e m a r k a b l e evidence w e have o f the dynamics o f the search f o r t h e m a r k c o m e s f r o m t h e c a s e o f E l i z a b e t h S a w y e r .290 JIM SHARPE WOMEN. t h e c r e d e n t i a l s n e e d e d b y w o m e n s e a r c h e r s w e r e those resulting I r o m g o o d character rather than technical e x p e r t i s e . S a w y e r resisted the s e a r c h e r s . T h e leet jury d i r e c t e d As this c a s e s u g g e s t s . t o l d in 1 6 5 5 h o w she a n d o t h e r w o m e n w e r e appointed t o search K a t h e r i n e Earle on the direction o f the constable o f their township w h o was h i m s e l f acting under direction f r o m a justice. and seek o t h e r points at w h i c h w e can delineate a distinctive f e m a l e contribution t o t h e p r o s e c u t i o n o f w i t c h e s : t h e r o l e o f w o m e n in s e a r c h i n g f o r t h e w i t c h ' s m a r k . w o m e n s h o w e d n o r e l u c t a n c e in a c c u s i n g other women of being witches. T h e w o r d i n g o f t h e r e l e v a n t o r d e r suggests that the practice was already a familiar o n e . 'that keepes the Session House for the City o f L o n d o n . a n d e v e n t o s p e c u l a t e a b o u t w h a t w a s g o i n g o n o u t s i d e a r e a s c o v e r e d b y t h e legal r e c o r d . a n o t h e r p a r e n t w h o t h o u g h t h e r child t o b e b e w i t c h e d . t h o s e ' g o o d ' w i t c h e s w h o a t t r a c t e d so m u c h hostility f r o m the writers o f English demonological tracts. S i x w o m e n . A male witness r e c o r d e d h o w he w e n t with o n e o f R o d e s ' sons t o H e n r y T e m p e s t . H e told the court that 'information was given unto h i m b y s o m e o f h e r n e i g h b o u r s . E d w a r d F a i r f a x . suggested that w o m e n with some type o f knowledge might be favoured. 'by a p p o i n t m e n t . n o t e d h o w the suspected w i t c h . in b o t h t h e s e a r e a s f e m a l e p a r t i c i p a t i o n in t h e l e g a l s y s t e m s e e m e d t o b e at l e a s t e q u a l t o t h a t o f m e n . t h e d i r e c t i o n s e e m s t o h a v e c o m e s i m p l y f r o m t h e l o c a l constable. one such group o f searchers d e s c r i b e d as ' w o m e n o f c r e d i t e ' . in a n o t h e r Y o r k s h i r e c a s e . c a n o n l y l e a d t o v e r y tentative conclusions. b a s e d as it m u s t b e o n i m p e r f e c t a n d at t i m e s c o n t r a d i c t o r y m a t e r i a l s . 6 F u r t h e r c o m p l i c a t i o n s arise w h e n that half a d o z e n h o n e s t m a t r o n s should b e a p p o i n t e d t o strip w i d o w W a l k e r and t o d e t e r m i n e i f s h e h a d ' e n y b l u d i e m a r k e o n h i r b o d i e w h i c h is a c o m o n t o k e n t o k n o w all w i t c h e s b y ' . legal s y s t e m . D o r o t h y R o d e s . T h e m a r k w a s s e e n as a m e t h o d o f establishing g u i l t in some fifteenth-century Continental trials. behaving ' m o s t sluttish a n d l o a t h s o m e l y t o w a r d s t h e m . passing t h e r e b y c h a n c e ' . W h e r e a s o v e r 9 0 p e r c e n t o f t h o s e a c c u s e d at t h e E s s e x assizes f o r w i t c h c r a f t w e r e f e m a l e . S h e w a s j o i n e d b y ' t w o g r a v e m a t r o n s . A l i c e P u r s t o n . Four years earlier. including the alleged victims of witchcraft. p u b l i s h e d in 1 5 6 6 . however. a n d . finger. T h e earliest k n o w n r e f e r e n c e to appointing w o m e n for this task c o m e s . S o m e o t h e r cases.l i k e g r o w t h in t h e p u d e n d a . O n e a r e a w h e r e w o m e n w e r e o f u n i q u e i m p o r t a n c e in t h e j u d i c i a l t r i a l w i t c h c r a f t w a s in t h e i r b e i n g u s e d t o s e a r c h f o r t h e w i t c h ' s m a r k . b u t t h e w o m e n c o n t i n u e d in t h e i r e f f o r t s . e a c h o f t h e m d e p o s i n g s e p a r a t e l y t o c o u r t about the results o f the e x e r c i s e . S a w y e r ' s t r i a l w a s r a t h e r h a n g i n g fire. w e r e a p p o i n t e d . m o s t c o m m o n l v t o o k t h e f o r m o f a t e a t . O n e o f these was Margaret W e a v e r . It a l s o s e e m s t h a t i t g r a d u a l l y b e c a m e a c c e p t e d t h a t t h e m a r k . WITCHCRAFT AND THE LEGAL PROCESS 291 reveal a male participation rate o f 2 9 per c e n t . in a n o t h e r Y o r k s h i r e c a s e . b r o u g h t in b y t h e o f f i c e r o u t o f t h e s t r e e t e . h o w e v e r . t w o . at F u y s t o n e . cases T h e actual m e c h a n i c s by which w o m e n w e r e appointed t o search w i t c h e s varied e n o r m o u s l y . T h e y found a teat 'the bignesse o f the little and the length o f halfe a finger'. on the strength o f N o r t h e r n C i r c u i t assize d e p o s i t i o n s . M a r y Sikes. t h e l e g a l p r o c e s s in e a r l y m o d e r n We must. consider what we mean by the t e r m 'legal 7 T h a t t h e p r a c t i c e w a s w i d e l y k n o w n at t h i s t i m e is c o n f i r m e d 1 1 b y a t r a c t d e s c r i b i n g t h e p r o s e c u t i o n o f s e v e r a l w o m e n in E s s e x in 1 5 8 2 . t h r e e m a r r i e d a n d t h r e e w i d o w s . ' T h e Bench'. accused of malefic witchcraft w e r e w o m e n . t h e b e h a v i o u r o f b o t h w i t c h e s a n d t h e i r a c c u s e r s in c o u r t . In this c h a p t e r I s h o u l d l i k e t o t a k e t h i n g s f u r t h e r . t o h a v e i n v o l v e d an i n t e r p l a y T b e t w e e n official a t t i t u d e s and t h e d e m a n d s o f t h e l o c a l c o m m u n i t y . a Y o r k s h i r e g e n t l e m a n w h o t h o u g h t t w o o f his d a u g h t e r s w e r e b e i n g b e w i t c h e d . . a n d as E n g l i s h t r i a l s p r o g r e s s e d its i m p o r t a n c e r e m a i n e d c e n t r a l . at t h e h o u s e o f w i d o w P u l l e n s . A t t h a t p o i n t a j u s t i c e w h o h a d t a k e n c o n s i d e r a b l e i n t e r e s t in t h e c a s e . England. a n d t h e s u b s e q u e n t b e h a v i o u r o f c o n d e m n e d w i t c h e s o n t h e g a l l o w s . As I have argued e l s e w h e r e . by w h i c h suspition was c o n f i r m e d against h e r ' . along with o t h e r felons. a w i d d o w o f honest reputat i o n ' . a l t h o u g h t h e t h e n c u r r e n t c u s t o m o f s h a v i n g b o d y h a i r f r o m t h e s u s p e c t s t o facilit a t e t h e s e a r c h d o e s n o t s e e m t o h a v e b e e n f o l l o w e d in E n g l a n d . perhaps a little u n e x p e c t e d l y . the p r o s e c u t i o n o f w i t c h e s . 1 3 it s e e m s safe t o t a k e as o u r s t a r t i n g p o i n t t h a t t h e o v e r w h e l m i n g m a j o r i t y o f p e r s o n s and that a study o f w i t c h c r a f t c o u l d o f f e r a p o t e n t i a l l y f r u i t f u l a p p r o a c h t o t h e s t u d y o f w o m e n ' s i n v o l v e m e n t in pause t o p r o c e s s ' . 1 2 This being incident involved the searching o f a n u m b e r o f suspected witches by local w o m e n .

a Y o r k s h i r e w i t c h . s o m e t i m e s w i t h o f f i c i a l s a n c t i o n . and i n f o r m e d the author o f the narration o f the case t h a t s h e n e v e r s a w t h e l i k e in h e r l i f e : t h a t h e r f u n d a m e n t w a s open o f your p e t i t i o n e r ] have uniustly & without g r o u n d o r c o l l o [ u ] r o f r e a s o n given o u t in s p e e c h e s that y o u r p e t i t i o n e r ] is a w i t c h w h i c h o d i o u s n a m e y o [ u ] r p e t i t i o n e r ] u t t e r l y a b h o r s & d e t e s t s & all t h e w o r k s o f t h e d e v i l l . T o clear herself. M o s t f a m i l i a r . 1 6 S o m e m i d w i v e s clearly felt t h e m s e l v e s able t o give e x p e r t e v i d e n c e in w i t c h c r a f t 17 cases. a n d at this s o c i a l l e v e l . T h i s p o i n t is r e i n f o r c e d by a r e m a r k a b l e c a s e f r o m O x f o r d s h i r e in 1 6 8 7 . T h e s u s p e c t e d w i t c h a t t r i b u t e d this t o an i n j u r y s u s t a i n e d w h i l e c a r r y i n g a b u n d l e o f thorns. credit & reputacon fame. witnesses or parties t o litigation. and was paid f o r such duties and also r e c e i v e d e x p e n s e s . w e find a m i d w i f e b e i n g a p p o i n t e d t o s e a r c h the b o d y o f a s u s p e c t e d w i t c h 'in the p r e s e n c e o f s o m e s o b e r w o m e n ' . w a s t h e u s e m a d e b y f e m a l e j u r i e s in e x a m i n i n g w o m e n w h o c l a i m e d t o b e p r e g n a n t a f t e r conviction for felony. it w a s r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e s u s p i c i o n w a s n o t f o u n d e d m e r e l y on ' c o m m o n r e p o r t ' . s h e w as b r o u g h t in b y t h e a u t h o r i t i e s o f A l d e b u r g h in S u f f o l k t o s u p e r vise o t h e r w o m e n searching s u s p e c t e d w i t c h e s t h e r e . t h i s u s e o f f e m a l e j u r i e s o r less f o r m a l g r o u p s o f f e m a l e executed. C e r t a i n l y . Earle asked w h y s h e did n o t t e l l t h e w o e m e n t h a t s e a r c h e d . A m i d w i f e T h e f r e q u e n c y o f r e f e r e n c e s in s u r v i v i n g d e p o s i t i o n s t o w o m e n s e a r c h i n g f o r t h e m a r k s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e p r a c t i c e . M a r y P h i l i p s . b u t also ' u p o n the assertion o f h o n e s t w o m e n . . Katherine Earle. W o m e n w e r e a l s o f r e q u e n t l y i n v o l v e d as w i t n e s s e s a g a i n s t w i t c h e s . was widespread and culturally familiar. and w h o h e n c e h o p e d to delay o r evade being T o g e t h e r . while W a l k e r ' s suggestion that she s h o u l d b e s e a r c h e d b y ' f o u r e & t w e n t y ' w o m e n is i n s t r u c t i v e . 1 5 o f a g e n t l e m a n . e x i s t i n g as it did o n t h e p e r i p h e r i e s o f t h e legal process. Five w o m e n g a v e e v i d e n c e a g a i n s t J o a n S a l t e r . and t h e n tried by a trial j u r y o f a n o t h e r t w e l v e . 2 1 investigators constitutes a part o f the legal p r o c e s s that m u s t m o d i f y the general assertion that w o m e n w e r e e x c l u d e d f r o m official p a r t i c i p a t i o n in i t . a t t e m p t e d t o arouse h i m s e x u a l l y . T h i s last c a s e r e m i n d s us t h a t t h e f e m a l e s e a r c h e r s o f f i c i a l l y s a n c t i o n e d t o s e a r c h w o m e n w e r e but one o f a n u m b e r of types o f juries. This practice seems to have b e e n discontinued by the sixteenth c e n t u r y . B y this t i m e . N o t all o f t h e w o m e n s e a r c h e d . She explained that the thorn ' c o n t i n e w e d t h e r e about a yeare b e f o r e itt could b e g o t t out and caused a great swelling and since that t y m e t h e r e hath b e e n e a little hole upon h e r s h o u l d e r ' . or near juries. b u t the o p e r a t i o n o f t h e c h u r c h c o u r t s still m a d e o c c a s i o n a l u s e o f w o m e n as e x p e r t s in s e x u a l c a s e s . o n e o f t h o s e a c c u s e d o n t h e Isle o f E l y .292 JIM SHARPE WOMEN. d e p o s e d h o w t h e y f o u n d t h r e e t e a t s in h e r p r i v y p a r t s ' w h i c h t h e m i d w i f e a n d t h e rest o f these i n f o r m a n t s have n o t seen the like o n the b o d y o f any o t h e r w o m a n ' . M a r y A r m i t a g e . Elizabeth Harvey. p e r h a p s . w h e r e a t t h e w o m e n l a u g h i n g she p [ r e ] s e n t l v a f t e r said i t c a m e b y a b u r n e a n d s h e h a d it 3 6 y e a r e s . while several o f t h e m offered those searching t h e m f o r t h o s e p h y s i c a l p e c u l i a r i t i e s w h i c h r i s k e d b e i n g i d e n t i f i e d as t h e w a t c h ' s m a r k . . p e t i t i o n e d t h e b e n c h in t h a t y e a r . severall w i c k e d & mallicious persons enveing the g o o d n a m e . s e e m s t o h a v e a c q u i r e d a w i d e r r e p u t e as a r finder o f the witch's mark. a m a n f r o m B a r k i n g in E s s e x w a s p r e s e n t e d f o r i n c e s t w i t h his d a u g h t e r . any widow her Bridget Reynolds searched one o f the Essex witches. w o u l d b e m a d e b v w o m e n in i n f a n t i c i d e a n d r a p e c a s e s . one o f which penetrated her shoulder. w a s s e a r c h e d b y f o u r w o m e n in 1 6 5 8 . t h e a t t e n t i o n o f t h e j u r y of women searchers w a s clearly r e c o g n i z e d . a n d a s u s p i c i o u s h o l e a q u a r t e r o f an i n c h d e e p w a s f o u n d o n h e r r i g h t s h o u l d e r . H e n c e . t h e g o o d reputation and g o o d c o n d u c t . J o a n W a l k e r o f B i c e s t e r . w i d o w W a l k e r r e q u e s t e d that t h e b e n c h should o r d e r that she 'may be searched by foure & t w e n t y honest sober iudicious matrons & m a k e r e p o r t o f t h e i r o p i n i o n s at n e x t s e s s i o n s ' . b o t h c r i m inal and civil. T h e exceptionally rich documentation provided by the Matthew named and H o p k i n s t r i a l s o f 1 6 4 5 — 7 s h o w s a n u m b e r o f t h e m in a c t i o n . T h i s she did. o f a m a r k e b e t w e e n e h e r e t h i g h s as w e l l as t h a t o f b e h i n d h e r e a r e s h e at first a n s w e r e d t h a t s h e did n o t k n o w o f i t . s u b m i t t e d willingly. by baring t h e i r breasts and kissing o r fondling the m a n . again in E s s e x . T h e y did n o t s e r v e as m a g i s trates or jurors b u t the authority derived f r o m the crucial evidence o f their 'special k n o w l e d g e ' w a s a d r a m a t i c r e v e r s a l o f t h e i r g e n e r a l l y p o w e r l e s s r o l e s as p e t i t i o n e r s . f o r r e a s o n s w h i c h r e m a i n e l u s i v e . S o m e t h i n g o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e s e a r c h f o r t h e w i t c h ' s m a r k is c o n v e y e d in t h e e x a m i n a t i o n o f another Yorkshire witch. uniquely qualified t o c o m m e n t on irregularities in the female genitals. again d u r i n g t h e H o p k i n s t r i a l s . o u t o f w h i c h being pressed issued b l o o d : that they w e r e n e i t h e r piles n o r e m r o d s (for she k n e w b o t h ) b u t e x c r e s s e n c e s like t o biggs with nipples w h i c h s e e m e d as i f t h e y h a d b e e n f r e q u e n t l y s u c k e d . P h i l i p s w a s i n v o l v e d as a w i t n e s s in s o m e o f t h e e a r l y E s s e x t r i a l s in t h e s p r i n g o f 1 6 4 5 a n d . as t h e c a s e o f E l i z a b e t h S a w y e r s u g g e s t s . T h e H o m e . o f c o u r s e . it s e e m s c e r t a i n t h a t s i m i l a r s e a r c h e s . A n n e t h e w i f e o f T h o m a s S a v o r y o f U p w e l l in N o r f o l k w a s e x a m i n e d w h o 'sayd that s o m e o f the divles i m p e s had sucked h e r ' . w h o have had the examinacion of the young w e n c h ' . T h u s w h e n . A c r i m i n a l a c c u s a t i o n at t h e s e s s i o n s o r assizes t y p i c a l l y w o u l d b e s c r e e n e d b y a g r a n d j u r y o f t w e l v e o r so m e n . w h e n the accuracy o f the plea was tested by 'honest w o m e n ' w h o . W a l k e r obviously desired that the search that was intended to clear her n a m e should m i r r o r p r o p e r l e g a l p r o c e s s as f a r as p o s s i b l e . a n d t h a t t h e p e r s o n s a b u s i n g h e r s h o u l d b e b o u n d o v e r t o a p p e a r t h e r e . J o a n S a l t e r e x p l a i n e d t o an i n v e s t i g a t i n g j u s t i c e t h a t ' t h e m a r k e s t h a t s h e h a t h a b o u t h e r a r e n o t t h e m a r k e s o f a w i t c h b u t c a u s e d as i t p l e a s e t h G o d s h e b e l e a v e t h b y c h i l d b e a r i n g ' . explanations 1 9 l i k e a m o u s e h o l e . 2 0 Although the point needs further investi- g a t i o n . in 1 5 9 5 . WITCHCRAFT AND THE LEGAL PROCESS 293 M i d w i v e s w e r e . a n d t h a t in i t w e r e t w o l o n g b i g g s . t o t h e e f f e c t t h a t d e s p i t e L a t e r in t h e c e n t u r y . by ' s o m e t h a t w e r e t h e r e w h o p [ r e ] t e n d e d t o h a v e skill in t h e d i s c o v e r y o f w i t c h e s ' 1 8 T h e Hopkins episode a l s o s a w t h e e m e r g e n c e o f a w o m a n w h o c l e a r l y a t t a i n e d a r e g i o n a l r e p u t a t i o n as a s e a r c h e r f o r t h e w i t c h ' s m a r k . The English mediaeval ecclesiastical courts had sought female assistance in cases o f a n n u l m e n t o f m a r r i a g e o n the g r o u n d s o f the h u s b a n d ' s i m p o t e n c e . o f female e x p e r t s w h o w e r e c a l l e d in t o a d j u d i c a t e in a n u m b e r o f l e g a l m a t t e r s . O t h e r s m i g h t c l a i m a m o r e g e n e r a l e x p e r t i s e .

scatt e r e d e v i d e n c e s u g g e s t s t h a t a f e w w o m e n w e r e a b l e t o d e f e n d t h e m s e l v e s in c o u r t . A n n a T r a p n e l . m e m o i r s . j u d g e s m u s t h a v e p l a y e d a m a j o r p a r t in h e l p i n g a c c u s e d w i t c h e s e v a d e e x e c u t i o n . 2 3 C o n v e r s e l y . In m a n y c a s e s t h e a c c u s e d w e r e e l d e r l y w o m e n w h o h a d b e e n c o w e d b y the experiences o f c o m m u n i t y hostility. It is p o s s i b l e t o p u s h b e y o n d s t a t i s t i c s o c c a s i o n a l l y . 2 7 cases w o u l d s e e m t o support the conclusion advanced e l s e w h e r e . W e r e t u r n t o t h e n o t i o n t h a t t h e c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n w o m e n a n d w i t c h c r a f t lav j I f t h e t r e a t m e n t o f w o m e n w i t n e s s e s v a r i e d . examination by justices and m o b pressure on the way to the place o f trial. a n d as y e t b a r e l y i n v e s t i g a t e d w e b o f a s s u m p t i o n s a b o u t g e n d e r . C h a n d l e r . 2 5 O t h e r cases o f w h a t a m o u n t e d a l m o s t t o defiance w e r e r e c o r d e d . 3 2 3 1 S o m e t i m e s t h e t h r o n g in t h e c o u r t d u r i n g a w i t c h c r a f t t r i a l m i g h t b e so o p p r e s s i v e . O n these figures. S e v e n w o m e n a n d o n e m a n . although invaluable for illustrating other m a t t e r s .R e s t o r a t i o n c a s e in t h e s o u t h . w e r e essentiallv pre-trial d o c u m e n t s that by their very n a t u r e u s u a l l y t e l l us n o t h i n g o f w h a t h a p p e n e d in c o u r t . Jane W e n h a m . 2 9 n o t o n l y in t h e g e n d e r o f t h e a c c u s e d . ' b u t though he and the w i t c h . T h e H o m e C i r c u i t r e c o r d s also suggest that the 46 proportion of w o m e n witnesses increased over the seventeenth centurv. t h e r e m i g h t b e a h e a v y p r e p o n d e r a n c e o f w o m e n w i t n e s s e s : 1 4 w o m e n t o 3 m e n in K e n t in 1 0 w o m e n t o 5 m e n in S u r r e y in 1 6 6 4 . a n d f e m a l e i n t e r a c t i o n in e a r l y m o d e r n England. 6 3 1 ( o r 52 per c e n t ) involved m e n and 576 ( o r 4 8 p e r c e n t ) w o m e n . scept i c a l a b o u t . while admitting c o n t a c t with what may have b e e n familiars. r e c o r d e d h o w d u r i n g h e r t r a v e l s in C o r n w a l l s h e w a s i n v e s t i g a t e d as a w i t c h . a n d f r o m i s o l a t e d r e f e r e n c e s in l e t t e r s .w e s t . but the words w e r e handed f r o m o n e to the o t h e r by M r R. b u t a l s o in a m u c h w i d e r . as R o g e r N o r t h r e c o r d e d o f o n e p o s t . a n d less s e e m l y t h a n t h o s e o b t a i n i n g in a m o d e r n s u c h l i k e . T h e official d o c u m e n t a t i o n e n g e n d e r e d b y an E n g l i s h c r i m i n a l trial in this p e r i o d r a r e l y s h e d s m u c h l i g h t o n t h e s e m a t t e r s . Holt asked her what skill s h e h a d in m a t t e r s o f w i t c h c r a f t . a n e a r l y e v e n s p l i t . 8 w o m e n a l o n e in E s s e x in 1 6 5 0 . m o r e r a m s h a c k l e . w h e n c o n v i c t i o n s w e r e v e r y r a r e . a n d t o r e c o n s t r u c t s o m e t h i n g o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f w o m e n in t h e c o u r t r o o m . asked sarcastically if Field had n o w g r o w n r i c h . w h o was sceptical. H e r arguing convinced the R e c o r d e r o f Faversharn o f her i n n o c e n c e . S o m e n o t i o n o f typical conditions can b e gained f r o m the case o f M a r y S p e n c e r w h o . In i s o l a t e d c a s e s . at h e r t r i a l f o r w i t c h c r a f t . t h a t w o m e n f e l t n o q u a l m s a b o u t g i v i n g 2 2 e v i d e n c e against f e m a l e w i t c h e s . o n e o f the Essex witches a c c u s e d in 1 6 4 5 . p o o r p e o p l e b u t h e r n e a r n e i g h b o u r s . T h u s in 1 5 8 6 J o a n C a s o n . An o b v i o u s l y u n c o n v i n c e d j u d g e H o l t w a s v e r y r e s t r a i n e d in his s u b s e q u e n t q u e s t i o n i n g 2 8 In t h e s a m e d e c a d e . a w i d o w o f F a v e r s h a m in K e n t . so did t h a t o f t h e w o m e n a c c u s e d o f w i t c h c r a f t . m a l e and f e m a l e alike. witchcraft cases. a n d t h a t t h i s e x p e r i e n c e h a d g i v e n h e r i n s i g h t i n t o s u c h m a t t e r s . a n d s h e r e p l i e d t h a t s h e h a d b e e n b e w i t c h e d as a c h i l d . w e r e the accused being a Hertfordshire often browbeaten woman named or r i d i c u l e d b y t h e j u d i c i a r y . and s o m e t i m e s n o t truly reported'. In 1 7 0 2 R i c h a r d H a t h a w a y w a s t r i e d as a c h e a t f o r a c c u s i n g Sarah M o r d u c k o f w i t c h c r a f t . much more female c o m p l e x . while depositions. broadly speaking. T h e c e n t u r v which witnessed the judicial style o f judge Jeffreys . T h e g e n e r a l p o i n t t o b e m a d e is t h a t c o u r t p r o c e e d i n g s w e r e m o r e d i s o r o f law. and the child had n o friends able t o b e a r the charges o f such a p r o s e c u t i o n ' . 2 4 By the later seventeenth century. judges w e r e . o n e o f t h r e e w i t c h e s e x e c u t e d at E x e t e r in A l l this w a s b a d e n o u g h f o r t h e a c c u s e d . T h e i n d i c t m e n t is a n o t o r i o u s l y a r i d d o c u m e n t . WITCHCRAFT AND THE LEGAL PROCESS 295 C i r c u i t assize r e c o r d s r e v e a l t h a t t h e r e w e r e 1 2 0 7 calls f o r w i t n e s s e s a t w i t c h t r i a l s between 1 6 0 0 and 1 7 0 2 . of Northern 1657. T h e j u d g e asked w h y she had n o t p r o s e c u t e d W e n h a m i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r this i n c i d e n t . O f t h e s e . d e r l y . Cason. i f n o t t h e a b s t r a c t p o s s i b i l i t y o f w i t c h c r a f t . a n d at ' a s t r a n g e h o w l i n g in t h e c o u r t t o t h e g r e a t d i s t u r b a n c e o f t h e Temperance L l o y d . Such in 1 6 8 5 w a s n o t o n e in w h i c h w i t n e s s e s m i g h t u s u a l l y e x p e c t i n d u l g e n t a t t i t u d e s from judges. In t h a t d e c a d e 5 7 2 m e n a n d 3 6 women w e r e c a l l e d t o g i v e e v i d e n c e in f e l o n y c a s e s at t h e H e r t f o r d s h i r e a s s i z e s . b u t e v e n g i v i n g e v i d e n c e c o u l d b e a stressful e x p e r i e n c e . O n e o f t h o s e giving e v i d e n c e against h e r was Elizabeth F i e l d . a n d t h a t a c l e r g y m e n h e l p e d t o f r a m e an i n d i c t m e n t against h e r . t h e I n t e r r e g n u m r e l i g i o u s v i s i o n a r y . She told h o w W e n h a m had b e w i t c h e d a child o f hers a b o u t nine years previously. 2 6 steadfastly Margaret Landish. O t h e r sources can be and court m o r e r e v e a l i n g a n d . one point made whole b e n c h ' . s o m e t h i n g c a n b e c o n s t r u c t e d f r o m p a m p h l e t a c c o u n t s o f t r i a l s . T h e j u d g e . N e v e r t h e l e s s . t h e r e 9 2 m e n a n d 8 2 w o m e n w e r e c a l l e d t o g i v e e v i d e n c e in w o m e n w e r e o v e r 11 t i m e s m o r e l i k e l y t o a c t as w i t n e s s e s in w i t c h c r a f t t r i a l s at t h e assizes t h a n t h e y w e r e in all f e l o n y c a s e s . to w h i c h she a n s w e r e d 'she was a p o o r w o m e n . t h a t she c o u l d n o t h e a r t h e e v i d e n c e a g a i n s t h e r ' . t h a t . In 1 7 1 2 t h e r e o c c u r r e d t h e last k n o w n assize t r i a l f o r in E n g l a n d . o f w h a t h a p p e n e d in t h e p u s h a n d s h o v e o f a c o u r t in s e s s i o n . on the strength C i r c u i t assize d e p o s i t i o n s . t h e j u d g e m i g h t b e p r e s s u r e d i n t o c o n v i c t i n g a g a i n s t his i n c l i n a t i o n s . a n d t h e t h r o n g s o g r e a t . i t did n o w a y d i s m a y m e ' . claiming that h e r adversaries w e r e maliciously accusing h e r and that t h e r e w e r e e x i s t i n g d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e m in w h i c h h e r a c c u s e r s h a d a l r e a d y d o n e her w r o n g . t o a p r e p o n d e r a n c e o f w o m e n w i t n e s s e s in t h e 1 6 6 0 s a n d 1 6 7 0 s . gave e v i d e n c e against h e r . Elizabeth W i l l o u g h b y was o n e o f those giving e v i d e n c e on Hathaway's behalf before the sceptical Chief Justice H o l t . 3 0 John A u b r e y n o t e d t h a t at t h e t r i a l o f a w i t c h in 1 6 5 3 ' t h e s p e c t a t o r s m a d e s u c h a n o i s e that the judge could not hear the prisoner nor the prisoner the judge. as w e shall s e e . Such w o m e n w e r e unlikely t o m o u n t m u c h by way o f a c o h e r e n t d e f e n c e against the charges levelled against t h e m .t r y i n g w o m a n l o o k e d in m v f a c e . although a bungle o v e r legal technicalities led t o h e r e x e c u t i o n . Such instances t h r o w light o n w h a t is still o n e o f t h e p r o b l e m a r e a s o f E n g l i s h legal h i s t o r y : t h e v e r y b a s i c i s s u e o f h o w t r i a l s w e r e a c t u a l l y c o n d u c t e d . t h e r e w e r e signs o f w o m e n w i t n e s s e s being t r e a t e d w i t h p o l i t e n e s s . d i a r i e s . from w o m e n t o 8 0 m e n in 1 6 0 0 — 0 9 . denied bewitching the child t o death. Y e t in o t h e r i n s t a n c e s w o m e n a c c u s e d o f w i t c h c r a f t in t h e c o n f u s i n g a n d h o s t i l e e n v i r o n m e n t o f t h e c o u r t m i g h t find t h e m s e l v e s u n d e r h e a v y p r e s s u r e . witchcraft and w i t n e s s e s . t a k i n g t h e H o m e C i r c u i t as a w h o l e . and w h o was subsequently to reprieve W e n h a m after c o n v i c t i o n . a b o u t this c l a i m .294 JIM SHARPE WOMEN. c o m p l a i n e d t h a t ' t h e w i n d w a s so l o u d . a l l e g e d m a l i c e a n d an o l d g r u d g e a g a i n s t h e r at h e r t r i a l . a r a t i o o f over twelve male witnesses to each f e m a l e . T h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e s e figures is e m p h a s i z e d w h e n w e c o m p a r e t h e m t o t h e g e n d e r r a t i o o f all w i t n e s s e s c a l l e d t o g i v e e v i d e n c e in f e l o n y c a s e s in Hertfordshire between 1 6 1 0 a n d 1 6 1 9 . a n d d e m o n s t r a t e its h o s t i l i t y t o t h e a c c u s e d so f o r c e f u l l y . at l e a s t o f t h e g u i l t o f t h e individual old w o m e n b r o u g h t b e f o r e t h e m . p o w e r . w a s t r i e d at t h e b o r o u g h s e s s i o n s f o r i n v o k i n g evil s p i r i t s a n d b e w i t c h i n g a c h i l d t o d e a t h . L o w c o n v i c t i o n r a t e s at t h e assizes s u g g e s t t h a t t h r o u g h o u t t h e p e r i o d o f the operation o f the English witch statutes.

O n e o f t h e r e c u r r i n g t h e m e s o f English w i t c h c r a f t was the possession o f v o u n g p e o p l e by spirits sent by a w i t c h . it s e e m s t h a t m o s t o f t h e c a s e s o f fits a n d c o n v u l s i o n s o c c u r r i n g in c o u r t o f w h i c h d e t a i l s h a v e c o m e d o w n t o us i n v o l v e d young w o m e n . H e l e n and Elizabeth Fairfax. at t h e g a l l o w s s h e r e f u s e d t o c o n f e s s . a n d c h e a r f u l l y ' . c a l l i n g f o r b e e r . S h e r e f u s e d . w h o w a s t h o u g h t t o b e b e w i t c h e d in 1 6 0 2 . b a s h f u l l g i r l e . T h e girl and h e r m o t h e r w e r e a t t e m p t i n g t o persuade a sceptical j u d g e t o p r o s e c u t e t h e p e r s o n s s u s p e c t e d o f w i t c h c r a f t . w a s w o r k e d on by a minister n a m e d Foster. and t h e girl fell i n t o fits b e f o r e t h e j u d g e . 39 i n t o a m o n s t r o u s and vast b i g n e s s . a n d d e s i r e d o b v i o u s is t h a t b e i n g p o s s e s s e d . the turning o f h e r a r m e s a n d h a n d s . w h i l e she w a s a l s o . i n f a c t . In S a w y e r ' s c a s e . it is c l e a r t h a t b e i n g p o s s e s s e d a n d l a u n c h i n g a w i t c h c r a f t a c c u s a t i o n and t o e x e r c i s e p o w e r o v e r adults. at t h e p l a c e of e x e c u t e d at T y b u r n in execution. W h a t is s t r i k i n g . t h e d u b l i n g & s w e l l i n g o f h i r b o d y ' in c o u r t . t h e i r c u r i o s i t y f o u n d n o t h i n g b u t s i n c e r i t y in m y children'. this last t y p e o n t h e p a r t o f t h e a l l e g e d v i c t i m s o f w i t c h c r a f t . at o n e s t a g e . As s h e w a l k e d t o t h e g a l l o w s . Joan had In a n o t h e r c a s e . v e r y a n n o y e d w h e n t h e s h e r i f f t o l d h e r s h e c o u l d n o t b e b u r i e d at t h e g a l l o w s . b a s h f u l l g i r l e ' t h e c h a n c e t o b e c o m e t h e c e n t r e o f a t t e n t i o n A f t e r trial and c o n d e m n a t i o n the w i t c h . 4 2 Anne s i m i l a r l y w e n t i n t o fits at t h e t r i a l o f t w o o f t h e w o m e n w h o h a d a l l e g e d l y b e w i t c h e d h e r . w i t h o u t a n y c o n f i d e n c e at all w h e n s h e w a s o u t o f h e r fits'. s c h r e e c h i n g and crying o u t very d o l e f u l l y ' . a r e s o m e t i m e s v e r y l o n g a n d v e r y h a r r o w i n g . like o t h e r c o n v i c t e d f e l o n s . a n d t o d i e as a l a m b ' . e x e c u t e d at S a l i s b u r y .296 JIM SHARPE WOMEN. h o w e v e r . ' b y e v e r y h o u s e s h e w e n t b y . Justices p r e s e n t f o l l o w e d the girls o u t . less t h a n e d i f y i n g . a n d b e i n g a s k e d w h e t h e r she d e s i r e d t h e p r a y e r s o f a n y o f t h e p e o p l e . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e p a m p h l e t a c c o u n t . B u t w h e n s h e c a m e o u t o f h e r fits. H e m a n a g e d t o b r i n g h e r ' t o t h a t p i t c h as t o p r o m i s e h i m she w o u l d g o e a t r u e p e n i t e n t t o h e r p l a c e o f e x e c u t i o n . she w a s ' v e r y d e s i r o u s f o r d r i n k . g a v e a d o l e s c e n t s a unique o p p o r t u n i t y t o cast off their characteristically submissive and repressed r o l e . be excessive. t o confess t h e m a t t e r s f o r w h i c h she had b e e n c o n v i c t e d . a n d on her r e c o v e r y claimed that h e r familiar had e n t e r e d h e r b o d y . w a s ' p e r f e c t l y r e s o l u t e . T h e R e c o r d e r o f L o n d o n a n d o t h e r officials t e s t e d t h e g e n u i n e n e s s o f h e r fit b y b u r n i n g h e r h a n d until it b l i s t e r e d : the girl r e m a i n e d i n s e n s i b l e . 3 b S o m e t i m e s this s o r t o f c l e r i c a l p r e s s u r e c o u l d 1 6 5 2 . w a s . foreign b o d i e s . 4 1 Ideally. a n d i n d u l g e in b a d b e h a v i o u r t h a t w a s n o t o n l v l i c e n s e d . a l t h o u g h c o n f e s s i n g h e r w i t c h c r a f t at h e r t r i a l . A s h b y c o n f e s s e d t o c o p u l a t i o n t h e D e v i l . a n d m a d e s o g o d l y an e n d t h a t m a n y w h o previously b e e n her enemies lamented her d e a t h . should ' m a k e a g o o d e n d ' . a n d d u r s t d o n o o t h e r w i s e ' . T h u s w h e n w a s t h e r e s u l t o f d i v i n e j u s t i c e . d a u g h t e r o f a L o n d o n s h o p k e e p e r . ' w h o c o m f o r t e d her to bear death Christianly. or by curious diseases inflicted on t h e m by witchcraft. T h e accounts of t h e s u f f e r i n g s o f s u c h p o s s e s s e d p e r s o n s . adding 'that she r yet T h e t h e m e o f t h e p o s s e s s i o n o f a d o l e s c e n t s is a m a j o r o n e in t h e h i s t o r y E n g l i s h w i t c h c r a f t in this p e r i o d . she h a d as m a n v p r a y e r s a l r e a d y as she i n t e n d e d . S o m e t h i n g o f t h e d i v e r g e n c e in t h e n o r m a l e x p e c t a t i o n s o f a y o u n g w o m a n ' s b e h a v i o u r a n d t h a t o f t h e p o s s e s s e d a d o l e s c e n t g i r l in t h e p r e s e n c e o f a j u d g e c a n b e . a n d at t h e g a l l o w s r e a d t o h e r t h e c o n f e s s i o n t h a t she h a d m a d e e a r l i e r . A n n B o d e n h a m . h o w e v e r . a gentleman's daughter. a n d h a d n o t M r U n d e r s h e r i f f s p r u d e n c e b e e n s u c h as t o r e s t r a i n h e r f r o m it s h e w o u l d h a v e d i e d d r u n k ' . w h i c h s h e d e c l a r e d t o b e t r u e 'in the hearing o f m a n y h u n d r e d s ' . f o r u n c l e a r r e a s o n s . T h i s s t o r y d o e s at l e a s t d e m o n strate that c o n v i c t e d w i t c h e s c o u l d b e o b d u r a t e at t h e g a l l o w s . H e n c e Henry G o o d c o l e w o r k e d on (to use the c o n t e m p o r a r y phrase) Elizabeth S a w y e r in 1 6 2 1 t o a c c e p t h e r s i n f u l n e s s a n d t h e d e a t h b y h a n g i n g t h a t it h a d d r a w n u p o n h e r . w o u l d b e p r e p a r e d f o r d e a t h . as w a s t y p i c a l in s u c h c a s e s . a n d in o p e n c o u r t ' f e l l i n t o an e x t a s i e b e f o r e t h e b e n c h . w h e t h e r in t h e c o u r t r o o m o r n o t . h o w e v e r . It w a s d e s i r a b l e t h a t t h e c o n d e m n e d w i t c h . W h a t of is w r o n g f u l l y s u f f e r e d d e a t h . w e l l as a f t e r h e r t r y a l . f a l l i n g i n t o a fit w h e n s h e w a s c a l l e d t o g i v e e v i d e n c e in c o u r t . A p p r o p r i a t e l y e n o u g h . and w e r e carried o u t ' . an e x e c u t i o n w o u l d i n v o l v e t h e c o n v i c t e d w i t c h m a k i n g a ' g o o d e n d ' a n d b e h a v i n g in an a p p r o p r i a t e l y e d i f y i n g f a s h i o n . b u t r a t h e r i m p u d e n t l y a t . b u t a l s o m a d e t h e m the centre of attention. In f a c t . and 3 4 W h e n e x a m i n i n g g e n d e r as an a s p e c t o f w i t c h gave M o r e c o m m o n l y . 3 6 C a s o n d i e d at F a v e r s h a m in 1 5 8 6 s h e m a d e a g a l l o w s s p e e c h a c c e p t i n g t h a t h e r f a t e B u t n o t all d i e d so e d i f y i n g l y . T h e girls' father n o t e d t h a t ' r e p o r t said t h a t it w a s n o t s o c i v i l as I e x p e c t e d f r o m s u c h m e n . not g l i m p s e d in t h e a c c o u n t o f t h e s u f f e r i n g s o f y e t a n o t h e r d a u g h t e r o f t h e gentry m i n d i n g w h a t s h o u l d b e c o m e o f h e r i m m o r t a l s o u l . their behaviour w h e n attracted considerable c o m m e n t f r o m c o n t e m p o r a r y o b s e r v e r s . and ' m a d e e x p e r i m e n t s to p r o v e if they c o u n t e r f e i t e d o r n o t ' . as w i t h E l i z a b e t h S a w y e r . T w o d e c a d e s l a t e r t w o o t h e r daughters o f the g e n t r y . is t h e n u m b e r o f o c c a s i o n s w h e n s u c h b e h a v i o u r o c c u r r e d in t h e c o u r t r o o m . s h e w e n t w i t h a s m a l l p i e c e o f s i l v e r in h e r h a n d . a n d did l a m e n t e x t r e m e l y . T h u s in o n e w e l l d o c u m e n t e d c a s e w e find M a r y G l o v e r . G o o d c o l e o f f i c i a t e d a t t h e e x e c u t i o n . and die p e n i t e n t l y and w i t h d i g n i t y . Joan Peterson. s h e a n s w e r e d . sometimes Although m a n y an ' i n n o c e n t . a n d t o m a k e a full c o n f e s s i o n . a n d is t o o c o m p l e x t o g o i n t o h e r e . T h e t h r e e s t r o n g m e n w h o c a r r i e d t h e g i r l out o f c o u r t declared that they had ' n e v e r carried a heavier b u r d e n ' . s h i r e assizes at a l m o s t the same time. f r e q u e n t l y i n v o l v i n g fits a n d c o n v u l s i o n s . exhorted nine or m o r e times to confess by the Ordinary o f N e w g a t e . boldly. a n d w a s v e r y p a s s i o n a t e w h e n d e n y e d ' . t r i e d at M a i d s t o n e in 1 6 5 2 . s h e ' d i d n o t k n o w w h a t w a s p a s t . Frequently these t o o k the form o f dramatic interventions on the first part o f the alleged sufferer w h e n the supposed witch entered the c o u r t or was noticed by the supposedly possessed girl. b e i n g r e g a r d e d ( a t l e a s t b y t h e a c c u s e r s ) as e v i d e n c e o f b e w i t c h m e n t . WITCHCRAFT AND THE LEGAL PROCESS 297 1 6 8 2 . o n e witness referring to the 'gogling o f hir heade & eyes. this p r o c e s s w o u l d b e e n t r u s t e d t o a c l e r g y m a n . v o m i t i n g r Another distraction to the court was offered with swelled b y A n n e A s h b y . so a u d a c i o u s ' . as all t h e b e h o l d e r s did s e e o n e l y an i n n o c e n t . 3 7 G i v e n the probability that girls w e r e m o r e likelv than possessed mav 3 8 boys to be deeply socialized into submissiveness. H e r e x e c u t i o n w a s . t r i e d at t h e B e r k Gunter. A t this p o i n t t h e e x e c u t i o n e r c o m m e n t e d t h a t ' t h e O r d i n a r y m i g h t b e a s h a m e d t o t r o u b l e a d y i n g w o m a n so m u c h ' . and indeed h a v e b e e n r e g a r d e d as a d e e p e r a f f r o n t t o s o c i a l n o r m s t h a n t h a t o f y o u n g m a l e s . like any o t h e r f e l o n . likewise 'fell i n t o a t r a n c e b e f o r e the j u d g e . the p r o g r e s s o f w i t c h trials was d i s t u r b e d b y sufferings of c r a f t . as 3 3 M a r g a r e t M u s c h a m p . a n d d e s i r e d t o d i e q u i e t l y ' . t o w h i c h t h e c l e r g y m a n r e s p o n d e d t h a t ' h e w a s c o m m a n d e d t o d o s o . 4 0 p e o p l e o f e i t h e r s e x m i g h t b e p o s s e s s e d .

She then tried to turn herself off on the gallows. w e m u s t k e e p o u r minds open t o the possibility that although women might have shared with men the experience of going t h r o u g h various stages o f the judicial p r o c e s s . c o n c l u d e d the account o f her trial. h o w e v e r . H o w e v e r . As I h a v e s u g g e s t e d e l s e w h e r e . a n d t o l d h e r ' h e w a s m u c h t r o u b l e d at it b u t h e c o u l d n o t r u l e h e r . b u t t h e f r e q u e n c y the legal p r o c e s s . a n d t h e r e a d y p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f w o m e n in s e a r c h i n g f o r t h e w i t c h ' s mark. the quality o f that e x p e r i e n c e a n d t h e r e a c t i o n s a n d e m o t i o n s it m i g h t p r o v o k e c o u l d h a v e b e e n v e r y for them. But Wright h e r s e l f h a d g i v e n b i r t h t o an i l l e g i t i m a t e Moth[er] the child just after T h e w i l l i n g n e s s o f o t h e r w o m e n t o a c t a g a i n s t a l l e g e d w i t c h e s is a l s o a c o n s t a n t t h e m e . a n d s h e did s w e l l m u c h in t h e b o d y a n d s o e d y e d ' . o f t e n arising f r o m such t r a d i t i o n a l f e m a l e c o n c e r n s as c h i l d r e a r i n g . a n d o n ' b y c l e r g y m e n b e f o r e t h e i r e x e c u t i o n in h o p e s t h a t t h e y m i g h t p r o d u c e a m o d e l speech f r o m the gallows. M a n y w i t c h c r a f t a c c u s a t i o n s . m i g h t b e h e c t o r e d o r p r e s s u r e d b y a g g r e s s i v e j u d g e s . B u t m u c h o f w h a t s e e m s t o h a v e h a p p e n e d t o w o m e n i n v o l v e d in w i t c h c r a f t c a s e s . as a w i t n e s s n a m e d C i c e l y W i n n e d e p o s e d . I n d e e d . S u s p e c t e d w i t c h e s m i g h t b e s u b j e c t e d to s w i m m i n g . 'you have her wicked life. T h e h i g h l e v e l o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f w o m e n w i t n e s s e s in w i t c h c r a f t c a s e s . T h e r e w e r e . like women convicted of witchcraft. In c o n s e q u e n c e . T h i s a s s e r t i o n r e m i n d s us o f t h e p r o b l e m s o f d e t e r m i n i n g a s p e c i f i c a l l y f e m a l e e x p e r i e n c e b e f o r e t h e c o u r t s a n d legal p r o c e s s . diflerent b o t h o f h e r a f f l i c t i n g e a n d l i k e w i s e o f a b r o t h e r o f h e r s w h o w a s sadly a f f l i c t e d b e f o r e t h a t & d y e d in a s t r a n g e m a n n e r ' . as I have stressed. ' t h e said M a r y B r i s c o e w as s u s p e c t e d b y m a n y n e i g h b o u r s t o b e t h e c a u s e r w o m e n . t h e n e i g h b o u r l y evaluation. d e m o n s t r a t e s h o w t h e e c c l e s i a s t i c a l l a w h e l p e d w o m e n to b e c o m e a g e n t s in l e g a l m a t t e r s . w h i l e . S h e a l s o c o m p l a i n e d at claimed a b o u t the s a m e t i m e o f being c o m p e l l e d 'to be a w i t n e s s against h e r husband for Margery Whishall. W r i g h t ' s daughter. o r at l e a s t p o p u l a r p r e s s u r e . a n d h e w a s v e r y m u c h a f r a i d t h a t s h e w o u l d c o m e t o t h e s a m e e n d as h e r did'. W i t h W r i g h t and B r i s c o e w e obviously This creates problems for those investigating constraints on female b e h a v i o u r in e a r l v m o d e r n E n g l a n d . notably the ecclesiastical c o u r t s . It a r o s e f r o m p r o b l e m s b e t w e e n M a r y Briscoe and A n n W r i g h t . interestingly. w h o h a d . b u t r a t h e r t w o w o m e n w h o w e r e willing to use t h e law to pursue their own ends. was the use o f groups o f w o m e n to search suspected witches for the m a r k . c o r r e c t l y . in f a c t . B u t b e f o r e m o v i n g t o a n y c o n c l u s i o n s o n t h e e v i d e n c e p r e s e n t e d b y this c o n n e c tion. but was restrained by the e x e c u t i o n e r . F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i n t o this issue m i g h t lead to s o m e useful insights into attitudes t o g e n d e r . w e should r e m i n d ourselves that there w e r e other tribunals involved with witchcraft cases. deposed that W r i g h t claimed Briscoe h a d b e w i t c h e d h e r at t h e t i m e o f t h e c h i l d ' s c o n c e p t i o n . W e are examining witchcraft. g o s s i p a m o n g w o m e n . a c c u s e r s o r w i t n e s s e s . t u r n m e o f f . as w a s t h e c u s t o m . ' T h u s ' . speaking t r e a s o n against the k i n g ' . 'She replyed forgive thee? that who A p o x o n t h e e . a b o u t t w e l v e .298 JIM SHARPE WOMEN. h a d d i s c u s s e d t h e p r o b l e m w i t h C i c e l y W i n n e . f e m a l e p o w e r . T h o s e f o r s a k e G o d in t h e i r l i v e s . s e e m s v e r y s i m i l a r t o w h a t happened to their m a l e c o u n t e r p a r t s : m e n accused o f felony. Unusually. a c r i m e w h i c h . w h i c h w e r e t h e last w o r d s she s p o k e ' . reveal a social arena w h e r e channels o f f e m a l e f o r c e . w h e t h e r as a c c u s e d . the defamation suit in d e f e n c e of good name. h e r husband. of r e f e r e n c e s t o h o s t i l e m o b s is s t r i k i n g . T h e m o s t o b v i o u s o f t h e s e . 4 4 R e s t o r a t i o n . aspects o f the prosecution o f felony which w e r e either s p e c i f i c t o o r m o r e m a r k e d in t r i a l s o f w i t c h c r a f t . w h i c h e n d e d in W r i g h t p e r f o r m i n g p u b l i c p e n a n c e in h e r p a r i s h c h u r c h . has b e e n r e g a r d e d as h a v i n g a p e c u l i a r c o n n e c t i o n with h a v e a r g u e d t h a t w i t c h c r a f t a c c u s a t i o n s w e r e a m e a n s o f c o n t r o l l i n g w o m e n c a n at 4 3 T h i s c h a p t e r has c o n c e n t r a t e d o n w i t c h c r a f t a n d t h e s e c u l a r c r i m i n a l l a w c o u r t s . w o r r i e d about t h e s u s p i c i o n o f w i t c h c r a i t a g a i n s t his w i f e . O f course. defamation suits involving allegations of witchcraft might be pursued t h e r e . shall b e f o r s a k e n o f h i m in t h e i r d e a t h s ' . the p h e n o m e n o n o f c r o w d action or popular attitudes towards criminals o r at e x e c u t i o n s w a s n o t l i m i t e d t o w i t c h c r a f t c a s e s . were witnesses 'worked g i v i n g e v i d e n c e in c o u r t . o r as a ' v e r y wilfull high spirited w o m a n a m o n g s t h e r n e i g h b o u r s ' . A n o t h e r w o m e n . e s p e c i a l l y s i n c e t h e y w e r e o n t h e f r i n g e s o f scratching o r o t h e r f o r m s o f popularly licensed v i o l e n c e . the s u r v i v i n g d o c u m e n t a t i o n a l l o w s us t o p i e c e t o g e t h e r s o m e t h i n g o f t h e b a c k g r o u n d . Less serious f o r m s o f witchcraft. a n d s o m e o f t h e b e t t e r d o c u m e n t e d cases reveal clearly h o w witchcraft accusations m i g h t f o r m part o f a w i d e r b o d v o f tensions and conflicts b e t w e e n women. a n d ' w a s v e r y sadly a f f l i c t e d a n d i n a s t r a n g e m a n n e r d u r i n g w h i c h t i m e ' s h e w o u l d m a n y t i m e s say t h a t M a r y B r i s c o e p r i c k e d h e r t o t h e h e a r t w i t h p i n s a n d w o u l d h a v e h e r h e a r t a n d t h e l i k e . a n d w e r e o f t e n f o r m u l a t e d a n d r e f i n e d in t h e w o r l d o f f e m a l e s o c i a b i l i t y . but cursed those that detained her f r o m h e r death. h a v e t w o r a t h e r c o n t e n t i o u s w o m e n . Ecclesiastical law gave w o m e n greater o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r l i t i g a t i n g t h a n did t h e c o m m o n l a w . W r i g h t a n d B r i s c o e w e r e c l e a r l y n o t v i c t i m s o f a patriarchal legal s y s t e m . her wofull death. the focusing o f suspicion. WITCHCRAFT AND THE LEGAL PROCESS 299 to have. however. m a t e r i a l s f r o m Y o r k s h i r e d e m o n s t r a t e t h a t witchcraft accusations w e r e not simply foisted onto w o m e n by m e n . w h o a s k e d h e r f o r g i v e n e s s . the allegation o f w i t c h c r a f t . A n o t h e r r e c u r r i n g t h e m e in a c c o u n t s o f w i t c h c r a i t c a s e s w a s t h e frequent o c c u r r e n c e o f s o m e t h i n g a m o u n t i n g t o m o b a c t i o n . and was i m p o r t u n a t e to g o e up the ladder. s o r c e r y and charming might b e p r e s e n t e d b e f o r e these c o u r t s . N e i t h e r w o m a n h a d an u n b l e m i s h e d r e p u t a t i o n . O n e witness. but rather w e r e f r e q u e n t l y g e n e r a t e d f r o m t e n s i o n s b e t w e e n w o m e n . h a d r e i u s e d t o i d e n t i f y its f a t h e r t o t h e m i d w i f e a n d h a d r e f u s e d t o do p e n a n c e for it. B r i s c o e w a s d e s c r i b e d as a ' v e r y t r o u b l e s o m e a n d w r a n g l i n g w o m a n a m o n g h e r n e i g h b o u r s ' . T h i s c a s e . ' w h i c h t h e said M a r y h a d a g r e a t m i n d o f . I w o u l d a r g u e . w e r e a r e a s in w h i c h w o m e n c o u l d e n t e r t h e m a l e d o m i n a t e d m i l i e u o f l e g a l p r o c e s s . T h u s w e h a v e a c a s e w h i c h r e s e m b l e s so m a n y o t h e r s : t h e s t r a n g e d e a t h o f a child. m o r e i m p o r tantly for our immediate purposes. aged O n e s u c h c a s e w a s t r i e d b e f o r e t h e C h e s t e r C o n s i s t o r v C o u r t in 1 6 6 2 . T h o s e l e a s t t a k e c o n s o l a t i o n in B o d e n h a m ' s c a s e as o n e o f h e g e m o n y ' s failures. and m a l e men convicted of felony. a n d f e m a l e c o n c e r n o v e r reputation. given that m o s t o f the p e o p l e t o w a r d s w h o m such v i o l e n c e was d i r e c t e d w e r e women. h a d f a l l e n i l l . and f e m a l e a c t i o n c o u l d r u n . T h i s d i s p u t e h a d a l r e a d y p r o v o k e d a suit w h i c h h a d b e e n a r b i t r a t e d b y a j u s t i c e o f t h e p e a c e . a l r e a d y b e e n l o c k e d i n t o a d i s p u t e o v e r a h o u s e in w h i c h W r i g h t h a d d w e l t . that W r i g h t had slandered h e r f o r adultery. . by fitts'.

W . 2 7 8 . an o f f e n c e w h i c h . T h e s e figures are d e r i v e d f r o m abstracts o f i n d i c t m e n t s given in A calendar records: 70-223. Y e t w i t h i n t h o s e c o n s t r a i n t s a n d l i m i t a t i o n s . 20. 24. Domestic 1634— J . a n d suing e a c h o t h e r f o r d e f a m a t i o n a r i s i n g f r o m allegations o f witchcraft. H e l m h o l z . England the w a s a p a t r i a r c h a l s o c i e t y in w h i c h i s s u e s o f g e n d e r . they nonetheless establish w o m e n as a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t s in t h e l e g a l s y s t e m . W e i n e r . O l d h a m . Mothers: infanticide in England England 19 20 21 F o r a case o f this t y p e see R . passive m a n . U n d e r d o w n . B o r t h w i c k P a p e r s . s h o w s that o f 5 1 3 p e r s o n s a c c u s e d o f executed. P. ( N e w Y o r k 1 9 8 1 ) . H o f f e r and N . e v e n i f w e e s c h e w s o m e o f t h e w o m e n ' s consider seem E w e n . A D 1 5 7 8 — 1 6 0 2 . A m u s s e n ' s An Ordered 3 4 resolution Trials: Circuit 5 6 7 8 F o r a c o n t e m p o r a r y i n t r o d u c t i o n t o w o m e n and t h e c o m m o n l a w . 5. examinations and confessions 1699 of the and executed in the county of Essex ( L o n d o n 1 6 4 5 ) . w h e r e t h e j u d g e w a s 'a m i l d . Defamation the church 1558-1803 courts C . part 2 . wytches at Chensford anno 1566 in the countie (London of Essex the xxvi day of July 1566). . J . e d . G r a n g e . Anna E w e n . and Demonianism. Witch Hunting the indictments AD 1559-1736 117-265. F l e t c h e r and J . F o r a slightly d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e . Continuity Holmes. of the information.9 3 . Witchcraft 1969). 9 9 . 1—64. J . A . It is a c o m m o n p l a c e t h a t e a r l y m o d e r n in h i e r a r c h i c a l t e r m s . Landish was s e n t e n c e d t o d e a t h . S. eds A . Litigation in Medieval England Crime and the Courts Notes 1 F o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s . Z . see C h a p t e r s 3 and 6 in this b o o k . see C h a p t e r 1 4 bv G a r v K . and J . in Tudor and Stuart England A . and the witchcraft from (London 1 9 2 9 ) . 18—37. w h o had n e i t h e r d e x t e r i t y n o r spirit t o o p p o s e a p o p u l a r r a g e ' . 1 16—36. (London Witch The tryal of Richard E w e n . The lives of the right hon Francis and the hon and rev Dr John d e s c r i b e s this c a s e . S h a r p e . for scolding. 63. Oses in the countie to the determination The wonderfull movement of the law ( L o n d o n 1 5 8 2 ) . (London 1 9 0 9 ) . 24 25 26 Calendar of State Papers. eds F . F o r a s o m e w h a t dif- f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e o n t h e s e issues. T h e t h e m e s raised h e r e are discussed f u r t h e r in S. 4 . 8 0 — 1 1 6 . ed. . ' S e x r o l e s and c r i m e in late E l i z a b e t h a n H e r t f o r d s h i r e ' . w i t c h c r a f t at t h e H o m e C i r c u i t assizes. P. l i k e e v e r y t h i n g e l s e . examination whereof some and confession were executed of all the and others iM. Before the Bawdy Court ( L o n d o n 1 9 7 2 ) . and confession maiesties judges. t h e s e women f o u n d t h e m s e l v e s in a r e a l w o r l d t h a t i m p o s e d c o n s t r a i n t s u p o n t h e m . a discourse discoverie on witchcraft (Harrogate 1 8 8 2 ) . and Demonianism Ibid. H u l l . H . see S h a r p e . Women. see t h e original v e r s i o n in J e n n y K e r m o d e and G a r t h i n e W a l k e r . Journal of Social History. a c c u s i n g o t h e r w o m e n as w i t c h e s . witches (London 1 6 8 2 ) . Circuit of assize 22 T h e s e figures are based o n an analysis o f abstracts o f assize cases given in E w e n . 117-18. 2 6 . 30 T h e c o n t e m p o r a r y a c c o u n t o f this case is p r i n t e d in B . 89. the records of 1373 assizes held for F o r a list o f t h e s e i n d i c t m e n t s see C . of Assize Justice 189. ( L o n d o n 1 9 3 3 ) . Hertfordshire indictments James I. in t h e l e g a l p r o c e s s a n d b e f o r e t h e c o u r t s as e l s e w h e r e . R . The case of witchcraft 21-2" at Coggeshall. see C h a p t e r 2 3 in this c o l l e c t i o n bv 2 5 6 . Criminal Records: History. C . of Essex. sig D 4 . p e r h a p s w i t h i n p a r a m e t e r s d i c t a t e d a n d m a i n t a i n e d b y m e n . at S. g i v i n g e v i d e n c e a g a i n s t s u s p e c t e d w o m e n w i t c h e s . Trials. m a t e r i a l s f o r t h e W e s t e r n C i r c u i t p r i n t e d in C . Murdering t h e s c o l d ' . London 1 9 9 4 ) . E. see The of womens rights for (London 1 6 5 2 ) . L ' E s t r a n g e E w e n . in Early Modern England ( U C L Press. Trapnel's report and plea (London 1 6 5 4 ) . S o u t h a m p t o n R e c o r d S o c i e t y . B2v. A fall a n d impartial account Hathaway and of the discovery of sorcery and witchcraft practisd by Jane Wenhant (London 1 7 1 2 ) . in F l e t c h e r and S t e v e n s o n ( 1 9 8 5 ) 1 9 6 — 2 1 8 . B3v. 125. T h i s p r a c t i c e is discussed in A Calendar a h i s t o r y o f t h e j u r y o f m a t r o n s ' . 6 ( 1 9 9 1 ) . ' W i t c h c r a f t and w o m e n ' . ch. and execution T r a p n e l . F o r analysis o f t h e N o r t h e r n D e p o s i t i o n s . N o r t h . 28. Society (Oxford 1988). Y e t in t h e p r e c e d i n g p a g e s w e h a v e s e e n w o m e n a c t i n g s t r o n g l y : d e f y i n g j u d g e s a n d e x e c u t i o n e r s . suffered lesser p e n a l t i e s . Witchcraft The trval. ' O n pleading t h e b e l l y : 6 ( 1 9 8 5 ) . L ' E s t r a n g e E w e n . Marriage (Cambridge 1 9 7 4 ) . Witchcraft J . C o c k b u r n ( L o n d o n 1 9 8 5 ) . Baron Guildford. modern England. Witch Hunting C f . I ( S o u t h a m p t o n 1 9 0 6 ) . e d s . w e r e v i e w e d n o t l e a s t in t h e i r s t a t u s b e f o r e c o m m o n l a w . S. and Demonianism. v o l . H e a r n s h a w . 7 8 . 1 2 1 — 3 . Sawyer (London 1621).300 JIM SHARPE 9 10 11 12 WOMEN. M . 1 1 2 ( o r 2 2 p e r c e n t ) w e r e M a n v o t h e r s . A true and just recorde taken 13 14 15 16 17 18 according H. n o r t h e r n e v i d e n c e ' . 1 7 9 — 9 9 . 79. F o r full citations o f t h e archival s o u r c e s u s e d in this c h a p t e r . introduction. Essex. ' T h e and Sexual Slander in Early Modern and New England: c r i m i n a l i t y o f w o m e n in e i g h t e e n t h . sig of Elizabeth w r i t i n g s o n t h e s u b j e c t f r o m t h e 1 9 7 0 s . WITCHCRAFT AND THE LEGAL PROCESS 301 a n d in w h i c h w o m e n . S h a r p e . Witch 23 Hunting and Witch Trials.c e n t u r y E n g l a n d ' . 187. see S. a n d in w h i c h w o m e n . c o u l d c a r v e o u t s o m e r o l e f o r t h e m s e l v e s in t h e p u b l i c s p h e r e . E w e n . 8 ( 1 9 7 5 ) . witches treated of certain v o l .c e n t u r y E n g l a n d : and Change. T h i s is e s p e c i a l l y r e l e v a n t w h e n w e w i t c h c r a f t . I b i d . 5 8 ( Y o r k 1 9 8 0 ) . of three condemnation . H a i r . ed. E . they w e r e historical actors. D . Witchcraft The examination before the queens Court leet records. A. 3 . is s o m e h o w c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h e m a l e d o m i n a t i o n o f w o m e n . a p p e n d i x L. S e e also J . in Order and Disorder 2 at York. 1 8 7 — 2 6 4 . 31 32 33 163-7. For an i m p o r t a n t preliminary discussion. see C . Witchcraft North. R o s e n . L i k e all o f u s . W a i t e . 1. Cockburn (London 1975). 4 3 9 — 4 6 . (London 1 9 7 0 ) . ' G e n d e r . w e r e d i s a d v a n t a g e d . H e a r n s h a w and D . T h i s w o u l d t o b e a line o f investigation w e l l w o r t h pursuing. f o r i n f a n t i c i d e . Stevenson ( C a m b r i d g e 1 9 8 5 ) . f o r d e f a m a t i o n l i t i g a t i o n . and Demonianism. some Give ' W i t c h c r a f t and w o m e n in s e v e n t e e n t h . G e n d e r as a social c o n s t r u c t has so far r e c e i v e d little a t t e n t i o n f r o m historians o f early Amussen. late A true and exact relation witches arraigned of the severall informations. ' T h e taming of in Early Modern England. Daemonologia: Goodcole. J . 3 vols ( L o n d o n 1 8 9 0 ) . J . T h i s l e a d s us t o a final p o i n t .. J . o f c o u r s e . the hon Sir Dudley 130—1 North. North. Even though c o n t e m p o r a r y attitudes to gender probably m a d e those experiences different for the w o m e n involved. M a c f a r l a n e . C . lawes Witch Home 28 Witchcraft 29 27 1 5 6 0 — 1 7 2 5 ' . family and t h e social o r d e r . in the year F o r t h e a b s e n c e o f m i d w i v e s a m o n g w i t c h c r a f t s u s p e c t s . (London 1 7 0 2 ) . B o v s . B e a t t i e .

n o t least. c o n t r o l o f t h e i r m i n d s a n d b o d i e s h a d b e e n s e i z e d b y t h e D e v i l at t h e i n s t i g a t i o n o f t h e w i t c h . n o t least b e c a u s e t h e victims and witnesses were themselves as l i k e l y t o b e w o m e n as m e n ' . B e f o r e d i s c u s s i n g t h e s e i n s t a n c e s . s e e M . Witchcraft news from discoverie and Witch the North of Elizabeth Trials. Secondly. confession and condemnation of six witches C h a p t e r 23 in Kent ( L o n d o n 1 6 5 2 ) . ' W a s witch-hunting women- as a c c u s e r s o r w i t n e s s e s . B o w e r . o f c o n s i d e r a b l e w i l l i l l u m i n a t e a n u m b e r o f issues r a i s e d b y t h e w i t c h c r a f t oi p r o s e c u t i o n s : t h e s h a p i n g r o l e o f t h e legal s y s t e m . and tragical! history of the try all. Wonderfull Ewen. (London 1 6 5 0 ) . have found such reasoning 'simplistic'. 1 9 7 . Yet K a r l s e n ' s a c k n o w l e d g e m e n t t h a t t h e r o l e o f w o m e n as a c c u s e r s r e m a i n s o n e of t h e m o s t baffling q u e s t i o n s a b o u t w i t c h c r a f t d o e s suggest t h e n e e d for further discussion. A . 15-16. Daemonologia. it w i l l b e n e c e s s a r y t o e x a m i n e a t h i r d . designed to discover the incriminating physical characteristics t h a t i n d i c a t e d h e r c o m p l i c i t y w i t h S a t a n a n d his m i n i o n s . T h i s argument is m i r r o r e d b y t h a t o f A l a n M a c f a r l a n e . M . E . L. Sharpe. M o o r e . . 276. a n d an essay b y J . a n d has b e e n f o l l o w e d . Witchcraft and the Mary Glover case ( L o n d o n 36 37 F a i r f a x . WOMEN: WITCHES AND WITNESSES 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 F o r t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n possession and g e n d e r . which emphasize female weakness greater susceptibility of women to satanic temptation. cultural complexity An exami- n a t i o n o f t h e p r o c e s s o f w i t n e s s i n g — a p r o c e s s . d o e s f o c u s o n this issue. S t a r k e y . sig D 2 v . Clive Holmes a modern enquiry T h i s p h e n o m e n o n is p e r h a p s m o s t familiar in t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e trials at S a l e m . In b o t h instances the sensual t h e f e m a l e d e p o n e n t s a p p e a r t o a c q u i e s c e in a n d r e i n f o r c e t h e o r i e s o f w i t c h c r a f t . Wonderfull G o o d c o l e . passim. in Elizabethan London: Edward E w e n . displays s o m e o f t h e p o t e n t i a l o f t h e s u b j e c t . as I shall a r g u e . examining the involvement of women 3 in Y o r k s h i r e p r o s e c u t i o n s . t h e d y n a m i c i n t e r w e a v i n g dimension of witchcraft. First. W e m a y d i s t i n g u i s h t h r e e w a y s in w h i c h w o m e n m i g h t p a r t i c i p a t e in t h e t r i a l p r o c e d u r e s against w i t c h e s . Witchcraft Jordan t o g e t h e r in M . by J o h n D e m o s . like L a r n e r . the misogvnous d e p r a v i t y . and Demonianism. about the question. T w o o f these are very distinctive.166—7. 123—4. their greater elite theology and the c o n c e r n s o f the populace and. ' W i t c h c r a f t and w o m e n ' .302 JIM SHARPE 34 35 A prodigious at Maidstone. h u n t i n g ? ' K e i t h T h o m a s has a r g u e d t h a t ' T h e i d e a t h a t w i t c h . 2 Hester. M a s s a c h u s e t t s . in r e l a t i o n t o t h e N e w England trials. F o r a w o r k w h i c h . M a t e r i a l s r e l a t i n g t o this case are b r o u g h t and Hysteria 1990). Carol Karlsen a n d . although n o w s o m e w h a t d a t e d . Witch Hunting R o s e n . developed by theologians and lawyers. w o m e n m i g h t t e s t i f y as ' p o s s e s s e d ' v i c t i m s o f t h e w i t c h ' s m a l i c e . s e e C h a p t e r 1 9 in this c o l l e c tion by M o s h e Sluhovsky. M a c D o n a l d . The Devil in Massachusetts: into the Salem witch trials (New York 1950). women might r e p o r t the results o f physical searches that they had b e e n instructed t o c o n d u c t upon the w i t c h ' s b o d y . 4 . Marianne 1 Feminist scholars. in 1 6 9 2 . most recently. condemn'd (London 1 6 5 3 ) . has b e e n f r e q u e n t l y c i t e d in t h e c o u r s e o f s k i r m i s h e s as p o s e d b y C h r i s t i n a L a r n e r . or witchcraft 192—5. Dr Lamb revived S h a r p e .p r o s e c u t i o n s r e f l e c t e d a w a r b e t w e e n the sexes m u s t b e d i s c o u n t e d . Sawyer. T HE ROLE PLAYED BY WOMEN in t h e l e g a l p r o c e s s a g a i n s t w i t c h e s .

in a n y o f t h e i n d i c t m e n t s f o r m a j o r c r i m inal o f f e n c e s . a f t e r t h e R e s t o r a t i o n f e m a l e w i t n e s s e s w e r e in t h e m a j o r i t y ( 5 2 . w o u l d b e m i s l e a d i n g . r o s e s l i g h t l y t o 2 5 p e r c e n t in t h e I n t e r r e g n u m . disapmental l a t t e r . As the n u m b e r s o f p r o p e r t y o f f e n c e s b r o u g h t b e f o r e t h e assize c o u r t s w a n e d in t h e c o u r s e o f t h e c e n t u r y . In t h e 1 5 9 0 s t h e c l e r k o f assize f o r t h e H o m e C i r c u i t b e g a n t o e n d o r s e o f the indictments upon which the accused w e r e tried with the names w i t n e s s e s in t h e c a s e . 9 p e r c e n t a f t e r t h e R e s t o r a t i o n . refracted through the pens and the assumptions o f their elite. be The A n d in these p r o s e c u so tions the bulk o f the t e s t i m o n y was p r o v i d e d by m e n . T h e y w e r e a l s o in a m a j o r i t y in this l a t t e r p e r i o d in i n d i c t m e n t s e m a n a t i n g f r o m t h e assize c o u r t s o f t h e N o r t h e r n C i r c u i t ( 5 6 p e r c e n t ) . anguish and m o r t a l physical t o r m e n t s inflicted by the w i t c h . T h e r i s i n g p e r c e n t a g e o f w o m e n w i t n e s s e s in w i t c h c r a f t c a s e s is a l s o r e l a t e d . m o r e r a r e l y . housebreaking — had d o m i n a t e d p r o c e e d i n g s f r o m the 1 5 9 0 s until the end o f t h e r e i g n o f J a m e s I. n o t a n y c h a n g e in t h e c o u r t s ' r e a d i n e s s t o a c c e p t f e m a l e t e s t i m o n y . so t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f f e m a l e w i t n e s s e s i n c r e a s e d . burglary. m a l e interl o c u t o r s . s u c h t e s t i m o n i e s c e r t a i n l y d i s p l a y t h e i n v o l v e m e n t o f w o m e n in t h e p r o c e s s o f a c c u s a t i o n . . 8 p e r c e n t o f witnesses t o these charges. 4 3 . And they indicate the c o n c e r n s that exercised female witnesses. t o o f f e n c e s against p r o p e r t y . 3 per T h e a p p a r e n t r i s e in t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f f e m a l e w i t n e s s e s is n o t m e r e l v t h e p r o d u c t o f a c h a n g e in t h e r e c o r d i n g p r a c t i c e s o f t h e c l e r k s o f a s s i z e . o f c o u r s e . R i c h in d e t a i l . First. in t h e o f f i c i a l files o f t h e c l e r k s o f assize a n d o f t h e p e a c e . has t o u n d e r t a k e n f r o m t h e s e c o n d o f t h e a v a i l a b l e s o u r c e s : t h e assize i n d i c t m e n t s . it m u s t b e e x a m i n e d first. In t h e r e i g n s o f E l i z a b e t h and per J a m e s 3 6 .1 6 0 2 ) 3 8 . 3 cent of incidents. As t h e c r i m e o f w i t c h c r a f t w a s i n c r e a s i n g l y p e r c e i v e d as i n v o l v i n g m y s t e r i o u s h u m a n a i l m e n t s a n d d e a t h . 8 p e r c e n t o f all w i t c h c r a f t c a s e s c o m i n g t o t h e a t t e n t i o n o f t h e assizes i n v o l v e d an i n d i c t m e n t a l l e g i n g t h a t t h e a c c u s e d h a d d a m a g e d s t o c k . A f t e r 1660 the local justices and the courts w e r e reluctant t o admit charges o f witchcraft e x c e p t in c a s e s o f m y s t e r i o u s a n d t e r r i f y i n g i l l n e s s l e a d i n g t o d e a t h o r . In t h e last v e a r s o f Elizabeth's reign ( 1 5 9 6 . S u c h e v i d e n c e s u r v i v e s in a m u l t i p l i c i t y o f f o r m s : in t h e p r i v a t e p a p e r s o f J P s a n d m i n i s t e r s . to calculate. stock-damage formed r the sole charge. to stock or crops blighted.b e d o f t h e v i c t i m . P r o p e r t y c r i m e s — l a r c e n y . 4 p e r c e n t in t h e r e i g n o f J a m e s I. a f t e r t h e R e s t o r a t i o n t h e p r o p o r t i o n had m o r e than doubled ( 2 2 p e r c e n t ) . in p u b l i s h e d w o r k s — a c a d e m i c t r e a t i s e s a n d p o p u l a r b r o a d s i d e s . T h i s r e s t r u c turing o f the o f f e n c e by magistrates and lawyers certainly does n o t indicate l a r y m a t e r i a l p r o d u c e d in t h e official i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e l a t e t h e i r p o w e r s in t h e d e s t r u c t i o n o f s t o c k o r t h e i n t e r r u p t i o n any f u n d a m e n t a l c h a n g e in t h e n a t u r e o f p o p u l a r b e l i e f c o n c e r n i n g w i t c h c r a f t . as i n d i c t m e n t s . H o w e v e r . transcriptions o f the testimony proffered to the examining magistrates o r in c o u r t . 8 p e r c e n t in C h a r l e s I ' s r e i g n .w i t c h c r a f t c a s e s in a s a m p l e o f s e s s i o n s o f t h e E s s e x assizes b e t w e e n 1 5 9 6 a n d 1 6 2 5 . b e c a u s e it is t h e b a s i c f o r m o f f e m a l e e n g a g e m e n t in t h e c o u r t s . t h o u g h n o t in N o r f o l k C i r c u i t c a s e s ( 4 3 cent). as in all p r o p e r t y c r i m e s . 2 p e r c e n t o f witnesses against w i t c h e s n a m e s w e r e e n d o r s e d o n t h e i n d i c t m e n t s w e r e w o m e n . proportionally formally more whose t e s t i f y i n g in w i t c h c r a f t c a s e s i n t h e c o u r s e o f t h e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y . t h o u g h h i g h l y f o r m u l a i c a n d c o n s e q u e n t l y o p a q u e in t e r m s o f a n y s u b s t a n tive detail c o n c e r n i n g the cases that they r e c o r d . t h e n p l u m m e t e d t o a m e r e 2 . an e s s e n t i a l g r o u n d b a s e t o a d i s c u s s i o n o f w i t c h c r a f t t e s t i m o n y . a t t e n d a n t at t h e s i c k . though these are. T h e rising p r o p o r t i o n o f f e m a l e d e p o n e n t s i n w i t c h c r a f t c a s e s in t h e c o u r s e o f t h e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y is n o t an o p t i c a l i l l u s i o n i n d u c e d b y c h a n g i n g c l e r i c a l p r a c t i c e . A n y s t a t i s t i c a l e x e r c i s e . u n l i k e its E l i z a b e t h a n p r e d e c e s s o r s . W o m e n f o r m e d o n l y 1 0 p e r c e n t o f t h e w i t n e s s e s in n o n . w e r e w e l l p l a c e d t o d e s c r i b e t h e recorded 4 on witchcraft i n d i c t m e n t s : almost half o f these ( 4 7 . t h e y d e c l i n e d m a r k e d l y a f t e r 1 6 6 0 . a l l e g i n g t h e d e s t r u c t i o n o f 'unum spandonem ( g e l d i n g ) colons white'. E a r l y in t h e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y t h e c l e r k s did n o t . and f r e q u e n t .304 CLIVE HOLMES WOMEN: WITCHES AND WITNESSES 305 g r o u p o f w o m e n i n v o l v e d in c r i m i n a l p r o s e c u t i o n : t h o s e w h o t e s t i f i e d s i m p l v t o t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e w i t c h ' s maleficium — to children lamed or killed. in l a t e r r e c o r d s s u c h o m i s s i o n s s e e m who less d o m e s t i c p r o c e d u r e s . b u t s i m p l y t h e fall in t h e n u m b e r o f p r o p e r t y o f f e n c e s c o m i n g t o the a t t e n t i o n o f the assizes. H e r e . W o m e n w e r e simply b e t t e r placed than m e n to describe the incidents and activities that c o n f o r m e d t o t h e a l t e r e d p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e n a t u r e o f w i t c h c r a f t as a c r i m i n a l o f f e n c e . W h y did t h i s s i g n i f i c a n t shift in t h e p r o p o r t i o n s o f m a l e a n d f e m a l e d e p o n e n t s o c c u r in t h e c e n t u r y a f t e r 1 5 9 0 ? T h e p h e n o m e n o n is p a r a l l e l e d b y an i n c r e a s e in t h e i n v o l v e m e n t o f f e m a l e d e p o n e n t s in all c a s e s b e f o r e t h e a s s i z e s . l i k e t h a t a g a i n s t M a r g e r y S t a n t o n o f W i m b i s h in 1 5 7 9 . dropped to 1 5 . In t h e o f the f o l l o w i n g c e n t u r y s o m e nine h u n d r e d and seventy witnesses w e r e endorsements also suggest that women were becoming some of the course The 8 p e a r f r o m t h e r e c o r d . t h e n . H o w e v e r . This k i n d o f t e s t i m o n y is m o r e i n c h o a t e t h a n t h e o t h e r t w o c a t e g o r i e s . T h e shift in t h e c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n o f t h e o f f e n c e w a s i n s t i g a t e d b y t h e l e g a l e l i t e . at l e a s t f o r t h e H o m e C i r c u i t . B u t t h e s u r v i v a l o f t h e s e v a r i o u s s o u r c e s is s o r a n d o m t h a t a n y a t t e m p t to undertake a quantitative study. b o t h i n v o l v i n g t h e g r e a t e s t n u m b e r o f d e p o n e n t s . wdiere t h e a c c u s e d w a s d i r e c t l y a l l e g e d t o b e i n v o l v e d in d i a b o l i c p r a c t i c e s . t h e t e s t i m o n y of m e n p r e d o m i n a t e d : m e n f o r m e d 8 0 . A n d in i n d i c t m e n t s c o n c e r n i n g m a l e f i c d a m a g e t o s t o c k . i t l a c k s t h e i r c o n c e p t u a l c l a r i t y a n d s o p h i s t i c a t i o n . for instance. is t h e e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h e g r o w i n g p r o p o r t i o n o f w o m e n Women. 9 p e r c e n t ) in t h e c o u n t i e s t h a t f o r m e d t h e H o m e C i r c u i t . d o have the virtue o f surviving in a s u f f i c i e n t c h r o n o l o g i c a l s e r i e s . 6 8 per c e n t ) w e r e w o m e n . i n v a r i a b l y a n n o t a t e t h e d o c u m e n t w i t h t h e n a m e s o f all t h o s e w e r e e x p e c t e d t o t e s t i f y at t h e a s s i z e s . r o o t e d in p o p u l a r r a t h e r t h a n e l i t e b e l i e f s . e v e n plays a n d b a l l a d s . the proportion o f male a n d f e m a l e d e p o n e n t s in w i t c h c r a f t c a s e s . t h o u g h tangentially. B u t t h e legal e l i t e . 7 gories. in 1 4 . t o p e r m i t a p r e l i m inary analysis. Indictments of stock- d a m a g e . T h e a n c i l seventeenth-century exercise and now o f agricultural c a s e s d e m o n s t r a t e s t h a t at t h e l o c a l l e v e l w i t c h e s w e r e still b e l i e v e d t o i n v o l v e d in w i t c h c r a f t a c c u s a t i o n in t h e c o u r s e o f t h e p e r i o d . 6 I T h e sources available for the study o f witnessing can b e divided into t w o cate- B u t this shift r e f l e c t s . Y e t . to the interruption o f agricultural or domestic procedures. e i t h e r a l o n e o r in c o n j u n c t i o n w ith o t h e r a c t s o f maleficium. t o o did t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f m a l e w i t n e s s e s a t t e n d i n g at C h e l m s f o r d . t h e r e d o e s n o t a p p e a r t o b e a n y g e n d e r bias in t h e d e t e r m i nation o f n a m e s for e n d o r s e m e n t on the earlier i n d i c t m e n t s . a n d o f t h e f u n c t i o n a r i e s o f t h e e c c l e s i a s t i c a l c o u r t s . a n d this w a s u n i f o r m l y p r a c t i s e d a f t e r 1 6 0 0 .

d i s t o r t e d b y r e f r a c tion through the conceptual f r a m e w o r k o f the elite. T h i s w a s . t h e o d d . m i n i s t e r o f G r e a t Linford and astrological physician. Y e t w e m a y suggest a couple o f its f e a t u r e s s a l i e n t t o this e n q u i r y . It w a s a p e r m a n e n t f e a t u r e o f t h e f o r m a l p r o s e c u t i o n o f w i t c h c r a f t . a g r o u p o f 1 0 9 p e r s o n s . A similarly dense and long-standing n e t w o r k o f s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s is a p p a r e n t in P e n d l e F o r e s t b e t w e e n t h e r i v a l w i t c h . T h e r e is l i t t l e o f t h e s o p h i s t i cated misogyny. . in c o n s e q u e n c e . her neighbours 9 also of b e l i e v e d h e r t o b e guilty o f d e s t r o y i n g s t o c k and spoiling b r e w i n g . 1 3 indictment bringing t h e o f f e n c e w i t h i n t h e c o m p a s s o f t h e c l a u s e o f t h e s t a t u t e t h a t m a d e it f e l o n y ' t o e l e m e n t s o f the elite. v i l l a g e r s at first i n s t a n c e m i g h t s e e k t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e y w e r e n o t t h e v i c t i m s o f s u c h p o w e r . t h r e e f o r k i l l i n g b v w i t c h c r a f t a n d o n e f o r e n t e r t a i n i n g evil s p i r i t s . f o r t h e m . lay it s o ' .1 6 6 0 c a s e s in w h i c h it e m e r g e s m o s t c l e a r l y . an i n d i c t m e n t f o r w i t c h c r a f t r e q u i r e d e i t h e r t h e d e a t h o i t h e v i c t i m o r p r o o f o f d i a b o l i c p r a c t i c e s . S e c o n d l y .f a m i l i e s . a n d a m o n g N a p i e r ' s p a t i e n t s . F i r s t . s a r d o n i c f o r m t a k e n b y t h e ' c o n v e r s i n g f a m i l i a r l y w i t h t h e D e v i l in t h e s h a p e o f a c a t ' — o s t e n s i b l y e n t e r t a i n e e m p l o y f e e d e o r r e w a r d e a n y evill a n d w i c k e d s p i r i t ' .306 CLIVE HOLMES WOMEN: WITCHES AND WITNESSES 307 r e f u s e d t o e n t e r t a i n f o r m a l a c c u s a t i o n s b a s e d o n this k i n d o f e v i d e n c e . h o w far the authorities tailored the e v i d e n c e t o the constraints i m p o s e d b y t h e c h a n g i n g a s s u m p t i o n s o f a s y s t e m in w h i c h t h e w i t n e s s e s w e r e . as t h e c l e r i c a l p r o s e c u t o r s c o m p l a i n e d . t h a t n o n e o f t h e m refused t o d o anything she r e q u i r e d .w i e l d i n g w o m e n . B u t s u c h t r a n s m u t a t i o n w a s n o t p e c u l i a r t o t h e p o s t . a fear o f w i t c h e s . eager to use the opportunity to assert the reality o f witchcraft in t h e f a c e o f g r o w i n g i n t e l l e c t u a l s c e p t i c i s m . w e r e p r e f e r r e d a g a i n s t P h i l i p p a M u n n i n g s of Hartest but. 1 4 c o n c e r n i n g t h e analysis o f t h e r o l e o f w i t n e s s e s . is v e r y a p p a r e n t . R o g e r N o w e l l . Edward Fairfax noted that the inhabitants o f K n a r e s b o r o u g h Forest c o e x i s t e d w i t h t h e w i t c h . b e v o n d t h e s e . I u n b e s o u g h t thev p r o v i d e d h e r w i t h and m e a t f r o m their o w n t a b l e s ' . B u t w h e n t h e d i v i n e s s o u g h t t o i n d i c t W e n h a m f o r ' w a s t i n g a n d c o n s u m i n g ' h e r v i c t i m . A l l t h e s o u r c e s a r e . f o u n d g u i l t y a t t h e H e r t f o r d assizes in 1 7 1 2 f o r d i a b o l i c d e a l i n g s . w h o believed themselves the victims o f witchcraft ( 5 9 . b o t h the T o r y divines crusading against infidelity and t h e c y n i c s o f t h e legal e s t a b l i s h m e n t w h o d e r i d e d a n d s o u g h t t o f r u s t r a t e t h e i r e f f o r t s . T h e y sought p r o t e c t i o n f r o m the w i t c h e s ' p o w e r b o t h bv paying blackmail and bv recourse to counter-magic. T h e latter n o t only tolerated the petty thefts. W e m u s t c o n s i d e r : h o w local fears and suspicions w e r e drawn t o the attention o f the magistracy. vea. . a n d w a s r e i n f o r c e d in 1 7 1 1 b y t h e m y s t e r i o u s b e h a v i o u r a n d i l l n e s s o f a p o s s e s s e d m a i d s e r v a n t . F r o m a sample o f the cases c o m i n g t o the attention o f Richard 1601 1 6 2 7 . w i t h the s u s p e c t e d w i t c h c o m e t o t e s t i f y a g a i n s t h e r ? In b o t h K n a r e s b o r o u g h a n d P e n d l e t h a t t r a n s f o r mation was accomplished bv the direct intervention o f m e m b e r s o f the elite. 2 p e r c e n t . L o c a l s u s p i c i o n s a n d c o n c e r n s h a d t o b e m o u l d e d t o t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f legal categorization and p r o c e d u r e and. w h o e v e n t u a l l y a t t r i b u t e d h e r c o n d i t i o n t o t h e i r m a l e f i c e n c e . T h e c a s e .c l a n s in t h e i r m i d s t . O l d C h a t t o x and O l d D e m d y k e . H o w did villagers w h o m a y have c o . 5 per cent o f Napier's male patients w e r e ready to n a m e t h e w i t c h p e r s e c u t i n g t h e m . occasioned by abuse or r u m o u r s that suggested that they w e r e n a m e m e n a n d w o m e n in a l m o s t e q u a l n u m b e r s as t h e i r s l a n d e r e r s . From them first. t h e figure f o r f e m a l e p a t i e n t s is 5 8 . a n o t h e r local f a r m e r ' s sheep had died m y s t e r i o u s l y after he t h r e a t e n e d W e n h a m f o r s t e a l i n g his t u r n i p s . from the grandmother to the p o p u l a r l e v e l t o q u e s t i o n s o f t h e o r i g i n o f this p o w e r .o p e r a t e d . 'a v e r y r e l i g i o u s h o n e s t g e n t l e m a n . It c l e a r l y d i s p l a y s t h e c o m p l e x p r o c e s s w h i c h a t t e n d e d t h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f l o c a l c o n c e r n s i n t o f o r m a l legal p r o c e d u r e . m e n and w o m e n Napier. if uneasily. In L a n c a s h i r e t h e z e a l o u s m a g i s t r a t e . h e a d e d bv their r e s p e c t i v e m a t r i a r c h s . a t t h e S u f f o l k assizes in 1 6 9 4 f o u r i n d i c t m e n t s . in s o m e m e a s u r e . 1 5 6 3 s u s p i c i o n s r o o t e d in f o l k l o r e had t o b e o r c h e s t r a t e d t o to the machinery accommodate point and the values o f the elite. C o n f r o n t e d b v p o w e r . T h i s raises a critical fire. w a s m o v e d b y . for II It is d i f f i c u l t t o m a k e c o n f i d e n t a s s e r t i o n s a b o u t t h e n a t u r e a n d p a t t e r n s o f p o p u l a r b e l i e f s a b o u t w i t c h c r a f t . b u t it w a s o n e t h a t h a d b e g u n t o b e f a v o u r e d b y t h e j u d g e s in t h e 1 6 3 0 s . w a s a s k i r m i s h in t h e w i d e r b a t t l e a g a i n s t d e i s m a n d a g n o s t i c i s m . in measure. only marginal participants. S u s p i c i o n a g a i n s t W e n h a m h a d f e s t e r e d f o r y e a r s . revealed longstanding popular suspicions o f a traditional kind that had little to do with the elite c o n c e r n s that i n f o r m e d the language o f the i n d i c t m e n t . developed by elite c o m m e n t a t o r s in p r o s e c u t i o n . In t h e Wenham case the manipulation of popular concerns and belief by cases. 7 p e r c e n t ) . seeking t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f the ecclesiastical c o u r t s against the d a m a g e t o t h e i r r e p u - But a general fear o f a local w o m a n possessing the formidable p o w e r s attributed t o w i t c h e s does n o t automatically t r a n s m u t e i n t o legal p r o s e c u t i o n . T h e g i r l ' s affliction was studied and the charge o f w i t c h c r a f t against W e n h a m e n g i n e e r e d by local Anglican c l e r g y m e n . 1 0 obliged to explain the substantial plurality o f w o m e n In s o f a r as any a t t e n t i o n w a s p a i d at t h e . begging and e x t o r t i o n o f the suspected w i t c h e s . an o d d r e a d i n g o f t h e J a c o b e a n l e g i s l a t i o n . O n e W a l k e r n y e o m a n b e l i e v e d that he had lost s t o c k t o the value o f £ 2 0 0 t h r o u g h h e r malefic e n c e o v e r the years. t o the political and theological c o n c e r n s o f the elite which i n f o r m e d and shaped the juridical forms. t h e m y s t e r i o u s p o w e r s t h a t c o n s t i t u t e d w i t c h c r a f t w o u l d n o r m a l l y b e p o s s e s s e d b y w o m e n . though no charges w e r e formally levelled. n o r w o u l d . Sawyer's figures further suggest that w o m e n w e r e quicker to n o m i n a t e those thev held responsible for their sufferings: 4 5 . So. 7 per c e n t ) . in t h e W e n h a m c a s e . b e t w e e n shared and T h e W e n h a m c a s e d e s e r v e s f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n . and f r o m the m o t h e r t o the c h i l d r e n ' . 1 2 Women witches. some s e c o n d l y . p e r h a p s t o c o n t r o l a n d d e p l o y it f o r t h e i r o w n p u r p o s e s . T h e case J a n e W e n h a m . and the villagers. m a l e a n d f e m a l e . a n d t h a t t h e h e a d o f o n e o f t h e l a t t e r ' h a d so p o w e r f u l h a n d o v e r t h e w e a l t h i e s t n e i g h b o u r s a b o u t h e r . m i g h t b e t r e a t e d w i t h an e l a b o r a t e i f c a u t i o u s d e f e r e n c e . t h e c l e r k o f assize i n s i s t e d t h a t ' h e n e i t h e r c o u l d . it a p p e a r s t h a t it w a s t h o u g h t t o i n h e r e in m a t r i l i n e a l 'by discent m o t h e r . lineage: 1 1 e x a m p l e . H e l e n . a p o w e r f u l b r e w o f biblical and Aristotelian emphases on female inferiority. b u t e m p l o y e d t h e m r o u t i n e l y b o t h in d o m e s t i c i n d u s t r y a n d as h e a l e r s . Fairfax's e n g a g e m e n t in t h e p r o s e c u t i o n o f t h e K n a r e s b o r o u g h w i t c h e s s t e m m e d f r o m the m v s t e r i o u s i l l n e s s o f his d a u g h t e r . T h e w i t c h . p a i n e i u l l in t h e s e r v i c e o i his C o u n t r e v ' . R o n a l d S a w y e r has n o t i c e d t h e p l u r a l i t y o f w o m e n b o t h a m o n g t h o s e n a m e d as w i t c h e s ( 9 4 . and w h i c h was revived after the peculiar c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f the Civil W a r and I n t e r r e g n u m H e n c e . tations.

behalf. R e l e n t l e s s i n t e r r o g a t i o n o f eventually elicited the required confession o f diabolic activities. D a r c y . i f t h e y d i d fall f o u l o f H e a r d o r R o b i n s o n . e x p e r i e n c e o f their maleficence tended. to demand the return o f b o r r o w e d articles or p a y m e n t . H e v i s i t e d t h e g a o l e d S t O s y t h w o m a n . W h e n E l i z a b e t h F i e l d t e s t i f i e d that her child had died m a n y years ago upon J a n e W e n h a m ' s t o u c h i n g it. O f the witnesses. using a r e d . i f a c o m p l a i n t was to b e b r o u g h t t o the attention o f the authorities. r a r e . in 1 5 7 2 at C h e l m s f o r d a s s i z e s . B u t t h e e f f e c t i v e d e c i s i o n t o t r a n s m u t e village s u s p i c i o n i n t o o f f i c i a l t e s t i m o n y . o r perhaps suspicions against H e a r d and R o b i n s o n . their Ursley suspected she a p p e a r e d n o w . a n d its i m m e d i a t e v i c i n i t y . h a d b e c o m e his s t a r w i t n e s s . J o h n W a d d e . is a p p a r e n t in o t h e r c a s e s . and he p r o v e d a v i g o r o u s a n d i n v e n t i v e i n q u i s i t o r . indicted Margaret C o t t o n f o r t h e d e a t h o f his i n f a n t d a u g h t e r in t h e s u m m e r o f 1 6 0 8 . the t o r m e n t s o f the Pacy girls. l o c a l b e l i e f s h i n t e d at in t h e e a r l i e s t d e p o s i t i o n s w e r e H o w e v e r .h u n t e r in n o r t h . . g e n e r a l l y h e l d . H i s a c t i v i t i e s a c t e d as a c a t a their suspicions o f their n e i g h b o u r s . e n c o u r Darcy. d e d i c a t i n g his e n e r g i e s t o t h e p u r s u i t o f t h e S t O s y t h ' s c o v e n . l i k e R o g e r N o w e l l . h a d r e f u s e d t o h a t c h her eggs). ' t h a t h a t h b e e n as g o o d f o r t h e b r i n g i n g f o o r t h o f h e r b r o o d e as a n y g o o s e in W a l t o n ' . o r a c t e d u n n a t u r a l l y ( T h o m a s R i c e ' s g o o s e .308 CLIVE HOLMES WOMEN: WITCHES AND WITNESSES 309 l o c a l r u m o u r s t o l a u n c h an i n v e s t i g a t i o n . c o u n t e r . s t o c k had sicke n e d . figure like U p c h e r . W o m e n also s e e m r e a d i e r t o d e p l o y . Annis H e a r d and J o a n R o b i n s o n . . and the child had n o friends' 9 a n d e d u c a t e d b v D a r c y ' s c r u s a d e at n e i g h b o u r i n g St O s y t h . c o m p l a i n i n g o f m y s t e r i o u s d e a t h s in t h e i r f a m i l i e s eighteen m o n t h s b e f o r e . N o w e l l ' s i n t e r v e n t i o n . u n d e r D a r c y ' s r e l e n t l e s s q u e s t i o n i n g . b u t the accusation was driven on by her b r o t h e r . T h o m a s Eastchurch. had afflicted their enemies. Samuel Pacy. 1 5 a g e d b y t h e St O s v t h ' s i n v e s t i g a t i o n . T h r e e testified c o n c e r n i n g the ailments o f their children. . subsequent t o . she r e a d i l y c o n f i r m e d U p c h e r ' s s u s p i c i o n . b u r n i n g t h e e a r s o f an a f f l i c t e d pig t o c u r e it.c o n g r a t u l a t o r y a c c o u n t o f his s h o r t b u t s p e c t a c u l a r c a r e e r as a w i t c h . D a r c y ' s h o m e . initially t o the ecclesiastical c o u r t . It is s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t t h e w o m e n w h o b e c a m e i n v o l v e d in t h e p r o c e s s o f t e n r e t a i l e d older grievances and suspicions that had festered b u t previously g o n e u n r e m a r k e d to the authorities.e a s t e r n E s s e x in 1 5 8 2 p e r m i t s s o m e d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e l o c a l i n s t i g a t i o n o f p r o s e c u t i o n . 1 8 In s o m e c a s e s t h e a n c i l l a r y t e s t i m o n v o f i e r e d b y w o m e n d e a l s w i t h i n c i d e n t s so r e m o t e as t o r o u s e t h e c o u r t ' s s u s p i c i o n s c o n c e r n i n g t h e w i t n e s s ' s m o t i v e s in c o m i n g f o r w a r d . social relations w e r e m a i n t a i n e d w i t h the w i t c h e s . f o r w h i c h she h a d s o u g h t h e l p f r o m a c u n n i n g . t h a t o f h e r d a u g h t e r five v e a r s b e f o r e . n o t all t h e 1 5 8 2 c a s e s w e r e g e n e r a t e d d i r e c t l y b y D a r c y ' s lvst. occasionally mortal. thev c a m e t o the attention o f the authorities b e c a u s e the villagers w ere inspired r T e n years b e f o r e . as in t h e 1 5 8 2 O s k l e v a n d W a l t o n d e n u n c i a t i o n s . d r a w n i n t o the c o u r t to s u p p l e m e n t a case o r c h e s t r a t e d by o t h e r s . encouraging the villagers of Oakley and W a l t o n to voice quickly s w a m p e d by a plethora o f importations f r o m the current theology o f witchcraft. Y e t the energetic p r o s e c u t o r w o u l d n o t s t a n d a l o n e . w a s t a k e n bv l o c a l men. T h e y w e r e joined by eight additional witnesses.i n .m a n . O n c e the w i t c h c r a f t diagnosis had b e e n suggested. d i e d . In t h e b u l k o f c a s e s t h e d e c i s i o n t o b r i n g a w i t c h t o t h e a t t e n t i o n o f t h e authorities appears t o have b e e n u n d e r t a k e n entirely within the n e i g h b o u r h o o d . but mirroring. T h r e e .c o n s u m i n g and expensive a n d its f a i l u r e m i g h t l e a v e a c c u s e r s h o s t a g e t o t h e m a l i c e o f t h e w i t c h . w h i l e s p u r r e d one o f the accused the b o y a t t e m p t e d suicide - by T h e r o l e o f l o c a l m e n in o r g a n i z i n g t h e p r o c e s s w h e r e b y s u s p i c i o n a n d g o s s i p w e r e t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o f o r m a l a c c u s a t i o n . in 1 6 5 7 . is o p a q u e . B r i a n D a r c y ' s s e l f . b u t f e m a l e i n t e r r u p t i o n o f d o m e s t i c r o u t i n e s . s e e m s have m a d e little a t t e m p t t o shape p r i m a r y t e s t i m o n y f r o m these peripheral c o m m u n i t i e s . i m m e d i a t e l y ? ' H e r a r t l e s s r e p l y was a p o o r w o m a n . 1 7 With Robert Webb. h o w e v e r . w a s w e l l v e r s e d in t h e c o n t i nental theories c o n c e r n i n g the satanic dimension o f witchcraft. in c a s e s f r o m S t O s y t h . s o m e alleging malefic e n t a c t s u n d e r t a k e n y e a r s b e f o r e . Agricultural and d o m e s t i c r o u t i n e s had failed. c o u l d b e d a n g e r o u s . t h e b u l k o f the t e s t i m o n y was p r o v i d e d b y w o m e n w h o had a t t e n d e d the girl during h e r long sickness. H e had sought t h e advice o f a n u m b e r o f e m i n e n t physicians on G r a c e ' s with equal v i g o u r . t o r e f u s e t o l e n d o r sell t h e m i m p l e m e n t s or goods. t o the authorities. e x c e p t s u c h a p e r s o n as this M r W e b b ' . a n d she a l s o t e s t i f i e d c o n c e r n i n g h e r i n f a n t s o n ' s i l l n e s s . h e pursued L l o y d ' s d e s t r u c t i o n 1 6 local suspicions and t e n s i o n s . the j u d g e a s k e d ' w h y she d i d n o t p r o s e c u t e . m a y have b e e n typical o f that o i m a n y w o m e n . w h e r e w e c a n r e c o n s t r u c t a narrative with s o m e confidence. inquisitorial long-held to t e c h n i q u e s o r r e f r a c t e d t h r o u g h his r i c h i m a g i n a t i o n . In O a k l e y . T h e v i l l a g e r s . D a r c y . was the first f o r m a l l y t o d e n o u n c e H e a r d . Such e x a m p l e s o f direct elite orchestration are. ' t h e O p p o r t u n i t y p r e s e n t i n g i t s e l f . h a d r e c o u r s e t o c o u n t e r .h o t i r o n t o g e t m i l k t o c h u r n and w o r t t o b r e w . Men the The a n d w o m e n c o n c u r r e d in s u s p e c t i n g H e a r d a n d R o b i n s o n o f w i t c h c r a f t . held A m v D u n y and R o s e C u l l e n d e r r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e m y s t e r i o u s i l l n e s s o f his t w o d a u g h t e r s . c o n f e s s i n g s a t a n i c p r a c t i c e s a n d n a m i n g a w i d e c o v e n o f a c c o m p l i c e s . w e r e o b v i o u s l y o f long duration. s o . not surprisingly. w e have another W a d d e and E a s t c h u r c h : a m a n w i t h w e a l t h . Illness. . a Cambridge apothecary.m a g i c to frustrate the w i t c h . a wealthy m e m b e r o f the M a l m e s b u r y elite. t h e n . and t h e p r o c e s s o f t r a n s m u t a t i o n . a n d h e a n d o t h e r m e m b e r s o f his f a m i l y t e s t i f i e d t o t h e i r a f f l i c t i o n s at t h e a s s i z e s . while the m e n referred to occasions 'not long s i n c e ' . Edward U p c h e r had long R o b i n s o n f o r t h e d e a t h o f his w i f e . a n d t o o r g a n i z e n e i g h b o u r s f o r t h i s . a L o w e s t o f t m e r c h a n t .m a g i c h e a t i n g a b e w i t c h e d s p i n d l e t o g e t i t t o w o r k a g a i n . a v e o m a n w h o had suffered heavy stock losses for several years. deposed c o n c e r n i n g the interruption o f agricultural routines that t h e y a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e w i t c h e s . to concentrate on m e r e l y to a c k n o w l e d g e their use of. a n d h e l e d t h e W a l t o n p r o s e c u t i o n . tw'o p o o r w o m e n j o i n e d h i m in t h e p r o s e c u t i o n . Y e t a f e w cases provide significant indicators c o n c e r n i n g that p r o c e s s . b o t h m e n a n d w o m e n . yet ' n o b o d y will e y t h e r b e at the c h a r g e to p r o s e c u t e h e r . w h e r e b y s u s p i c i o n b e c a m e p r o s e c u t i o n .l a w . Yet. t o B r i a n . o r r u n t h e hazard o f h e r r e v e n g e if she b e a c q u i t t e d . A n n e S a n d e s w e l l r e c a l l e d an i n c i d e n t s e v e n o r e i g h t years b e f o r e . a respected local m e r c h a n t . t w o m e n and a w o m a n . a d m i t t e d l y f e w . swiftly t r a n s f o r m e d t h e m . standing and c o n f i d e n c e . a n d had n o t d o n e so b e f o r e b e c a u s e ' s h e d r e w f r o m the judge a stinging a n d i n s e n s i t i v e r e t o r t : ' w a s [she] g r o w n r i c h s i n c e ? " Y e t h e r e x p e r i e n c e . In s e v e r a l c a s e s in t h e H o m e C i r c u i t in t h e E l i z a b e t h a n and J a c o b e a n period a witch w o u l d b e charged on a n u m b e r o f i n d i c t m e n t s . A l l w i t n e s s e s c o n c u r r e d t h a t t o c r o s s t h e s e w o m e n . as in K n a r e s b o r o u g h and P e n d l e . a local J P had r e p o r t e d that W i d o w P e a c o c k o f M a l m e s b u r y was ' o f very bad fame and very terrible to the p e o p l e ' . given that p r o s e c u t i o n was t i m e . w h o . T h e s e characteristics w e r e essential. A g n e s F r a n c v s K e m p . his i m m e d i a t e c o m p l a i n t a g a i n s t t h e w i t c h w o u l d b e b a c k e d b y c o r r o b o r a t i v e t e s t i m o n y f r o m his n e i g h b o u r s . In 1682 Temperance Lloyd was convicted for afflicting G r a c e T h o m a s o f B i d e f o r d . o n l y D o r o t h y D u r e n t b l a m e d t h e w i t c h e s f o r a d e a t h . John Swettson.

w h o w e r e the driving force behind the decision t o bring l o c a l s u s p i c i o n s a n d f e a r s t o t h e a t t e n t i o n o f t h e c o u r t s . Women. a n d s o l i c i t t h e c o n f i r m a t o r y testimony o f their neighbours. d e s p i t e t h e i r n u m e r i c a l i n v o l v e m e n t . a n o t h e r r e s p o n s e had b e e n m a d e available by the legislation of 1563. particularly the pedlar.v e a r . cultural and a d e t a i l e d analysis s u g g e s t s t h a t a m o r e in w h i c h m i n i s t e r s a n d l a w y e r s p l a y e d a d i r e c t immediate role. 7 p e r c e n t o f t h e w i t c h craft accusations b e t w e e n 1 5 9 6 a n d 1 6 4 2 m e n a l o n e a c t e d as w i t n e s s e s . and. In c o n f e s s i o n s f r o m E n g l a n d in 1645—7 the Devil figures prominently: h e a p p e a r s in h u m a n eastern guise. w e r e d e s i g n e d t o insist o n t h e i r t h e o l o g i c a l c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n . a D u n w i c h O n e further pattern that e m e r g e s last like a black boy 10 years old by a f r o m the H o m e Circuit indictments m a y reinforce the suggestion that w o m e n w e r e being mobilized by m e n . o f popular belief engineered by the complex process of divines. in p a r t . w e r e l a r g e l y p a s s i v e a c t o r s in whose Ill T h e m o s t s p e c t a c u l a r t e s t i m o n y in w i t c h . w h i l e in 6 7 .t r i a l s . prosecution. a f t e r r a v i n g in t h e p r e s e n c e o f t h e j u d g e s . Jane T h r o c k m o r t o n . S u c h t e s t i m o n y . a n d has c a r n a l r e l a t i o n s w i t h h e r . d e g r e e o f i n v o l v e m e n t o f t h e s e g i r l s w h o in t h e i r t e s t i m o n y so reinforced academic theory. particularly adolescents. as e x a m i n e r s f o r t h e p h y s i c a l m a r k s w h i c h w e r e i n c r e a s i n g l y s e e n as k e y e v i d e n c e in p r o s e c u t i o n . . and u p o n a third i n d i c t m e n t for m u r d e r by w i t c h c r a f t f o u r y e a r s p r e v i o u s l y . with the trivia o f stock-loss or the interruptions of domestic and not agricultural w h i t e t h o r n e as s h e w e n t t o W e s t l e t o n a n d t h e r e h e p r o m i s e d h e r 2s 6 d a n d h e h a d i t n o t t h e n b u t said s h e s h o l d h a v e i t t h e n e x t t i m e she c a m e that way but he favled of his promise. b u t (as in t h e c a s e o f S m i t h ) w i t h d i a b o l i s m . Protestant divines sought t o t r a n s f o r m the gross popular superstitions that Cases o f diabolic possession through t h e a g e n c y o f a w i t c h p r e s e n t e d t h e m a x i m u m o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r an e d i f y i n g a n d c a t h a r t i c d r a m a in t h e c o u r t T h e y a l s o e m p h a s i z e d t h e d i a b o l i c o r i g i n s o f t h e w i t c h ' s power upon w h i c h t h e d i v i n e s so p e r t i n a c i o u s l y insisted. often w o m e n . 6 p e r c e n t o f t h e c a s e s did w o m e n t e s t i f y a g a i n s t an a c c u s e d w i t c h a l o n e . in this c a s e t w o m e n t e s t i f i e d t o t h e i r l o s s e s . spoke very discreetly. w h e n b r o u g h t t o the attention o f magistrates and ministers. w e r e possessed by the Devil through the agency o f a witch. This strategy. s e r m o n s and editions o f confessions. deserves discussion. understanding. k n e e l e d a n d a s k e d h e r f a t h e r ' s b l e s s i n g . but complayned of the hardnes of the t i m e s . Christianly. ' i n t h e s v g h t o i all t h e g r e a t e s t p a r s o n s h e r e . w e r e r e i n f o r c e d by w o r k s that w e r e m o r e obviously popular chapbooks. o f t h e i n f e r i o r i t y o f w o m e n as i n d i c a t e d by their g r e a t e r susceptibility t o satanic t e m p t a t i o n — c o n s t r u c t e d by the elite.310 CLIVE HOLMES WOMEN: WITCHES AND WITNESSES 311 was arraigned on four i n d i c t m e n t s . upon the witch's c o u r t r o o m confession. The comprehensively M o s t o f the published accounts o f possession cases provide a narrative w h i c h d e s c r i b e s t h e v i c t i m ' s c o n f r o n t a t i o n w i t h t h e w i t c h as t h e first act o f the subse- . T h e i d e a t h a t a d i r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e D e v i l is t h e f o u n d a t i o n o f t h e w i t c h ' s p o w e r . by erecting a p r o t e c tive shield o f c o u n t e r . In 1 5 9 6 at H e r t f o r d . and cases emanating f r o m local tensions and suspicions w o u l d have t o b e adjusted. p r o c e s s e s . often explicitly designed for 'the capacity o f the simpler sort'. w h i l e a w o m a n d e p o s e d c o n c e r n i n g t h e e a r l i e r d e a t h . and m i g h t b e t r a n s f o r m e d . Y e t the elite w h o controlled the judicial m a c h i n e r y had their o w n agenda. t o M a t t h e w H o p k i n s ' s acquaintance accused's w i t h c o n t i n e n t a l t h e o r i e s . l a r g e l y a b s e n t in e a r l y d e p o s i t i o n s . his skill as an i n q u i s i t o r . w e r e W i l l i a m A v e r y . broadsides War and ballads — and by the t h e a t r e o f the c o u r t and the g a l l o w s . a n d his o w n p r u r i e n t f a n t a s i e s . T h i s e x t e n sive g r o u p o f d e p o s i t i o n s is a t r i b u t e . H o w e v e r . w h i c h . the o t h e r t w o dealt with m u r d e r s respectively t h r e e and six y e a r s e a r l i e r .o l d E d w a r d S m i t h . and . T h e i r treatises. ' c a m e t o his 'most periect terrible to be tolld'.m a g i c . 7 p e r c e n t o f t h e m m e n a n d w o m e n t e s t i f i e d t o g e t h e r . . met the divell midsomer r a r t l e s s a c c o u n t s o f t h e i r d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h S a t a n : so E l i z a b e t h S o u t h e r n e . in w h i c h t h e y r e p e a t e d a n d c o n f i r m e d e l i t e t h e o r i e s . s u g g e s t far m o r e e n g a g e m e n t in t h e c o n c e r n s ot t h e distinctive. bv elaborate d e f e r e n c e . H o r r o r might be punctuated by m o m e n t s o f didactic piety. o r w i t h m y s t e r i o u s a i l m e n t s a n d d e a t h . o n l y in 4 . a p p a r e n t in t h e i n t e r r o gation o f M a r y S m i t h and the t r i u m p h a n t publication o f h e r eventual confession o f d i a b o l i s m . if r a r e r . 2 3 e m e r g e d in t h e w i t c h c r a f t t r i a l s . a l s o w i t n e s s e d a g a i n s t w i t c h e s in t w o m o r e d e p o s i t i o n s . Nine w o m e n were c o n v i c t e d at L e i c e s t e r assizes in 1 6 1 6 u p o n t h e t e s t i m o n y o f t h e t h i r t e e n . T h e i r m i s s i o n a r y e f f o r t s . generally W e c o u l d s i m p l v a r g u e t h a t t h e t e s t i m o n y o f w o m e n in p o s s e s s i o n c a s e s o r as s e a r c h e r s . was usually pursued by s u b s t a n t i a l m e n in t h e c o m m u n i t y w h o w o u l d lay t h e c h a r g e . as v i c t i m s o f d i a b o l i c p o s s e s s i o n t h r o u g h t h e i n s t i g a t i o n o f a w i t c h . D o e s this a r g u m e n t a l s o h o l d f o r t h o s e w o m e n elite? W o m e n contexts: first. t h a t s a t a n i c c o v e n a n t was the e s s e n c e o f the o f f e n c e . it w a s c l a i m e d . T h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f this l a t t e r e m p h a s i s in t h e c o u r s e o f t h e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y e x p l a i n s t h e p r e p o n d e r a n c e o f f e m a l e w i t n e s s e s in l a t e r c a s e s . o n t h e f a c e o f i t . 2 1 he met her indeed. r e f l e c t e d a n d c o n f i r m e d i n t e l l e c t u a l e d i f i c e s — o f w i t c h c r a f t as d i a b o l i s m . is o v e r r e p r e s e n t e d in t h e p u b l i s h e d a c c o u n t s . B u t m a n y o f t h e c o n f e s s i o n s are far f r o m s t e r e o t y p e d . in c o n s e q u e n c e . In 2 7 . s e e m s t o h a v e b e c o m e m o r e understood by the mid-seventeenth century. as d y v e r s k n y g h t s a n d l a d i e s a n d m a n n y o t h a r s o i t h e b e t t a r s o r t ' . w a s p r o v i d e d b y t h o s e w h o . 2 2 t h e f o r m a l legal p r o c e s s a g a i n s t w i t c h e s in t h e b u l k o f t h e c a s e s t h a t c a m e t o t h e a t t e n t i o n o f t h e j u d i c i a r v . M e n and w o m e n b e l i e v e d that their f e m a l e n e i g h b o u r s c o u l d deploy malefic e n t p o w e r s . e m e r g e d from h e r fit. listed: w o m e n f o r m e d a higher proportion o f the witnesses to the charges o f earlier malef2 0 t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l e f f o r t s a p p e a r t o h a v e b o r n e f r u i t . it s e e m s . t w o alleged r e c e n t incidents o f m u r d e r and the destruction o f stock. T h i s l a t t e r c a s e is n o t u n t y p i c a l o f t h o s e i n v o l v i n g s e v e r a l i n d i c t m e n t s in w h i c h t h e n a m e s o f w i t n e s s e s a r e i c e n c e than t o those o f m o r e r e c e n t p r o v e n a n c e . preponderate among 'possessed' a c c u s e r s . A l i c e C r u t c h w a s a r r a i g n e d u p o n t w o i n d i c t m e n t s for the r e c e n t d e s t r u c t i o n o f t h e s t o c k . construction was involved. his fits d u r i n g t h e t r i a l . guarding themselves by seeking to avoid conflict. is a n o t h e r i n d i c a tion o f the general transformation However. and charitably t o e v e r y p o i n t ' . s e c o n d l y . By the Civil w o m e n . w h e n necessary. T h e y treated such witches warily. T h e s e groups w e r e c o n c e r n e d . As in N e w England. c o n t r a c t s d i r e c t l y w i t h his a c o l y t e .

L a n c a s t e r s h o u l d a l s o h a v e b e e n t h e last i n s t a n c e o f t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n they sought a respite of execution while further investigations w e r e of s u c h e v i d e n c e in c o u r t . f r u s t r a tion with the constrictions i m p o s e d by social and g e n d e r r o l e s . T h e girl n o m i n a t e d w i t c h e s o n l y a f t e r a s e v e r e i l l n e s s o f f o u r m o n t h s d u r i n g wdiich d e s p e r a t e m e d i c a l r e m e d i e s h a d b e e n u n s u c cessfullv a t t e m p t e d . 2 4 identification might prove seductive to those w h o s e s y m p t o m s bewildered medical experts. bystanders named Joan again: ' H a t h she d o n e i t ? ' . in t h e f o r m o f e a r l i e r 2 7 T h e b e h a v i o u r and testiother of o f the possessed w e r e thus entangled with the interests o f various chieflv f r o m t h e i r o w n familv n e t w o r k s . A manuscript offers a very different account. those w h o testified t o the physical m a r k s that w e r e to characterize a witch. (1603) 'undistinc- t i v e ' . analysing D r S t e p h e n B r a d w e l l ' s a c c o u n t o f the possession o f M a r y G l o v e r . s t r u c k J o a n V a u g h a n . o f f i c i a l l y s a n c t i o n e d . mony p a r t i c i p a n t s in t h e d r a m a . B e l c h e r ' s friends suspected witchcraft. F o u r m e n and sixteen w o m e n w e r e accused. Nicholas S t a r k e y ' s c h i l d r e n .312 CLIVE HOLMES WOMEN: WITCHES AND WITNESSES 313 q u e n t d r a m a .d i a b o l i c . T h e p o s s e s s e d adolescents w e r e the tools o f the divines. their families and neighbours. could b e individually s h a p e d t o p r o v i d e an o u t l e t f o r p e r s o n a l f e e l i n g s t h a t w o u l d n o t o t h e r w i s e a c h i e v e s a n c t i o n e d e x p r e s s i o n — s e x u a l f a n t a s i e s . was the p r o d u c t o f a s o c i a l p r o c e s s in w h i c h k e y r o l e s w e r e p l a y e d b y a d u l t s a n d m a l e s . T h e o r t h o d o x b e g i n n i n g o f t h e a c c o u n t of t h e p o s s e s s i o n o f t h e d a u g h t e r o f L a d v J e n n i n g s — h e r f e a r o f an o l d w o m a n s u d d a i n l y a p p e a r e d t o h e r att t h e d o r e a n d d e m a n d e d a pin o f h e r ' — s e e m s q u i t e i r r e l e v a n t t o t h e s u b s e q u e n t s t o r y . M e r c v S h o r t . so t o o w a s t h e s u b s e q u e n t b e h a v i o u r o f t h e v i c t i m s . Richard Napier.s t a n d i n g found l o c a l s u s p i c i o n : it w a s c o r r o b o r a t e d b y e v i d e n c e o f t h e w i t c h . o f t e n . l a r g e l v in r e s p o n s e t o t h e e x p e c t a t i o n s o f t h o s e w h o g a t h e r e d a b o u t t h e m t o o f f e r c o n s o l a t i o n and t o p a r t i c i p a t e v i c a r i o u s l y in t h e c o n f l i c t with Satan. so that thev c o n f i r m e d with increasing 2 6 D r J o h n C o t t a . 1619. all w e r e r e j e c t e d until they n a m e d J o a n . n o r any s i g n e t h a t a n y s u c h e t h i n g e h a i t h e v e r b e e n e ' . 'Did she?'. The victim behavb e c a m e t h e f o c u s o f an i n t e n s e a t t e n t i o n .a s . t h e b o y b i t his m o t h e r a n d c a l l e d h e r ' w h o r e ' . c u l m i n a t i n g in t h e i r c o u r t r o o m p e r f o r m a n c e s . w i t h its a n c i l l a r y e m p h a s i s u p o n t h e m o m e n t n e v e r c e a s e d t o a c c u s e J o a n . n o r a n y t h i n g e l y k e a t e a t e o r m a r k e . F o u r o f the c o n v i c t e d w o m e n w e r e b r o u g h t to L o n d o n and in t h e p r e s e n c e o f a p a n e l o f d i s t i n g u i s h e d p h y s i c i a n s h e a d e d b y W i l l i a m ined. 2 5 In o t h e r c a s e s . A b a s i c p a t t e r n o f l a n g u a g e a n d g e s t u r e . 2 8 B u t . a g e d n i n e a n d t e n .i n t e r m e d i a r v n o m i n a t e d . o n t h e o t h e r t h r e e t h e v f o u n d ' n o t h i n g u n n a t u r a l l n e y t h e r in t h e s e c r e t s o r a n y p a r t e s o f t h e i r e b o d y e s . a f t e r J o a n had m a d e an o b s c e n e g e s t u r e at h e r : a fewdays l a t e r E l i z a b e t h w a s p o s s e s s e d . a p o o r k i n s w o m a n w h o lived on the Starkey family's charity. b y t h e t i m e it w a s e m p l o v e d b y C o t t o n M a t h e r in his a c c o u n t s o f t h e p o s s e s s i o n o f t h e G o o d w i n c h i l d r e n a n d o f M e r c y S h o r t . other t h e s e . this w a s simply the f o r m u l a i c c o n v e n t i o n o f a substantial literary g e n r e . thought suppositions c o n c e r n i n g b o t h the diabolic nature o f witchcraft and female inferiority. a n d t h e w i t c h . and t h e r e had b e e n m u c h discussion a m o n g the family visitors o f the possibilitv o f w i t c h c r a i t . i n c l u d e d an e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e p h y s i o l o g i c a l e v i d e n c e . initiallv clarity' a diagnosis o f possession through w i t c h c r a f t . b u t she r e f u s e d t o e n t e r t a i n this s u g g e s t i o n . 'Heere comes Joane Vaughan. r e l i g i o u s d o u b t s . i n v o l v e d far m o r e c o m p l e x t r a n s a c t i o n s . as w i t h [Catherine W r i g h t a n d A n n e G u n t e r . and from But while the possessed w e r e and a p p r o p r i a t i n g l a n g u a g e a n d b e h a v i o u r in w a y s t h a t w e r e i n t e n s e l y p e r s o n a l liberating. including the assertion o f the responsibility o f a witch for the victim's e x p e r i e n c e . w h e n an a c c u s e d w i t c h h e l d in B o s t o n g a o l b e g g e d h e r f o r a l i t t l e t o b a c c o . reinforced t h e w i t c h c r a i t . A f e w documents e n a b l e us t o s e e this p r o c e s s d i r e c t l v . crucially. p h y s i c w a s u n a v a i l i n g . c o m p l a i n e d that the actions and accusations o f the possessed involved 'the abusive impression o f s o m e indiscreete whispering about the p o s s e s s i o n n a r r a t i v e s . levelled by a ten-year-old boy. themselves. T e n L o n d o n m i d w i v e s ' m a d e diligent search and inspeccion o f those w o m e n ' T h e y r e p o r t e d t h a t o n e o f t h e w o m e n had u n u s u a l b u t e x p l i c a b l e m a r k s . r a g e at p a r e n t s . the structure to which m o s t accusations c o n f o r m e d . g a i n i n g d e f i n i t i o n in t h e c e n t u r y a f t e r 1 5 9 0 . w e r e a v a i l a b l e in t h e s i c k r o o m . s a n c t i o n e d b y t h e P r i v y C o u n c i l . while c o n f o r m i n g t o a basic p a t t e r n . T h o m a s D a r l i n g i n a d v e r t e n t l y f a r t e d as h e p a s s e d A l i c e G o o d e r i d g e . T h e y t o o confirmed. A c c o r d i n g t o a p a m p h l e t o f 1 6 1 2 M r s E l i z a b e t h B e l c h e r . they s c o f f e d at S c r i p t u r e as ' b i b l e b a b l e . T h e witchcraft-possession . ' a f f r o n t e d t h e h a g ' : all w e r e s u b s e q u e n t l y s u b j e c t e d t o f e a r f u l p h y s i c a l a n d mental t o r m e n t s . s e a r c h f o r t h e w i t c h ' s m a r k in E n g l a n d .m a r k s o n t h e a c c u s e d . T h e L a n c a s t e r c a s e p r o v i d e s t h e first i n s t a n c e o f t h e fullv d e v e l o p e d .c o v e n a n t t h e o l o g y . w h i l e in s e v e r a l c a s e s p a r a d i g m s o f a p p r o p r i a t e b e h a v i o u r . b u t also medical professionals and divines. d e l i g h t e d in ' f i l t h i e a n d u n s a v o u r y s p e e c h e s ' . and. b i b l e b a b l e ' . c r y i n g o u t in h e r fits. awav with J o a n e Vaughan'. If the possession-through-witchcraft and diag- IV A s i m i l a r analysis is a l s o a p p r o p r i a t e in d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e e v i d e n c e o f t h e t h i r d g r o u p o f f e m a l e w i t n e s s e s . demonstrably absent from their previous affective relations. T h e ioural traits o f possession. t h o s e a t t e n d i n g h e r b e g a n t o n o m i n a t e s u s p e c t s . w r i t i n g in 'ordinarily' sick'. Then. a n d t h e s e w e r e l o c a t e d in t h e g e n i t a l a r e a o f e l e v e n o f t h e m . T h e actual process w h e r e b v t h e s u f f e r e r ' s a f f l i c t i o n w a s r e c o g n i z e d as p o s s e s s i o n . W i l l i a m P e r r v failed t o salute J o a n C o c k e with sufficient c o u r t e s y w h e n they m e t . thirteen o f the w o m e n w e r e t o h a v e m a r k s o r p a p s . And equally it is t h e e l e m e n t o f e l i t e c o n s t r u c t i o n a n d m a n i p u l a t i o n o f t h e i r t e s t i m o n y t h a t is most apparent. a n d f u r t h e r q u e s t i o n s n o s i s is t h e p r o d u c t o f a d i a l o g u e i n v o l v i n g m a n v a c t o r s . ' s t r e n g t h e n e d and changed o v e r t i m e . was l e a r n e d b v t h e p o s s e s s e d . t e s t i f y i n g a t N o r t h a m p t o n assizes w h e r e t h e witch was c o n d e m n e d . Y e t d e s p i t e this c r i t i q u e .w o m a n ' . M a r g a r e t B y r o m . shows h o w h e r s y m p t o m s . M i c h a e l M a c D o n a l d . t h e s i c k w o m a n a s k e d . when the that E l i z a b e t h w a s in h e r fit. t h e d a u g h t e r o f a n o t o r i o u s l o c a l w i t c h . E l i z a b e t h h a d b e e n s i c k f o r fifteen m o n t h s . 'a v e r t u o u s a n d g o d l y g e n t l e . Elizabeth responded. T h e 1 6 3 4 c o n v i c t i o n s t r o u b l e d s o m e o f t h e a u t h o r i t i e s a n d undertaken: re-examHarvey. T h e possessed themselves w e r e not simply malleable puppets articulating the c o n c e r n s o f o t h e r s in a p r o c e s s o f s o c i a l v e n t r i l o q u i s m . A t L a n c a s t e r assizes in 1 6 3 4 s o m e t w e n t y p e o p l e w e r e c o n v i c t e d as w i t c h e s . as w e r e t h e e f f o r t s o f the local practitioner o f astrological m e d i c i n e . was firmly r o o t e d in l o n g . T h e accusation. their dramatic performances f r a i l t y o f t h e ' w e a k e r s e x e ' in t h e f a c e o f s a t a n i c t e m p t a t i o n . t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l f o r m a t o f t h e n a r r a t i v e 'who b a r e l y c o n c e a l s t h e m o r e d i f f u s e r e a l i t y . if m o r e tangentially. ' n i c k n a m e d and t a u n t e d ' h e r b e n e f a c t o r s . a n d t h e i r u s u a l d i s c o v e r y in t h e p u d e n d a .

r a g e a n d c r u e l t i e s ' . So. 2 9 c l a w e d his n e w d i s c i p l e . H o w e v e r . before 1634: e q u i v a l e n t t o t h e s e a r c h f o r t h e i n s e n s i b l e b r a n d in S c o t l a n d the earliest surviving instance is t h e demand of a or G e n e v a . h o w e v e r . it w a s an i m p o r t a t i o n f r o m c o n t i n e n t a l p r a c t i c e . notably the influential W i l l i a m P e r k i n s . full o f p o w e r .t r i a l e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e a c c u s e d b y ' a n c i e n t skilfull m a t r o n s a n d m i d w i v e s ' c o n t i n u e d as a f e a t u r e o f t h e w i t c h a c c u s a t i o n s in E n g l a n d and the A m e r i c a n colonies into the eighteenth century. 3 4 So effec- tive a litmus test p r o v e d attractive t o o t h e r magistrates b e f o r e the Civil W a r . B r i a n D a r c v h a d s u s p e c t s s e a r c h e d 3 5 But the . and c o n s e q u e n t l y had t o b e read o r s h a p e d in a w a y t h a t p e r m i t t e d its i n c o r p o r a t i o n i n t o t h e i r t h e o r e t i c a l c o n s t r u c t s — h e n c e the misogynous explanations developed by the divines to a c c o u n t for the plurality o f female witches that e m e r g e d f r o m popular accusation. G i f f o r d set o u t t h e d i f f i c u l t y : S a t a n was the efficient cause 'to o f t h e w i t c h ' s m a l e f i c e n c e . Yet 'that which by e x p e r i e n c e is found t o b e t r u e ' could n o t simply b e dismissed.o r d e a l . its lavish e m p l o y m e n t b y H o p k i n s a n d S t e a r n e h a r d e n e d o b j e c t i o n s t h a t had already b e e n e x p r e s s e d by a n u m b e r o f clerics. T h e mented with the witch's blood. w e r e t h e v Having p o s e d t h e p r o b l e m . by a n o t h e r g r o u p : lawyers and magistrates. 'odd performances'. l e a v i n g an i n s e n s i b l e s c a r . by 1 6 0 0 . a c a t . m i s e . From this s t r u c t u r a l r e s e m b l a n c e . this she g a v e h i m b y p r i c k i n g h e r h a n d o r f a c e a n d p u t t i n g t h e b l o u d t o his m o u t h w h y c h e h e s u c k e d . their d i s c o v e r y b y q u a l i f i e d e x p e r t s w a s e s s e n t i a l f o r c o n v i c t i o n in s o m e j u r i s d i c t i o n s . from the m o r e detailed narrative o f the w i t c h ' s transaction with Satan that assimilates further as J o s e p h 3 1 popular belief system. E u r o p e a n c o m m e n t a t o r s a s s e r t e d t h a t at t h e m a k i n g o f t h e c o v e n a n t t h e D e v i l c l a w e d o r b r a n d e d his n e o p h y t e . A f e w E n g l i s h t h e o r i s t s f o l l o w t h e i r c o n t i n e n t a l c o u n t e r p a r t s in d e s c r i b i n g t h e a n a e s thetic mark. a n d d i v i n e s w e r e t a x e d t o e x p l a i n t h e i r p r e s e n c e in t e r m s o f t h e i r t h e o l o g y o f w i t c h c r a f t . experimented with the water-ordeal as p r a c t i s e d on the C o n t i n e n t a n d a p p r o v e d b y K i n g J a m e s . o f the w i t c h ' s pact with Satan. and t h e m a g i s t r a c y . but in other writings and in local police practice the test was t r a n s i o r m e d . as c a t s . the D e v i l t h e n provides a familiar w h o regularly sucks b l o o d f r o m t h e r e s u l t i n g w o u n d . in t h e 1 5 8 2 S t O s y t h i n v e s t i g a t i o n . t h e d e s i r e d p o s i t i v i s t i c t e s t o f g u i l t . w i t h its e m p h a s i s u p o n t h e f e m a l e g e n i t a l s .m a g i c . d r a w i n g b l o o d w i t h w h i c h t o sign t h e c o m p a c t a n d l e a v i n g an i n s e n s i b l e s c a r as its t a n g i b l e s y m b o l .o r i e n t e d d i m e n s i o n o f the a c a d e m i c t h e o r y o f w i t c h c r a f t . after m a k i n g the c o v e n a n t . t h e d i s c o v e r y o f t h e s u c k e d t e a t b e c o m e s an a p p r o p r i a t e demonstration. a full u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e c o n t e x t i n w h i c h t h e i r r o l e as w i t n e s s e s d e v e l o p e d a l l o w s us t o s e e t h e m a t r o n s a n d m i d w i v e s as m a r g i n a l p a r t i c i p a n t s in p r o c e d u r e s o r i g i n a t i n g in t h e c o n c e r n s o f e x c l u s i v e l y m a l e g r o u p s : t h e c l e r g y . ' w h i c h is a c o m o n t o k e n t o k n o w all w i t c h e s b y ' . In 1 6 4 6 J u d g e G o d b o l t h a l t e d t h e u s e o f t h e w a t e r o r d e a l b y H o p k i n s a n d his e n t o u r a g e a n d . its official e m p l o y m e n t c e a s e d save in v e r y r e m o t e jurisdictions.314 CLIVE HOLMES WOMEN: WITCHES AND WITNESSES 315 c o n c e r n i n g the reliability o f the search p r o c e d u r e during the wave o f prosecutions in E a s t A n g l i a in 1 6 4 5 — 6 . c o m b i n i n g continental cepts and insular f o l k l o r e . and d e v e l o p e d . a n d 'the suspition that was b e f o r e n o t well g r o u n d e d . A c c o u n t s o f the v i c t i m ' s sufferings that f o l l o w e d a c u r s e . T h e i r theories w e r e to b e r e i n f o r c e d . d r a w i n g it i n t o a t e a t . p r e . w h o d e n o u n c e d t h e p r a c t i c e as u n w a r r a n t e d b y S c r i p t u r e . t h e n . it r e i n f o r c e s t h e g e n d e r . 'it is e v e n o f s u b t i l t i e ' . S a t a n a n d his m i n i o n s w e r e d e s c r i b e d in S c r i p t u r e m a s q u e r a d i n g as ' s u c h p a l t r i e v e r m i n . a g a i n . the conEnglish c o m m e n t a t o r s d e v e l o p e d a syncretist t h e o r y . h e r i a m i l i a r . 'the m o r e to aggravate the w i t c h ' s T h e w o r k o f the academics had b e e n to i n c o r p o r a t e local ' e x p e r i e n c e ' e m e r g i n g f r o m t h e s u b s t r a t e o f p o p u l a r b e l i e f i n t o a g e n e r a l t h e o r y .m a g i c . d u p l i c a t i n g t h e E n g l i s h a c c o u n t o f t h e c o v e n a n t b y an e m p h a s i s o n t h e f a m i l i a r . t h o u g h r e w o r k e d t o accommod a t e p a r o c h i a l e x p e r i e n c e . W h y . was n o w c o n f i r m e d ' . T h e search was e m p l o y e d intermittently Southampton marks popular b e l i e f w e r e k e p t by t h e w i t c h and e m p l o y e d t o e x e c u t e h e r designs. a l t h o u g h it s u r v i v e d as a v i g o r o u s e l e m e n t in t h e p o p u l a r r e s p o n s e t o w i t c h c r a f t . B y t h e e a r l y s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y s o m e l o c a l officials w e r e c l e a r l y t r o u b l e d b y the evidential p r o b l e m s p o s e d b y the usual f o r m o f w i t c h c r a f t a c c u s a t i o n . A n d . It a p p e a r s in t h e e a r l i e s t t r i a l s t h a t it w a s c o m m o n l y t h o u g h t that the w i t c h h o u s e d and fed h e r familiars: U r s l e v K e m p l o d g e d h e r t w o c a t s . and r e s o n a t e s w i t h t h e m o r e o v e r t c o n t i n e n t a l d i s c u s s i o n s o f w o m e n ' s i n s a t i a b l e l u s t as a m a j o r e l e m e n t in t h e i r c o m p a c t a n d r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h S a t a n . r e i n f o r c e d by various dubious bits o f c o n f i r m a t o r y c o u n t e r . 3 3 T h e t e s t i m o n y o f t h e s e ' k n o w i n g w o m e n ' r e s u l t e d in t h e c o n d e m n a t i o n o f a n u m b e r o f i n d i v i d u a l s . p r o p e r physical e x a m i n a t i o n could reveal such satanic stigmata and. T h e w i t c h e n t e r s a c o v e n a n t with Satan w h o m a r k s h e r and draws b l o o d . t o a d s and w e a s i l s ' ? b e m i g h t i e t e r r i b l e s p i r i t s . in the absence o f a confession. G i f f o r d s k e t c h e s an a n s w e r . w e r e a l m o s t u n i q u e t o E n g l i s h f o l k l o r e . after accomplishing diet s e e m s o r d i n a r y e n o u g h . cake and w h i t e b r e a d . In E n g l a n d . and the resultant problem synthesis uneasy. as did t h e w a t e r . a l a m b a n d a t o a d in a l a r g e w o o l lined p o t . i n c r e a s i n g l y s e e m e d i n s u b s t a n t i a l . 3 2 l e e t j u r y in 1 5 7 9 t h a t W i d o w W a l k e r s h o u l d b e s e a r c h e d f o r a n y b l o o d y D e c o n t e x t u a l i z e d a n d a n a l y s e d in i s o l a t i o n . T h a t the a c c o m m o d a t i o n o f p o p u l a r b e l i e f and intellectual t h e o r y o f t e n p r o v e d a w k w a r d . w h i l e still m a i n t a i n i n g the c o h e r e n c e o f the latter.g i f t b o r e s o m e affinities t o the idea o f P r o t e s t a n t continental theorists. T h e i r q u e s t t o o k a n u n i b e r o f d i r e c t i o n s . that Satan. is v e r y apparent in t h e divines' wrestling with the to posed by the witches' familiars. as did t h e D e r b y s h i r e J P s in 1 5 9 7 . b u t it w a s o c c a s i o n a l l y s u p p l e Mother W a t e r h o u s e ' s fell p u r p o s e s . f a c e d with a difficult case. These creatures. magistrates sought tangible p r o o f o f the w i t c h ' s status. T h e d e v i l s a d o p t t h e s e b a s e g u i s e s s o as n o t t o t e r r i f y t h e i r d u p e s b y r e v e a l i n g t h e i r h o r r e n dous f o r m s and p o w e r .h u n t in e a s t e r n E n g l a n d . M o r e o v e r . A c c o r d i n g l y . l i k e t h e o r d e a l . a n d t h u s m e r e l y a f o r m o f i l l i c i t c o u n t e r . 3 0 T h i s e a r l y a n s w e r is f l e s h e d o u t b y l a t e r w r i t e r s i n t o a Glanvill ingenuously described them. t h i s b l o o d . t h e t h r e e a c c u s e d w i t c h e s all f l o a t e d . maintaining t h e m on b e e r . which according professional the original transaction. In c o n s e q u e n c e t h e y w e r e o f t e n t h e b u t t o f t h e j i b e s o f s c e p t i c s . In 1 6 1 2 t h e N o r t h a m p t o n s h i r e J P s . T h e discovery o f the physical peculiarities thought to m a r k a w i t c h p r o v i d e d . As w i t h t h e p o s s e s s e d a d o l e s c e n t s . i f e x t r a v a g a n t . w a s r e w a r d e d w i t h a c h i c k e n and a d r o p o f h e r b l o o d . A c a d e m i c writers w e r e frequently embarrassed by aspects o f the popular beliefs a b o u t w i t c h c r a f t t h a t e m e r g e d in a c c u s a t i o n s . and t h e t e c h n i q u e w a s u s e d e x t e n s i v e l y in t h e 1 6 4 5 — 6 w i t c h . this i n v e r t e d E u c h a r i s t is d e s i g n e d t o ' p u t h e r in m i n d o f damnation'.

authoritatively silenced those w o m e n w h o . a n d e v e n t h e f u l l e r v e r d i c t s o f the 'Ansient and K n o w i n g W o m e n ' p e r c e i v e d t h e i r m a r g i n a l r o l e as s e a r c h e r s . B e r n a r d insists. were protecting their o w n precarious positions by associating themselves with o r t h o d o x 3 8 B u t this h y p o t h e s i s c a n n o t s u r v i v e D a v i d H a r l e y ' s d e m o n s t r a t i o n t h a t its the vulnerability of midwives to witchcraft prosecution. m i n i s t e r o f B e v e r l e y . t i o n w a s d e l a y e d . were prepared to exculpate individuals. is a Certainly s o m e midwives w e r e prepared to assert categorically that physr The searchers arguments essential p r e m i s e . ' s o m e t h a t w e r e t h e r e t h a t p r e t e n d e d t o h a v e skill in t h e d i s c o v e r y o f w i t c h - . r e p o r t e d t h e d o u b t s o f 'a skilful m i d w i f e ' c o n c e r n i n g t h e w i t c h ' s colonial j u r i e s . R i c h a r d B e r n a r d . is t h e p u b l i c a - C a m b r i d g e s h i r e J P . for t h e y p r o v e fully that t h o s e w i t c h e s h a v e a f a m i l i a r a n d m a d e a l e a g u e w i t h t h e D e v i l ' . the search must be diligent. b e y o n d viability o f d e m o n o l o g i c a l s p e c u l a t i o n u p o n w h i c h i t r e s t e d so u n e a s i l y . e v e n i n t h o s e c a s e s C o c k b u r n . s i n c e it is l i k e l y t o b e in hidden places'. over the enclosed process of birth and their use of charms. d e s p i t e t h i s w e i g h t y p r o f e s s i o n a l o p i n i o n f r o m S t e a r n e a n d his c i r c u s . magistrates after 1 6 3 0 . 4 2 p r o c e d u r e s d o n o t a d m i t o f e a s y a n a l y s i s . A n d t h e authoritative. l e a v e f e w t r a c e s in t h e E n g l i s h r e c o r d s . 3 6 N o r . confronted by the e v i d e n t i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s t h a t t y p i f i e d all w i t c h c r a f t a c c u s a t i o n s . . and the f r e q u e n t appearance o f similar t i o n o f t h e f o u r t h e d i t i o n o f The Countrey Justice by Michael Dalton. Frances W a r d . o t h e r s w e r e m o r e w a r y . T h e key event behind the o r m a r k s in h e r s e c r e t s ' in t h e findings their emphasis on female sexuality. d i a g n o s e d t h e i r m a r k s as s u s p i c i o u s . . l i k e t h e m i d w i v e s in 1634. validity o f the e n t i r e p r o c e d u r e . in his s u m m a r y . t h o u g h s u c h o c c a s i o n s m a y have b e e n f r e q u e n t . in t h e c o n t e x t . as D a l t o n ' s m i s r e a d i n g o f his s o u r c e p r o v e d e q u a l l y A similar a r g u m e n t may explain simply s o m e o f t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n s in s e a r c h e s f o r t h e w i t c h ' s m a r k s . w a s t h e s e a r c h s o c o n c e n t r a t e d 1 6 3 4 Lancaster proceedings with 'paps and Massachusetts. midwives and o t h e r s . e v e n l a n g u a g e in t h e i r d e p o s i t i o n s . a n d this m i g h t l e a d t o in g e n e r a l . the search o f the W i d o w C o m a n o f Coggeshall. 3 9 o b v i o u s l y t o o k t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s s e r i o u s l y . 'these the Devil's marks . the intellectual regarding the b o t h the efficacy o f the test and. ministerial theories c o n c e r n i n g the satanic d i m e n s i o n o f w i t c h c r a f t and the inferiority o f w o m e n . In 1653 another m i d w i f e . D a l t o n r e v i s e d his i n f l u e n t i a l v a d e . t h a t t h e m a r k m a y b e a n y w h e r e . aryi t h e r e s p i t e u s u a l l y b e c a m e a r e p r i e v e . w h o affirmed that their searches had revealed the D e v i l ' s m a r k r e i n f o r c e d . t h e n t o u r i n g t h e Isle o f E l y . hardly p e r m i t any exhaustive analysis o f h o w London the or to question mark. a m o n g t h e m r e s u l t i n g f r o m t h e i r d o u b t s in i n d i v i d u a l c a s e s o r a b o u t t h e p r o c e d u r e i c a l m a r k s w e r e u n n a t u r a l . T h e r o l e and s e l f . c o n s i d e r i n g t h e f r e q u e n c y w i t h w h i c h s u c h ' m i s t a k e s ' w e r e m a d e . myth. t h a t a p a r t i c u l a r l y a c t i v e p a r t w a s p l a y e d b y m i d w i v e s w h o . In 1 6 4 5 B r i d g e t R e y n o l d s o f R a m s e y s e a r c h e d t h r e e l o c a l w o m e n . o r t o t h e i r o w n e x p e r i e n c e o f h e r m a l e f i c e n c e . has argued that the j u r y o f w o m e n e m b o d i e d the s e n t i m e n t o f the c o u r t and the w i d e r c o m m u n i t y in f a v o u r o f m e r c y in a p a r t i c u l a r c a s e . Searchers w e r e often p r e p a r e d t o testify n o t only t o the a c c u s e d ' s physical m a r k s . g i v e n an official d i s t r u s t o f t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a n d t h e s u s p i c i o n s o f w i t c h c r a f t t h a t f o c u s e d o n t h e i r presidency belief. It is t e m p t i n g t o fill t h e l a c u n a e b y i n t r o d u c i n g a c o m p a r a t i v e d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e o t h e r r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s w h e r e w o m e n p l a y e d a r o l e in t h e p e n u m b r a o f the legal s y s t e m . often unwittingly. f o u n d n o d i s c o v e r y o f t h a t n a t u r e . found incriminating marks on M a r g a r e t M o r t o n . 4 1 o f t h e s e a r c h e r s t h e r e a f t e r .t r i a l p r o c e d u r e . a n d r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e a c c u s e d . a n d in 1 6 2 1 a J P h a d t o p r e s s his c o l l e a g u e s o n t h e M i d d l e s e x B e n c h t o i n s t i t u t e t h e s e a r c h o f a s u s p e c t . h e r m o t h e r a n d h e r s i s t e r w e r e 'all a l o n g t i m e s u s p e c t e d ' o f w i t c h c r a f t . Y e t l o n g s t a n d i n g p o p u l a r s u s p i c i o n s did n o t i n v a r i a b l y l e a d t o t h e d i s c o v e r y o f t h e conclusive physical e v i d e n c e . b u t t o h e r r e p u t a t i o n as a w i t c h . using a n e u t r a l . t h e y w e r e expressions o f local s e n t i m e n t c o n c e r n i n g the i n n o c e n c e o r guilt o f the accused. in a m a c a b r e s c e n e b e n e a t h t h e g a l l o w s . g e n e r ally s u p p o s e d t o b e a w i t c h . e m p l o y e d t h e r e c o m m e n d e d b o d v s e a r c h as a r o u t i n e a s p e c t o f p r e . lawyer T h e l a c o n i c r e f e r e n c e s in t h e E n g l i s h r e c o r d s . C o n n e c t i c u t . T h e s e a r c h e s w e r e an u n s t a b l e c r e a t i o n t h a t j u x t a p o s e d t h e c o n c e p t u a l s c h e m e s o f the theologians with a pragmatic response by the magistracy to increasingly troubling evidential p r o b l e m s . . M r s Odill o f Fairfield. while s o m e midwives affirmed and r e i n f o r c e d the search p r o c e d u r e s t h a t h a d b e e n s h a p e d in t h e i n t e r s e c t i o n o f t h e o l o g y a n d j u r i s p r u d e n c e divines and l a w y e r s . p a s s i n g there bv c h a n c e ' . But a r g u m e n t s a m o n g the searchers and the ambiguous language with which they often hedged their findings m a y equally have led t o elite c o n c e r n that. . a n d t e s t i f i e d a g a i n s t t h e m a t t h e a s s i z e s . in this c a s e t w o o f t h e t h r e e w o m e n w h o e x a m i n e d E l i z a b e t h S a w y e r w e r e ' b r o u g h t in b y t h e O f f i c e r s o u t o f t h e s t r e e t e . a n d t h e r e f o r e r e q u i r e d i l i g e n t a n d c a r e f u l s e a r c h ' .m e c u m f o r l o c a l m a g i s t r a t e s in t h e l i g h t o f t h e 1 6 2 7 Guide to Grand-Jury Men b y t h e d i v i n e . W h i l e w o m e n w e r e a p p o i n t e d t o c o n d u c t physical e x a m i n a t i o n s in civil a n d c r i m i n a l cases turning on virginity or p r e g n a n c y . h a d e x a m i n e d t h e c o r p s e o f an e x e c u t e d w i t c h a n d a r g u e d t h a t t h e g e n i t a l m a r k s w e r e ' s u c h as o t h e r women by in m i g h t h a v e ' . in 1 6 3 0 . Y e t . Y e t D a l t o n a l s o t r a n s f o r m s his s o u r c e in a k e v r e s p e c t . language o f Bernard's argument: the teats.p e r c e p t i o n of the w o m e n w h o p a r t i c i p a t e d in t h e search colonial search f o c u s e d u p o n t h e g e n i t a l a r e a . 1 6 4 7 . frequently employed on juries empanelled to test the claim that a w o m a n convicted o f a c a p i t a l f e l o n y w a s p r e g n a n t . t h u s e x c u l p a t i n g an a c c u s e d w i t c h . with three other w o m e n nominated by the constable o f Heath. t h e l o c a l m i d w i f e w a s f a r m o r e c i r c u m s p e c t in h e r t e s t i m o n y . t h o s e s e a r c h e s in w h i c h n o i n c r i m i n a t i n g m a r k s w e r e f o u n d . Y e t W a r d was hardly a neutral o b s e r v e r : she a t t r i b u t e d t h e d e a t h s o f t w o o f h e r c h i l d r e n t o M o r t o n . w h i c h sets o u t t h e full-fledged t h e o r y e x p r e s s i n g t h e r o l e o f the familiar in t e r m s o f the diabolic c o m p a c t .316 CLIVE HOLMES W0MEN: WITCHES AND WITNESSES 317 p r a c t i c e w a s n o t u n i v e r s a l : in 1 5 9 3 M o t h e r S a m u e l ' s m a r k w a s d i s c o v e r e d after c r a f t sayd t h a t s o m e o f t h e d e v i l e s i m p e s h a d s u c k e d h e r ' . In p a r t i c u l a r . 4 0 on the genital area. Dalton. they w e r e most execuJ. in t h e i r s e c r e t e s t p a r t s . W h e n Ellen Garrison o f U p w e l l was searched ambiguous. J o h n H a l e . S o m e . S. It has b e e n s u g g e s t e d . In t h e e v e n t o f a p o s i t i v e d e t e r m i n a t i o n where the jury's 'pregnant' verdict was subsequently proved incorrect. D a l t o n cites B e r n a r d with enthusiastic approval a n d e m p h a s i z e s t h e u t i l i t y o f t h e d i s c o v e r y o f t h e m a r k s as i n c o n t r o v e r t i b l e proof — ' m a i n e points t o d i s c o v e r and c o n v i c t . b u t t h a t . h e r e x e c u t i o n . 3 7 'very the shifts be often Fortified bv Dalton's confident p r o n o u n c e m e n t s . b u t . in t h e s e e a r l y e x a m p l e s . a n d t o d e n o u n c e t h o s e t h e y s e a r c h e d as g u i l t y o f d i a b o l i c r e l a t i o n s . w i t h c o p i o u s citation o f t h e available English c a s e s . T h o s e w o m e n .

Witchcraft (London 1720). It i n v o l v e d a c o n t i n uous b u t shifting dialogue a m o n g a variety o f social and professional g r o u p s . t o t h e t h r e a t s t h a t it p o s e d t o l i f e . T h e c o n c e r n s o f t h e legal elite also e x p l a i n t h e i n v o l v e m e n t o f w o m e n in t h e s e a r c h e s f o r t h o s e p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s tics w h i c h indicated c o n j u n c t i o n with diabolic familiars. ' P o p u l a r C u l t u r e ? W i t c h e s . in S. a n d u l t i m a t e l y d i s c a r d e d b y t h e m a g i s t e r i a l a n d c l e r i c a l e l i t e . The of a Woman ( N e w Y o r k 1 9 8 7 ) . T h o s e w h o c h o s e t o e m p l o y t h e official m a c h i n e r y a g a i n s t w i t c h e s w e r e o b l i g e d t o shape the local fears and r u m o u r s f r o m which the p r o s e c u t i o n e m a n a t e d t o the f o r m a l i t i e s o f t h e l a w as d e f i n e d b y t h e s t a t u t e s a n d t o t h e r e a d i n g o f t h e s e magistrates and j u d g e s . 5 6 8 . T h e judiciary w e r e n o l o n g e r p r e p a r e d to entertain indictments for s t o c k . e n g a g e d d i v i n e s u s e d e v e r y o p p o r tunity to educate the populace concerning their witchcraft-as-heresy formulation. Lewd Women (London 1 9 9 2 ) . M u c h o f t h e p o p u l a r b e l i e f t h a t e m e r g e d in t h e c o u r t s s e e m e d t o t r i v i a l i z e w i t c h c r a f t a n d t o g i v e a m m u n i t i o n t o s c e p t i c s . o f t e n at t h e i n s t i g a t i o n o f m e n . W o m e n . is a p r o c e s s o f c o n s i d e r a b l e c u l t u r a l c o m p l e x i t y . was essentially instrumental: t o placate o r 'curry favour' with the witch. S h a r p e . B u t t h e m a c h i n e r y in w h i c h t h e v b e c a m e i n v o l v e d . 58—60. F o r t h e local conflicts s u r r o u n d i n g this p r o s e c u t i o n . a p p a r e n t in t h e by the sessions presuppositions. Witch Hunting Francis Hutchinson. 140 (1993).d a m a g e . g r o w i n g in t h e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y . proved the m o s t enduring o f these o f f i c i a l c o n f i r m a t o r y t e s t s . Its j u s t i f i c a t i o n lay in t h e d e v e l o p i n g t h e o r i e s o f t h e o t h e r m a j o r p r o f e s s i o n a l g r o u p i n v o l v e d in w i t c h c r a f t p r o s e c u t i o n . John Devil and Satan (New York 1982). C . see t h e original v e r sion in Past and Present. m o r e easily s e d u c e d b y s a t a n i c t e m p t a t i o n . to judge by the mid-seventeenth-century evidence. t h o u g h a c t i v e in t h e c r e a t i o n o f l o c a l s u s p i c i o n s t h r o u g h g o s s i p . Religion Macfarlane. t h e d i v i n e s . 'The 15 and Witch Trials. 94—5. 2 0 1 . A n d it w a s t h e y w h o r e a d l o c a l e x p e r i e n c e in t e r m s o f a p a r t i c u l a r i n t e l l e c t u a l s c h e m e . T h e c o n s t r u c t i o n section of divergent and shifting systems o f ideas. Y e t in t h i s p r o c e s s a s p e c t s o f p o p u l a r b e l i e f w e r e i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t h e t h e o r i e s o f t h e d i v i n e s . V i c t i m s c o u l d n o w c h o o s e t o d e s t r o y t h e i r assailants t h r o u g h t h e f o r m a l l y s a n c t i o n e d p r o c e d u r e s o f t h e c o u r t s . six b e t w e e n 1 6 6 0 and 1 6 7 5 . w e r e t h e m o r e e n g a g e d p a r t i c i p a n t s . c o n t r o l l e d . In 1 5 6 3 t h e e l i t e . harmful p o w e r that c o n s t i t u t e d w i t c h c r a f t w o u l d i n h e r e in c e r t a i n w o m e n . a t t e n d a n t at t h e s i c k b e d o f t h e v i c t i m . shared by m e n and w o m e n . L a w y e r s . 160. w a s c r e a t e d . dialogic p r o c e s s . All w i t n e s s e s . proportionately. and the interfemale is n o t p a r t i c i p a t i o n as w i t n e s s in t h e E n g l i s h t r i a l s w a s e x t e n s i v e a n d . s e e J . S h a r p e . A. 145-79. W i t c h c r a f t p r o s e c u t i o n s a f t e r 1 5 6 3 p l a c e d t h e c l e r g y . 11 to transform popular belief with. u s u a l l y t h o s e o f s o m e s t a t u s in t h e i r c o m m u n i t i e s . c o n s t r u c t e d a m a c h i n e r y o f p r o s e c u t i o n a n d so a d d e d a n e w w e a p o n in t h e a r m o u r y a g a i n s t w i t c h c r a f t . F o r f u r t h e r discussion o f this issue. T h e search for the w i t c h ' s m a r k by c o m m i t t e e s o f w o m e n .6 0 . 2 2 6 . In c o n s e q u e n c e . w e r e b e t t e r p l a c e d t o give e v i d e n c e . was that the m y s t e r i o u s . ' W i t c h c r a f t and W o m e n in S e v e n t e e n t h . in a q u a n d a r y . b u t particularly those girls w h o d e s c r i b e d their possession and the m a t r o n s w h o discovered the genital m a r k s . M a r i a n n e H e s t e r . Some 6 ( 1 9 9 1 ) . 2 Witchcraft D e m o s . see C l i v e H o l m e s . T h e f e a t u r e s o f w i t c h c r a f t t h a t e m e r g e d r e g u l a r l y in t h e t r i a l s c o u l d n o t easily b e d i s m i s s e d . An Historical 5 9 . T h e i r testimony apparently confirmed that w o m e n w e r e the w e a k e r s e x . s o m e s u c c e s s . Essay Concerning property o f f e n c e s ' . b u t m e n . Century Studies. a n d t o d o m e s t i c r o u t i n e s . Eighteenth (London 1 9 8 4 ) . T h e opportunity created by the legislation was e m p l o y e d by b o t h m e n and w o m e n .. a n d in t h e d e p l o y m e n t o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l p r o t e c t i v e t h e r a p i e s a n d t e c h n i q u e s t h a t r a t i f i e d a c c u s a t i o n . 4 8 .318 CLIVE HOLMES WOMEN: WITCHES AND WITNESSES 319 V T h e p r o s e c u t i o n o f w i t c h e s in e a r l y m o d e r n E n g l a n d . t w e n t y c o u r t s b e t w e e n 1 6 0 0 and 1 6 2 4 . t o w h i c h m e n had testified. involving m a n y actors. w e r e a n c i l l a r i e s in t h e f o r m a l p r o c e d u r e s o f q u a r t e r and assizes. L. S e e also Alan Stuart England (London 1970). a n d t h u s t h e r o l e o f w o m e n as w i t n e s s e s . see Phyllis G u s k i n . . ASSI 3 5 / 1 3 5 / 1 4 . Entertaining in the Shape Wicked 3 and the Decline in Tudor and of Magic ( L o n d o n 1 9 7 1 ) .C e n t u r y E n g l a n d : N o r t h e r n E v i d e n c e ' Continuity C h a p t e r 2 2 in this c o l l e c t i o n . approved bv the leading practical manual for local magistrates. Witch Hunting o p s e s o f all t h e assize i n d i c t m e n t s . So the animals w h o frequently attended the witch w e r e diabolized as f a m i l i a r s p i r i t s o r e m a n a t i o n s o f S a t a n h i m s e l f . T h e y c e r t a i n l y d o n o t e l i m i n a t e ' g e n d e r ' o r ' m i s o g y n y ' as k e y c a t e - Notes 1 K e i t h T h o m a s . Crime in Early Modern T r a n s c r i b e d in E w e n . Magistrates Understanding and Divines in Early Modern England'. t o p r o p e r t y . and Change. p r o v i d e s syn- F o r full citations o f t h e archival s o u r c e s used in this c h a p t e r . s o easily r e a d . It w a s t h e y w h o b r o u g h t c h a r g e s a n d w h o o r c h e s t r a t e d t h e p r o s e c u tion.7 1 . P o p u l a r belief. T h e changing c o n c e r n s o f t h e latter g r o u p s explain g r o w i n g p r o p o r t i o n o f f e m a l e w i t n e s s e s in w i t c h c r a f t t r i a l s . B u t t h e s o c i a l m e a n i n g o f t h e s e gories for any discussion o f witchcraft beliefs and p r o s e c u t i o n s . t r o u b l e d by the absence o f evidence that m e t increasingly strict n o r m s for conviction. F o r a g e n e r a l discussion o f t h e 'fall in t h e levels o f i n d i c t m e n t f o r England 81. e x p e r i m e n t e d with a n u m b e r o f p r o c e d u r e s that might provide tangible p r o o f o f guilt or innoc e n c e . ratified the misogynous rationalizations p r o f f e r e d bv the divines t o explain the p r e p o n d e r a n t n u m b e r s o f w o m e n accused o f witchcraft. also C a r o l F . F r o m this t h e o l o g i c a l r e a d i n g o f f o l k l o r e e m e r g e d t h e t e s t o f t h e w i t c h ' s m a r k in its i n s u l a r E n g l i s h f o r m . t o h e a l t h . 64. C o n t e x t o f W i t c h c r a f t : T h e C a s e o f J a n e W e n h a m ' . A . T h e r e s p o n s e t o this p o w e r . We can show that figures of a p r o s e c u t i o n was a c o m p l e x . Popular Culture (Berlin 1 9 8 4 ) . f o l l o w i n g t h e e x a m p l e o f t h e i r c o n t i n e n t a l c o u n t e r p a r t s . K a r l s e n . w e l l r e a d in t h e c o n t i n e n t a l t h e o r y o f t h e e s s e n t i a l l y d i a b o l i c o r i g i n s o f t h e o f f e n c e . a n d w i t h it t h e c o m m i t t e e s o f w o m e n w h o s e a r c h e d t h e a c c u s e d . Kaplan ed. 1 7 9 — 9 9 . P R O . 1630s S e e C h a p t e r 2 0 in this b o o k by C h r i s t i n a L a r n e r . to secure an e f f e c t i v e c o u n t e r . fearful m o r t a l illness o r m e n t a l anguish a l o n e w o u l d sustain a p r o s e c u t i o n and w o m e n . organizing their neighbours t o testify t o earlier e x p e r i e n c e s o f the accused's m a l i c e . L ' E s t r a n g e E w e n . (1982). S e e also S h a r p e ' s and Witch Trials ( L o n d o n 1 9 2 9 ) .m a g i c a g a i n s t a s s a u l t s . a n d h a d t o b e a c c o m m o d a t e d t o theological 10 4 5 6 7 8 9 J . T h e s a m p l e consists o f t h o s e assizes at w h i c h E s s e x w i t c h c r a f t cases w e r e d e t e r m i n e d . Witches and after 1 6 6 0 .

2 n d edn ( L o n d o n 1 6 8 2 . E l v . M a t t h e w H o p k i n s . 2 1 2 . Witchcraft v e r y useful discussion o f t h e various c o u r t . and Antiquities 127. 1 9 8 4 ) . 0 4 . W i n g G 8 2 3 ) pt and Witch Trials. 185. A Modest Enquiry S.W i t c h ' . p u b l i s h e d in 1 5 9 3 . T h o m a s P o t t s . [ 2 7 3 ] : s e c o n d pagiWitchcraft Magic Trials ( B a l t i m o r e . O v . J o h n D a r r e l l . 1 7 . Saducismus 1. 24 I[ohn] D j e n i s o n ] . A 3 . A Short Discoverie x x x v i .. at the Assizes Held at Bury St Edmonds and Admirable Discoverie. L. (London 1619). of the Information. E d w a r d F a i r f a x . nation. G i l b e r t . Richard Weisman. W . A True Narration Persons in Lancashire of Demoniah. 1 9 6 8 ) . of a Certaine Witch Named of Alse the ( L o n d o n 1 5 9 7 ) . and of 7 and W. 239—97. A True and Just the Witches.320 CLIVE HOLMES WOMEN: WITCHES AND WITNESSES 321 12 13 14 15 B a s e d on an analysis o f t h e E s s e x d e f a m a t i o n cases listed in M a c f a r l a n e . 4 9 2 . J o h n H a l e . W . 25 The Witches of Northamptonshire Witchcraft. 101-3. Anxiety and England (Cambridge 1 9 8 1 ) . Oses in Essex ( L o n d o n 1 5 8 2 ) . ( L o n d o n 1 6 2 1 ) . E w e n . ii pt 2 . 42 of Leicester. s e e . in g e n e r a l . W . True and Just Recorde. Introduction into the Nature of Witchcraft (Boston. L e t t e r o f an a n o n y m o u s Magazine. and s e c o n d pagthe Certaine Possession in Lancashire (Middleburg). Somers: of Possession Dispossession and of Somers ( L o n d o n 1 6 0 0 ) .2 3 . ' A B r a n d P l u c k ' d o u t o f t h e B u r n i n g ' . William Grainge (Harrogate 1 8 8 2 ) . 1 2 2 . 32—5. first p a g i n a t i o n . at S. sig. 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 A True and Impartial esp. after 2 7 6 . T h e a c c o u n t o f t h e possession o f t h e T h r o c k m o r t o n c h i l d r e n . The Most Wonderfull Goodenige Witchcraft and True Storie. 6 (1985). Discoverie of Witches in the Countie of Lancaster (London of All sig. Examination 278—301. Healing 26 27 in Seventeenth-Century ( L o n d o n 1 6 1 2 ) . and t o Ann G u n t e r in B e r k s h i r e in 1 6 0 4 . Mystical and Hysteria of Severall M i c h a e l M a c D o n a l d .es ination. see R o b e r t B a r t l e t t . to the Assize Calendars ( L o n d o n 1 9 8 5 ) . sigs B 2 — C I . 83—90. of Sorcery and Witchcraft 39 and Witch Trials. . G e o r g e M o r e . G i f f o r d . T h i s last t e x t is r e p r o d u c e d in R o s e n . sig. 7 2 . . Sorts of Ignorant 6 9 . Witchcraft J o h n C o t t a . Mass. of the Three Witches of Warboys ( L o n d o n 1 5 9 3 ) . Witchcraft Recorde. sigs B 2 — B 3 . ' O n Pleading t h e B e l l y : A H i s t o r y o f t h e J u r y o f M a t r o n s ' . The Wonderfull 1 6 1 3 ) . Three Witches ( E x e t e r 1 6 8 2 ) . 3 (1990). O l d h a m . 9 . 1648-1706. Mass. A True Discourse of 7 Persons in One Familie T h e s e a r c h was e m p l o y e d in a V i r g i n i a case o f 1 7 0 6 and in t h e a c c u s a t i o n against J a n e W e n h a m o f W a l k e r n in 1 7 1 2 . Bedlam: Madness. 4 5 . 1 7 . in Narratives ed. A Full and Impartial (London 1 7 1 2 ) . sigs C 3 . 4 t h edn ( L o n d o n 1 6 3 0 ) . J o h n N i c h o l s . The Countrey Justice. x x x i i i — x x x i x . 103—57. Witchcraft 31 32 33 34 J o s e p h G l a n v i l l . C o c k b u r n . in Elizabethan London Practisers (London 1 9 9 1 ) . 4 vols ( L o n d o n Strange 41 2 0 9 — 1 2 . C 2 . Witch Hunting Ibid. j u s t o v e r 8 0 p e r c e n t o f v i c t i m s w e r e f e m a l e . Gentleman's 38 (London 1682). S e e M i c h a e l M a c D o n a l d . Discovery Witches of Northamptonshire. 2 1 1 . (London 1 5 9 9 ) . sigs C . True and Just Recorde. . R i c h a r d B a d d e l e y . in Tudor and Stuart England. The Wonderfull ' a n o n y m o u s ' t r a c t is o b v i o u s l y D a r c y ' s o w n w o r k . E 2 v . S a m u e l H a r s n e t . 1 0 . 2 9 9 . ' W i t c h c r a f t in E s s e x ' . T h e r e is a 1 7 9 5 — 1 8 1 1 ) . Criminal Justice Hist. Triumphatus. D a v i d H a r l e y . W . A Discovery the Fraudulent 28 Practices of J. Witchcraft Most Strange Discoverie 37 and Demonianism. W . 29 30 Dispossession is Applyed of the Strange Wherein Vexation by the Devil. The Most Account of the Discovery 7 5 . W . Rosen.2 3 . 3 4 4 — 5 6 . 1-64. 40 of the County and Demonianism. Dialogue Concerning Witches and Witchcraftes. T h i s t e x t is in R o s e n . 1 7 0 2 ) . M d in llth-Century M i c h a e l D a l t o n . S e e C h a p t e r 1 9 in this b o o k f o r t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n p o s s e s s i o n and g e n d e r in F r a n c e . 2 . 23 T h e a u t h o r c a l c u l a t e s that in English cases that w e r e b e l i e v e d t o i n v o l v e p o s s e s sion t h r o u g h t h e a g e n c y o f a w i t c h . 3 . 2 1 5 . 319. Science Massachusetts Social and Justice: The Massachusetts Witchcraft. 4 6 ..6 0 . The Boy of Bilson Cases. This of the Informations Wiltshire JP of against 1672. 35 36 E w e n . E w e n . T h e t e x t is r e p r o d u c e d in B a r b a r a in England Relation (University of Massachusetts 1 9 9 1 ) . 9 3 . F o r m o r e g e n e r a l discussion o f t h e w a t e r by Fire and The Medieval Judicial Ordeal and Confession o r d e a l . 1-26. was m a d e available t o t h e d e m o n i a c W i l l i a m S o m m e r s at N o t t i n g h a m in 1 5 9 7 — 8 . Trial (Oxford 1986). S a n f o r d F o x . and Religion F r a n c i s B r a g g e . Water: sig.a p p o i n t e d b o d i e s m a d e up o f w o m e n in J a m e s C . 3 . The History and Admirable Discoverie (Amherst. Darrell Concerning the Pretended and Grevous the Doctrine Concerning Possession of W. 3. 8 8 . A Tryal of Witches. Burr ( N e w Y o r k 1 9 1 4 ) . C o t t o n M a t h e r . Hist. ' H i s t o r i a n s as D e m o n o l o g i s t s : T h e M y t h o f t h e M i d w i f e . 22—3. Daemonologia. p u b l i s h e d in t h e 1 0 2 pt T ( l 8 3 2 ) . Henry Goodcole. (London 1622). D 3 . Witchcraft. . 2 5 9 . E w e n . G . In N e w E n g l a n d t h e figure is 8 6 p e r c e n t . ed. Witch Hunting of Witches ( 1 6 4 7 ) . 28. Medicine.