*. . . a library of the subject in miniature, affording helpful insights and convenient material for students at all levels.'

N o t i o n s o f w i t c h c r a f t have h a u n t e d and fascinated the h u m a n m i n d fi h e i g h t o f w i t c h c r a f t persecutions in s i x t e e n t h - a n d s e v e n t e e n t h - c e n 5 0 , 0 0 0 people were executed, they were accused o f acts i n c l u d i n g m black m a g i c and devil worshipping :ction ters a selection o f the best historical writ :gan, a n d the social and cultural c o f historical perspectives is collect recent research o n the r in w i t c h trials, ideas a b o u t the

possession, a n d reasons for the decline o f w i t c h trials. T h e m a j o r t h e m e s and debates in the study o f w i t c h c r a f t are b r o general i n t r o d u c t i o n , w h i c h places the extracts in a critical c o n t e x t , wide range o f i m p o r t a n t w o r k in a single, accessible v o l u m e , The essential reading for a n y o n e intrigued by this c o m p l e x a n d fascinatin The Witchcraft Casement, Reader includes the w o r k o f W o l f g a n g Behringer, R o Clark, Norman Cohn, Owen Davies, Malcol Lou

Stuart

G e n t i l c o r e , C a r l o G i n z b u r g , M a r i a n n e Hester, Clive H o l m e s , Levack, Daniel Maier-Katkin, H.C.E. Midelfort, E.

J e n k i n s , E d m u n d K e r n , R i c h a r d Kieckhefer, G a b o r Klaniczay, C h r i William M u c h e m b l e d , D a v i d N i c h o l l s , Eva I o c s , Lyndal Roper, J i m oharpe

is L e c t u r e r

liversity C o l l e g e Worcester.

11 N e w Fetter Lane, L o n d o n E C 4 P 4 E E 2 9 West 35th Street, N e w York N Y 10001 www, routledge .com Printed in Great Britain
' * Franc'

ISBN

0-415-21493-9

9 '780415

214933

1

The Witchcraft Reader
Edited by

Darren Oldridge

NEWCASTLE 202

UNIVERSITY 0214 3 8 • Vv 6 0 ° .

LIBRARY

>vy,

London and New York

First published 2 0 0 2 bv R o u t l e d g e 11 N e w F e t t e r Lane, London E C 4 P 4 E E Simultaneously published in the U S A and Canada by Routledge 2 9 W e s t 35th S t r e e t , N e w Y o r k , N Y 1 0 0 0 1 Routledge is an imprint of the Taylor S^Francis Group

Individual chapters © the original copyright holders Selection and editorial m a t t e r © 2 0 0 2 D a r r e n Oldridge T y p e s e t in Perpetua and Bell Gothic by F l o r e n c e Production Ltd, Stoodleigh, D e v o n Printed and bound in Great Britain bv T J International Ltd, Padstow, Cornwall All rights reserved. N o part of this b o o k mav be reprinted or reproduced or utilised in anv form or bv anv e l e c t r o n i c , mechanical, o r o t h e r means, n o w k n o w n or hereafter invented, including photocopying and r e c o r d i n g , o r in anv information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publishers. British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data

A catalogue r e c o r d for this b o o k is available from the British Library Library of Congress Cataloging p. c m . Includes bibliographical r e f e r e n c e s and i n d e x . 1. W i t c h c r a f t — History. B F 1 5 6 6 . W 7 3 9 5 2001 1 3 3 . 4 ' 3 ' 0 9 — dc21 ISBN 0 - 4 1 5 - 2 1 4 9 2 - 0 (hbk) ISBN 0 - 4 1 5 - 2 1 4 9 3 - 9 (pbk) 2001048166 I. Oldridge D a r r e n , 1966in Publication Data

T h e W i t c h c r a f t R e a d e r / [edited bv] Darren Oldridge

SOCIETY AND MENTALITY 5 E. THE William Monter OF J U R A WITCHCRAFT SOCIOLOGY .Contents Acknowledgements General I n t r o d u c t i o n Darren Oldridge PART ONE Mediaeval Origins 1 Richard WITCH Kieckhefer IN MEDIAEVAL EUROPE TRIALS 2 Norman THE Cohn HERETICS D E M 0 N I Z A T I O N OF M E D I A E V A L PART TWO W i t c h c r a f t . Behringer HUNGER AND FEAR: ORIGINS OF T H E EUROPEAN WITCH-HUNTS IN C L I M A T E . Magic and Culture 3 Robin THE Briggs OF BEWITCHMENT EXPERIENCE 4 Wolfgang WEATHER.

C. THE Erik DEVIL Midelfort AND THE GERMAN PEOPLE DECIPHERING 9 Eva THE Pocs ALTERNATIVE WORLD OF T H E W I T C H E S ' SABBAT 19 Moshe A Sluhovsky APPARITION OR D E M O N I C POSSESSION? DIVINE 10 Robert SATANIC Muchembled MYTHS AND CULTURAL REALITIES PART SEVEN W i t c h c r a f t and Gender 11 Stuart Clark MISRULE AND THE MEANING OF WITCHCRAFT 20 Christina WAS Larner WOMAN-HUNTING? INVERSION. Waite THE DEVIL AND THE INQUISITOR: AND MAGICAL ANABAPTISTS. WITCH-HUNTING P A R T FOUR W i t c h c r a f t and the Reformation 12 Stuart Clark WITCHCRAFT. the State and Social Control 15 Christina THE CRIME Larner OF W I T C H C R A F T IN EARLY MODERN EUROPE WITCHCRAFT THE CASE OF M A R G A R E T MOORE .viii CONTENTS 6 David Gentilcore NARRATIVES ITALY AND FOLKLORE MOTIFS 16 Brian Levack AND WITCH HUNTING IN EARLY WITCHCRAFT IN SOUTHERN STATE-BUILDING MODERN EUROPE PART THREE The Idea of a W i t c h Cult 7 H. CATHOLIC WITCHCRAFT 21 Marianne Hester RECONSTRUCTION AND WITCH-HUNTING PATRIARCHAL 22 Jim Sharpe PROCESS PROTESTANT WOMEN. Erik Midelfort OF T H E WITCHCRAZE P A R T SIX W i t c h c r a f t .C. BELIEFS 24 BETWEEN EIGHT Reading Confessions Lyndal OEDIPUS Roper AND THE DEVIL DIABOLICAL CONSPIRACIES PART FIVE 25 Malcolm Gaskill AND POWER IN EARLY MODERN ENGLAND: W i t c h c r a f t . WITCHCRAFT AND THE LEGAL 13 Edmund Kern IDENTITY AND MAGIC BITHNER IN T H E AND LATE WITCHCRAFT 23 Clive Holmes WITCHES AND WITNESSES CONFESSIONAL SIXTEENTH IN STYRIA WOMEN: CENTURY: JAKOB PART 14 Gary K. Possession and the Devil 17 David THE Nicholls IN RENAISSANCE FRANCE HEARTLAND DEVIL 8 Carlo Ginzburg THE WITCHES' SABBAT 18 H.

115—4-1. o r i g i n a l l y p u b l i s h e d in 1 9 8 7 b y I n s t i t u t e t f o r R a t t s h i s t o r i s k F o r s k n i n g u n d e r by p e r m i s s i o n o f O x f o r d University Press and the Institutet for Rattshistorisk Forskning. ' T h e Alternative W o r l d of the W i t c h e s ' S a b b a t ' f r o m Between the Living and the Dead b y E v a P o c s ( 1 9 9 9 ) . p p . 'The Sociology of Jura Witchcraft' reprinted f r o m Witchcraft mission of the in France and Switzerland: Cornell The Borderlands Press. published by P i m l i c o and r e p r i n t e d bv p e r m i s s i o n o f T h e R a n d o m H o u s e G r o u p Ltd and P F D o n b e h a l f o f P r o f e s s o r Norman Cohn. by permission 'Deciphering Witchcraft. . pp. 10—26. by permission o f T a y l o r & Francis. Witches and by Neighbours permission by of Robin Briggs reproduced 31 Patrick THE Casement NOT TO KNOW 433 WISH H a r p e r C o l l i n s Publishers L t d . by permission o f History Modern Today. p p . ' W e a t h e r . edited ( O x f o r d University Press 1 9 9 3 ) . Modern 'Satanic M y t h s and European Witchcraft. 1—27. C. W i t c h e s ' S a b b a t ' b y C a r l o G i n z b u r g f r o m Early by B e n g t A n k a l o o and Gustav H e n n i n g s e n t h e t i t l e Hdxomas Europa 1400—1100. pp. Index 437 F o l k l o r e M o t i f s in S o u t h e r n I t a l y ' f r o m From (Manchester University Press 'Heartland o f the W i t c h c r a z e ' (February 1 9 8 1 ) . H u n g e r and F e a r ' b y W o l f g a n g B e h r i n g e r f r o m German 1 3 ( 1 9 9 5 ) . 7 3 — 1 0 5 . WOMEN'S ENGLAND PART NINE The Decline of W i t c h c r a f t 27 Brian THE 367 Acknowledgements Levack OF WITCH TRIALS 373 END 28 Gabor THE Klaniczay OF WITCHES AND THE RISE OF VAMPIRES 387 DECLINE 29 Owen Davies AND OF THE DECLINE OF WITCHCRAFT: 399 URBANIZATION AN EXAMINATION LONDON T h e author and publishers wish t o thank the following for their permission to r e p r o duce copyright material: ' W i t c h T r i a l s in M e d i a e v a l E u r o p e ' f r o m European Witch Trials: Their Foundations in of PART TEN A New W i t c h . 1 2 1 — 3 5 . p p .X CONTENTS 26 Louise AND Jackson WIVES AND MOTHERS: IN WITCHCRAFT PERSECUTION CONFESSIONS S E V E NT E E NT H-C E NT U R Y 353 WITCHES. Felicity Bryan and t h e a u t h o r . Bishop William M o n t e r (copyright © publisher 1 9 7 6 C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y ) . and mission of T h e G e r m a n History Society. pp. 1 3 9 — 6 0 . 'The Experience of Bewitchment' from (HarperCollins 1996). u s e d b y p e r University 'Witchcraft to Witch Narratives of the by David Gentilcore author. 238 5 8 . 63—95. p p . pp. 31 the Today. b y p e r during the Reformation by E. 1 9 9 2 ) . by H. Cultural edited by mission o f the Central European R e a l i t i e s ' b v R o b e r t M u c h e m b l e d f r o m Early B e n g t Ankaloo and Gustav H e n n i n g s e n ( O x f o r d University Press 1 9 9 3 ) . p p . 1 9 9 3 ) . History. b y p e r University Press. ' T h e D e m o n i z a t i o n M e d i a e v a l H e r e t i c s ' r e p r o d u c e d f r o m Europe's right © N o r m a n C o h n 1 9 7 S . 5 1 — 7 8 .H u n t ? 30 Philip Jenkins and Daniel OCCULT SURVIVORS: THE 413 Maier-Katkin MAKING OF A MYTH 419 Popular and Learned Culture 1300—1500 by Richard Kieckhefer (Routledge & Kegan Inner Demons by N o r m a n Cohn (copy- Paul 1 9 7 6 ) . pp. European E r i k M i d e l f o r t f r o m History 27—36.

vol. S t u a r t C l a r k 1 9 9 7 . ch. r e p r i n t e d and the Decline W i t c h c r a f t ' b y O w e n D a v i e s f r o m Journal 30 ( 1 9 9 7 ) . edited by W e r n e r O . ' W i t c h c r a f t a n d P o w e r in E a r l v M o d e r n E n g l a n d ' b y M a l c o l m G a s k i l l f r o m Women. 9 9 — 1 1 9 . ' W i t c h e s . 2 5 ( 2 ) ( 1 9 9 4 ) . p p . and Reformation. ' T h e C r i m e o f W i t c h c r a f t in E a r l y M o d e r n E u r o p e ' a n d 'Was Witch-Hunting Woman-Hunting?' from Larner (Blackwell 1984). 1 0 3 9 . reproduced by permission. edited by Women's 1 0 . pp. J o e l Best and David G . r e p r i n t e d f r o m Thinking Modern Europe in Early by Stuart Clark ( 1 9 9 7 ) by permission o f O x f o r d Century' Century Journal. ch. B r o m l e y (Aldine D e Treating Survivors of Satanist W i t c h c r a f t ' b y S t u a r t C l a r k f r o m Past and Present. 4 ( 1 ) ( 1 9 9 5 ) . ' T h e Devil and the G e r m a n P e o p l e ' by in the Renaissance edited by Steven O z m e n t (Sixteenth Centurv University The Journal Publishers 1 9 8 9 ) . p p . 'The W i s h N o t to K n o w ' by Patrick Casement from Abuse.. 2. ' T h e D e c l i n e o f W i t c h e s a n d t h e R i s e o f V a m p i r e s ' f r o m The Uses of by permission of Princeton University Press. 597—617. copyRadical U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . 8 . by permission o f T a y l o r & F r a n c i s . of Oxford University Press and the of for Rattshistorisk 'Inversion. of Tavlor & Francis. R e c o n s t r u c t i o n and W i t c h . Power b y G a b o r K l a n i c z a y ( c o p y r i g h t © 1 9 9 0 P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s ) . 2 5 — 3 0 . ' C o n f e s s i o n a l I d e n t i t y a n d M a g i c in t h e L a t e S i x t e e n t h b y E d m u n d K e r n f r o m The Sixteenth mission. 323—40. by p e r m i s sion o f C a m b r i d g e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s a n d M a r i a n n e H e s t e r . I n c . reprinted by permission o f Pearson Education L t d . pp. M a r i a n n e H e s t e r and G a r e t h R o b e r t s ( C a m b r i d g e University Press 1 9 9 6 ) by permission o f C a m b r i d g e University Press and Brian Levack.5 5 . 35—67 and 79—91 Studies P u b l i s h e r s L t d . reproduced by per' B e t w e e n the Devil and the Inquisitor' by Gary K. copyright edited by Valerie Sinason ( R o u t l e d g e 1 9 9 4 ) .5 . Today. J e n n y K e r m o d e and Garthine W a l k e r ( U C L Press 1 9 9 4 ) . N e w Y o r k . 1 9 9 6 by T h e 'Patriarchal in Early Witchcraft edited by Jonathan Barry. a n d t h e D e v i l ' f r o m Oedipus and the Devil 1 4 0 ( 1 9 9 3 ) . 2 8 8 — 3 0 8 .K a t k i n f r o m The edited by J a m e s T . of Social 'Urbanization History. 8 .Xii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS r e p r o d u c e d b y p e r m i s s i o n o f t h e Journal Scare. 1 0 6 — 2 4 . Catholic W i t c h c r a f t ' . Crime and the Courts. 6 . pp. W i v e s and M o t h e r s ' by Louise Jackson f r o m History Review. Packull and Geoffrey L. Dipple (Ashgate Witchcraft by and Religion permission by Christina of Blackwell edited by 1 9 9 9 ) . 2 7 ( 4 ) ( 1 9 9 6 ) . b y p e r m i s s i o n o f T a y l o r & F r a n c i s . ch. ' W o m e n . by permission o f Louise Jackson. Crime and the Courts. 'Protestant Witchcraft. E r i k M i d e l f o r t f r o m Religion 11 o f Sixteenth Century Essays and Studies. C . pp. ' T h e Devil in R e n a i s s a n c e F r a n c e ' b y D a v i d N i c h o l l s f r o m History p p . Inc.B u i l d i n g a n d W i t c h H u n t i n g in E a r l y M o d e r n E u r o p e ' b y B r i a n L e v a c k f r o m Witchcraft in Early Modern Europe: in Culture and Belief. b y p e r m i s s i o n o f History H . by perwith Demons: The Idea of G r u y t e r 1 9 9 1 ) . W i t c h c r a f t a n d t h e L e g a l P r o c e s s ' b y J i m S h a r p e f r o m Women.1 2 7 . p p . r e p r o d u c e d by permission o f Aldine D e G r u y t e r . 2 2 . p p . p p .H u n t i n g ' by Marianne H e s t e r f r o m Modern Europe: Studies in Culture and Belief. by permission o f Taylor & Francis. by permission o f O x f o r d University Press. Jonathan B a r r y . ' S t a t e . Marianne Hester and G a r e t h R o b e r t s ( C a m b r i d g e U n i v e r s i t y Press 1 9 9 6 ) . ' O c c u l t Survivors: T h e Satanism M a k i n g o f a M y t h ' b y P h i l i p J e n k i n s a n d D a n i e l M a i e r . edited by J e n n y and K e r m o d e and Garthine W a l k e r ( U C L Press 1 9 9 4 ) . w e w o u l d i n v i t e h o l d e r s t o i n f o r m us o f t h e o v e r s i g h t . Europe T r i a l s ' b y B r i a n L e v a c k f r o m The Witch Hunt in Early Modern ' T h e End of W i t c h (2nd edition copySupernatural of right © Longman G r o u p Ltd 1 9 9 5 ) . of Social ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS xiii o r i g i n a l l y p u b l i s h e d in 1 9 8 7 b y I n s t i t u t e t f o r R a t t s h i s t o r i s k F o r s k n i n g u n d e r t h e t i t l e Hdxomas Institutet Europa 1400—1700. W a i t e f r o m Studies. by permission Forskning. 'A Divine Apparition o r D e m o n i c Possession?' bv M o s h e Sluhovsky f r o m Sixteenth Century Journal Publishers. by permission mission o f O x l o r d University Press. . and Culture Today. . pp. 30 (November 1980). ' W o m e n : W i t c h e s a n d W i t n e s s e s ' b y C l i v e H o l m e s f r o m Past Present. by permission o f T r u m a n State Sixteenth Century Journal. E v e r y effort has b e e n m a d e t o obtain p e r m i s s i o n t o r e p r o d u c e c o p y r i g h t m a t e r i a l . pp. copyright © Witchcraft 8 7 ( 1 9 8 0 ) . 9 8 . Reformation right © 1 9 9 4 by T h e Sixteenth Century Journal Publishers. Misrule and the Meaning History. ' c o p y r i g h t © Press. 45—78. p p . 1 2 0 — 4 0 . c h . I f a n y p r o p e r a c k n o w l e d g e m e n t has n o t b e e n m a d e . ch. Richardson. 'Oedipus by Lyndal R o p e r ( R o u t l e d g e 1 9 9 4 ) . 2 2 6 — 4 8 .

c o m b i n i n g e l e m e n t s of h i s t o r y . a c a d e m i c t e x t s . y o u w i l l n o r m a l l y find a d i s p a r a t e c o l l e c t i o n of p u b l i c a t i o n s under the heading of ' W i t c h c r a f t ' . m y t h . and religious speculation. T h e w i d e s p r e a d i n t e r e s t in w i t c h c r a f t is n o t h i n g n e w . In s o m e 1 i n s t a n c e s .p a g a n m o v e m e n t . d e m a n d w a s so g r e a t fictitious accounts were created. The texts displayed c o v e r a r a n g e of t o p i c s l o o s e l y r e l a t e d t o t h e h i s t o r y a n d p r a c t i c e of m a g i c . the t o p i c has e s t a b l i s h e d i t s e l f a s a g e n r e in its o w n r i g h t . P o p u l a r t a l e s of w i t c h c r a f t c o n t i n u e d t o magical c i r c u l a t e in t h e e i g h t e e n t h a n d n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s . It is a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t . t h e y p o p u l a t e i n n u m e r a b l e of W a l t D i s n e y t o The Blair and colourful sub-genre of p o p u l a r literature. R a t h e r l i k e J a c k t h e Ripper. p r o f i l e in c h i l d r e n ' s b o o k s a n d T V . the Kennedy a s s a s s i n a t i o n and the search f o r the H o l y G r a i l . p e r h a p s . S p i r i t ' d e p a r t m e n t of a n y l a r g e b o o k s h o p . i n c l u d i n g w o r k s by t h e n e o . a n d v i e w e d t h e p e r s e c u t i o n of w i t c h e s a s a t o k e n of a less e n l i g h t e n e d a g e .General Introduction M OST P E O P L E I N T E R E S T E D in w i t c h c r a f t a r e f i r s t a t t r a c t e d t o t h e high films. m o d e r n e d i t i o n s of m u c h o l d e r books like the Malleus Maleficarum. w h i l e a c a d e m i c w o r k s on t h e subject generally assumed a more sceptical tone. W i t c h e s e n j o y a Witch Project. B y t h e e a r l y y e a r s of t h e . This mixture t h e e x t r e m e l y d i v e r s e r a n g e of i n t e r e s t s t h a t c o n v e r g e on t h e s u b j e c t . a n d i n d i c a t e s its f a s c i n a t i o n f o r a w i d e a u d i e n c e . r a n g i n g f r o m learned t r e a individuals entirely a c c u s e d of t h e c r i m e . t h a t b o o k s t h e s u b j e c t a r e c o m m o n l y d i s p l a y e d in a s e c t i o n of t h e i r o w n . and reprints of e c c e n t r i c but still popular reflects on p u b l i c a t i o n s l i k e M o n t a g u e S u m m e r s ' History of Witchcraft. f r o m the c a n o n Body and will s u b j e c t by s t o r i e s a n d i m a g e s f r o m p o p u l a r c u l t u r e . a n d t h e y a r e t h e s u b j e c t of a n e c l e c t i c If y o u v i s i t t h e ' M i n d . t h e r e satanic magic to ballads recounting the activities was of that a l r e a d y a large m a r k e t f o r p u b l i c a t i o n s on the subject. A t t h e t i m e of t h e m o s t intense w i t c h tises on the persecutions problem of in t h e s i x t e e n t h a n d s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s . These texts attributed b e l i e f s t o t h e f o l l y a n d s u p e r s t i t i o n of t h e ' v u l g a r ' m a s s e s .

Middle T h e s e i d e a s a r e c o m b i n e d in t h e c o m m o n E n g l i s h p h r a s e . is t o a s s u m e t h a t s o m e of t h e p r a c t i c e s d e s c r i b e d by e a r l y m o d e r n d e m o n o l o g i s t s w e r e b a s e d o n r e a l a c t i v i t i e s o r a s p e c t s of f o l k r e l i g i o n . it is a l t o g e t h e r less s i m p l e t o d i s c o u n t t h e i d e a t h a t n o n . On t h e o p p o s i t e e x t r e m e .w o r s h i p p i n g c a n n i b a l s . W h i l e t h o s e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p r o s e c u t i o n s w e r e n o r m a l l y s i n c e r e in t h e i r m o t i v e s . T h i s v i e w w a s e x e m p l i f i e d in A r t h u r M i l l e r ' s play The Crucible.p a g a n s a n d s e l f . F o r m a n y s c h o l a r s . 3 T h e p o p u l a r s t e r e o t y p e s of p a g a n c u l t s a n d e v i l w i t c h t h e best w a y t o e x p l a i n a l l e g a t i o n s of w i t c h c r a f t s i m p l i f i e d v e r s i o n s of p o s i t i o n s a v a i l a b l e t o a c a d e m i c h i s t o r i a n s . T h i s p r i n c i p l e is o f t e n used t o a c c o u n t f o r a l l e g a t i o n s of h a r m f u l m a g i c . It w i l l a l s o c o n s i d e r t h e p o p u l a r i m a g e of w i t c h c r a f t a s a n ' i r r a t i o n a l ' b e l i e f .2 GENERAL INTRODUCTION GENERAL INTRODUCTION 3 t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y . o b s e s s i o n s on t h e v i c t i m s of t o r t u r e r a i s e s p r o f o u n d q u e s t i o n s a b o u t t h e o r i g i n s of w i t c h t r i a l s . h o w e v e r . d e c l a r i n g t h a t his c o n f e s s i o n t o t h e c r i m e w a s ' s h e e r lies a n d m a d e . but the behaviours 7 In a v a r i a t i o n of t h i s i d e a . T h e r e is no r e a s o n t o a s s u m e t h a t a n y c h a r g e s a g a i n s t w i t c h e s w e r e b a s e d o n f o l k t r a d i t i o n s . w h i c h w a s i n v e n t e d in t h e 1 9 5 0 s by a r e t i r e d c i v i l s e r v a n t f r o m Gardner. w h i c h h a s a t t r a c t e d t h e a t t e n t i o n of h i s t o r i a n s a n d p h i l o s o p h e r s p r o v i d e a b r i e f s u r v e y of w h a t is k n o w n a b o u t w i t c h p e r s e c u t i o n s in Europe. it is n e c e s s a r y t o D e v i l . h e r e s y a n d s u n d r y d i s g u s t i n g None of the writers in t h i s collection go quite so f a r . when western society was somehow less r a t i o n a l t h a n it is t o d a y . since the authorities were capable t h r o u g h t h e use of t o r t u r e alone? finders c a n be v i e w e d a s Did witch trials of securing depend convictions C h r i s t i a n a u t h o r i t i e s . t h e y d o e n c a p s u l a t e s o m e s e r i o u s issues in t h e h i s t o r y of w i t c h c r a f t .h u n t s w e r e p u r s u e d by r u t h l e s s a n d s a d i s t i c m e n w h o s t o p p e d a t n o t h i n g t o s e c u r e c o n v i c t i o n s f o r t h e c r i m e . T h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n w i l l e x p l o r e s o m e of t h e p r o b l e m s i n v o l v e d in g e t t i n g t h e b a l a n c e r i g h t . a c c o r d i n g t o M . Is it n e c e s s a r y t o a s s u m e t h a t a n y t h i n g ' r e a l ' lay b e h i n d a l l e g a t i o n s of w i t c h c r a f t ? on popular support.c e n t r e d n a t u r e o f t h e ' o l d r e l i g i o n ' . R e l a t i v e l y f e w w i t c h t r i a l s o c c u r r e d in the M i d d l e A g e s . ' w h e n w e a l r e a d y k n o w t h a t it w a s p e r f e c t l y easy t o f a b r i c a t e a c c u s a t i o n s of s o r c e r y .e x i s t e n t t h r e a t of a w i t c h c u l t . T h e a t t e m p t t o l y i n g t h e m e s of w i t c h c r a f t research. A l l t h e s e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of w i t c h c r a f t d r a w n to the t o p i c . a n d s o m e of t h e m a r e s i m p l y u n t r u e . S o m e c o n f e s s i o n s w e r e e n t i r e l y f a l s e .C h r i s t i a n reli- g i o u s p r a c t i c e s e x i s t e d in t h e e a r l y m o d e r n p e r i o d . E q u a l l y .p r o c l a i m e d ' w i t c h e s ' . and evil witch finders D e s p i t e t h e d i v e r s i t y o f p o p u l a r w r i t i n g o n w i t c h c r a f t . 2 Gardner. T h i s n o t i o n is l i n k e d t o t h e t e n d e n c y t o a s s u m e t h a t m o s t w i t c h t r i a l s t o o k p l a c e in t h e Middle Ages. If a n y f e r t i l i t y c u l t s e x i s t e d in t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y . T h u s C a r l o G i n z b u r g a n d E v a P o c s a r g u e in t h i s b o o k t h a t t h e o r i g i n s of t h e s a b b a t c a n be f o u n d in f o l k b e l i e f s . in t h e g e n r e . 6 In t h i s i n s t a n c e . b u t c a n be e x t e n d e d t o e x p l a i n d e t a i l s of t h e w i t c h e s ' s a b b a t . 5 England named Gerard Nonetheless. t h e y h a v e no h i s t o r ical or intellectual c o n n e c t i o n to the twentieth-century w i t c h c r a f t movement. s m u g g l e d a t r a g i c l e t t e r t o his d a u g h t e r f r o m his c e l l in t h e t o w n ' s ' w i t c h p r i s o n ' . a l l e g a t i o n s of w i t c h c r a f t inevitably to torture. t h e p o p u l a r i m a g e of t h e c r u e l w i t c h finder who imposed By the 1 9 5 0 s .w e r e d e v e l o p e d by t h e m o s t e d u c a t e d m e n in E u r o p e a n s o c i e t y . o v e r s i m p l i f i c a t i o n s of t h e h i s t o r y of w i t c h c r a f t . t h e w i l l i n g n e s s o f t h e a u t h o r i t i e s t o use t o r t u r e w a s s u f f i c i e n t t o e n s u r e a c o n v i c t i o n . . w h a t e v e r t h e o t h e r c i r c u m s t a n c e s of t h e c a s e . and recurs in d i f f e r e n t c o n t e x t s find t h e m o s t a p p r o p r i a t e p o s i t i o n b e t w e e n t h e s e t w o i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s is one of t h e u n d e r throughout t h i s b o o k . a n u m b e r of g e n e r a l t h e m e s occur frequently w o r k of Murray. J . ' I f I'd l i v e d in t h e A g e s t h e y ' d h a v e b u r n t m e a s a w i t c h ' . hysteria. . In 1 6 2 8 in the a n d a r e r e p r e s e n t e d in t h e v a r i o u s b o o k s t h a t c o m p e t e f o r t h e a t t e n t i o n of r e a d e r s m a y o r of B a m b u r g . t h e y t r y t o s t r i k e a b a l a n c e b e t w e e n t h e e v i d e n c e s u g g e s t i n g t h a t w i t c h t r i a l s r e f l e c t e d t h e r e a l a c t i v i t i e s a n d b e l i e f s of o r d i n a r y p e o p l e . 4 male-dominated in A n o t h e r t h e m e in p o p u l a r a c c o u n t s is t h e c r e d u l i t y a n d ' s u p e r - s t i t i o n ' of t h o s e m e n a n d w o m e n w h o a c c e p t e d t h e e x i s t e n c e of h a r m f u l m a g i c t h e p a s t . d e r i v e d p a r t l y f r o m the is t h a t w i t c h c r a f t w a s a p a g a n c u l t d r i v e n u n d e r g r o u n d by t h e the t o r t u r e w h i c h w a s threatened. Wicca: The Old Religion in the New Age (1989). extracts Muchembled and L a r n e r e m p h a s i s e t h e r o l e of t h e f a n t a s i e s of e d u c a t e d m e n from in v i e w s d e s c r i b e d a b o v e a r e . it w o u l d be w r o n g t o d i s m i s s t h e s e p o p u l a r assumptions e n t i r e l y . i n v o l v i n g t h e i d e a of s e c r e t a s s e m b l i e s of w i t c h p e r s e c u t i o n s . D e s p i t e t h e i r o b v i o u s s h o r t c o m i n g s . E v e n M u r r a y ' s i d e a of a p a g a n f e r t i l i t y c u l t h a s s u r v i v e d Ginzburg and Klaniczay. It w o u l d be t e m p t i n g a t t h i s p o i n t t o e x p l o d e t h e s e p o p u l a r c o n c e p t i o n s . The led a g a i n s t a n y g r o u p o r p e r s o n w h o m a u t h o r i t i e s w a n t e d t o g e t r i d of f o r a n y r e a s o n ' .h u n t i n g ' w a s c o i n e d in A m e r i c a . w h o w i s h t o t r a c e t h e l i n e a g e of t h e i r b e l i e f s b a c k t o t h e a n c i e n t w o r l d . W h i l e it is e a s y t o d i s c r e d i t t h e c l a i m s o f M u r r a y a n d . it a p p e a r s t h a t t h e y s o m e t i m e s i m p o s e d t h e i r o w n v i e w s of t h e c r i m e t h e c o u r s e of i n t e r r o g a t i o n s . a m o r e r o m a n t i c v i e w of t h e s u b j e c t h a d e m e r g e d in s o m e q u a r ters. the idea that w i t c h c r a f t w a s a n a n c i e n t f e r t i l i t y c u l t s u p p r e s s e d by t h e C h r i s t i a n c h u r c h a t t r a c t e d considerable publicity and some academic support. 1 6 9 2 . beyond w h a t I had already endured'. when the phrase ' w i t c h . K e p h a r t . a n d r e a c t e d ' h y s t e r i c a l l y ' t o t h e n o n . In o t h e r w o r d s . u n d o u b t e d l y . U n s u r p r i s i n g l y . T h e f a c t t h a t t h i s w a s p o s s i b l e p r e s e n t s h i s t o r i a n s w i t h s o m e a w k w a r d p r o b l e m s . s o m e h i s t o r i a n s h a v e a r g u e d t h a t all t h e e l e m e n t s in w i t c h c r a f t a c c u s a t i o n s s h o u l d be r e g a r d e d a s l e a r n e d f a n t a s i e s . enforced confession and death. One c o m m o n a s s u m p t i o n . w h i c h w a s b r u t a l l y s u p p r e s s e d by t h e Christian church. In t h i s v e r s i o n . B e f o r e c o n s i d e r i n g t h e s e issues in d e t a i l . a n d t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t p r o s e c u t i o n s w e r e s i m p l y i m p o s e d by e l i t e g r o u p s . J o h a n n e s J u n i u s . T h e m a j o r i t y of h i s t o r i a n s o c c u p y g r o u n d s o m e w h e r e in b e t w e e n . There w a s nothing inherently i r r a t i o n a l about w i t c h c r a f t a n d t h e m o s t e x t r e m e of t h e s e b e l i e f s beliefs.u p t h i n g s . s o m e f e m i n i s t w r i t e r s h a v e s t r e s s e d t h e f e m a l e . t h i s c l a i m f e a t u r e s m o s t o f t e n in t h e w o r k of n e o . T h i s a s p i r a t i o n is s u m m e d up n e a t l y in t h e t i t l e of a b o o k by V i v i a n n e C r o w l e y . w h i c h w a s b a s e d l o o s e l y on t h e S a l e m w i t c h t r i a l s of have survived into the present age. a n d w e r e s o m e t i m e s in m o d i f i e d f o r m in t h e w o r k of h i s t o r i a n s like C a r l o implicated Gabor his in a c c u s a t i o n s of w i t c h c r a f t . in r e c e n t y e a r s . Championed by t h e English Egyptologist Margaret Murray. F o r a l l t h i s I w a s f o r c e d t o s a y t h r o u g h f e a r of Pagan cults. A t h i r d c o m m o n a s s u m p t i o n is t h e b e l i e f t h a t w i t c h . w i t c h p e r s e c u t i o n s w e r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e s u p p r e s s i o n of d e v i a n t g r o u p s by p o l i t i c a l e l i t e s .

c a n be i l l u s t r a t e d by t h e t e s t i m o n y of F r a n g o i s e S e c r e t a i n . b u t t h e s a m e c a n be s a i d f o r C a t h o l i c I t a l y a n d S p a i n . The emphasis in t h e s e allegations was over- T h e y s a c r i f i c e t o d e m o n s . seek o u t a n d a c c e p t r e s p o n s e s f r o m t h e m . but w a s mostly absent f r o m the a l l e g a t i o n s brought by European villagers against their n e i g h b o u r s . W h i l e w i t c h t r i a l s had ended . . w h i c h by t h e i r i n v o c a t i o n s t h e y b a p t i s e o r c a u s e t o be b a p t i s e d . T h e e a r l i e s t k n o w n p r o s e c u t i o n o c c u r r e d in K i l k e n n y in I r e l a n d in 1 3 2 4 . a d o r e t h e m . p a r t i c u l a r l y in E n g l i s h w i t c h c r a f t a n d c a s e s i n v o l v i n g d e m o n i c s i o n . disparate n e n t l y in l a t e r d e s c r i p t i o n s of t h e c r i m e . T h i s c a s e i n v o l v e d m a n y of t h e key e l e m e n t s f o u n d in l a t e r a l l e g a t i o n s of w i t c h c r a f t . Subsequently. they s o m e t i m e s inflict upon the representations a n d o t h e r s i g n s of t h e c r o s s v a r i o u s s h a m e f u l t h i n g s by e x e c r a b l e m e a n s . l i k e t h e principalities Germany. In 1 4 8 6 t h e s e i n g r e d i e n t s w e r e c o m b i n e d in t h e T h e p u b l i c a t i o n of t h e Malleus in F r a n c e and Germany. . there were differences between social r i t e s w i t h a s m a l l g r o u p of a s s o c i a t e s . c. T h e r e w e r e r e l a t i v e l y f e w t r i a l s in I t a l y . A f t e r a p e r i o d of r e s p i t e in t h e e a r l y 1 6 0 0 s .s c a l e u n t i l a s p e c t a c u l a r e r u p t i o n of p e r s e c u t i o n in 1 6 4 5 . T h i s i d e a p l a y e d a c e n t r a l r o l e in t h e w o r k s of l e a r n e d d e m o - This account lacks the i d e a of i n f a n t i c i d e a n d c a n n i b a l i s m t h a t f e a t u r e d promi- nologists like H e n r i Boguet. a f i n a l w a v e of s e v e r e p e r s e c u t i o n s b e g a n a r o u n d 1 6 2 0 a n d c o n t i n u e d in m u c h of E u r o p e n u m b e r a n d i n t e n s i t y . In c o n t r a s t .4 GENERAL INTRODUCTION GENERAL INTRODUCTION 5 European witch trials. E q u a l l y . this t i m e e x t e n d i n g beyond G e r m a n y a n d F r a n c e to S w i t z e r l a n d a n d E n g l a n d . b u t i n c l u d e s m o s t of t h e o t h e r by t h e G e r m a n Maleficarum. r a t h e r t h a n t h e o r i g i n s of t h e i r p o w e r . J e a n B o d i n a n d K i n g J a m e s V I of S c o t l a n d . do h o m a g e to t h e m . t h a t she h a d l o n g s i n c e g i v e n h e r s e l f t o t h e D e v i l . was F i r s t . 1400-1750 T h a n k s to the w o r k of R i c h a r d K i e c k h e f e r and N o r m a n C o h n . and the p r o b l e m it p r e s e n t s f o r t h e inter- T h e c o n f l a t i o n of t h e s e v a r i o u s p r e t a t i o n o f w i t c h c r a f t c o n f e s s i o n s . T h e s e v a r i a t i o n s h a v e t h w a r t e d m o s t a t t e m p t s t o E u r o p e a n w i t c h p e r s e c u t i o n s is n o w f a i r l y w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d . t h o u g h s o m e of t h e m notably the of a p a c t w i t h t h e D e v i l . Prosecutions then declined until around w a v e of t r i a l s began. witch panics inquisitors Heinrich K r a m e r and J a c o b which Sprenger ingredients Malleus the of t h e R e n a i s s a n c e c o n c e p t of w i t c h c r a f t . G e r m a n y Spain affairs suffered until in the last q u a r t e r of the seventeenth century. of in m u c h of E u r o p e by t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y . Not h o n o u r i n g the mysteries. one of t h e l a s t w i t c h p a n i c s in t h e w e s t e r n w o r l d . she a d d e d n e w d e t a i l s t o t h i s s t a t e m e n t ' f r o m d a y t o d a y ' . A l l t h o s e w h o a c k n o w l e d g e d t h e e x i s t e n c e of w i t c h e s a c c e p t e d t h e i r a b i l i t y t o p e r f o r m h a r m f u l m a g i c . A c c o r d i n g t o H e n r i B o g u e t ' s a c c o u n t of h e r i n t e r r o g a t i o n . T h e r e is s o m e e v i d e n c e t h a t f o l k t r a d i t i o n s l i n k e d maleficium the Devil. h o w e v e r . she w a s i m p r i s o n e d f o r t h r e e d a y s b e f o r e m a k i n g h e r initial a d m i s s i o n of g u i l t .w e r e o n l y i m p l i e d in t h e s u r v i v i n g d o c u m e n t s . and m a k e w i t h t h e m a w r i t t e n a g r e e m e n t or a n o t h e r k i n d of p a c t t h r o u g h w h i c h . m o s t o f t e n i n v o l v i n g d i s e a s e . by a s i n g l e w o r d . t h e N e t h e r l a n d s a n d t h r o u g h o u t the w h o l e period. a n d i n s i s t e d t h a t t h e i r a b i l i t i e s d e r i v e d f r o m a p a c t w i t h t h e D e v i l . w i t c h t r i a l s declined The confession of Frangoise Secretain ideas. w h e n a n a r i s t o c r a t i c K y t e l e r . t h e d e s t r u c t i o n of c r o p s o r d i s t u r b a n c e s in t h e w e a t h e r . a F r e n c h w o m a n c o n v i c t e d in 1 5 9 8 . D u r i n g t h e c o u r s e of a t r i a l . A n o t h e r o u t b r e a k o c c u r r e d t o w a r d s t h e e n d of t h e c e n t u r y . S e c o n d . a n d o t h e r s a c r a m e n t s . T h e y m a k e i m a g e s of w a x o r o t h e r m a t e r i a l s . It is i m p o r t a n t t o n o t e t h a t t h e r e w e r e c o n s i d e r a b l e r e g i o n a l v a r i a t i o n s w i t h i n t h i s p a t t e r n . he w a s a b l e t o p r e s e n t t h e ' p r i n c i p a l p o i n t s ' of h e r c o n f e s s i o n as f o l l o w s : New England. p a r t i c u l a r l y w h e n the legal a u t h o r i t i e s w e r e m o r e inter- sixteenth century. t h e e u c h a r i s t . e x t e n d i n g t o F l a n d e r s a n d S c o t l a n d .t r a i n e d l a w y e r s a n d c h u r c h m e n t e n d e d t o s t r e s s t h e s a t a n i c n a t u r e of t h e w i t c h ' s m a g i c . idea that witchcraft was a collective enterprise involving nocturnal gatherings for Devil w o r s h i p . In 1 6 9 2 t h e f a m o u s e p i s o d e in S a l e m . S o m e t i m e s t h e y m a k e a r e v e r s a l of t h e h o l y c r o s s . it w a s e a s y f o r t h e s e e s t e d in t h e s a t a n i c a s p e c t s of w i t c h c r a f t t h a n s i m p l e maleficium. o c c u r r e d d u r i n g t h e f i r s t w a v e of m a j o r lasted until the early y e a r s of 1 5 6 0 . as d i d S c o t l a n d after 1 6 2 0 . A l l e g a t i o n s o f t h i s k i n d m a d e up t h e b u l k o f t h e a c c u s a t i o n s l e v e l l e d by o r d i n a r y people against suspected witches. t h e y m a y p e r f o r m w h a t e v e r e v i l d e e d s o r s o r c e r y t h e y w i s h a n d be t r a n s p o r t e d to or away f r o m wherever they wish . t o u c h o r s i g n . P r o t e s t a n t states like Poland England a n d H u n g a r y in t h e s a m e p e r i o d . w h o a t p a r t i c u l a r l y savage panics. S u b s e q u e n t l y . and E n g l i s h t r i a l s t e n d e d t o be s m a l l . T h i s e x p r e s s e d t h e c o n c e p t of w i t c h c r a f t m o r e f u l l y . w a s a c c u s e d of p r a c t i s i n g h a r m f u l magic and participating in Alice diabolical idea idea a n d t h e N e t h e r l a n d s s u f f e r e d r e l a t i v e l y f e w p e r s e c u t i o n s . In t h e i r s o r c e r y t h e y a r e n o t a f r a i d t o use t h e m a t e r i a l s o f b a p t i s m . t h e f e r o c i t y of s o m e w i t c h p a n i c s in C a t h o l i c France was matched of by events but in Presbyterian witch Scotland. 8 w h e l m i n g l y o n t h e h a r m c a u s e d by t h e w i t c h . u p o n w h i c h o u r s a v i o u r h a n g e d f o r us. desecration and m u r d e r w a s generally confined to the higher of E u r o p e a n s o c i e t y . when a second e l e m e n t s to m e r g e t o g e t h e r . rather than groups. t h e v i c t i m s o f w i t c h c r a f t w e r e f a r m o r e w i t h t h e e f f e c t s of maleficium P r i m a r y a l l e g a t i o n s also tended to focus on individuals with posses- concerned The ranks t h a n the supposed pact between S a t a n and the w i t c h . E v e n t u a l l y . b u t e v e n in t h e s e c a s e s . regional variations. major panics also took peaceful regions like As well as these Scandinavia. Maillat. o r maleficium. the c h r o n o l o g y lady. a n d r e s u r f a c e d in 1 4 3 7 in a l e t t e r f r o m Pope of a s e c r e t s o c i e t y of D e v i l w o r s h i p p e r s a p p e a r s t o h a v e d e v e l o p e d s l o w l y in t h e Eugenius I V ' t o a l l i n q u i s i t o r s of h e r e t i c a l d e p r a v i t y ' . u n i v e r s i t y . t h a t she h a d w i s h e d five d e v i l s o n L o y s e t h a t t i m e h a d t h e l i k e n e s s of a b i g b l a c k man. Intense place persecutions in relatively o c c u r r e d in r e g i o n s s u f f e r i n g s u s t a i n e d w a r f a r e in t h e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y . In c o n t r a s t . t h e y r e a c h e d t h e i r p e a k in impose a single-cause e x p l a n a t i o n f o r the t r a g e d y . T h e l a t e r f o u r t e e n t h c e n t u r y . a n d d e s e r v e s t o be q u o t e d a t l e n g t h : g r o u p s a b o u t t h e m e a n i n g of w i t c h c r a f t i t s e l f .

t h a t the Devil h a d f o u r or five t i m e s k n o w n her c a r n a l l y . t h e r e f e r e n c e s t o t h e s a b b a t w e r e p r o b a b l y n o t p a r t of t h e o r i g i n a l allegations. It is i m p o s s i b l e t o k n o w f o r c e r t a i n t h e o r i g i n of t h e s e b i z a r r e d i s c l o s u r e s . W h i l e w e c a n d o no m o r e like the confessions discussed by Roper s p e c u l a t e on t h e s u r v i v i n g e v i d e n c e . even t h o u g h t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e m w a s d e e p l y u n e q u a l .6 GENERAL INTRODUCTION GENERAL INTRODUCTION 7 T h i r d . Sixth. it is p o s s i b l e t h a t S e c r e t a i n ' s f a n t a s y folkthan and derived M a l c o l m G a s k i l l in C h a p t e r s 2 4 a n d 2 5 . w h i c h he d e s c r i b e d a t l e n g t h e l s e w h e r e in h i s t e x t . in This process a l l o w e d suspects to weave their own fantasies and beliefs into the that t h e f o r m s o m e t i m e s o f a d o g . t h a t she h a d c a u s e d s e v e r a l c o w s t o d i e . t h a t she h a d c o u n t l e s s t i m e s been t o t h e s a b b a t a n d a s s e m b l y of w i t c h e s n e a r t h e v i l l a g e of C o y r i e r e s in a p l a c e c a l l e d C o m b e s by t h e w a t e r . 9 o u t l i n e n a r r a t i v e p r o v i d e d by o f f i c i a l s o f t h e c o u r t s . T h e t h e m e t o e x p l o r e is t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t w i t c h b e l i e f s w e r e i n s p i r e d by s o m e k i n d of real cultic activity. o r a s a d o g o r c a t . C o h n ' s a r g u m e n t s have achieved general acceptance since t h e m i d . a n d t h a t she w e n t t h e r e o n a w h i t e s t a f f w h i c h she p l a c e d b e t w e e n her legs. w a s r e m i n i s c e n t of p o p u l a r t a l e s a b o u t t h e D e v i l . In t h i s c a s e . a n d m u c h of c o n t e m p o r a r y Europe. A f t e r a g r o u p o f y o u n g w o m e n c o n f e s s e d t o a t t e n d i n g a s a b b a t in . of m e a n i n g a p p e a r t o be p r e s e n t in B o g u e t ' s d o c u m e n t . c o m p l e t e w i t h d e t a i l s of w i t c h e s n i g h t a n d t r a n s f o r m i n g t h e m s e l v e s i n t o a n i m a l s . girl. f o w l . a n i n q u i s i t o r in t h e B a s q u e has s h o w n t h a t c o n t e m p o r a r i e s unable to p h y s i c a l e v i d e n c e of a l l e g e d s a b b a t s w h e n t h e y c a r e f u l l y W h i l e m a n y aspects of S e c r e t a i n ' s final c o n f e s s i o n were p r o b a b l y added to the i n i t i a l c l a i m s of maleficium. w h e n t h e o l d g o d s w e r e c o n d e m n e d as d e m o n s a n d t h e i r w o r s h i p p e r s w e r e r e d e f i n e d a s w i t c h e s . B o g u e t r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e first allegation against Secretain came f r o m 8-year-old Loyse M a i l l a t . it a p p e a r s S e c r e t a i n m i x e d d e t a i l s f r o m l o c a l f o l k l o r e i n t o h e r s t o r y . and possibly beliefs was to of first i n c o r p o r a t e d m o r e p e r s o n a l e l e m e n t s a s w e l l . a n d h a v e been r e i n f o r c e d by m u c h n e w r e s e a r c h . a n d s o m e t i m e s o f a F o u r t h . She was accused 1 0 A t least t w o layers specific cattle. L y n d a l R o p e r a r g u e s in C h a p t e r 2 4 t h a t w i t c h c r a f t c o n f e s s i o n s c o u l d i n v o l v e a p r o c e s s of n e g o t i a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e a c c u s e d a n d h e r q u e s t i o n e r s . If t h e y w e r e reflect introduced Boguet's in t h e c o u r s e of own Secretain's with the sexual interrogation. In c o n t r a s t t o t h e s e a c t s of m a l i c i o u s m a g i c . the 'witch cult' in of suppressed in the the been a g a i n s t n a m e d i n d i v i d u a l s . G e r m a n y a n d E n g l a n d . that she and Groz-Jacques Bocquet had caused Loys had M o n n e r e t t o d i e by m a k i n g h e r e a t a p i e c e of b r e a d w h i c h t h e y d u s t e d w i t h a p o w d e r g i v e n t o t h e m by t h e D e v i l . G u s t a v H e n n i n g s e n ' s w o r k o n A l f o n s o S a l a z a r . C o h n o b s e r v e d t h a t a l l e g a t i o n s s i m i l a r to those m a d e a g a i n s t w i t c h e s had been levelled at erings involving cannibalism and m u r d e r . T h u s t h e c o n f e s s i o n c o m b i n e d i d e a s f r o m l e a r n e d d e m o n o l o g y w i t h m o r e w i d e l y h e l d c o n c e p t s of maleficium. a n d t h a t she d i d so by t o u c h i n g t h e m w i t h h e r h a n d o r w i t h a w a n d w h i l e s a y i n g c e r t a i n words. 1 1 a n d o c c a s i o n a l c o n f e s s i o n s e x t r a c t e d by f o r c e - t h e r e is no e v i d e n c e t h a t p o s s e s s e d no p h y s i c a l b o d y of his o w n . T h e r e l a t i v e t o l e r a n c e o f t h e a u t h o r i t i e s t o w a r d s t h i s p r a c t i c e e n d e d in t h e late M i d d l e A g e s . W i t h t h i s n o t e of c a u t i o n in m i n d . A s Norman C o h n p o i n t e d o u t in Europe's Inner ( 1 9 7 5 ) . w h e n C h r i s t i a n s t h e m s e l v e s w e r e a c c u s e d of n o c t u r n a l g a t h 1 2 s u b j e c t . M o r e o v e r . The more* of c l a i m that S e c r e t a i n was responsible for a d e m o n i c possession was a little unusual. find strikingly. region were 1610. a n d h a d b e a t e n w a t e r t o cause hail. w h i c h p r o b a b l y c o n s t i t u t e d the initial of c a u s i n g to death and sending devils i n t o t h e b o d y of a y o u n g sixteenth century was a folk gods' which religion practised widely Europe to ensure and S e c o n d . T h e a l l e g a t i o n s of p o i s o n i n g a n d k i l l i n g l i v e s t o c k w e r e c o m m o n in c a s e s of s u s p e c t e d b e w i t c h m e n t in s i x t e e n t h .c e n t u r y F r a n c e . but possession w a s closely associated w i t h w i t c h c r a f t f e r t i l i t y of harvests. T h i s c o m b i n a t i o n of d i v e r s e t y p i c a l of w i t c h t r i a l s in t h e e a r l y m o d e r n p e r i o d . p a r t i a l l y a s s i m i l a t e d by t h e m e d i a e v a l c h u r c h . a n d m a k e s e a c h a p p e a l i n g t o d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l a c t o r s in t h e d r a m a o f a p r o s e c u t i o n it e v e n h a r d e r in t e r m s of a s i n g l e c a u s e t h a t s h a p e d t h e b e h a v i o u r e x p l a i n the p h e n o m e n o n a l l t h e g r o u p s i n v o l v e d . M u r r a y ' s evidence was drawn entirely f r o m witchcraft confessions flying at in t h e f o l k l o r e F r a n c e . whose parents s u s p e c t e d p o s s e s s i o n w h e n she w a s s t r u c k by a m y s t e r i o u s s i c k n e s s . S e v e n t h . Even the lurid detail that his s e m e n was cold reflected the relationship between the accused w o m a n and the Devil owed m u c h to learned stereotheological since he assumption that Satan's earthly b o d y w a s c o m p o s e d of l i f e l e s s m a t t e r . there are the death of Did a witch cult exist? In Margaret Murray's original formulation. T h i s i n t e r pretation Demons is n o w u n s u s t a i n a b l e . a c t s o f maleficium allegations poisoning against a woman Secretain. T h e t e n d e n c y of w i t c h e s t o c r a f t s t o r i e s o f d e m o n i c e n c o u n t e r s f r o m l o r e is n o t e d by D a v i d G e n t i l c o r e from some event in h e r o w n life.1 9 7 0 s . A p a r t f r o m the allegations dissenting themselves such g r o u p s s i n c e a n t i q u i t y . it is n o w t i m e t o c o n s i d e r some of the elements t h a t c o n t r i b u t e d to E u r o p e a n w i t c h persecutions. this would certainly preoccupation w h i c h she e d i t e d s e l e c t i v e l y t o c r e a t e t h e i m p r e s s i o n t h a t t h e y d e s c r i b e d r e a l e v e n t s . M o s t of Spain in t h e e a r l y s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y . a c o n f e s s i o n t e x t is ' a p a l i m p s e s t m a d e of d i f f e r e n t l a y e r s of d e t a i l a n d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . First. S i m i l a r l y . M e n a n d w o m e n w o u l d g a t h e r at s a c r e d sites to offer devotion to 'ancient had s u r v i v e d the advent Christianity. W h e n t h e s e c o n f e s s i o n s a r e r e a d in f u l l . meetings ever t o o k place. a d d e d one o n t o p of a n o t h e r as d i f f e r e n t p e o p l e b e c a m e i n v o l v e d in t h e p r o c e s s of a c c u s a t i o n a n d c o n f e s s i o n ' . it a p p e a r s t h a t t h e w o r d s of h e r t e s t i m o n y w e r e not s i m p l y i m p o s e d on h e r by t h e a u t h o r i t i e s . t h a t a t t h e s a b b a t she h a d d a n c e d . in C h a p t e r 6 . s o m e t i m e s of a c a t . she c l a i m e d t o h a v e a t t e n d e d t h e s a b b a t a n d i n d u l g e d in s e x w i t h t h e D e v i l . A s L o u i s e J a c k s o n p o i n t s o u t in C h a p t e r 2 6 . searched f o r it. F i f t h . it b e c o m e s o b v i o u s t h a t t h e y a r e n o t s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d a c c o u n t s of a c t u a l h a p p e n i n g s . In t h i s p a r t i c u l a r c a s e . t h e types. a n d t h a t his s e m e n w a s v e r y c o l d . T h e i m a g e of S a t a n a s ' a b i g b l a c k m a n ' .

a s e r i e s of e x t r a o r d i n a r y t e s t i m o n i e s w e r e r e c o r d e d t h e r e by t h e R o m a n I n q u i s i t i o n . . G i n z b u r g ' s w o r k reveals t h a t a f e r t i l i t y cult did exist. the most and were generally On t h e Henningsen has s h o w n t h a t f a i r y beliefs were w e l l e v i d e n c e c o m e s f r o m d e t a i l s in w i t c h c r a f t c o n f e s s i o n s t h a t c o n t r a d i c t e d t h e a s s u m p t i o n s of d e m o n o l o g i s t s . a n d its a c t i v i t i e s p r o v o k e d a c c u s a t i o n s of w i t c h c r a f t f r o m t h e a u t h o r i t i e s . a m o r e s u b t l e a n d p e r s u a s i v e v e r s i o n of t h e t h e o r y h a s been d e v e l o p e d by o t h e r h i s t o r i a n s . On t h e b a s i s of t h i s r i c h b o d y of m a t e r i a l . w i t h t h e o u t c o m e of t h i s c o m b a t the fate torture. . and there s a w a f a i r q u e e n ' . a n d w h e n he a s k e d h e r w h a t w a s a m i s s . T h e s e r e l a t e d t o a l o c a l c u l t k n o w n as t h e benandante. r e p u d i a t e d t h e i d e a t h a t ' f o r t h e m o s t p a r t it is o n l y in s p i r i t t h a t w i t c h e s g o t o t h e s a b b a t ' . 1 5 p e r f o r m e d v a r i o u s f e a t s on t h e f a m i l y ' s b e h a l f . d e s p i t e t h e f a c t t h a t one of t h e w i t c h e s a c c u s e d a l o n g s i d e Frangoise S e c r e t a i n c l a i m e d it w a s ' q u i t e p o s s i b l e ' t o d o s o . s a y i n g a m o n g other t h i n g s t h a t w h e n t h e y w e r e in bed t o g e t h e r o n e T h u r s d a y n i g h t he n o t i c e d t h a t his w i f e w a s a b s o l u t e l y s t i l l . He o n l y e x p l a i n s u c h c l a i m s by a s s u m i n g t h e y w e r e s a t a n i c d e l u s i o n s . w h o m she h a d t h r e a t e n e d . d e s p i t e his c o n v i c t i o n t h a t they were merely d e l u s i o n s . it is u n l i k e l y t h a t these details were i m p o s e d by l a w y e r s o r t h e o l o g i a n s . f o r he n e i g h b o u r s . or a m n i o t i c sacs. and travelled with . G u s t a v 2 1 h a s i d e n t i f i e d s i m i l a r b e l i e f s in t h e c o n f e s s i o n s o f w i t c h e s in t h a t c o u n t r y . w h i c h s u g g e s t s t h a t it w a s a c c e p t e d in F r e n c h f o l k l o r e in t h e l a t e s i x t e e n t h century: c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e y c o u l d be r e g a r d e d o n l y as d e l u s i o n s .t h e ' e m b e r d a y s ' in D e c e m b e r . G i n z b u r g ' s thesis receives i n d i r e c t support f r o m a n o t h e r b o d y of e v i d e n c e . then. they w e n t in. It is d i f f i c u l t t o see h o w t h e s e d e t a i l s c o u l d h a v e been i m p o s e d f r o m a b o v e . His argument is p r e s e n t e d in C h a p t e r 8 . Agrarian cults and fairies W h i l e M u r r a y ' s c o n c e p t of a w i t c h c u l t c a n be s a f e l y d i s g a r d e d . t h a t is d u r i n g t h e e m b e r d a y s . and a n d it is q u i t e p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e y o r i g i n a t e d in p o p u l a r c u l t u r e . we fight 1 4 each other. had a l r e a d y h a d s o m e s u s p i c i o n of h e r b e c a u s e t h e c a t t l e of s o m e of t h e i r 1 6 I a m a benandante because I go w i t h the others to fight four times a y e a r . a n d t h e w i t c h e s [ g o f o r t h ] in t h e n a m e of t h e Devil. she a n s w e r e d t h a t she w a s so t i r e d f r o m t h e w o r k she h a d d o n e t h e d a y b e f o r e t h a t she w a s w e i g h e d d o w n w i t h s l e e p a n d f e l t n o t h i n g of w h a t h e r h u s b a n d h a d d o n e t o h e r . b u t c o u l d n o t w a k e n h e r . he d e m o n s t r a t e s t h a t t h e benandante w e r e g r a d u a l l y r e d e f i n e d by t h e i n q u i s i t i o n as s a b b a t . h o w e v e r . m e n a n d w o m e n f r o m b a c k g r o u n d s were organised into ' c o m p a n i e s ' . H i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n b e c o m e s m o r e c o n t r o v e r s i a l . of t h e w e a t h e r . l i s h e d in S i c i l y d u r i n g t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y . d e s p i t e t h e f a c t t h a t t h e y h a d no p l a c e in t h e l e a r n e d s t e r e o t y p e o f t h e w i t c h . w e g o f o r t h in t h e s e r v i c e of C h r i s t . w h e n t r a v e l l e d in s p i r i t o n c e r t a i n n i g h t s of t h e certain individuals were born with their 'cauls'. 2 0 1 9 Clerk through the air Fairies continued to figure in E n g l i s h w i t c h t r i a l s u n t i l t h e to In S c o t l a n d . B o g u e t . whose m e m b e r s believed they were conveyed through the a i r to attend joyful gatherings w i t h fairies.t o m e e t w i t h a s s e m b l i e s of e v i l s p i r i t s t h e y d e s c r i b e d as w i t c h e s . H e p r o v i d e d a n o t h e r e x a m p l e o f t h e b e l i e f . w h e n he t r i e s t o e x t e n d t h i s m o d e l t o o t h e r a r e a s of Europe. 1 7 M e m b e r s h i p of t h e g r o u p w a s d e t e r m i n e d a t b i r t h . h e l p i n g t h e m t o c u r e d i s e a s e s a n d l o c a t e h i d d e n t r e a s u r e . we w i t h b u n d l e s of f e n n e l a n d t h e y w i t h s o r g h u m stalks. c u l t m e m b e r s . f o r e x a m p l e . A n e a r l y e x a m p l e of f a i r y b e l i e f s w a s p r e s e r v e d in t h e r e g i s t e r o f t h e a r c h d e a c o n ' s c o u r t of N o r w i c h for consorting with spirits they described Three m e m b e r s of t h e C l e r k f a m i l y f r o m S u f f o l k w e r e c o n v i c t e d of ' h e r e t i c a l as ' g r a c i o u s Marion depravity' creatures to d e c a d e s . T h e p r i n c i p a l a r c h i t e c t of t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n is C a r l o G i n z b u r g . T h i s l a s t e d f o r t w o o r three hours until the c o c k c r o w e d . o r taltos. t h o u g h c r e d e n c e w a s g i v e n t o t h i s i d e a in t h e r e g i o n ' s d e m o n o l o g i c a l 1 8 A s well as these i n t r i g u i n g details. I g o i n v i s i b l y in s p i r i t a n d t h e b o d y r e m a i n s b e h i n d .a t t e n d i n g w i t c h e s . n i g h t w e r e a l s o r e c o r d e d in G e r m a n y in t h e late s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y . for who G i n z b u r g ' s thesis has c o m e f r o m the v e r s i o n . a r m e d w i t h t h e b u n c h e s of f e n n e l m e n t i o n e d in t h e d e p o s i t i o n . a s w e l l as t r a n s p o r t i n g Canterbury cathedral. w h o o f t e n a p p e a r in E n g l a n d in 1 4 9 9 . w h i c h o p e n i n g .c a l l e d ' f a i r y c u l t s ' in e a r l y m o d e r n E u r o p e . of t h e next harvest. T h i s r e l a t e s t o s o .8 GENERAL INTRODUCTION GENERAL INTRODUCTION 9 Salazar conducted an exhaustive investigation of t h e i r supposed 1 3 activities. s i d e of E u r o p e . fairies'. seventeenth c e n t u r y . still intact around t h e i r b o d i e s . A s a d u l t s . A t a regional level. a t n i g h t . T h e i r p u r p o s e w a s t o fight t h e w i t c h e s . r e f e r e n c e s t o f a i r i e s o c c u r q u i t e f r e q u e n t l y in c o n n e c t i o n t o w i t c h c r a f t c a s e s . a n d then his wife suddenly awoke. L i k e t h e b e l i e f t h a t w i t c h e s c o u l d t r a v e l a t n i g h t in s p i r i t f o r m . These to h a v e f o u n d t h e m i n c o m p r e h e n s i b l e . r e j e c t e d by e d u c t a t e d w r i t e r s on t h e s u b j e c t . details None of t h e s e t e s t i m o n i e s consistent were obtained of and their were remarkably over a period deciding through several R e p o r t s t h a t t h e s p i r i t s o f w i t c h e s left t h e i r b o d i e s a t little literature. beliefJ a m e s V I of S c o t l a n d n o t e d v e r y s i m i l a r c l a i m s in 1 5 9 7 . M o r e o v e r . w i t h o u t e v e n b r e a t h i n g . J a m e s V I n o t e d t h a t ' s u n d r y w i t c h e s h a v e g o n e could other estabhumble Hungarian historian. t h e benandante y e a r . S u p p o r t Klaniczay. A g a i n . H e r e . In t h i s t r a v e l l e d in s p i r i t t o r i v a l taltos for control compelling F o r those s y m p a t h e t i c to G i n z b u r g ' s case. a n d t h i s n e w d e f i n i t i o n of t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s w a s e v e n t u a l l y a c c e p t e d by t h e c o m m u n i t i e s in w h i c h t h e y l i v e d . It a p p e a r s t h a t G i n z b u r g h a s u n c o v e r e d a n a g r a r i a n c u l t r e l a t e d t o w i t c h c r a f t . one of its m e m b e r s : w h o s e b e l i e f s w e r e d e s c r i b e d as f o l l o w s by S o m e l i t t l e t i m e a g o . T h e m a n t h e n s u p p o s e d t h a t she h a d been t o t h e s a b b a t . h a d been d y i n g . G i n z b u r g h a s r e c o n s t r u c t e d t h e s y s t e m of t h e benandante. t h e r e w a s a m a n of O r g e l e t w h o b r o u g h t his w i f e t o t h i s p l a c e a n d a c c u s e d h e r of b e i n g a w i t c h . F r o m 1 5 8 0 o n w a r d s . w h e r e u p o n he b e g a n t o s h a k e her. w h o s e m e m b e r s p e r c e i v e d t h e m s e l v e s a n d t h e i r n o c t u r n a l f o e s in v e r y d i f f e r e n t t e r m s f r o m t h o s e u n d e r s t o o d by t h e m e n r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e i r p r o s e c u t i o n . Gabor fight to death w i t h the c o n f e s s i o n t h a t they have been t r a n s p o r t e d w i t h the f a i r i e s such a hill. w h o s e w o r k is b a s e d l a r g e l y o n t h e F r i u l i r e g i o n of n o r t h e r n I t a l y .

w h i c h c a u s e d c r o p f a i l u r e s a c r o s s m u c h of E u r o p e u n t i l t h e m i d d l e y e a r s of t h e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y . Even if s u c h c u l t s e x i s t e d in Renaissance intolsimilar E u r o p e . it a p p e a r s t h a t t h e c a s e of F r a n g o i s e S e c r e t a i n s i t u a t i o n o f s o c i a l c o n f l i c t . a n d it o f f e r e d a n e x p l a n a t i o n . the e c o n o m i c changes e x p e r i e n c e d in E n g l a n d w e r e n o t m i r r o r e d in o t h e r c o u n t r i e s . villager felt obliged to refuse of away. A c c o r d i n g t o B o g u e t ' s a c c o u n t . M o r e o v e r . Ideas Scotland f a c e of h e r v i s i t o r ' s p e r s i s t e n c e . were occasionally attributed to entirely unrelated William p r e s e n t in m e d i a e v a l d e s c r i p t i o n s of h e r e t i c s . and why popular beliefs were demonised at this p a r t i c u l a r time. social t w o m a j o r f u n c t i o n s f o r t h e p e o p l e i n v o l v e d : it p r o v i d e d a n o u t l e t f o r a n g e r in a f o r a m i s f o r t u n e t h a t w a s o t h e r w i s e h a r d t o u n d e r s t a n d . t h e t e n s i o n s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i n e q u a l i t y w e r e c r e a t e d by e c o n o m i c t r a n s i t i o n s f o r t h o s e w h o lost o u t .10 GENERAL INTRODUCTION GENERAL INTRODUCTION 11 t h e c r e a t u r e s a s t h e y p e r f o r m e d g o o d d e e d s in t h e h o m e s of t h e i r n e i g h b o u r s . f o r e x a m p l e . T h e s e t h e m e s of to explain witchcraft ' f r o m below'. her parents began to suspect bewitchfor m e n t a n d t o o k h e r t o a p r i e s t . t h e n r e l e n t e d in t h e T h e r o l e of f a i r y beliefs notion in E u r o p e a n w i t c h c r a f t is a s u b j e c t t h a t a w a i t s f u l l e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n . Such a p p r o a c h can ignore the specific c u l t u r a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s of w i t c h e s occurred. g i r l w a s p o s s e s s e d w i t h d e m o n s e n c o u r a g e d a n a l l e g a t i o n of w i t c h c r a f t .l e v e l c a s e s In t h i s p a r t i c u l a r i n s t a n c e . p r i n c i p a l l y t h e g r o w t h in p o p u l a t i o n a n d t h e of c a p i t a l i s m . t h e e v e n t s l e a d i n g t o h e r a p p r e h e n s i o n b e g a n w h e n she v i s i t e d t h e h o u s e of H u m b e r t e a n d C l a u d e M a i l l a t t o a s k f o r o v e r n i g h t l o d g i n g s . A T h e s t r e n g t h of t h i s a p p r o a c h is t h a t it p r o v i d e s a p l a u is c o n s i s t e n t s i b l e a c c o u n t of t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s of l o c a l a c c u s a t i o n s . t h e b e l i e f t h a t t h e o f w i t c h c r a f t . T h e n e x t m o r n i n g . w h o f o u n d it e a s y t o a t t r i b u t e t o w i t c h e s i n t e n t o n destroying o b j e c t i o n c a n be m a d e t o o t h e r a t t e m p t s t o e x p l a i n w i t c h t r i a l s in t e r m s of p o p u l a r b e l i e f s . h e r y o u n g d a u g h t e r L o y s e w a s a f f l i c t e d w i t h a s t r a n g e illness t h a t w e a k e n e d her l i m b s a n d t w i s t e d her m o u t h 'in a very s t r a n g e m a n n e r ' . In C h a p t e r 4. B u t in c o m m o n w i t h m o s t o t h e r a c c u s a t i o n s o f h a r m f u l m a g i c . It w a s d u r i n g t h e g i r l ' s e x o r c i s m t h a t she n a m e d S e c r e t a i n a s t h e p e r s o n r e s p o n s i b l e her s u f f e r i n g . w h i c h s e e m e d t o r e s e m b l e a d e m o n i c v e r s i o n of a Scots Protestant service.b a s e d o n t h e n e e d of e a r l y m o d e r n s o c i e t i e s t o m a k e sense of n a t u r a l c a l a m i t i e s . or that the authorities prosecutions were imposed 'from were prepared to take t h e m more seriously for some reason. a l t e r n a t i v e s o u r c e f o r t h e m y t h of t h e s a b b a t . It w o u l d be n e c e s s a r y t o e x p l a i n w h y o f f i c i a l a t t i t u d e s c h a n g e d f r o m i n d i f f e r e n c e t o erance. w h i c h m u c h o f t h e s u r v i v i n g e v i d e n c e . Second.s c a l e w i t c h p a n i c s s u c h a s t h o s e in E a s t A n g l i a in 1 6 4 5 . Humberte first r e f u s e d a n d a s k e d h e r t o l e a v e .w h i c h w e r e n o t a c c o m p a n i e d by a n a d e q u a t e s y s t e m of 2 7 V I . w h i c h c o u l d e a s i l y be t r a n s f e r r e d t o t h e p e r s o n w h o h a d been t u r n e d In M a c f a r l a n e ' s v i e w . S o m e days later. s o m e of Devil-worship groups. Thus unnatural inverted 1 1 . its p r i n c i p a l w e a k n e s s is t h a t it is less a p p l i c a b l e t o l a r g e . 2 5 beginnings provision with T h e s e i m a g i n a r y r e v e r s a l s of a c c e p t e d b e h a v i o u r p r o v i d e a p l a u s i b l e . t h i s in i t s e l f c o u l d n o t e x p l a i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of a w i t c h p a n i c . If. sacrificing their children and offering t h e m to d e v i l s ' .s o c i e t y ' w h i c h in C h a p t e r The view that w i t c h t r i a l s were a response to increased social tensions t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y is m o s t c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h E n g l i s h r e s e a r c h . during persecution learned beliefs. W e c a n n o w t u r n . A t a m o r e b a s i c l e v e l . were a r g u e d t h a t the c o n c e p t of w i t c h c r a f t c o u l d h a v e a r i s e n w i t h o u t a n y r e f e r e n c e t o p o p u l a r N o r m a n C o h n s h o w s in C h a p t e r 2 t h a t t h e m a j o r i n g r e d i e n t s of t h e s a b b a t t h e i d e a s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e w i t c h e s ' g a t h e r i n g . There are. l i k e S c o t l a n d . s i n c e t h e c o n d i t i o n w a s o f t e n a t t r i b u t e d t o w i t c h e s . a l l e g i n g 2 4 g u i l t . largely c h a r i t y t o a less f o r t u n a t e One c o n s e q u e n c e of t h i s w a s a f e e l i n g s t r i k i n g t h a t s c h o l a r l y a c c o u n t s of w i t c h c r a f t tended to reverse t h e i r a u t h o r s ' most c h e r i s h e d r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s . W i t h h e r husband away. T h e s e e v e n t s w e r e r e i n t e r p r e t e d by t h e i n q u i s i t i o n as s a b b a t s . t h e c o n v e n t i o n s of o f f i c i a l r e l i g i o n .h a s been a d v a n c e d m o s t p e r s u a s i v e l y by t h e G e r m a n h i s t o r i a n W o l f g a n g B e h r i n g e r . These points relate to t h e m u c h w i d e r q u e s t i o n of w h e t h e r w i t c h c r a f t to that question. however. b u t it is p o s s i b l e t h a t such p o p u l a r ideas p r o v i d e d the r a w m a t e r i a l f r o m w h i c h the learned of a w i t c h c u l t w a s f o r m e d . in c o n t r a s t . In t h e e a r l y m o d e r n p e r i o d . some serious weaknesses in t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . it w o u l d be n e c e s s a r y t o s h o w fifteenth that these fears increased f r o m the late century onwards. 2 6 a n d F r a n c e . t h a t a b l a c k t u r n i p a n d urine w e r e o f f e r e d as the body a n d b l o o d of C h r i s t . one a r g u e s t h a t t h e p e r s e c u t i o n s w e r e c a u s e d by f e a r s of maleficium a m o n g the European p o p u l a t i o n . T h i s w e a t h e r p a t t e r n w a s c o r r e c t l y p e r c e i v e d as a b n o r m a l by c o n t e m p o r a r i e s . a n d p o s s i b l y a served remedy. Ginzburg in w h i c h t h e infer an T h e d y n a m i c s o f t h i s s t o r y w e r e f a i r l y t y p i c a l of v i l l a g e . F i r s t of a l l . t h e r e is a d a n g e r t h a t h i s t o r i a n s c a n t a k e f r a g m e n t s f r o m p o p u l a r t r a d i t i o n a n d from them a composite belief-system critics that of never existed have as a whole.s y s t e m s t h a t c o u l d h a v e i n s p i r e d t h e i d e a of t h e s a b b a t w e r e c o n f i n e d t o a r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l a r e a of E u r o p e . t h e s t u d i e s of K e i t h T h o m a s a n d A l a n M a c f a r l a n e s u g g e s t e d t h a t a c c u s a tions typically occurred when a relatively wealthy neighbour. In t h e e a r l y 1 9 7 0 s . w h i c h s u f f e r e d m o r e i n t e n s e p e r s e c u t i o n s . c l a i m e d t h a t a b l a s p h e m o u s p a r o d y o f a s e r m o n w a s t h e c e n t r e p i e c e of t h e w i t c h e s ' a s s e m b l y . w h o c o n f i r m e d t h e d i a g n o s i s of p o s s e s s i o n . s u b s e q u e n t l y a s c r i b e d t o maleficium. t h e C a t h o l i c B o g u e t e m p h a s i s e d t h e d e s e c r a t i o n of t h e m a s s in t h e s a b b a t . b u t t h e r e is l i t t l e e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e y w e r e i n t e g r a t e d i n t o a c o h e r e n t b o d y of r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s . a b o v e ' o r s h o u l d be r e g a r d e d a s a r e s p o n s e t o p o p u l a r c o n c e r n s . as S t u a r t Clark argues M a n y e l e m e n t s of t h e s a b b a t c o u l d h a v e d e r i v e d f r o m t h e f a n t a s y of a n ' a n t i . s i m i l a r t o t h o s e h e l d by t h e I t a l i a n benandante c a n be f o u n d in G e r m a n y . it a p p e a r s t h a t t h e k i n d of f u l l y d e v e l o p e d b e l i e f . 2 2 Social and political contexts It is i n s t r u c t i v e a t t h i s p o i n t t o r e t u r n t o t h e c a s e o f F r a n g o i s e S e c r e t a i n . B e h r i n g e r p o i n t s o u t t h a t t h e m o s t s a v a g e p e r i o d o f w i t c h p e r s e c u t i o n s f r o m 1 5 6 0 c o i n c i d e d w i t h t h e c l i m a t i c p h e n o m e n o n k n o w n as t h e ' l i t t l e ice a g e ' . l i k e t h e p r a c t i c e of and infanticide. d o w n t o s p e c i f i c d e t a i l s of c o n f e s s i o n a l p r a c t i c e . It is Thus James G o u g e a s s e r t e d in 1 6 2 6 t h a t A m e r i c a n t r i b e s m e n ' e x c e l l e d in 2 3 c o n f l i c t a n d t h e e x p l a n a t i o n of s u f f e r i n g h a v e p l a y e d a p r o m i n e n t r o l e in a t t e m p t s cruelty. A d i s p u t e b e t w e e n t w o w o m e n w a s f o l l o w e d by t h e i l l n e s s of a c h i l d . T h e o t h e r k i n d of e x p l a n a t i o n f o r w i t c h t r i a l s ' f r o m b e l o w ' . a n d in S c o t l a n d and central E u r o p e d u r i n g the seventeenth century. it is p r o b l e m a t i c t o a r g u e t h a t t h e e x i s t e n c e of f e r t i l i t y cults gave rise to w i t c h p e r s e c u t i o n s . A s R i c h a r d M u c h e m b l e d p o i n t s o u t in C h a p t e r 1 0 .

it is h a r d t o see h o w t r i a l s c o u l d h a v e s p r e a d w i t h o u t t h e a c t i v e s u p p o r t of r u l i n g e l i t e s . d e s p i t e M a r t i n L u t h e r ' s f i r m b e l i e f in t h e e x i s t e n c e of w i t c h e s a n d his i n s i s t e n c e on S a t a n ' s great earthly p o w e r . t h e D u k e of convert to C a t h o l i c i s m . Regions where this concept was absent f r o m confederates learned witch these developments c a m p a i g n s against satanic w i t c h c r a f t could c o n f i r m their agents a s t h e c h a m p i o n s of t r u e r e l i g i o n . In t h e l a t t e r c a s e . w e r e s u b j e c t e d t o pretation. F o r a start. B r o a d l y s p e a k i n g . who claimed that papists and their 'secret friends' . T h i s i m p r e s s i o n is s u p p o r t e d by t h e p a t t e r n of d e c l i n e in p r o s e c u t i o n s f r o m a r o u n d 1 6 8 0 . t h e c o n d e m n a t i o n of t h e benandante ( C h a p t e r 8 ) . or a p p e a r e d to threaten the a u t h o r i t y i n d i r e c t c o n s e q u e n c e s of r e l i g i o u s d i v i s i o n . A t t h e level of r u r a l c o m m u n i t i e s . Moshe Sluhovsky R o p e r has s h o w n 19 B e h r i n g e r ' s w o r k s h o w s t h e m a j o r r o l e p l a y e d by p o p u l a r c o n c e r n s in s o m e w i t c h p e r s e c u t i o n s . sion was often frequently English b i s h o p s . t h e d e n u n c i a t i o n of f o l k m a g i c a s d i a b o l i s m . t h e v e r y e x i s t e n c e of w i t c h e s w a s s o m e t i m e s v i e w e d a s a h e l l i s h e n d o r s e m e n t of t h e a u t h o r i t y of r u l i n g g r o u p s . of c o u r s e . Europe. church was that 3 0 A s p a r t of t h i s p r o c e s s . ^interorthodox were If t h e y c o u l d n o t be incorporated within the f r a m e w o r k of t h e o f f i c i a l of R a t h e r . t h a t p o p u l a r a n x i e t i e s Lauderdale w a s a s k e d by a p r i e s t if t h e p o w e r of t h e J e s u i t e x o r c i s t s c o u l d p e r s u a d e h i m t o 3 5 P u r i t a n e x o r c i s t s in E n g l a n d w e r e c a u g h t in a t w o .w a y c o n f l i c t b e t w e e n t h e i r C a t h o l i c r i v a l s a n d t h e h i e r a r c h y of t h e e s t a b l i s h e d c h u r c h . d e s p i t e t h e e f f e c t s of c l i m a t i c c h a n g e . T h i s i n c r e a s e d t h e p o l i t i c a l i m p o r t a n c e of m a i n t a i n i n g r e l i g i o u s o r t h o d o x y . d o c t r i n e s of P r o t e s t a n t i s m d i d n o t . and exorcisms in were and of t h e c r i m e . 3 4 in p a r t s of D e n m a r k a n d S p a i n a s late a s t h e 1 9 6 0 s . about about p r o s e c u t i o n s e n d e d e a r l i e r in r e g i o n s l i k e S p a i n w h e r e e l i t e s w e r e s c e p t i c a l T h i s d o e s n o t m e a n . b u t a l s o h e l p e d s h a p e t h e b e h a v i o u r of Protestant and Catholic c l e r g y .12 GENERAL INTRODUCTION GENERAL INTRODUCTION 13 w h o l e c o m m u n i t i e s . Similarly. A s Edmund Europe'. B o g u e t t o l d t h e s t o r y of a H u g u e n o t g e n t l e m a n w h o s e s o n w a s p o s s e s s e d by a d e m o n b u t f o u n d t h a t his l o c a l p a s t o r ' h a d no p o w e r against d e v i l s ' . f a i r i e s a n d s a i n t s . h o w e v e r . k n o w i n g he T h e s a m e a r g u m e n t w a s a d v a n c e d in P r o t e s t a n t S c o t l a n d . religion. Indeed. T h e l e a r n e d c o n c e p t of a s a t a n i c ' a n t i . L y n d a l p o w e r of t h e Roman church. of maleficium a n d it a p p e a r s t h a t s i m i l a r b e l i e f s p e r s i s t e d in m u c h of m a i n l a n d witch beliefs were flourishing In t h e s a m e p e r i o d . w h i c h c o n s t i t u t e d by f a r t h e l a r g e s t w i t c h p e r s e c u t i o n in While England. 3 1 the of and was Nicholas in w h i c h Remy explained. w h e r e t h e V I f r o m a p l o t t o d e s t r o y h i m by w i t c h c r a f t d e l i v e r a n c e of J a m e s policies. By the same token. A s Catholic demonologist is p u r s u i n g a v o c a t i o n defender'. D a r r e l ' s a c t i v i t i e s led t o a s e r i e s of w i t c h t r i a l s The effects of religious division in a satanic The A n o t h e r c o n s e q u e n c e of t h e R e f o r m a t i o n w a s t h e a t t e m p t by l o c a l e l i t e s . T h e p o p u l a r c l a m o u r f o r a c t i o n caused the p o l i t i c a l elites of central Europe to move against those b e l i e v e d t o be r e s p o n s i b l e .p r o f i l e d i s p o s s e s s i o n s w e r e a p o w e r f u l t o o l of c o n f e s s i o n a l p r o p a g a n d a in F r a n c e . b o t h C a t h o l i c a n d P r o t e s t a n t . it a p p e a r s t h a t m a j o r p a n i c s e n d e d w h e n local authorities ceased to regard witchcraft satanic witchcraft.s o c i e t y ' w a s p a r t i c u l a r l y i m p o r t a n t h e r e . In one i n s t a n c e . a n d t h e p o l i t i c a l t h r e a t p o s e d by r e l i g i o u s d i s s e n t . 2 8 p r e s e n t e d a s a v i n d i c a t i o n of his f a i t h a n d a t a c i t e n d o r s e m e n t of his e c c l e s i a s t i c a l 3 2 T h e p o l i t i c s of r e l i g i o u s d i v i s i o n n o t o n l y a f f e c t e d t h e p o l i t i c a l e l i t e s of e a r l y modern E u r o p e . they r e a d i l y e x p l a i n e d in t e r m s of d e m o n i c a c t i v i t y . A s Behringer of a c k n o w l e d g e s . the first wave panics commenced some eighty years earlier. conflict between C a t h o l i c s and P r o t e s t a n t s recast E u r o p e a n p o l i t i c s a s a c r u s a d e b e t w e e n t h e f o r c e s of G o d a n d H i s e n e m i e s . H e ' s e c r e t l y s e n t f o r a C a t h o l i c p r i e s t . t h e n o t i o n of t h e s a b b a t a c h i e v e d p r o m i n e n c e f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e d u r i n g t h e E a s t A n g l i a n t r i a l s of 1 6 4 5 . where at least t w o e x e c u t i o n s . t r a d i t i o n a l b e l i e f s a b o u t g h o s t s . Kern remarks in C h a p t e r 1 3 . t o i m p o s e C h r i s t i a n b e l i e f s on t h e p o p u l a t i o n a t l a r g e . Furthermore. T h i s w a s t h e c a s e Germany. e d u c a t e d Europeans were allegations c o n t i n u e d t o be m a d e in E n g l a n d t h r o u g h o u t t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y . w h o used t h e a c c u s t o m e d e x o r c i s m s of t h e R o m a n c h u r c h w i t h s u c h s i n c e r i t y t h a t t h e p o s s e s s e d w a s s o o n d e l i v e r e d ' . attributed a t t e n d e d by a l l e g a t i o n s France and England. T h i s c o n f l i c t w a s e p i t o m i s e d in t h e 1 5 9 0 s by t h e e x o r c i s t J o h n Darrel. b e l i e f s e x p e r i e n c e d r e l a t i v e l y f e w t r i a l s . in t h e m s e l v e s . maleficium as a p r o b l e m . i n d u c e w i t c h p e r s e c u t i o n s . In t h e c o n t e x t of c h u r c h . a n d it is n e c e s s a r y to consider the p o l i t i c a l and religious c i r c u m s t a n c e s a c c e p t e d by a s e c t i o n of E u r o p e ' s g o v e r n i n g c l a s s . witches had a special hatred he w i l l always have G o d a s his c h a m p i o n in 1 5 9 1 t h e p i o u s m a g i s t r a t e . a n d t h e c o u r t s in m o s t c o u n t r i e s c e a s e d t o r e c o g n i s e it as a c r i m e .' d o w h a t t h e y c a n [ s o ] t h a t t h e t r u e c h u r c h of C h r i s t m a y n o t h a v e c r e d i t 3 6 c o u l d n o t s o m e t i m e s p r o v o k e j u d i c i a l a c t i o n . in w h i c h t h i s i d e a c a m e t o be T h e r e l e v a n c e of t h e s e p r o p a g a n d a b a t t l e s w a s t h a t p o s s e s to w i t c h c r a f t in p o p u l a r belief. T h i s w a s t h e c a s e in D e n m a r k a n d E n g l a n d u n t i l t h e 1 6 4 0 s . one m a j o r f a c t o r t h a t e n c o u r a g e d b e l i e f c o n s p i r a c y w a s t h e d i v i s i o n of E u r o p e i n t o C a t h o l i c a n d P r o t e s t a n t f a c t i o n s . t h e h a r d s h i p s i n d u c e d by t h e ' l i t t l e ice a g e ' c a n n o t p r o v i d e a complete explanation for Europe's witch trials. A t the same time. increasingly reluctant to a c c e p t t h e r e a l i t y of s a t a n i c w i t c h c r a f t . w h i c h f e a r e d t h a t s u c c e s s f u l d i s p o s s e s s i o n s c o u l d b o l s t e r t h e a u t h o r i t y of n o n c o n f o r m i n g m i n i s t e r s .including some by c a s t i n g o u t d e v i l s ' . I n d e e d . t h e i m p o r t a n c e of t h e R e f o r m a t i o n lay in t h e m a n y elites across E u r o p e were forced to identify with one a n d p o p u l a r e x p r e s s i o n s of p i e t y l i k e p r o p h e t i c v i s i o n s . 2 9 t h a t G e r m a n J e s u i t s in t h e l a t e r s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y used e x o r c i s m s t o v a l i d a t e t h e 3 3 n o t e s in C h a p t e r t h a t h i g h . D u r i n g a v i s i t t o t h e p o s s e s s e d c o n v e n t of L o u d o n in 1 6 3 4 . b u t it s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e r e s p o n s e of e l i t e g r o u p s t o s u c h a n x i e t i e s h e l p e d t o d e t e r m i n e t h e e x t e n t a n d s e v e r i t y of p a n i c s . as h a p p e n e d in s i x t e e n t h - c e n t u r y B a v a r i a a n d T r i e r . w h o s h o u l d s t r i k e a g a i n s t t h e m ' w i t h c o n f i d e n c e . s i n c e t h e i d e a of a w i t c h c u l t e n c o u r a g e d t h e c o u r t s t o p u r s u e t h e a l l e g e d of c o n v i c t e d w i t c h e s . this entailed an a t t a c k on folk ideas and p r a c t i c e s a s p a r t of ' a n o v e r a l l m i s s i o n a r y e f f o r t t o r e f o r m t h e c o m m o n p e o p l e of 3 7 F r o m t h e 1 5 2 0 s o n w a r d s . S e v e r a l of t h e c o n t r i b u t o r s t o t h i s b o o k d e s c r i b e t h i s p r o c e s s . large-scale witch-hunts o f t e n o c c u r r e d w h e n t h e l e a r n e d c o n c e p t of c o l l e c t i v e w i t c h c r a f t w a s i n v o l v e d . T h i s w a s e v i d e n t in c a s e s of d e m o n i c p o s s e s s i o n . h o w e v e r . One r e s u l t of t h e s p l i t in t h e m e d i a e v a l political d e n o m i n a t i o n a l f a c t i o n a g a i n s t a n o t h e r . w h i c h o c c u r r e d in a g r e a t v a r i e t y of d i f f e r e n t c o n t e x t s : t h e r e d e f i n i t i o n of a g h o s t a s t h e D e v i l in 1 5 6 0 s F r a n c e ( C h a p t e r 1 9 ) .

the various consequences of the s a m e c i r c u m s t a n c e s p r e v a i l e d in p r e . in w h i c h p a r e n t s development family trends have 4 0 t i a l l y as a t h e o r y of c a u s a t i o n . as p r o s t i t u t e s . this m e d i c a t i o n a r o u s e d the s u s p i c i o n of the boy's G o d . a n d t h e s o c i a l a n d e n v i r o n m e n t a l c h a n g e s t h a t e n c o u r a g e d f e a r s of maleficium in s o m e p a r t s of E u r o p e : a l l c o n t r i b u t e d t o w i t c h p e r s e c u t i o n s in t h e . s i c k n e s s f r e q u e n t l y a r i s e s f r o m a w e a k e n i n g of t h e i m m u n e s y s t e m . W h e n a l o c a l a p p r e n t i c e n a m e d N a t h a n C r a b w a s a f f l i c t e d w i t h e p i l e p s y . In t h e c o n t e x t of t h e s e w i d e r c o n c e r n s . and s o m e t i m e s provided the basis f o r w i t c h c r a f t a l l e g a t i o n s . One s u c h i n s t a n c e w a s r e c o r d e d in 1 6 8 8 w h e n a g r o u p devout Protestants w r o t e to the English divine. in t u r n . servants or apprentices. p e r h a p s . They supplied an e x p l a n a t i o n it a f f e c t e d t o in r u r a l f o r a n o t h e r w i s e a r b i t r a r y event. maleficium i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of it a p p e a r s t h a t w i t c h c r a f t f u n c t i o n e d e s s e n Maillat an T h e d e s i r e of P r o t e s t a n t s a n d C a t h o l i c s t o r e f o r m p o p u l a r r e l i g i o n w a s a c c o m p a n i e d by a n x i e t i e s a b o u t s e x u a l c o n d u c t . it is h e l p f u l t o r e m e m b e r Robin Briggs' warning that m e d i c a l b a s i s . he n o t e d t h a t one of his p a t i e n t s . and increased parts regulation Germany. A s C h r i s t i n a L a r n e r p o i n t s o u t in C h a p t e r 15. In p a r t . In s i x t e e n t h . it is e a s y t o see h o w t h e i d e a of s a t a n i c w i t c h c r a f t . an how as a t h e s e v a r i o u s f a c t o r s i n t e r a c t e d in p a r t i c u l a r r e g i o n s a t p a r t i c u l a r m o m e n t s . In a p a t r i a r c h a l was able to gain support a m o n g illicit educated sense of i n t e r d e p e n d e n c y . a n d t h e a t t a c k o n w i t c h e s m i g h t be v i e w e d a s a n a d j u n c t t o t h e p r o s e c u t i o n of o t h e r f e m a l e e n e m i e s of t h e ' h o l y h o u s e h o l d ' . however. a n d m a k e a c a s e f o r t h e e s s e n t i a l r a t i o n a l i t y of s u c h t h i n k i n g in t h e e a r l y period. as well as Similar accom- France England. a n d in s o m e c a s e s t h e y led d i r e c t l y t o a c c u s a t i o n s of w i t c h c r a f t . M o r e g e n e r a l l y . In t h i s r e s p e c t . Lyndal assumed to and R o p e r h a s c h r o n i c l e d t h e r i s e of ' t h e h o l y h o u s e h o l d ' . T h e c h a l l e n g e t o h i s t o r i a n s is t o e x p l a i n resisting the t e m p t a t i o n to impose a single theory to e x p l a i n the tragedy of t h e e x i s t e n c e of h a r m f u l magic. A s B r i g g s p o i n t s o u t . o r e v e n a d o m i n a n t one. Such a r r a n g e m e n t s created a tial to emotional and physical wellbeing. a n d a l l o w e d t h o s e w h o m some c o n t r o l over the s i t u a t i o n . M e d i c a l s t u d i e s s u g g e s t t h a t m a n y a d u l t s l i v i n g in t r a d i t i o n a l A f r i c a n societies have a high natural resistance to disease. h o w e v e r . W h a t e v e r t h e l o c a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s of w i t c h p e r s e c u t i o n s . in e a r l y c o m m u n i t i e s . the desire t o e n f o r c e s e x u a l m o r a l i t y r e f l e c t e d t h e need t o m a i n t a i n s o c i a l o r d e r in a t i m e of p o l i t i c a l a n d r e l i g i o u s c h a n g e . w h i c h c a n be t r i g g e r e d by s t r e s s f u l s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s .i n d u s t r i a l E u r o p e . adding that 'her m o t h e r in l a w h a t h used h e r v e r y u n k i n d l y ' . J o a n Fellow. T h i s was been paralleled identified by o f f i c i a l in o t h e r intolerance of towards perceived threats 3 9 m u n i t i e s w h o s e l i v e l i h o o d s d e p e n d e d l a r g e l y on f o r c e s b e y o n d h u m a n c o n t r o l . a n d t h e s u p p r e s s i o n of ' v i s i o n a r y ' w o m e n in I t a l y ( C h a p t e r 6 ) .c e n t u r y Augsburg. m a y w e l l h a v e r e f l e c t e d t h e r e a l o r i g i n of t h e v i c t i m ' s s y m p t o m s in t h e i r relationship with another person. s u c h as p r o s t i t u t e s . p h y s i c a l i l l n e s s . A s a r e s u l t . a n d t h e also provided o p p o r t u n i t y t o r e l i e v e t h e i r c h i l d ' s s u f f e r i n g by a c t i n g a g a i n s t h e r . t h i s a r o s e f r o m t h e a b o l i t i o n of m o n a s t i c i s m a n d p r i e s t l y c e l i b a c y in P r o t e s t a n t r e g i o n s . explanation for 'any various physical s y m p t o m s to bad feelings between f a m i l y m e m b e r s or n e i g h b o u r s . C r a b ' s master and parents began to suspect w i t c h c r a f t . encouraged new s t a n d a r d s of ' G o d . of an who a s i x t e e n t h a n d s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s . modern Equally. Richard Baxter. T h e l a s t section modern o u t b r e a k o f w i t c h c r a f t in E x e t e r . which occurred assume com- s p o r a d i c a l l y in e a r l y m o d e r n G e r m a n y a n d F r a n c e . f e l l i l l . d i s o r d e r l y w o m e n w e r e p e r c e i v e d as such t h e m a i n d a n g e r t o f a m i l y l i f e . N a p i e r It is r e a s o n a b l e t o a s s u m e t h a t s u c h e x p e r i e n c e s w e r e c o m m o n it is p l a u s i b l e t o a r g u e t h a t t h e d i a g n o s i s of maleficium attributed 4 3 E u r o p e a n s . w h i c h r e p r e s e n t e d a n a t t a c k on t h e f a m i l y . On o t h e r o c c a s i o n s .c e n t u r y A u s t r i a ( C h a p t e r 1 3 ) . O n c e it w a s e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t G i b s w a s a ' c u n n i n g m a n ' r a t h e r than a legitimate physician.f e a r i n g m a s t e r . w h i c h t u r n e d o u t t o be a p a p e r inscribed w i t h m a g i c a l w o r d s . in t h e e a r l y s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y . attractive in s u c h c a s e s h a d a s o u n d E u r o p e a n w i t c h t r i a l s . u n m a r r i e d m o t h e r s a n d w o m e n a c c u s e d of While the impact of religious division offers an infanticide. s h o u l d be t r e a t e d w i t h g r e a t s u s p i c i o n ' . 4 1 If t h e The learned fantasy of the sabbat. of m a r r i a g e . f o r e x a m p l e . w h i l e w h o l e . W h e n t h e d a u g h t e r of H u m b e r t e a n d C l a u d e Frangoise S e c r e t a i n as t h e p e r s o n r e s p o n s i b l e w a s one of t h e p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n s a v a i l a b l e t o t h e m . R i c h a r d N a p i e r . s i n c e t h e s t a b i l i t y of h o u s e h o l d s w a s v i e w e d as e s s e n t i a l t o t h e w e l f a r e of s o c i e t y a s a w h o l e . a l l e g a t i o n s of w i t c h c r a f t p l a y e d a s i m i l a r r o l e t o t h e less c o m m o n p r a c t i c e of p r o s ecuting animals for crimes against people and their 4 2 property. a n d t h e h e a l t h of l i v e s t o c k a n d c r o p s . t h a t w o m e n w e r e t h e p r i n c i p a l t a r g e t s of c u l t u r e .w h i c h i n v o l v e d a s e c r e t c u l t d e v o t e d t o s e x u a l i t y a n d t h e m u r d e r of i n f a n t s w i t c h p e r s e c u t i o n s . A f e w days later. H e m a d e t h e b o y r e m o v e t h e b a g so he c o u l d i n s p e c t its c o n t e n t s . m a n y c h a r g e s of w i t c h c r a f t strained R e f o r m a t i o n . was afflicted with acute insomnia and 'light-headedness'. concerning Mr Gibs. S u c h e v e n t s w e r e s y m p t o m s of a g e n e r a l c l i m a t e of a n x i e t y a b o u t t h e D e v i l ' s p o w e r in t h e w o r l d . week. s u c h as t h e w e a t h e r . t h e m o s t p l a u s i b l e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of w i t c h c r a f t i n v o l v e t h e i n t e r a c t i o n of n u m e r o u s causes. 3 8 The rational basis for witch beliefs A t t h e level of v i l l a g e c o m m u n i t i e s . a n d m e a n t t h a t g o o d p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s w e r e e s s e n ill health and f r i c t i o n w a s a c k n o w l e d g e d by t h e E n g l i s h p h y s i c i a n . The link between life. w h o b e l i e v e d t h a t it m i g h t be a c h a r m . this trend was p a n i e d by a rise in p r o s e c u t i o n s f o r ' s e c r e t c r i m e s ' l i k e i n f a n t i c i d e . his p a r e n t s t o o k h i m f o r t r e a t m e n t to one g a v e h i m ' a b a g t o h a n g a b o u t his n e c k ' w i t h instructions to remove it a f t e r of t h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n w i l l c o n s i d e r t h e s o c i a l c o n t e x t in w h i c h t h i s b e l i e f o p e r a t e d . 4 4 a t t e m p t t o s u g g e s t t h a t t h e r e is a s i n g l e c a u s e . t h e y a l l depended on the general a c c e p t a n c e t h a t is w i d e l y r e g a r d e d a s u n t e n a b l e idea in w e s t e r n s o c i e t i e s t o d a y . since those lacking this quality o f t e n p e r i s h in i n f a n c y . T h e t e n d e n c y t o a t t r i b u t e m i s f o r t u n e t o o n e ' s n e i g h b o u r s w a s a l s o e n c o u r a g e d by a s o c i a l e n v i r o n m e n t in w h i c h m o s t p e o p l e w o r k e d a n d l i v e d in e x t e n d e d h o u s e h o l d s comprising profound social f a m i l y members. t h e y a c c u s e d t h e h e a l e r o f maleficium when the boy's fits returned. S u c h m e c h a n i s m s were i m p o r t a n t n e w r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s f o r t h e r e l i g i o u s e d u c a t i o n of t h e i r c h i l d r e n a n d s e r v a n t s . w h i c h m e a n t t h a t h o u s e holds became the focus for religious devotion. It is a l s o r e l e v a n t . this. A s a r e s u l t .14 GENERAL INTRODUCTION GENERAL INTRODUCTION 15 in s i x t e e n t h . In 1 6 3 4 .f e a r i n g ' b e h a v i o u r w i t h i n the f a m i l y . a h i d d e n key t o t h e m y s t e r y .

. t h e r e w a s no e m p i r i c a l e v i d e n c e t o s u p p o r t t h i s b e l i e f . w i t h o u t e m p l o y i n g some p a r t i c u l a r blessing. O n c e t h e c i t a t i o n of c l a s s i c a l s o u r c e s w a s no l o n g e r r e g a r d e d a s s u f f i c e n t e v i d e n c e . spell. These are spoken secretly or openly. charms 5 1 c o u l d be r e v e r s e d t o c r e a t e h a r m f u l s p e l l s . A l l t h e p e o p l e h e r e a b o u t s e n g a g e in s u p e r s t i t i o u s God. w i t h the of Christ. W h y . ities in m i n d .r e f e r e n t i a l a n d s e l f . a n d t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t t h e y c o u l d be u s e d f o r E n g l i s h m a g i c i a n J o h n W a l s h d e s c r i b e d h o w the w o r d s of was sometimes attempted. or o t h e r s u c h h e a t h e n i s h m e a n s . the Holy Trinity. M a l c o l m G a s k i l l p o i n t s o u t in C h a p t e r 2 5 t h a t b e r e a v e d p e o p l e o f t e n h a v e v i s i o n s o f t h e d e a d . a n d t o f e t c h s o m e c h a r m t o use a g a i n s t t h e enchanter . they are w r i t t e n on s c r a p s of p a p e r . was linked to in w h i c h w a s sleep d i s t u r b a n c e . In lence of s u c h a c t i v i t i e s : t h e L u t h e r a n i n s p e c t o r s of t h e p r o v i n c e of W e i s b a d e n in G e r m a n y n o t e d t h e p r e v a - investigations Maleficarum into the alleged activities of V i e w e d in t h i s l i g h t . . wholly reasonable response. w h i c h e n c o u r a g e d e x a c t l y t h e k i n d of c o n f e s s i o n s t h a t c o u l d be f e d b a c k m a n or w o m a n begins. w a s e m p l o y e d f o r a w i d e r a n g e of p r a c t i c a l p u r p o s e s . s i n c e a c c o u n t s of t r i a l s w e r e d e m o n o l o g i e s t h a t w e r e s u b s e q u e n t l y used by t h o s e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r c o n d u c t i n g f u r t h e r p r o s e c u t i o n s . w h o w e r e l i n k e d t o s u c h p e o p l e by b l o o d o r h o u s e h o l d t i e s . . successful e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r these sometimes appear to have been as effective as those of relevant t o c o n d i t i o n s l a t e r d e f i n e d as p s y c h o l o g i c a l ' d i s o r d e r s ' . t h e Europe. Likewise. m a k e s it l i k e l y t h a t maleficium In 1 5 6 6 . undertakes. to m a k e things better or w o r s e ' . r e s e a r c h E u r o p e has shown that m a g i c a l spread a m o n g the peasant p o p u l a t i o n . the verses f r o m the pracVirgin New tices with f a m i l i a r and unfamiliar words. It a l s o h e l p e d t o c o n s o l i d a t e t h e m y t h of a s a t a n i c c u l t . a s i m i l a r affliction 'strangely w a s v i s i t e d o n L a d y C r o m w e l l o f H u n t i n g d o n s h i r e in E n g l a n d . 5 4 T h e f e a r o f maleficium many parts of b e c o m e s s t i l l e a s i e r t o u n d e r s t a n d w h e n it is p l a c e d in from wide1594 beliefs and practices were t h e c o n t e x t of p o p u l a r r e l i g i o n a s a w h o l e . a n d c a r r i e d at least as m u c h w e i g h t as e m p i r i c a l witches. d i d t h e c o n c e p t of a w i t c h c u l t s e e m so c r e d i b l e t o e d u c a t e d E u r o p e a n s ? In p a r t . e x c e p t t h e c o n f e s s i o n s of a l l e g e d c u l t m e m b e r s . t h e Malleus made a very strong case f o r T h e use o f s p e l l s is so w i d e s p r e a d a m o n g t h e p e o p l e h e r e t h a t n o t a t h e e x i s t e n c e of s a t a n i c w i t c h c r a f t .p e r p e t u a t i n g b o d y of l i t e r a t u r e . T h i s p o i n t is e s p e c i a l l y d e p r e s s i o n . incantation. and rhymes. the twelve apostles. s o c i a l p r a c t i c e m a k e s it e n t i r e l y u n d e r s t a n d a b l e t h a t m e n a n d w o m e n the acts. t o r m e n t e d in h e r s l e e p ' by a w i t c h ' s f a m i l i a r had sent s p i r i t s to a t t a c k h i m at n i g h t . W h e n e v e r a n a r t i c l e of c l o t h i n g has b e e n m i s l a i d a n d c a n n o t be f o u n d . r e m a i n e l u s i v e . A s Roy P o r t e r has noted. t h e y r u n a t o n c e t o t h e s o o t h s a y e r t o a s k w h o h a s s t o l e n it o r p u t a b a d s p e l l o n it. n u m e r o u s saints. it is m o r e d i f f i c u l t p e r h a p s t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e less c o m m o n b u t i m p o r t a n t i d e a of a c l a n d e s t i n e . w h e n s o m e o n e f e e l s s i c k l y o r a c o w a c t s q u e e r . does or refrains f r o m doing a n y t h i n g . b u t t h i s e m p h a s i s on e m p i r i c a l i n q u i r y w a s n o t w i d e l y a c c e p t e d a m o n g s c h o l a r s u n t i l t h e l a t t e r p a r t o f t h e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y . especially n a m e s of M a r y . it w a s m u c h h a r d e r f o r a c a d e m i c s t o p r o v e t h e e x i s t e n c e of t h e c r i m e . T h e s y n d r o m e themselves sensations of f e a r witchcraft individuals or and Thus Henri W i t h such activin England culture c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h o s e a c c u s e d of w i t c h c r a f t w e r e n o t c h o s e n a t r a n d o m : ' t h e y w e r e t h o s e w h o h a d c u l t i v a t e d a r e p u t a t i o n f o r w i t c h c r a f t a s a m e a n s of s u r v i v a l . 4 6 in his b e d o n e n i g h t . D e v i l . s i n c e t h e g e n u i n e n e s s of its c l a s s i c a l s o u r c e s w a s b e y o n d q u e s t i o n . T h e d e v e l o p m e n t of p r i n t f r o m t h e late fifteenth century a l l o w e d i n f o r m a t i o n about w i t c h c r a f t to spread quickly reproduced and in w i d e l y a m o n g t h e l i t e r a t e m i n o r i t y of t h e E u r o p e a n p o p u l a t i o n . B e l i e f in t h e w i t c h c u l t w a s a l s o e n c o u r a g e d by c h a n g e s in i n f o r m a t i o n t e c h n o l o g y . a n d t h e e f f o r t s of e x o r c i s t s t o r e l i e v e t h e s y m p t o m s of s c h i z o p h r e n i c s psychiatrists 4 5 S i m i l a r p r a c t i c e s w e r e r e c o r d e d in F r a n c e . s w a l l o w e d o r w o r n a s c h a r m s . a n d w e r e p r o b a b l y t y p i c a l of p o p u l a r c u l t u r e a c r o s s w e s t e r n g o o d a n d b a d p u r p o s e s .w o r s h i p p i n g c u l t . A f t e r a l l . W h i l e it is r e l a t i v e l y e a s y t o a c c e p t t h e r a t i o n a l b a s i s f o r f e a r s of maleficium t h a t m o s t of t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s a r e s t i l l l i t t l e u n d e r s t o o d . . . a s w a s t h e c a s e in S p a i n in 1 6 1 0 . 4 7 A s late as 1 8 7 1 . S i n c e t h e late 1 9 6 0 s .16 GENERAL INTRODUCTION GENERAL INTRODUCTION 17 The idea of w i t c h c r a f t c o u l d also e x p l a i n m e n t a l a n d p h y s i c a l e x p e r i e n c e s t h a t w e r e o t h e r w i s e v e r y h a r d t o d e f i n e o r c o m p r e h e n d . In 1 5 9 2 . whatever 5 3 suffer hallucinations readily maleficium. names. a n e x p e r i e n c e t h a t w a s d e s c r i b e d in witchcraft awake extreme to confessions find in 1 6 4 5 . P o p u l a r magic. a n d a c r o s s m u c h of w e s t e r n E u r o p e f r o m a r o u n d 1 6 8 0 . I t a l y . 5 0 The general accepboth t a n c e o f m a g i c a l t e c h n i q u e s . a m a n f r o m D o r s e t w a s t r i e d f o r a s s a u l t i n g a n o l d w o m a n w h o m he b e l i e v e d 4 8 In t h e s e a n d s i m i l a r c a s e s . often m i x e d with elements of o f f i c i a l r e l i g i o n . These c i t a t i o n s were g e n e r a l l y r e g a r d e d as a u t h o r i t a t i v e . t h e a n s w e r lies in t h e c o n v e n t i o n s of s c h o l a r l y d e b a t e in e a r l y m o d e r n E u r o p e . t h e a u t h o r of a recent study of popular 5 2 W i t c h c r a f t a l s o p r o v i d e d a n e x p l a n a t i o n f o r less s e v e r e h a l l u c i n a t o r y experiences English work has t h a t a r e s t i l l v e r y c o m m o n . suspected magical their neighbours of witchcraft. M a n y of t h e s e w e r e o b t a i n e d t h r o u g h t o r t u r e . the three kings. w h o w a s in t h e s h a p e of a c a t . T h e r e s u l t w a s a l a r g e l y s e l f . t h o u g h he d e n i e d e v e r d o i n g s u c h t h i n g s . . the w o u n d s his s e v e n w o r d s on t h e c r o s s [and] T e s t a m e n t . . it a p p e a r s t h a t Given The credibility of a witch cult in e a r l y v i c t i m s of w i t c h c r a f t w e r e a t t r i b u t i n g r e a l e x p e r i e n c e s t o m a l i c i o u s m a g i c . t h e n . t h i s c a n be r e g a r d e d a s a m o d e r n E u r o p e . s u c h a s s c h i z o p h r e n i a a n d syndromes today. . c e r t a i n angels. o r w h o a c t u a l l y t h o u g h t t h a t t h e y p r a c t i s e d t h e a r t of b l a c k o r w h i t e w i t c h c r a f t ' . A s S y d n e y A n g l o h a s o b s e r v e d . It is s t r i k i n g t h a t a l l e g a t i o n s of c o l l e c t i v e w i t c h c r a f t d i d n o t l e a d t o p r o s e c u t i o n s on t h o s e o c c a s i o n s w h e n t h e a u t h o r i t i e s s o u g h t c o r r o b o r a t i n g e v i d e n c e f o r c o n f e s s i o n s . m u c h of t h e e v i d e n c e f o r s a t a n i c w i t c h c r a f t w a s d e r i v e d f r o m s c r i p t u r e a n d t h e w r i t i n g s of t h e c h u r c h f a t h e r s . E n g l a n d a n d S p a i n . A n o t h e r a r e a o f e x p e r i e n c e of ' s l e e p p a r a l y s i s ' and sometimes to attributed immobilised. the visitors to W e i s b a d e n c l a i m e d that spells were p e r f o r m e d 'to h a r m on others or to do good. 4 9 . T h e r e a l i t y of m a g i c a s a sometimes of actual consequences Boguet described how a bewitched man was paralysed w a s e v e n u n a b l e t o c a l l t o his n e i g h b o u r s f o r h e l p .

1-3. Walinski-Keihl. and variants 5 7 15 Gabor Klaniczay. Bengt Centres 23 William Boguet. Christian Johansen's Witchcraft. c h . ' T h e Devil's Change. Witchcraft 8 9 Kors and Peters. New Age (Aq uarian. a w i t c h cult. e d . and Agrarian Cults in the Sixteenth and Witchcraft and the Spanish t h e m h a v e p r o v e d t o be f a l s e . ch. b e l i e f in s e c r e t s a t a n i c o r g a n i s a t i o n s d e v o t e d t o t h e s e x u a l a b u s e . While it is p o s s i b l e t h a t s a t a n i c cults do exist. 1921). as a d i s e m b o d i e d at length i n t h e Malleus spirit. but w e s h o u l d r e m e m b e r t h a t the p o t e n t i a l l y d i s t o r t i n g effects of p r i n t c u l t u r e w e r e i m p o s s i b l e to a n t i c i p a t e . (London 1924). 1736-1951 12-13. Examen. If these claims Examen. 5. Walinski-Keihl 5 6 psychotherRobert of Henningsen. (Manchester University sixteenth a n d seventeenth centuries. and political circumstances that can recur even Ankarloo and and Gustav e d s . men a set of strikingly in similar ideas attracted and the During support the of The ' R a t i o n a l i s t s vs. Harmondsworth 1969). moveOxford F o r a fascinating account of the origins a n d c l a i m s of the m o d e r n w i t c h c r a f t ment. When the horrors they Germany'. 1626). such beliefs were the p r o d u c t s today. Gustav Inquisition 14 136-45. The Witch and Cult Wonderful in Western History Europe of Mother Shipton (1682). Mary London R e m y o b s e r v e d t h a t w i t c h e s often d e s c r i b e d h o w they s m e a r e d an o i n t m e n t on t h e i r b o d i e s t o e n a b l e t h e m t o fly t o t h e s a b b a t . C h a p t e r 2 6 in this c o l l e c t i o n . J . m u c h as the Alan Kors and Edward Peters. m o t i v a t e d c h i e f l y by t h e i r compassion for the apparent victims of a t e r r i b l e crime. J a m e s S h a r p e . (1996). Witches' This has led h i s t o r i a n s like Robin Briggs and (University of N e v a d a Battles: C a r l o G i n z b u r g . W i t h t h e b e n e f i t o f h i n d s i g h t . of Witches. H e r w o r k w a s regarded as sufficiently Norman 3 Crowley Cohn's Europe's Inner Demons i m p o r t a n t t o m e r i t a d e t a i l e d c r i t i q u e in London 1993). (Weidenfeld and (Clarendon. Witchcraft in Europe: A Documentary History (University of Pennsylvania 7 M . it is t e m p t i n g t o 6 m o c k the a p p a r e n t n a i v e t y of s u c h c l a i m s . 2 5 9 . ch. Continuity t h e p u r s u i t o f s a t a n i c c h i l d a b u s e r s s h o w s t h a t t h e b u s i n e s s o f w i t c h . twentieth Witchcraft. See also D o r e e n V a l i e n t e . Advocate: Press. Gyn/Ecology: New York The 1981). w h i c h p r o v i d e s f u r t h e r e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e m a t t e r is n o d r e a m . Philadelphia 1972). e d . Oxford London Keith Religion the Decline of Magic M u r r a y ' s t h e o r y of a w i t c h c u l t w a s e c h o e d in e a r l y e d i t i o n s of C h r i s t o p h e r H i l l ' s t e x t b o o k Reformation to Industrial Revolution (2nd edn. (Crescent. The Witchcraft to suggest that satanic abuse is a n u p d a t e d v e r s i o n o f t h e m y t h trans. 8. controversy. Penguin. of Radical similar c l a i m s . L u h r m a n n . 1999). Robert N J 1 9 9 0 ) . century. H. See. Uses of Supernatural Power (Princeton University Press. for the 1 6 4 5 . of Darkness: chapter in A n k a r l o o and Henningsen's For Denmark. Montague Summers (John Rodker. (Women's 5 Press. The 152-60. found it is a p o w e r f u l r e m i n d e r that the Rather. Nicholas 4 of Witchcraft (Robert Hale. in Tudor and and Stuart England (2nd edn. 152-60. of the Witchcrafts of in Margaret England. Macfarlane.W a t s o n . 36. f o r e x a m p l e . see C o l i n W i l s o n . J o h n a n d A n n e Tedeschi (Routledge. 5 5 Metaethics Feminism 1978). m u r d e r a n d c a n n i b a l i s m of y o u n g c h i l d r e n and Great of led t o a s e r i e s o f legal proceedings in t h e United States lack 10 11 L o n d o n 1 9 2 9 ) . Early Modern see J e n s European 1 0 9 .18 GENERAL INTRODUCTION GENERAL INTRODUCTION 19 into the g e n r e as ' e v i d e n c e ' . The a n d 1 9 9 0 . see (Hamish (2nd edn. The means by w h i c h t h e Devil.d a y w i t c h e s t h a t t h o u s a n d s of t h e i r f e l l o w s p e r i s h e d in the Wicca: The Old Religion in the ABC L o n d o n 1 9 9 6 ) . . Alan (University of Massachusetts Daemonologie. 1989). . Magic Witches' and Culture. James. Penguin. 46-7. Boguet.7 Witchcraft in England. 7. Kephart. . s u c h a s The Strange 2 Margaret Murray. origins of w i t c h beliefs are not to of be Discoverie ( 1 6 1 9 ) . Henningsen. d e s p i t e t h e p a s s i o n a t e a d v o c a c y o f s o m e apists and social w o r k e r s . M a r w i c k . in M a x i m p a c t o f t h e i n t e r n e t c a n n o t be a d e q u a t e l y p r e d i c t e d t o d a y . it is u n d e n i a b l e t h a t m a n y of the s p e c i f i c a l l e g a t i o n s Europe's Demons.4 . it local witch-hunts appears that the among capacity our to 16 17 18 Princeton. 28 Nicolson. Examen highly educated and women northern America western Europe. Inner Maleficarum. 2 8 2 . Early Modern European Witchcraft: Peripheries (Clarendon. (2nd edn. Witchcraft. b u t visible and perceptible to the e y e s ' . 3 7 7 . s c h o l a r l y w r i t e r s r e f e r r e d e x p l i c i t l y t o the c o n s i s t e n c y o f c o n f e s s i o n s a s p r o o f o f a s a t a n i c c u l t . Tudor F o r a n i c e e x a m p l e . Witchcraft in s u p e r s t i t i o n or hysteria. Routledge. trans. for example. Examen.f i n d i n g c a n be c o n d u c t e d by p e r f e c t l y r e a s o n a b l e a n d m e t h o d i c a l p e o p l e . An Press 1 9 9 9 ) . R o m a n t i c s and Sorcery 101. Cohn. Notes 1 Fictitious accounts of English w i t c h c r a f t included later editions of the story of M o t h e r S h i p t o n . S e t o n . 39. Henri Boguet. L o u i s e J a c k s o n . Advocate. Equally. Vivianne Crowley. 74-5. 1 7 7 . w a s able to copulate with B r i t a i n between 1 9 8 2 evidence. of it h a v e are inspired some accurate. 29 Owen 1550-1750 r e m i n d s m o d e r n . H e n o t e d t h a t ' t h e y a r e e v e n p a r t i c u l a r i n d e s c r i b i n g its c o l o u r . Among Scholars of W i t c h c r a f t ' . Instruments Hamilton. Press. 7 2 . Henningsen. Of Domestical! 60. e d s . r e p r i n t e d in B a r b a r a R o s e n . This late leads to one f i n a l p o i n t a b o u t the r a t i o n a l i t y of w i t c h b e l i e f s . 3 4 1 . F o r a non-religious work making Witches Daly. Press 1 9 9 2 ) . 5 1 . James. see T . 24 25 26 27 Daemonologie. . 6. s e e The and Phillip Flower d e s c r i b e p r o v e t o be n o m o r e s u b s t a n t i a l t h a n t h e i m a g i n e d s a b b a t s o f t h e s i x t e e n t h century. Daemonologie. e d . Gouge. London 1971). Oxford Duties 1 9 9 3 ) . social 21 22 1558-1618 James. An (2nd edn. Harmondworth 1982). b e l i e v e in s a t a n i c w i t c h c r a f t w a s n o t c o n f i n e d t o t h e e a r l y m o d e r n p e r i o d . London 1 9 8 4 ) . On o c c a s i o n s . Pimlico. Boguet. See Kors and Peters. 5. trials in E n g l a n d . m o s t of w h i c h c o l l a p s e d t h r o u g h of 'satanic in Part abuse' continues to arouse acceptable issue intense some about 12 13 witches w a s discussed Witchcraft. In 1 5 9 5 . c h . and is e x a m i n e d in d e t a i l 10. Studies Wonderfull Children: Child Witch Trials in E a r l y Modern contemporaries'. Witchcraft Thomas. R. 1 3 . 1 9 8 9 ) . The Night Seventeenth Centuries. L o n d o n 1 9 8 3 ) . w h i l e the a n t h r o p o l o g i s t P h i l i p Stevens has c l a i m e d t h a t ' a d e m o n o l o g y is flourishing. Persuasions to the Witches' Craft (Blackwell. 19 20 and 11 (2). Wellingborough Davies. Reno Basque 1980).

w e b e l i e v e . Europe Examen. 54 Sydney Damned Anglo. London 1996). Lauderdale The Certainty r e c o u n t e d t h i s s t o r y in a letter t o R i c h a r d of the World The Trial! of Spirits (1691). Certainty. t r i a l in t h e F r e n c h t o w n o f R h e i m s . 'Many Reasons Why: Witchcraft and the Problem of Multiple Witchcraft E x p l a n a t i o n ' . Popular Cultures in England. Y o u n g .3 7 . a heretical community whose alleged sentenced to the flames. A Department w i t h e r she w a s t r a n s p o r t e d . 34 35 Boguet. H o p t o n . 245. N e w Haven. 9 0 . The s u s t a i n e d . E u r o p e . and Social History. T h e t r i a l e n d e d w i t h t h e b u r n i n g o f a n y o u n g w o m a n . 1991). t h e o n l o o k e r s c o u l d into allegations in B r i t a i n w a s c o n d u c t e d by involved in a This bizarre story underlined Ralph's conviction that of ' r i t u a l ' were satanism. Press. B a x t e r . (Yale Mediaeval Origins Gender. and Neighbours the ultimate source of all (HarperCollins. Oxford 39 Thomas Anthony University 40 41 Baxter. was a humble 45 46 47 48 49 R o y P o r t e r . Davies. Barry 130. Household: Women and Morals in Reformation Augsburg (Clarendon. W h e n the to drag fire h a d b e e n l i g h t e d in t h e c i t y a n d t h e o f f i c i a l s w e r e to the punishment decreed. London 1998). see H e i k o London 1993). in A n g l o . . t h r o u g h 254. 50 and Present. by t h e m i n i s t r y o f t h e e v i l s p i r i t s w h o o n c e c a u g h t Simon Magus up into the a i r . The w o m a n it unnamed R. do you t h i n k in y o u r flames?' . however. Briggs. Fletcher. a u d i b l e t o a l l . 17. w h i c h he p u b l i s h e d in PART ONE 36 37 38 John Darrel. t h r e a d f r o m h e r b o s o m a n d t h r e w it o u t o f a l a r g e w i n d o w . 1550-1750 (Longman. in England.150v. Maxwell-Stuart. F o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f a n i m a l t r i a l s in m e d i a e v a l a n d e a r l y m o d e r n Cohen. A t t h e e n d of t h i s p a s s a g e . 6 (1986). 'Success and Failure in t h e German the i n t e r v e n t i o n of a demon: report is t a k e n Past Reformation'. e d s . she s u d d e n l y now to burn pulled a ball (Macmillan. Subordination 1995). Robin Robisheaux. the c h r o n extraordinary climax of a heresy Coggeshall described 43 44 Bodleian Library. in t h e c o n c l u s i o n o f h i s a c c o u n t . (2nd edn. Sexuality and Religion in Early Roper. T h i s f o u n d t h a t e l e m e n t s s m a l l n u m b e r of cases. Scare a n d D. Richardson. The Satanism (Lexington Books. t h e n in a l o u d v o i c e . . 181-2. A Social Boguet. 1500-1800 281-300. This Examen. in M . Luther: Man God and the Devil Witchcraft. Dorrell Edmund Lyndal Kern. but d i s m i s s e d t h e idea of o r g a n i s e d 57 R o b i n B r i g g s . Newes Lyndal Modern from Scotland Oedipus (Edinburgh and the 1592). h e l d by t h e t w o w o m e n . e d s . rumour . 31 32 33 Kors and Peters. (Routledge. responsible f o r her p r o s e c u t i o n . w h o f a c e d h e r d e a t h so ' s t e a d f a s t l y a n d e a g e r l y ' t h a t even those 82-93. ' L a w . see P. 51 52 53 Rosen. 242-3. G . M a r i a n n e H e s t e r a n d G a r e t h R o b e r t s . e d . a n d w a s also T h e o l d e r w o m a n e s c a p e d her p u n i s h m e n t . Witchcraft. Rosen. With these w o r d s . Conn. Devil: Witchcraft. . 67 (1975). 70-1. Phoenix. History of Madness Mass. of Maist. b u t keeping Strauss. W h a t became of t h a t w i c k e d w o m a n in n o w i s e discover. Reay. London 1996). Chapter Roper. w h i c h c o n f o r m e d c l o s e l y t o t h e k n o w n b e l i e f s of t h e C a t h a r s . 1 . The link between religious dissent and S a t a n was reinforced doctrines 'The Demonology of S a t a n i s m ' .3 1 . Witches Stevens. see E s t h e r 110 (1986). H e r e he o f f e r e d a b r i e f e x p o s i t i o n of t h e B r o m l e y . 6 3 .3 . 1989). leader w a s t r i e d a l o n g s i d e her. e d . she w a s lifted f r o m the e a r t h r i g h t e v e r y o n e ' s e y e s a n d f o l l o w e d t h e b a l l o u t C o f ] t h e w i n d o w in r a p i d before flight. 150r. Witchcraft. 55 56 Kors and Peters. 102-6. 47. 1971). Oxford. Past and Present. in J .1 . . (Fontana. or (Routledge and Kegan Witchcraft. from Gerald Strauss. 4 1 0 . 3 5 . Ashmole Traditional M S 4 1 2 . and Western Science'. a heretical C h r i s t i a n sect that flourished in s o u t h e r n F r a n c e in t h e l a t e t w e l f t h Ralph added a dark and e a r l y t h i r t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s . Oberman. New York J . T . 5 1 . London The Occult in Early Modern Europe: A Documentary History them e x c l a i m e d . W R I T I N G icler Ralph IN of T H E L A S T Q U A R T E R the of the t w e l f t h century. she s a i d ' C a t c h ! ' A t the w o r d . The Holy 1 3 in this c o l l e c t i o n . 29. Best heresy was the Devil. 'Success and Failure'. 47-52. Folklore and A n i m a l Lore'. 41. Evidence'. 8. in J o n a t h a n B a r r y . ch.20 GENERAL INTRODUCTION 30 For Luther's Between views on witchcraft a n d t h e D e v i l . Witchcraft. 6 2 . 6 . G. t h e e n d o f t h e t h r e a d in h e r h a n d s . 1999). Art 'Evident Authority and Authoritative Paul. that mistress of vile about error me of F o r a n e x c e l l e n t c o l l e c t i o n o f s o u r c e s r e l a t i n g t o p o p u l a r a n d l e a r n e d m a g i c . ' A f r i c a n Knowledge and Control Thought astonished member of (Addison Wesley. (1599).1 1 . London 1976). London 1994).6 . in 42 Early Modern Europe (Cambridge University Press 1 9 9 6 ) . 'Oh f o o l i s h and unjust judges. Philip of Health investigation Jean L a Fontaine in 1 9 9 2 . 66. Cambridge. 'Peasants Sex and Pastors'. 131r.

w h e r e they m o v e t h e m s e l v e s like living m e m b e r s . A n d w h e n he t r i e d t o t a k e a b i g one. as has been seen by m a n y a n d is a m a t t e r of c o m m o n r e p o r t ? . a n d eat oats a n d c o r n . ' b e c a u s e it b e l o n g e d t o a p a r i s h priest'. o r s h u t t h e m up in a b o x .PART SEVEN W i t c h c r a f t and Gender B URIED the Malleus in A W A Y IN THE TURGID. t h i s s t r a n g e a n e c d o t e c a n be r e a d as a t e s t a m e n t t o m a l e a b o u t t h e s e x u a l p o w e r of w o m e n . culture than learned theories 2 anxieties popular of A t a n o t h e r . . T h e w a s by no m e a n s c o n f i n e d t o t h e l e a r n e d e l i t e . . s o m e t i m e s c o l l e c t m a l e o r g a n s in g r e a t n u m b e r s . members. I n t e r r u p t i n g t h e i r d i s c u s s i o n of t h e w i t c h ' s p o w e r t o impotence following Sprenger information: A n d w h a t . relentlessly misogynistic pages of Maleficarum men. as m a n y as t w e n t y o r t h i r t y m e m b e r s t o g e t h e r . . when he h a d lost his m e m b e r . a n d p r o b a b l y o w e d m o r e t o about s u c h m a t e r i a l in t h e Malleus i n d i c a t e s t h e w i l l i n g n e s s of its a u t h o r s t o incorporate central fact witch t h e w i d e s t p o s s i b l e r a n g e of s o u r c e s . a n d t h a t he m i g h t t a k e w h i c h e v e r m e m b e r he l i k e d o u t of a nest in w h i c h t h e r e w e r e s e v e r a l t h a t o n e . t h e w i t c h s a i d . The inclusion b l e d t h e c o n t e n t of c o n t e m p o r a r y j e s t b o o k s . he a p p r o a c h e d a k n o w n w i t c h t o a s k h e r t o r e s t o r e it t o h i m . t h e n . ' a d d i n g . For a certain man tells that. On t h i s p o i n t t h e d e m o n o l o g i s t s w e r e . . S h e t o l d t h e a f f l i c t e d m a n t o c l i m b a c e r t a i n t r e e . it is n o t e w o r t h y b e c a u s e it r e s e m the nature of w i t c h c r a f t . a n d p u t t h e m in a b i r d ' s nest. is t o be t h o u g h t of t h o s e w i t c h e s w h o . e a c h of w h i c h a d d e d w e i g h t t o t h e i r t h a t s u c h m a t e r i a l w a s a v a i l a b l e s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e s t e r e o t y p e of t h e f e m a l e a r g u m e n t s a b o u t t h e e x i s t e n c e of w i t c h e s a n d t h e d a n g e r s t h e y p o s e d . ' Y o u m u s t n o t t a k e 1 A t one l e v e l . Kramer (1486) and is a s t o r y so s u r r e a l a n d c o m i c t h a t it is cause the invite their readers to consider i m p o s s i b l e t o f o r g e t .

In C h a p t e r ecution of other w o m e n as w i t c h e s . a n y i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f w i t c h t r i a l s as ' w o m a n . T h e b e s t recent estimates suggest that three-quarters of t h o s e e x e c u t e d f o r w i t c h c r a f t in E u r o p e were w o m e n . L i c e n c e d m i d w i v e s . who acknowledges that ordinary women frequently voiced concerns about attempts to deal with to the courts. S h a r p e ' s a r g u m e n t challenges the view that E n g l i s h w i t c h t r i a l s reprein e a r l y m o d e r n v i l l a g e s . with their specialist witchcraft.268 PART SEVEN: WITCHCRAFT AND GENDER PART SEVEN: WITCHCRAFT AND GENDER 269 a t one w i t h o r d i n a r y women. t h e n t o c o n s i d e r w h y w o m e n w e r e Larner's politics W o m e n f e a t u r e d o f t e n as a c c u s e r s a n d v i c t i m s of w i t c h e s .r e l a t e d ' but n o t ' s e x . Europeans wider of the the c a m e t o a c c e p t t h e r e a l i t y of s a t a n i c w i t c h c r a f t . In e a c h of t h e s e a r e a s . A c c o r d i n g to L a r n e r ' s f a m o u s f o r m u l a t i o n . w h i l e t h i s w a s less l i k e l y t o h a p p e n t o m e n . w h e r e 9 0 per cent of w i t c h e s were f e m a l e . M a r i a n n e H e s t e r o f f e r s a s t i m u l a t i n g c r i t i c i s m of L a r n e r ' s w o r k in C h a p t e r 2 1 . normally and were often prominent in v i l l a g e . T h i s is t h e m e t h o d e m p l o y e d in t h e r e m a i n i n g c h a p t e r s in t h i s s e c t i o n . He s u g g e s t s t h a t w o m e n in England J i m S h a r p e e x p l o r e s a f a m i l i a r t h e m e in t h e d e b a t e : t h e r o l e of w o m e n in t h e p r o s unusually active in t h e p r o s e c u t i o n of w i t c h c r a f t in c o m p a r i s o n t o o t h e r crimes. he e m p h a s i s e s t h e i n f o r m a l e f f o r t s t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s m a d e t o p l a c a t e a n d c o e x i s t w i t h t h o s e s u s p e c t e d of maleficium: the witches at Pendle Y o r k s h i r e . i n c l u d i n g s e x u a l o f f e n c e s . be l e v e l l e d a g a i n s t L a r n e r ' s o w n v i e w t h a t t h e p r o s e c u t i o n s a r o s e f r o m t h e ' p o l i t i c i s a t i o n of r e l i g i o n ' in t h e early m o d e r n p e r i o d (see C h a p t e r 1 5 ) . where some 70 o u t c o m e of a s i n g l e c a u s e : t h e r e s t r u c t u r i n g of g e n d e r r e l a t i o n s d u r i n g a p e r i o d of change. of c o u r s e . T h i s is a d i f f i c u l t t a s k . w h i l e m e n o u t n u m b e r e d w o m e n as w i t c h c r a f t s u s p e c t s in s o m e on the periphery of t h e c o n t i n e n t like Iceland and Estonia. a n d c h i l d k i l l e r s i n s t e a d of c h i l d p r o t e c t o r s . S h e a r g u e s t h a t a t t e m p t s t o e x p l a i n w i t c h . by t h o s e f r o m Germany and Scotland. t h u s r e v e r s i n g t h e p o p u l a r i d e a t h a t m i d w i v e s w e r e c o m m o n l y a c c u s e d of 5 ruling groups to investigate 'secret c r i m e s ' against f a m i l y . he s u g g e s t s . M e n a n d w o m e n a p p e a r t o h a v e b e e n e q u a l l y v u l n e r a b l e t o a c c u s a t i o n s in p a r t s of F r a n c e . of t h e s e g e n e r a l i s a t i o n s t h e y find m o s t c o n v i n c i n g . w h i l e p o s s e s s i n g a n e x c e s s of a r c h e t y p a l l y f e m a l e v i c e s . One i m p o r t a n t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . p e r s o n s a p p o i n t e d by t h e c o u r t s t o e x a m i n e t h e b o d i e s of t h o s e a c c u s e d f o r h i d d e n t e a t s used t o s u c k l e f a m i l i a r s p i r i t s .l e v e l accusations in C h a p t e r 2 3 by Clive the w a s in t h i s w o r l d of f e m a l e r e l a t i o n s h i p s . e v e n t h o u g h it w a s p o s s i b l e f o r m e n t o be i n v o l v e d a s well. 4 S u c h records have obliged h i s t o r i a n s to evaluate the relationship between w i t c h h u n t i n g a n d g e n d e r r e l a t i o n s in t h e e a r l y m o d e r n p e r i o d . women's encounters with formal witches Robin in of t a k i n g B r i g g s in C h a p t e r 3 . t h e r e is s t i l l no c o n s e n s u s a m o n g a c a d e m i c s in t h e f i e l d . a n d r e g i o n s l i k e H u n g a r y . if e i t h e r . lust a n d p r i d e . t h e w i t c h t r i a l s of t h e e a r l y m o d e r n p e r i o d w e r e p a r t of a w i d e r m o v e m e n t t o r e c o n s t i t u t e g e n d e r r e l a t i o n s d u r i n g a t i m e of s o c i a l c h a n g e . s i n c e it w a s n e v e r d e n i e d t h a t m e n a s w e l l a s w o m e n c o u l d be g u i l t y of t h e c r i m e . s i n c e p e r s e c u t i o n s t o o k p l a c e in so m a n y d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l a n d p o l i t i c a l c o n t e x t s . h a r m e r s i n s t e a d of h e a l e r s . i n f a n t i c i d e a n d w i t c h c r a f t . B o t h i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s i n v o l v e a c o n s i d e r a b l e d e g r e e of g e n e r a l i s a t i o n . t h e s o c i a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s of w o m e n w e r e e n o u g h in t h e m s e l v e s t o a c c o u n t f o r t h e i r t a r g e t i n g a s w i t c h e s . F o r stopped short Holmes. v i l l a g e r s : they assumed t h a t the m a j o r i t y of w i t c h e s were w o m e n a n d m e n c o u l d e n g a g e in i d e n t i c a l t y p e s of b e h a v i o u r b u t w i t h v e r y d i f f e r e n t outcomes: women who asked their neighbours for food and were turned away could s u b s e q u e n t l y be a c c u s e d of maleficium. T h e potential influence of sexual stereotypes on prosecutions w a s illustrated in a list of ' p r e s u m p t i o n s against witches' d r a w n up f o r j u s t i c e s of t h e p e a c e ( J P s ) in Y o r k s h i r e in 1 5 9 2 : t h e f i r s t p r e s u m p tion was 'that they are most c o m o n l y weeke w o m e n ' . T h e y h a d t h e e f f e c t of m a r g i n a l i s i n g w o m e n i n v o l v e d in c e r t a i n t r a d e s . less a m b i t i o u s a p p r o a c h is t o e x a m i n e t h e r e c o r d s of s p e c i f i c 22. B u t d e s p i t e t h e c o n s i d e r a b l e a t t e n t i o n p a i d t o t h i s issue. T h u s a t y p i c a l w i t c h w a s t h e m i r r o r . Hester suggests t h a t v i l l a g e r s a n d m a g i s t r a t e s m i g h t have been l o o k i n g for not w i t c h e s r a t h e r t h a n w o m e n . f o r e x a m p l e . a l i s a t i o n : did the e c o n o m i c circumstances that allegedly encouraged gender conflict in E n g l a n d a p p l y t o o t h e r c o u n t r i e s t h a t e x p e r i e n c e d p e r s e c u t i o n s ? A s L a r n e r p o i n t s o u t in C h a p t e r 2 0 . S h e a r g u e s t h a t w i t h c r a f t i n v o l v e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t w e r e s o c i a l l y c o n s t r u c t e d as ' f e m i n i n e ' . 3 countries were per These figures o u t w e i g h e d . knowledge of f e m a l e a n a t o m y . T h e s a m e o b j e c t i o n c o u l d . h o w e v e r . w e r e o f t e n e m p l o y e d in t h i s c a p a c i t y .h u n t i n g ' f o r c e s its proponents to e x p l a i n 'why w o m e n appeared p a r t i c u l a r l y threatening to p a t r i a r c h a l o r d e r a t t h i s t i m e . were c e n t of t h e a c c u s e d w e r e w o m e n . T h e t h e m e s r a i s e d in S h a r p e ' s c h a p t e r a r e r e v i e w e d witchcraft. D e n m a r k a n d E n g l a n d . T h i s a r g u m e n t c o m p l e m e n t s t h e v i e w s of L o u i s e involved r e v e r s a l of a c c e p t e d f e m a l e r o l e s : w i t c h e s w e r e p o i s o n e r s i n s t e a d of p r o v i d e r s of f o o d . It s e n t e d a n a t t e m p t by m e n t o c o n t r o l i n d e p e n d e n t w o m e n . w h o p o i n t s o u t in C h a p t e r 2 6 t h a t a c c u s a t i o n s of w i t c h c r a f t was a a l w a y s c l o s e l y i d e n t i f i e d w i t h w o m e n .s p e c i f i c ' . This a p p r o a c h c o m p l e m e n t s argument represented encouraged in C h a p t e r 15 of t h i s book that the Reformation of and w i t c h t r i a l s f o r e v i d e n c e of g e n d e r c o n f l i c t in p a r t i c u l a r s o c i a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s . Like t h r e a t of h a r m f u l m a g i c . s o m e a l s o p l a y e d t h e s p e c i a l i s t r o l e of ' s e a r c h e r s ' .h u n t s in t e r m s t h e s u p p r e s s i o n of w o m e n by m e n d i s t r a c t h i s t o r i a n s f r o m t h e w i d e r p o l i t i c a l r e l i g i o u s c o n t e x t of t h e p e r s e c u t i o n s : it is n e c e s s a r y f i r s t t o e x p l a i n w h y especially vulnerable to accusations. A l l of t h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e i d e a of w i t c h c r a f t s t r o n g l y i m p l i e d f e m a l e c u l p a b i l i t y . r e p r e s e n t e d in C h a p t e r 2 0 by C h r i s t i n a L a r n e r . M o r e o v e r . t h o u g h t h e s o c i a l p o s i t i o n of w o m e n m a d e t h e m u n u s u a l l y v u l n e r a b l e t o p r o s e c u tions. Like all monocausal explanations. b u t t h e i r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t h e c r i m e i n c l i n e d t h e m t o l o o k f o r f e m a l e s u s p e c t s .i m a g e of a ' g o o d w o m a n ' .s u c h as b r e w i n g a l l o w i n g m e n t o a s s u m e m o r e a u t h o r i t y in e x p a n d i n g a r e a s of t h e e c o n o m y . In s o m e instances. w o m e n were more exposed to accusations than men. a n d w h y t h e y c e a s e d t o be so t h r e a t e n i n g a b o u t 1 7 0 0 ' . w e r e a p p e a s e d by t h e i r n e i g h b o u r s f o r d e c a d e s b e f o r e t h e i r . s u c h a s v e n g e a n c e . One o b j e c t i o n t o Hester's work is t h a t it t r i e s t o e x p l a i n w i t c h t r i a l s as t h e it is o p e n t o t h e c h a r g e of overgenerand T h i s a s s u m p t i o n is r e f l e c t e d in t h e s u r v i v i n g r e c o r d s of w i t c h t r i a l s . t h a t a n x i e t i e s a b o u t malefi- Holmes. however. F o r H e s t e r . a n d r e a d e r s w i l l h a v e t o d e c i d e w h i c h . a n d t h i s m e a n t t h a t t h e c r i m e J a c k s o n . h o l d s t h a t a c c u s a t i o n s w e r e a i m e d p r i m a r i l y a g a i n s t witches r a t h e r t h a n w o m e n as s u c h . t h o u g h the figures varied c o n s i d e r a b l y f r o m place to place. A n alternative. a n d s e e k s t o r e l o c a t e t h e p r o s e c u t i o n s in t h e c o n t e x t of t h e f e m a l e c o m m u n i t y cium were most frequently expressed. w i t c h c r a f t was ' s e x .

in t h e l e g a l d r a m a . wickedness later trans. w h o argues t h a t the c o n s t r a i n t s i m p o s e d by p a t r i a r c h a l culture London meant that w o m e n were more likely to resort to m a g i c than m e n : For men. ' H i s t o r i a n s a s D e m o n o l o g i s t s : T h e M y t h o f t h e M i d w i f e . 1-26. preoccupation with female though there was a consensus a m o n g c o n c l u d e s t h a t it w a s m e n r a t h e r t h a n w o m e n w h o t o o k t h e l e a d in w i t c h e s : they were the p r i m a r y a c t o r s d e c i s i o n s a b o u t w h o s h o u l d be t r i e d f o r t h e c r i m e . New York It s h o u l d be n o t e d . H e p o i n t s o u t t h a t f e m a l e w i t n e s s e s in t r i a l s suggesting t h a t these acts were not accused. A s t h e c h a p t e r by C l i v e H o l m e s s u g g e s t s . Europe sacrifices. o w n r e p u t a t i o n s . repr. See H a r l e y . Surviving A l l t h e c h a p t e r s in t h i s p a r t c o n c e n t r a t e on t h e a c c u s a t i o n a n d t r i a l of a l l e g e d w i t c h e s by o t h e r m e m b e r s of t h e i r c o m m u n i t y . m o r e than those of a w o m a n . w e r e m o r e w i c k e d a n d m o r e e a s i l y led t h a n m e n . a n d m a d e t h e into F o r a s u r v e y o f d a t a o n t h e s e x . I n d e e d . A l l e g a t i o n s of c a u s i n g i m p o t e n c e w e r e c o m p a r a t i v e l y r a r e in w i t c h trials. suggest. Notes 1 Heinrich Summers 2 Kramer and James Dover Sprenger. h o w e v e r . 1971). Montague less i n c l i n e d t o m o v e b e y o n d t h i s s t r a t e g y of a c c o m m o d a t i o n seek l e g a l r e m e d i e s t h a n m e n . t h a t t h e Malleus' was absent in m o s t later demonologies. t h e i d e a of w i t c h c r a f t Geoffrey Scarre. T h i s idea has been developed by S c a r r e . restraints.d i s t r i b u t i o n o f w i t c h c r a f t s u s p e c t s . as c o n t e m p o r a r i e s t h o u g h t .d e f i n i t i o n . (1990). 201. T h e s t u d y of t h i s m a t e r i a l p r o v i d e s a f u r t h e r i n s i g h t i n t o t h e b e t w e e n g e n d e r a n d w i t c h c r a f t . a n d it is p o s s i b l e h a v e b e e n l i s t e n e d t o . encour- T h e i d e a t h a t m i d w i v e s w e r e c o m m o n l y a c c u s e d of w i t c h c r a f t w a s o r i g i n a l l y a g e d b y t h e e x c e s s i v e r e l i a n c e o f h i s t o r i a n s o n t h e Malleus that midwife witches abducted infants for ritual Maleficarum. on the other instrumental in t h e p r o c e e d i n g s recent a c t s of t e s t i f i e d a b o u t m i s d e e d s t h a t h a d o c c u r r e d m a n y y e a r s b e f o r e t h e p r o s e c u t i o n itself. Publications. T h i s a p p r o a c h is e s s e n t i a l f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e s o c i a l d y n a m i c s o f p e r s e c u t i o n s . a n d t h i s w i l l be p i c k e d up in P a r t 8 . ( 1 9 2 8 . however. Social of Medicine and 3(1). h o w e v e r . Seventeenth-Century t h o s e w h o f e l l u n d e r s u s p i c i o n of t h e c r i m e as w e l l as t h e i r a c c u s e r s : t h e s u p p o s e d p o w e r s of t h e P e n d l e w i t c h e s p r o b a b l y a f f o r d e d t h e m m o r e i n f l u e n c e in t h e i r c o m m u nity t h a n they w o u l d Geoffrey otherwise have enjoyed. w o m e n s u s p e c t e d of maleficium c o u l d p l a y a n a c t i v e r o l e in t h e f o r m a t i o n of t h e i r provided a cultural resource for 6 which claimed trial records David History Witchcraft. there were usually more direct methods for attaining their that e n d s o r r e v e n g i n g t h e m s e l v e s o n t h e i r e n e m i e s . W i t c h c r a f t may have t h e c o m p l a i n t s of a m a n a g a i n s t h a r s h o r u n c h a r i t a b l e t r e a t m e n t w o u l d sympathetically appeal for women held more w o m e n t h a n f o r m e n n o t b e c a u s e . against hand. and London 1994). 121. London 1996). Europe in Sixteenth Oedipus and the Devil: Sexuality Religion in Early and 53. By t a k i n g this prosecuting 3 w r i t e r s that w o m e n ' s weaknesses made t h e m m o r e susceptible to the Devil's t e m p t a tions. M e n . of w i t c h c r a f t ' . that m i d w i v e s were not p a r t i c u l a r l y prone to accusations. 6 Scarre's interpretation r e s t o r e s t h e a g e n c y of w o m e n w h o t h o u g h t t h e m s e l v e s b u t p l a c e s t h i s in t h e c o n t e x t of w i d e r s o c i a l to be c a p a b l e of maleficium.270 PART SEVEN: WITCHCRAFT AND GENDER PART SEVEN: WITCHCRAFT AND GENDER 271 a c t i v i t i e s r e a c h e d t h e a t t e n t i o n of l o c a l m a g i s t r a t e s . (Macmillan. relationship . b u t d i d so in a c u l t u r e t h a t a l l o w e d t h e m o n l y a l i m i t e d r a n g e of a l t e r n a t i v e m o d e l s by w h i c h t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e i r o w n f e e l i n g s a n d a c t i o n s . Briggs.W i t c h ' . b u t b e c a u s e t h e i r s o c i a l and e c o n o m i c position imposed greater c o n s t r a i n t s on their possibilities of a c t i o n . b u t t h e r e is a d a n g e r t h a t it o b s c u r e s t h e e x p e r i e n c e of t h e w i t c h h e r s e l f . Society. Witchcraft 1987). Lyndal Modern Magic Roper. Malleus Maleficarum. 260-2. (Routledge. a n d d e p i c t s h e r a s t h e p a s s i v e v i c t i m of f o r c e s c o m p l e t e l y b e y o n d h e r c o n t r o l . see R o b i n Witches and Neighbours (HarperCollins. were generally Holmes argues that women and often the He crucial account. described more maleficia. j u s t b e c a u s e he w a s a m a n . A s i m i l a r p i c t u r e h a s e m e r g e d f r o m t h e s t u d y of w i t c h c r a f t c o n f e s s i o n s in r e c e n t y e a r s : t h e s e t e x t s r e v e a l h o w s o m e w o m e n c a m e t o i n t e r n a l i s e t h e i d e a of w i t c h c r a f t a s a n a c t of s e l f . H o l m e s s e e k s t o r e t u r n o u r a t t e n t i o n t o w h a t he c a l l s ' t h e m i s o g y n o u s dimension 4 5 A r c h i v e s of the Y o r k s h i r e A r c h a e o l o g i c a l DD146/12/2/10.

and e x e c u t e d for witchcraft. t h e s t e r e o t y p e o f a w i t c h in C h r i s t i a n E u r o p e has a l w a y s b e e n t h a t o f a w o m a n . O n l y t h e children? A n d w h a t do M a r g a r e t T h a t c h e r a n d a p a u p e r i s e d e s c a p e e f r o m t h e w e l f a r e s t a t e h a v e in c o m m o n ? T h e s t e r e o t y p e w i t c h is an i n d e p e n d e n t a d u l t w o m a n w h o d o e s n o t c o n f o r m t o t h e m a l e i d e a o f p r o p e r f e m a l e b e h a v i o u r . n o r c a r e f o r t h e w e a k . All w o m e n threaten m a l e h e g e m o n y with their exclusive therefore. refusing offers o f h e l p . was the European w i t c h . It w a s n o t e d t h a t s h e h a d b e e n t h e bane o f the social w o r k d e p a r t m e n t for vears. m o r e mysterious p o w e r s which do n o t derive f r o m the established order. In t h e r W HEN THE ORGANISERS o f an u n e m p l o y m e n t r a l l v s u g g e s t e d 'Ditch t h e W i t c h ' [ M a r g e r e t T h a t c h e r ] as a b a n n e r s l o g a n . and social o r d e r d e p e n d s o n w o m e n c o n f o r m i n g t o m a l e ideals o f f e m a l e b e h a v i o u r . In 1 4 9 2 .h u n t w as a w o m a n . set against h e r n o t only m a l e s . s h e d o e s n o t r e q u i r e o r give love ( t h o u g h she m a y e n c h a n t ) .C h a p t e r 20 Christina Larner WAS WITCH-HUNTING HUNTING? WOMAN- m e m b e r o f t h e l o c a l L a b o u r P a r t y t o p r o t e s t t h a t this w a s s e x i s t .c e n t u r v R u s s i a . t h e v a r r e s t e d all b u t t w o o f t h e . a n d a b u s i n g all t h o s e w h o c a m e n e a r h e r . mostlv peasant w o m e n . asserting h e r p r i v a c y a n d i n d e p e n d e n c e . T h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f a n y w o m a n as a w i t c h w i l l . p o w e r t o give life. she m a y have o t h e r . S h e has t h e p o w e r o f w o r d s — t o d e f e n d h e r s e l f o r t o c u r s e . W a s this a t h i n l y d i s g u i s e d a t t a c k o n w o m e n as s u c h ? T h e c a s e t h a t t h e w i t c h . t h e n . T h e r e p o r t a l s o n o t e d that the local children called h e r 'the w i t c h ' .h u n t is a s t r o n g o n e . i t w a s l e f t t o a s c h o o l g i r l first p l a c e . a n d t h e s c h o o l g i r l g a v e u p . T h e y c h a n g e d i t t o ' D i t c h t h e B i t c h ' . w e r e put through a c o m p l e x judicial process administered bv m e n . T o what e x t e n t . she does n o t n u r t u r e m e n o r c h i l d r e n .h u n t ( b e t w e e n the late Middle Ages and t h e beginning o f the eighteenth c e n t u r v ) a response t o a perceived threat t o t h e s o c i a l o r d e r t h r o u g h s o m e c h a n g e in t h e s t a t u s o r p o w e r o f w o m e n ? D u r i n g those years. In t w e l f t h . t h e a u t h o r i t i e s in o n e d i s t r i c t b e c a m e anxious about the prevalence o f witchcraft and began to round up the entire female p o p u l a t i o n . S h e is a s s e r t i v e . In addition. T h e s a m e w e e k t h e d e a t h o f an e l d e r l y w o m a n f r o m s t a r v a t i o n w a s r e p o r t e d in t h e p r e s s . in L a n g e n d o r f in t h e R h i n e l a n d . b u t also c o n f o r m i n g f e m a l e s and their children. several thousands o f people.

T h e last t e r m s e e m s t o h a v e had m u c h t h e s a m e p e j o r a t i v e m e a n i n g it c a r r i e s t o d a y : a l i b e r a t e d woman who w h o insists o n m a k i n g an i s s u e o f i t .h u n t i n g s i m p l y as w o m a n . F o r areas on t h e p e r i p h e r v — in E n g l a n d a n d R u s s i a . vounger w o m e n Women urban labouring. a m a n c l a i m e d t o h a v e b e e n a t t a c k e d b v a w i t c h w h o h a d t u r n e d h e r s e l f i n t o an a n g r y s h e e p . n e v e r t h e l e s s .274 CHRISTINA LARNER WAS WITCH-HUNTING W 0 MA N-HUNTING? 275 adult w o m e n . T h e ratio o f females to males put on trial for w i t c h c r a f t r e i n f o r c e s the t h e o r y that the w i t c h .h u n t was part o f the sex w a r . w o m e n . archives France. W h e t h e r anonvmous or publicly identified. a witch threatens the established o r d e r . S h e c o u l d t e l l f o r t u n e s f r o m t h e way A more a person walked. W h e n J a n e t M a c M u r d o c h . ' i t a l w a y s l i g h t e d ' . m o s t w o m e n will n o t only c o n f o r m . less s e x u a l l y . T h e w o m e n w a s d e f e n d i n g h e r s e l f a g a i n s t t h e a c c u s a t i o n s o f J e a n S p r o t in D u m f r i e s in 1 6 7 1 . sixteenth c e n t u r y d e m o n o l o g i s t s spent m u c h t i m e puzzling o v e r w h y w o m e n w e r e so m u c h m o r e w i c k e d than men. floated suggests that. his d o g w o u l d be able to sniff out w h i c h o f t h e m was the w i t c h . persecutions than randomly w e n t to the stake during the w i t c h . a n d it c o u l d b e any w o m a n .h u n t is p u t i n t o its c r i m i n a l c o n t e x t . r a n d o m l y s e l e c t e d (anv m o r e m a l e s w h o w e r e p r o s e c u t e d f o r c r i m e s o f v i o l e n c e in this p e r i o d w e r e selected). W h e n t h e w i t c h . o f f the w e s t coast o f S c o t l a n d .r e l a t e d t o f e m a l e s in j u s t t h e s a m e p r o p o r t i o n as s a n c t i t y ( t h e u l t i m a t e in h u m a n g o o d ) w a s s e x . given h i s / h e r s o u l t o t h e D e v i l . F r o m this p e r s p e c t i v e . against (including unofficial healing) and f o r k e e p i n g disorderly h o u s e s . T h e p u r p o s e o f a w i t c h . y o u n g e r being prosecuted infanticide and p r o s t i t u t i o n . was n o t sex-specific.o r d e r c r i s e s g e n e r a t e d b y the n e w regimes o f early m o d e r n E u r o p e . they w e r e aggressive. o n e Scottish w i t c h said at h e r t r i a l . i f all t h e w o m e n in C o l l w e r e p l a c e d t o g e t h e r in a p e n . n o bias a g a i n s t w o m e n c a n b e d e t e c t e d in t h e a u t h o r i t i e s . while s e x . T h e p a r a l l e l is n o t e x a c t . w o m e n used w o r d s . like m a l e bullies. W i t c h e s a r e c o n s p i c u o u s . 8 0 per c e n t o f the accused w e r e f e m a l e . t h e i d e a t h a t t h e a u t h o r i t i e s in t h e s i x t e e n t h a n d s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s c o n s c i o u s l y s o u g h t t o t e r r o r i z e a n d i n t i m i d a t e w o m e n g a i n s f u r t h e r s t r e n g t h . W a s it b e c a u s e o f a r i s e in t h e i r s t a t u s a n d i n d e p e n d e n c e ? W a s t h e r e a s u p e r f l u o u s f e m a l e p o p u l a t i o n ? W a s it ( p a r a d o x i c a l l y ) because the Christianization o f the peasantry through the R e f o r m a t i o n and C o u n t e r Reformation i n c r e a s e d the individual responsibilitv o f w o m e n for their spiritual opens l i v e s ? W a s it b e c a u s e t h e r e l i g i o n so d i f f u s e d w a s r e l e n t l e s s l v p a t r i a r c h a l ? T h e thought that witch-hunting was actuallv witch-hunting.h u n t was the prising out o f dangerous p e r s o n s w h o w e r e e n e m i e s o f G o d . T h i s l i n e o f r e a s o n i n g is b a s e d on a failure to recognize that a patriarchal social structure divides women. p r e s s u r e s w h i c h c a m e l a r g e l y f r o m w o m e n . In t h e sixteenth c e n t u r v . e x c e p t during certain mass panics. H e said t h a t . t h e r o l e p l a v e d b v w i t c h . s i n c e w o m e n a c c u s e d o t h e r w o m e n a n d w e r e f r e q u e n t l y c h i e f w i t n e s s e s in t h e c o u r t s . a n d t h e l e g i t i m a c y o f p a r a l l e l s w i t h o t h e r g r e a t .h u n t i n g in l a w and o r d e r c r i s e s . c a m e in t h e w a k e o f n e w p u n i t i v e a t t i t u d e s t o s e x u a l were also particularlv vulnerable to the new laws first the proportion of females criminalization fighting with children.h u n t was a straightf o r w a r d . a c h a r m e r a n d a l i b b e r ' .h u n t w e n t cursing. Switzerland and Scotland. thinly disguised w o m a n . T h e cursing and b e w i t c h i n g w o m e n w e r e the f e m a l e equivalent o f violent m a l e s . T h i s ignores the crucial p r o c e s s through w h i c h t h o s e w h o w e r e put on trial w e r e s e l e c t e d in t h e first p l a c e . It d o e s . o u t a f u r t h e r r a n g e o f q u e s t i o n s a b o u t t h e f u n c t i o n o f C h r i s t i a n i t y as a p o l i t i c a l i d e o l o g y in this p e r i o d . T h e y w e r e t h e d i s t u r b e r s o f s o c i a l o r d e r . D e s p i t e the longt e r m s t e r e o t y p e . D e p e n d e n t for their livelihood on the goodwill o f m e n . certain activities o f w o m e n w e r e m a d e into c r i m e s for the time. the state and the p e o p l e . lacking the male escape routes o f m e r c e n a r y v a g a b o n d s . It w a s n o t f o r n o t h i n g t h a t M a r g a r e t L i s t e r o f F i f e w a s d e s c r i b e d in h e r i n d i c t m e n t in 1 6 6 2 as 'a w i t c h . O n the island o f C o l l . v o u a r e l o o k i n g f o r a w o m a n . d r a w a t t e n t i o n t o t h e m o r e s u b s t a n t i a l o b j e c tion that the c r i m e o f witchcraft. f o r e x a m p l e was n e a r e r 9 5 — 1 0 0 per cent. it m i g h t b e w o r t h a d d i n g t h a t w i t c h c r a f t ( t h e u l t i m a t e in h u m a n e v i l ) w a s s e x . ' A n d w h e n I gave m y malison [the o p p o s i t e o f b e n i s o n j ' . t h e p u r s u i t of w i t c h e s was n o m o r e a p e r s e c u t i o n o f w o m e n than the p r o s e c u t i o n o f killers and m a i m e r s w a s a p e r s e c u t i o n o f m e n . A witch to t h e m was a person w h o had r e n o u n c e d Christian baptism. often for the c r i m e o f cursing. many accusations o f witchcraft w e r e between A t village l e v e l . W e m u s t ask w h y w o m e n a p p e a r e d p a r t i c u l a r l y t h r e a t e n i n g t o p a t r i a r c h a l o r d e r a t this t i m e . w e r e n o t ' n i c e p e o p l e ' .h u n t . o f the witch-hunt. a n d w h v t h e v c e a s e d t o b e s o t h r e a t e n i n g a b o u t 1 7 0 0 . a n d w a s in c o n s p i r a c y w i t h o t h e r w i t c h e s t o o v e r t h r o w the social o r d e r . W i t c h e s . T h o s e w h o w e r e p r o s e c u t e d for witchcraft w e r e n o t . w o m e n t e n d e d t o b e r e g a r d e d in l a w as t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f t h e i r f a t h e r s o r t h e i r h u s b a n d s . A b o u t 2 0 per cent o f suspects w e r e male.s p e c i f i c and purges o f past and p r e s e n t . S o w h a t is t h e c a s e f o r a r g u i n g t h a t t h e w i t c h . T h e actual n u m b e r o f those involved is p e r m a n e n t l y suggest that in inaccessible. b u t it is n o t a b s u r d . While were older women were for coming into the courts for The witchcraft offences women of or activity. W h i l e I a m c o n s i d e r i n g d u b i o u s b u t n o t q u i t e p o i n t l e s s s t a t i s t i c s . t h e y w e r e t h o s e w h o c o u l d n o t easilv c o o p e r a t e with o t h e r s . w o m e n w e r e a p r i m e symbol o f disorder. T h e o b j e c t i o n t o v i e w i n g w i t c h . b u t also attack w o m e n w h o by their n o n c o n f o r m i t y t h r e a t e n the s e c u ritv o f c o n f o r m i s t women. T h e r e is m u c h t o s u g g e s t t h a t in t h e l a w . h o w e v e r . T h e fact that these ideological e n e m i e s t u r n e d out t o be 8 0 p e r cent f e m a l e could have added fuel t o the m i s o g y n y o f the age r a t h e r than b e a direct c o n s e q u e n c e o f it.a n d . areas at the but reliable centre figures for particular criminal in Germany. W h e r e m e n m i g h t use knives. h o w e v e r . T h e p r i m e i n t e r e s t o f t h e a u t h o r i t i e s at t h e t i m e w a s t h e p u r s u i t o f w i t c h e s as such. Male judges w e r e simply responding to pressures from b e l o w . she a r g u e d t h a t J e a n s h o u l d n o t b e a c c e p t e d as a w i t n e s s s i n c e she w a s as g r e a t a w i t c h h e r s e l f . since male a b s u r d a r g u m e n t w h i c h has b e e n s u s p e c t s a p p e a r t o h a v e b e e n t r e a t e d w i t h t h e s a m e h a r s h n e s s as f e m a l e s o n c e t h e y r e a c h e d t h e c o u r t s .r e l a t e d to males during the 'sanctity e p i d e m i c ' o f the later Middle Ages.r e l a t e d . t h e r e w a s n o t h i n g m i s o g vnous about witch-hunting.h u n t w a s n o t d i r e c t e d p r i m a r i l y b y m e n a g a i n s t w o m e n ? O n e l i n e o f a r g u m e n t is t h a t . T h e r e are o t h e r reasons for doubting w h e t h e r the w i t c h . If you are looking for a w i t c h .h u n t i n g is t h a t it l e a d s us t o ask t o o n a r r o w a r a n g e o f q u e s t i o n s a b o u t i t . U p t o this p e r i o d .

o f d e p e n d e n c y a n d p o v e r t y . h e d o e s n o t a c t u a l l y m a n a g e t o e x p l a i n w h y i t s h o u l d b e w o m e n r a t h e r t h a n m e n w h o a r e in this p o s i t i o n o f v u l n e r a b i l i t y . L a r n e r did n o t give p r e c i s e definitions f o r these t e r m s .PATRIARCHAL RECONSTRUCTION AND WITCH-HUNTING 277 C h a p t e r 21 e n v i r o n m e n t . ' t h e idea that w i t c h p r o s e c u t i o n s r e f l e c t e d a w a r between the sexes must be discounted'.h u n t s is h o w a c c u s a t i o n a n d p e r s e c u t i o n f o r w i t c h c r a f t In an a t t e m p t t o q u e s t i o n w h y t h e g r e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n o f t h o s e a c c u s e d this c h a p t e r seeks t o m o v e b e y o n d K e i t h of Magic Thomas's Focusing and the Decline ( 1 9 7 1 ) and also b e y o n d t h e d i c h o t o m y 2 c a m e t o b e largely d i r e c t e d against w o m e n . 3 It is g e n e r a l l y recognised Levack during and t h a t E u r o p e in t h e e a r l y m o d e r n p e r i o d e x p e r i e n c e d a v a r i e t y o f m a j o r c h a n g e s in t e r m s o f d e m o g r a p h y . L a r n e r a r g u e d t h a t t h e w i t c h . a p o o r w o m a n w o u l d ask f o r c h a r i t y o r t o b o r r o w e s s e n t i a l s u p p l i e s ( o f t e n f r o m a n o t h e r .r e l a t e d w i t h r e g a r d t o w o m e n b u t n o t s e x . t h a t is m a l i c e a n d a l l e g e d s u p e r n a t u r a l p o w e r . i f m i s f o r t u n e h a p p e n e d t o t h e o n e w h o had d e n i e d h e r . a n a l y s i s in Religion T h o m a s t h u s p r e s e n t s a c o m p l e x analysis and social change which incorporates o f 'sex-related versus sex-specific' set up by Christina Larner's w o r k . l i k e M a c f a r l a n e . 1 o f wdtchcraft w e r e w o m e n . village conflicts around neighbourliness g r e w especially acute. S h e c o n c l u d e s t h a t w h i l e t h e vast m a j o r i t y o f t h o s e a c c u s e d a m i d those p r o s e c u t e d for witchcraft w e r e w o m e n . religions and political systems. t h e g e n d e r i n g o f expectations and meanings and m a l e . a r g u i n g t h a t t h e a n s w e r t o w h o t h e w i t c h e s w e r e c a n b e f o u n d at the village level w h e r e allegations a r o s e . Nonetheless. T h e erosion o f the manorial system w i t h l o s s o f c u s t o m a r y t e n a n c i e s a n d c o m m o n l a n d c r e a t e d p o v e r t y w h i l e at t h e same t i m e b r e a k i n g up old c o o p e r a t i v e village c o m m u n i t i e s . T h o m a s argues that w i t c h c r a f t accusation was related t o failure t o carry o u t s o m e hitherto recognised social obliga t i o n . 3 tensions conflicts n o t least with regard to m a l e female relations. that ' t h e judicial r e c o r d s reveal t w o essential facts a b o u t a c c u s e d w i t c h e s : w e r e p o o r . B u t . Keith T h o m a s .s p e c i f i c ' w o u l d b e a p p l i e d o n l v i f all t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e w i t c h w e r e a t t r i b u t a b l e t o w o m e n . H e a r g u e s t h a t b e c a u s e t h e m i s o g y n i s t i c o r ' b l a t a n t l y s e x u a l a s p e c t s ' o f w i t c h c r a f t c o m m o n in c o n t i n e n t a l l i t e r a t u r e s u c h as t h e Malleus Maleflcarum w e r e n o t a feature o f English trials. and they w e r e usually w o m e n ' . n o r m e r e l y t h e b y . W i t h i n this context w i t c h p e r s e c u t i o n s e r v e d — in a d y n a m i c r a t h e r t h a n f u n c t i o n a l s e n s e — as a m e a n s o f r e c r e a t i n g t h e m a l e s t a t u s q u o in t h e e m e r g i n g s o c i a l o r d e r . F o r T h o m a s . but indicated that the t e r m ' s e x . m o r a l obligations does explain w h y t h e accused w e r e older. T h i s c h a p t e r e x a m ines s o m e o f the evidence for t h e relationship b e t w e e n witchcraft and patriarchal r e c o n s t r u c t i o n . S i n c e Religion and the Decline of Magic w a s first p u b l i s h e d in t h e e a r l y 1 9 7 0 s t h e m a i n l y o n E n g l i s h m a t e r i a l .h u n t s at this t i m e . T h i s is b e c a u s e his s o m e w h a t p o s i t i v i s t i c a p p r o a c h t o t h e m a t e r i a l detailing the accused and victims o f witchcraft does n o t allow him t o e x a m i n e the p r o c e s s o f g e n d e r i n g o f t h e social relations h e o t h e r w i s e so e l o q u e n t l y d e s c r i b e s . the o n g o i n g m e c h a n i s m s for social c o n t r o l o f w o m e n within a general c o n t e x t o f social change and the r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a patriarchal s o c i e t y . but w e r e m o r e to do with the imposition o f a Christian p o l i t i c a l i d e o l o g y . w o m a n ) . turing o f society which created many uncertainties. the witch-hunts w e r e a part of. i t a r g u e s t h a t in o u r q u e s t t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e p h e n o m f e m a l e c o n f l i c t u a l r e l a t i o n s as a n integral part o f the process o f accusation and p e r s e c u t i o n . this is n o t t h e c a s e b e c a u s e 'the t w o principal characteristics o f the w i t c h .f e m a l e conflict with regard t o resources. 8 e a r l v m o d e r n w i t c h . a r e h u m a n r a t h e r t h a n f e m a l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ' . E u r o p e e x p e r i e n c e d changes and a r e s t r u c ambiguities. the witch-hunts w e r e n o t actually about w o m e n hunting. T h i s c l a s s i c m o d e l o f w i t c h c r a f t a c c u s a t i o n has s i n c e b e e n shown t o have a w i d e r application than m e r e l y for E n g l a n d / although o n e might q u e s t i o n w h e t h e r it actually explains w h y it w a s w o m e n w h o p r e d o m i n a t e d a m o n g s t t h e a c c u s e d . 6 states they H e p l a c e s w i t c h c r a f t w i t h i n its s o c i a l . slightly b e t t e r off. has r i g h t l y p o i n t e d o u t t h a t c h a n g e is n o t a f e a t u r e u n i q u e t o t h i s p e r i o d . p o o r and often w i d o w e d w o m e n . in p a r t i c u l a r l i n k s b e t w e e n ' t h e f e m a l e ' a n d t h e w i t c h .o l d g e n d e r s t e r e o t v p e o f t h e w i t c h t h a t m a d e t h e m the sixteenth and s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s . about witchcraft and neighbourliness.o l d s t e r e o t y p e . enon o f the witch-hunts w e have t o see male o f p o s s i b l e l i n k s b e t w e e n e a r l y m o d e r n s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s at t h e v i l l a g e l e v e l . W i d o w s w e r e particularly adversely affected by these changes leaving t h e m vulnerable t o w i t c h c r a f t a c c u s a t i o n . t h r o u g h o u t E u r o p e and the so-called New World. t h e a r e a o f h e r r e s e a r c h e s ) w e r e s e x . d e s p i t e his c l a i m s t o t h e c o n t r a r y . It w a s t h e a g e . e c o n o m y . ' c h a n g e ' a l o n e c a n n o t e x p l a i n t h e w i t c h .r e l a t e d ' m e a n t that witch-hunts w e r e ' o n e degree r e m o v e d f r o m an a t t a c k o n w o m e n as s u c h ' . b u t d e n i e d and eventually. a n d in p r a c t i c e . ' S e x . and especially because the accusations w e r e often from o n e w o m a n t o another rather than b e t w e e n w o m e n and m e n . ideology. c l e a r l y shies a w a y f r o m s e e i n g this o u t c o m e Marianne Hester PATRIARCHAL AND RECONSTRUCTION WITCH-HUNTING O NE OF T H E MOST CONSISTENT yet least u n d e r s t o o d aspects o f the f o r w o m e n as in a n y w a y r e l a t e d t o m a l e — f e m a l e c o n f l i c t .p r o d u c t o f a patriarchal society.s p e c i f i c . b e l i e f s w o m e n ' s p o s i t i o n as d e p e n d e n t p o o r a n d e s p e c i a l l y as p o o r w i d o w s . talking o f course primarily about the English c o n t e x t . Essentially. she a r g u e d . when formal witchcraft accusation w a s at its h e i g h t . T h o m a s . H e points o u t that during t h e late T u d o r and earlv Stuart period. T h e accusation o f w o m e n w a s n o t m e r e l v a r e f l e c t i o n o f an a g e . a n d t h a t 4 w o r k o f C h r i s t i n a L a r n e r has p r o b a b l y h a d t h e g r e a t e s t i m p a c t o n h i s t o r i a n s ' p e r c e p t i o n s o f w h y it w a s l a r g e l y w o m e n w h o w e r e a c c u s e d o f w i t c h c r a f t d u r i n g t h e e a r l y m o d e r n p e r i o d . this s c e n a r i o o f s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s in a c o n t e x t o f c h a n g i n g . and o n e e x a m p l e of.h u n t s in e a r l y m o d e r n E u r o p e ( a n d e s p e c i a l l y in S c o t l a n d . w o u l d b e a c c u s e d o f using w i t c h c r a f t t o c a u s e t h e m i s f o r t u n e . conflictual.

t h a t o f p l a c i n g as c e n t r a l t o w i t c h h u n t i n g t h e i m p o s i t i o n o f a C h r i s t i a n p o l i t i c a l i d e o l o g y and t h e a r g u m e n t t h a t t h e s e x . sex under male control.h u n t s w e s e e an o r i e n t a t i o n o f p e r s e c u t i o n a w a v f r o m m e n . p r o c r e a t i v e s e x u a l i t y u n d e r t h e c o n t r o l o f m e n . a n d a l s o a w a y f r o m t h e e l i t e . H o b b y . 2 0 i n s t a n c e s o f l o c a l l y n c h i n g s . w h i l e n o t t h i n k i n g b e y o n d this a n d m e r e l y r i d i c u l i n g and marginalising the a r g u m e n t that the w i t c h . b u t t h e y w e r e a l s o r e f l e c t e d in a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s a n d d e c i s i o n s a b o u t t h e b e h a v i o u r o f w o m e n f r o m t h e l o w e r c l a s s e s as e x e m p l i f i e d b y c h u r c h c o u r t c a s e s : m a n y w o m e n w e r e p u n i s h e d t h r o u g h t h e s e c o u r t s f o r b e a r i n g an i l l e g i t i m a t e c h i l d and for f o r n i c a t i o n . 1 1 W h e r e the early m o d e r n witch-hunts r a r e c o n c e r n e d w e h a v e m u c h e v i d e n c e o f this s e x u a l i s i n g p r o c e s s . societies that are m a l e dominated rely on constructions o f 'the f e m a l e ' which present w o m e n as b o t h d i f f e r e n t a n d i n f e r i o r t o m e n .r e l a t e d n e s s . t h e n w e s h o u l d use the t e r m s to reflect a m o r e c o m p l e x situation.s p e c i f i c has u n f o r t u n a t e l y s e t u p a d u a l i s m w h i c h it is o f t e n difficult to l o o k b e v o n d — w h e r e historians t e n d to c o n c u r emphatically with h e r a r g u m e n t o f s e x . as w e l l as d u r i n g . and t h i s r e q u i r e s a d e e p e r l o o k at m a l e — f e m a l e r e l a t i o n s ( o r g e n d e r r e l a t i o n s ) d u r i n g t h i s period than most historians have so far a t t e m p t e d . 1 9 d e e m e d the only a p p r o p r i a t e place f o r any sexual activity t o B u t in this p r e .h u n t s w e r e indeed sex-specific. C o h n .r e l a t e d ' a n d ' s e x . As I have p o i n t e d o u t e l s e w h e r e .h u n t s . w h e r e it w as particularly female sexuality that was perceived to m a k e w o m e n different men. older and often w i d o w e d w o m e n during the sixteenth and m o r e s e x .s p e c i f i c .r e l a t e d o r m e r e l v s e x . 1 7 s e x . This misses the point (otherwise implicit in the q u o t a t i o n f r o m L a r n e r ) t h a t g e n d e r r e l a t i o n s a r e an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f C h r i s t i a n p o l i t ical i d e o l o g y . talking specifically about w o m e n ' s activities within the patriarchal c o n t e x t o f s e v e n t e e n t h . W e n e e d in p a r t i c u l a r t o t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t t h e dynamic b e i n g p e r c e i v e d i n c r e a s i n g l y as f e m a l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . w h i l e at a l o c a l l e v e l . a n d s e x u a l i s a t i o n . s o m e p r o b l e m s with L a r n e r ' s d i c h o t o m y ol sexrelated versus sex-specific. h e t e r o s e x u a l i n t e r c o u r s e outside m a r r i a g e . We may. A s she says w h e n d i s c u s s i n g t h e l i n k b e t w e e n w i t c h c r a f t a n d t h e t y p e o f p e r s o n a c c u s e d .c e n t u r y E n g l a n d . defining 'sex-specific' by r e f e r e n c e to a set o f characteristics which c a n s e e m i n g l y a p p l y t o o n l y o n e s e x i g n o r e s t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f c h a n g e in t h e p e r c e p t i o n and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f anv characteristics a t t r i b u t a b l e t o m e n o r w o m e n . w h e r e continuity o f inequality b e t w e e n m e n and w o m e n relies on changing f o r m s o f oppression o v e r t i m e . and how and w h y w i t c h . b e l i e f s a n d a c t i v i t i e s a g a i n s t w i t c h e s w e r e — in m o s t E u r o p e a n c o u n t r i e s — s e x . t h a t is the oppressive relations. men'. I w o u l d suggest that the witchh u n t s w e r e n o t m e r e l y s e x .w i t c h . c o n s i d e r b e l i e f s a m o n g s t t h e l e a r n e d e l i t e a n d t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a legal f r a m e w o r k f o r d e a l i n g w i t h w i t c h c r a f t . Witchcralt In m o s t o f t h e c o u n t r i e s a f f e c t e d b v w i t c h . structures and discourses that characterise patriarchy for w o m e n . t o w a r d s w o m e n and in p a r t i c u l a r a c c u s a t i o n m u s t b e s e e n in this c o n t e x t o f w i d e s p r e a d f e a r s t h a t w o m e n w e r e b y . b u t this capitulation o r resist a n c e is n o t f r e e o r s e l f . t h e w i t c h . For a start. n o m e a n s c o m p l y i n g w i t h the ideal o f the quiet c o m p l i a n t w i f e . O n e o f t h e r e s u l t s . is o b v i o u s in t e x t s s u c h as t h e Malleus Malefcarum. a l t h o u g h at a l o c a l and i n f o r m a l l e v e l . i n c l u d i n g b o t h m e n a n d w o m e n . for i n s t a n c e . o r ing. h o w e v e r .h u n t s .h u n t i n g directly linked to s e x / g e n d e r . w e see that u n e q u a l male—female social relations w e r e also r e f l e c t e d in a n d c o n s t r u c t e d b y t h e e m e r g i n g n o t i o n o f t h e w i t c h . c o n s t r u c t i n g a n d b e i n g c o n s t r u c t e d b y t h i s .h u n t s w a s m a l e d o m i n a t e d o r p a t r i a r c h a l .s p e c i f i c at t h i s t i m e . T from Women Finally.r e l a t e d v e r s u s s e x . I f w e f o c u s o n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e w i t c h c r a f t c o n s t r u c t a m o n g s t t h e l e a r n e d e l i t e in t h e c e n t u r i e s l e a d i n g up t o the w i t c h . 9 p o o r e r . s u p p o s e d l y o f w i t c h e s . that is. M a l e s e x u a l i t v w as n o t d i s c u s s e d in a s i m i l a r l y n e g a t i v e m a n n e r . T h e r e are. as t h e site o f a h e t e r o s e x u a l . t h e p a t r i a r c h a l i d e a l f o r w o m e n w a s t h a t they should b e quiet ( n o t scolds) and subservient t o their husbands ( n o t c u c k o l d i n g t h e l a t t e r ) . this d i f f e r e n c e .r e l a t e d n e s s o f a c c u s a t i o n s is s e p a r a t e f r o m this a n d m e r e l y t o d o w i t h t h e a g e old stereotype of the witch. M a r r i a g e .d e t e r m i n e d : it c a n n o r m a l l y o n l y o c c u r w i t h i n t h e l i m i t s and on t h e t e r m s o f t h e f r a m e w o r k set by the d o m i n a n t g r o u p . b u t also h o w w o m e n a c t e d w i t h i n this c o n t e x t as s u b j e c t s m a k i n g c h o i c e s . as s e x r e l a t e d . 11 procreative In r e c e n t v e a r s t h e r e has b e e n a t r e m e n d o u s d e v e l o p m e n t in t h e t h e o r i s i n g o f t h e p r o c e s s i n v o l v e d in w h a t T h o m a s t e r m s t h e ' w a r b e t w e e n t h e s e x e s ' . t h e r e is s o m e e v i d e n c e t o s u g g e s t t h a t t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p is d i r e c t : ' W i t c h . T h i s l e a d s us t o a n o t h e r r e l a t e d p r o b l e m . and t h e r e b y m a i n t a i n i n g . a m o n g s t t h e p e a s a n t r y . for e x a m p l e . with a resultant g e n d e r i n g o f social r e l a t i o n s . w e must take into a c c o u n t that European p r i o r t o . b u t — at d i f f e r e n t t i m e s a n d at d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s — b o t h r e l a t e d t o a n d s p e c i f i c t o w o m e n .h u n t i n g is w o m e n h u n t i n g o r at l e a s t i t is t h e h u n t i n g o f w o m e n who h o w w o m e n ought to conduct t h e m s e l v e s ' .h u n t p e r i o d t h e f o c u s o f p e r s e c u t i o n w a s t h o s e p e r s o n s c o n s i d e r e d b y t h e C a t h o l i c c h u r c h as ' h e r e t i c s ' . t o u s e S c a r r e ' s w o r d s . W i t h r e g a r d t o t h e e a r l y m o d e r n p e r i o d t h e r e is s o m e e v i d e n c e t o s u g g e s t t h a t t h e p r i n c i p a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e w i t c h were of 1 0 If w e are to understand was society at h o w a female w i t c h s t e r e o t y p e d e v e l o p e d .h u n t s . documents n T h e s e ideas w e r e e x p r e s s e d m o s t obviously by the middle and u p p e r c l a s s e s .278 MARIANNE HESTER PATRIARCHAL RECONSTRUCTION AND WITCH-HUNTING 279 sex-related. ' t o sav t h a t m o r e w o m e n t h a n m e n w e r e t r i e d f o r w i t c h c r a f t b e c a u s e the stereotypical witch was a w o m a n ' . w a s — as e x p r e s s e d in m a n y s e r m o n s .s p e c i f i c . Larner's own work is actually more a m b i g u o u s t h a n t h e d i c h o t o m y t h a t has a r i s e n f r o m it s u g g e s t s . e s p e c i a l l y p r i o r t o t h e w i t c h . social s t r u c t u r e s and discourses manv different levels. r 1 3 d o n o t fulfill t h e m a l e v i e w o f Secondly. has o u t l i n e d t h e m a n y w a y s w o m e n ' s lives w e r e c u r t a i l e d by c o m p a r i s o n t o t h o s e o f m e n . a l b e i t l i m i t e d o n e s : ' W o m e n find w a y s o f c o p i n g w i t h their o p p r e s s i o n and ways o f resisting it. L a r n e r ' s use o f the d i c h o t o m y o f w e r e c o n s i d e r e d s e x u a l l y i n s a t i a b l e a n d p r o n e t h e r e f o r e t o sinful a n d d e v i a n t b e h a v i o u r . i n c l u d i n g a p e r c e p t i o n nature o f patriarchy. Formal witch accusations change from being m e r e l y sex-related to being 1 4 W e n e e d t o m o v e b e y o n d the d i c h o t o m y set up by L a r n e r ' s w o r k so that w e m a y d e v e l o p a m o r e s o p h i s t i c a t e d analysis o l w h y t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h o s e a c c u s e d o f w i t c h c r a f t d u r i n g t h e s i x t e e n t h a n d s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s w e r e w o m e n . p e r s e c u t i o n o f t h o s e d e e m e d t o b e w i t c h e s was probablv m o r e specific to w o m e n even then. o f ' t h e f e m a l e ' i n a v a r i e t y o f w a y s o v e r t i m e . 1 8 D u r i n g this p e r i o d o f t h e w i t c h . b v c o n t r a s t t o t h e ' n o r m ' w h i c h w a s c o n s t r u e d as h e t e r o s e x u a l .s p e c i f i c ' at a l l . t h a t all a p p e a r t o b e o f w o m e n . N e i t h e r s e x has a m o n o p o l y o n a n y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o r b e h a v i o u r — e x c e p t as c o n s t r u c t e d a n d s p e c i f i e d at a n y p a r t i c u l a r t i m e . seventeenth centuries. I f w e are t o u s e t h e t e r m s ' s e x . eroticisation. a s e x u a l d o u b l e s t a n d a r d w i t h f e m a l e s e x u a l i t v p r e s e n t e d as i n f e r i o r t o t h a t o i m e n . It is n o t e n o u g h . p a m p h l e t s and o t h e r l i t e r ature at the t i m e take p l a c e . is p a r t i c u l a r l y i m p o r t a n t in c o n s t r u c t 1 6 m a l i c e a n d u s e o f s u p e r n a t u r a l p o w e r as m o r e l i k e l y t o b e f e m a l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .

serving the material interests of men a n d a l s o . s h o w s us t h a t w o m e n w e r e b y n o m e a n s c o n s i d ered passive or compliant. as f o u n d patriarchal relations. makes him the h o m e l i e r with that sex ever s i n c e . b u t t h e c o n s t r u c t o f t h e f e m a l e as an a c t i v e l v s e x u a l . p r o v i d e d a fullv a r g u e d t h e o r y by lawyer o f this link. s e x u a l l v d e v i a n t . . b y t h e S e r p e n t s d e c e i v i n g o f E v e at t h e b e g i n n i n g . M i c h a e l D a l t o n . E u r o p e and N e w England. b e c a u s e it p r o b a b l y a l l o w e d t h e m g r e a t e r a c c e s s t o r e s o u r c e s a n d p o t e n T h e b e l i e f in w i t c h c r a f t . conflict and discourse to gain a b e t t e r understanding o f h o w the c o n s t r u c t 'unneighbourly' others.280 MARIANNE HESTER PATRIARCHAL RECONSTRUCTION AND WITCH-HUNTING 281 T h e w o m e n a c c u s e d o f w i t c h c r a f t m a y b e s e e n as v i c t i m s o f t h e w i t c h . f o r e x a m p l e . 2 1 C l i v e H o l m e s n o t e s t h a t T h o m a s C o o p e r . w a s c o n s t r u e d as witchcraft. B u t i f a m a n m a k e s d e m a n d s o f a w o m a n t h e n it still t h e w o m a n w h o is a c c u s e d o f w i t c h c r a f t — as in t h e c a s e o f J o h n C h a u n d e l e r a n d E l l e i n e S m i t h e a t t h e 1 5 7 9 t r i a l in C h e l m s f o r d . o t h e r w o m e n a n d m e n ) as i n f e r i o r a n d s u b o r d i n a t e t o m e n . which Alice's widowed husband. T h e p a m p h l e t f o r t h e t r i a l t e l l s us t h a t E l l e i n e S m i t h e i n h e r i t e d s o m e m o n e y from Alice. w h e r e a p p a r e n t u s e o f w i t c h c r a f t b e c a m e an a l t e r n a t i v e f o r w o m e n physical v i o l e n c e . in a t e x t o f 1 6 1 7 . so it is e a s i e r t o b e i n t r a p p e d in t h e s e g r o s s e s n a r e s o f t h e D e v i l l . g e n d e r d i s c o u r s e o f t h e w i t c h . i t is T h o m a s P r a t w h o t a k e s M o t h e r S t a u n t o n ' s g r a i n b u t it is M o t h e r S t a u n t o n w h o e n d s u p a c c u s e d o f w i t c h c r a f t . In t h i s . b u t also changes B e r n a r d ' s insistence that w i t c h e s ' m a r k s m a y b e found a n y w h e r e — a l t h o u g h in ' v e r y h i d d e n p l a c e s ' Thereafter. b o t h E n g l i s h a n d other E u r o p e a n . A n d d e v i a n c e . a d e c a d e l a t e r . Here we have a direct example o f the link b e t w e e n 2 3 women w e r e b v d e f i n i t i o n ( l i k e E v e in t h e g a r d e n o f E d e n ) . that is. It w a s m e n w h o s t o o d t o g a i n b y t h e l i n k i n g o f w i t c h c r a f t a n d ' t h e f e m a l e ' b e c a u s e it p r o v i d e d t h e m w i t h a g r e a t e r m o r a l and social status than w o m e n . H e has p r e v i o u s l y e q u i v o c a t e d a b o u t w h e t h e r o r n o t s h e is a w i t c h . r e s u l t is t h a t s h e e n d s u p as t h e a c c u s e d . and not d u r i n g t h e s i x t e e n t h a n d s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s . does n o t agree that the witch-hunts m a y be linked directly t o male—female c o n f l i c t o r s e x s t r u g g l e . W e have to look to the general c o n t e x t o f male—female r e l a t i o n s . tially l u c r a t i v e c r a f t s a n d t r a d e s t h a n w o m e n . . W e c a n s e e t h i s p r o c e s s c l e a r l v in t r i a l might ' m a d e an e x p l i c i t a t t e m p t t o c o n f l a t e t h e f a m i l i a r ' s s u c k i n g b l o o d f r o m t h e w i t c h with the continental discussion o f the coven and the w i t c h ' s relationship with Satan'. and that accusations w e r e often directed by women women attrib'incaa g a i n s t w o m e n . as T h o m a s s u g g e s t s . G e n e r a l b e l i e f s a b o u t w i t c h c r a f t in t h e e a r l y m o d e r n p e r i o d w e r e l i n k e d t o s e x / g e n d e r in s u c h a w a y t h a t it w a s e x p e c t e d t h a t w o m e n a n d n o t m e n w o u l d u s e w i t c h c r a f t f o r r e t r i b u t i o n and t o cause h a r m — that is. In t h e E n g l i s h t r i a l m a t e r i a l this a l l e g i a n c e w a s e x p l i c i t w i t h s o m e o f t h e l a t e r t r i a l s s u c h as t h e 1 6 4 5 t r i a l s i n E s s e x i n v o l v i n g M a t t h e w H o p k i n s .h u n t p e r i o d w o m e n w e r e p e r c e i v e d as m o r e l i k e l y t o b e s e x u a l l y d e v i a n t t h a n m e n b e c a u s e in a G o d . I h a v e a l r e a d v i n d i c a t e d t h a t T h o m a s in Religion and the Decline of Magic.f e a r i n g a n d d e e p l y s u p e r s t i t i o u s s o c i e t y . so it w a s f e a r e d . usually a w o m a n . m u s t b e s e e n as a g e n d e r e d i d e o l o g y within m e r e l v . a n d b e f o r e his d e a t h states that Elleine b e w i t c h e d h i m so that he was unable t o eat or digest m e a t . W o m e n ' s supposedly insatiable and i m m o r a l sexuality was likely t o lead t h e m i n t o a l l e g i a n c e w i t h t h e D e v i l w h o c o u l d fulfill t h e i r s e x u a l d e s i r e s e v e n b e t t e r . s t a t i n g at o n e t h a t she is n o t b u t h a v i n g o n a n o t h e r o c c a s i o n ' r a c e d h e r f a c e w i t h a N e d l e ' subsequently believed himself bewitched. Daemonologie: T h e r e a s o n is e a s i e : f o r as t h a t s e x e is f r a i l e r t h a n m e n i s . u n a b l e t o use the m e a n s 2 6 usually e m p l o y e d by m e n . in his The which time and When his chickens eat Mother evidence amongst the construction of 'the Staunton's grain t h r e e o r four dozen o f t h e m die. u p o n w h i c h a c c u s a t i o n o f w i t c h c r a f t r e l i e d . B e r n a r d ' s Guide to Grand-Jury Men. u t e d this s i t u a t i o n t o w o m e n ' s p o s i t i o n a n d g e n e r a l l a c k o f p o w e r in a p a t r i a r c h a l p a b l e o f u s i n g t h e m o r e n o r m a l o r s o c i a l l v a p p r o v e d m e a n s o f r e v e n g e s u c h as o r r e c o u r s e t o law c o u r t s ' . h e n c e s i n f u l b e i n g . T h o m a s a r g u e s t h a t this s h o w s t h e r e w a s a c o n f l i c t between rather than a struggle b e t w e e n the sexes. In t h e c i r c u l a r . as b o t h T h o m a s a n d L a r n e r i n d i c a t e .o l d f e m a l e s t e r e o t y p e o f t h e w i t c h d o e s n o t . 2 4 than m e n . o t h e r household items and even m o n e y . w i t h r e g a r d t o social relations in F r e n c h peasant s o c i e t y . w h e r e m e n and w o m e n carry out similar activities b u t only w o m e n end up accused o f witchcraft. O t h e r s have m o r e convincingly s o c i e t y . T h e w o m a n m a k i n g t h e d e m a n d is t h e n a c c u s e d o f w i t c h c r a f t .h u n t s . t h e n d e m a n d e d f o r h i m s e l f . in i t s e l f e x p l a i n w h y w o m e n p r e d o m i n a t e d a m o n g s t t h e a c c u s e d d u r i n g the early m o d e r n period. to a more explicit focus on the genitals.f u l f i l l i n g . t h a n m e r e m o r t a l m e n . or w h e r e it is w o m e n w h o e n d u p a c c u s e d o f m e n ' s m i s d e m e a n o u r s . D a l t o n c i t e s B e r n a r d ' w i t h e n t h u s i a s t i c a p p r o v a l ' . . b u t a l s o i m p l i c i t in t h e s y m b o l i s m o f t h e f a m i l i a r a n d t h e w i t c h e s ' m a r k s in o t h e r t r i a l s . her mother. w i t h t h e p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h e f o u r t h e d i t i o n o f The Country Justice a n d J P . O n e p a t t e r n w e a r e all familiar w i t h f r o m the trial material involves the suspect asking s o m e o n e a n o t h e r h o u s e h o l d . t h a t it is t h e s e x o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l t h a t d e t e r m i n e s h o w a t a s k is p e r c e i v e d rather than the nature o f the task i t s e l f . It t r a n s p i r e s t h a t J o h n a n d E l l e i n e h a v e f a l l e n o u t o v e r his d e m a n d f o r t h e m o n e y . the process o f c o n s t r u c t i o n and positioning o f w o m e n ( b y t h e m s e l v e s . the refuser o r her/his family subsequently suffers death o r i l l n e s s . T h e a g e . that w o m e n w h o w e r e accused o f witchcraft largely used witchcraft against o t h e r w o m e n . T h e p r o c e s s o f g e n d e r i n g is o f central i m p o r t a n c e : that is. In a n o t h e r i n s t a n c e . from for f o o d . witch's magistrates r e c o m m e n d e d that the pre-trial body search for 2 2 material f r o m England. 2 3 marks be 'focused upon the genital a r e a ' . s e l f . f r o m t h e s a m e t r i a l . T h e p a m p h l e t for the trial describes M o t h e r S t a u n t o n walking past T h o m a s P r a t ' s h o u s e w i t h s o m e g r a i n . as a m e a n s o f d e a l i n g w i t h g u i l t a f t e r behaviour. S u b s e q u e n t l y J o h n C h a u n d e l e r d i e s . t h e r e was a g e n d e r i n g o f e x p e c tations and m e a n i n g s . W h e n refused this. H e w a n t s s o m e f o r his c h i c k e n s a n d t a k e s i t f r o m h e r . Women were perceived to be morally weak by c o m p a r i s o n with m e n . John Chaundeler. J a m e s V I o f S c o t l a n d ( l a t e r a l s o J a m e s I o f E n g l a n d ) w r o t e . b u t this c o u l d also m a k e t h e m appear u l t i m a t e l y stronger o f ' t h e f e m a l e ' b e c a m e s y n o n y m o u s w i t h t h e w i t c h . as I shall d i s c u s s further b e l o w . S i n c e w e find f r o m t h e t r i a l m a t e r i a l . as w a s w e l l p r o v e d t o b e t r u e . D e l p h y has p o i n t e d out. a n d t h e m a n y s u b t l e o r n o t so s u b t l e p r e s s u r e s u n d e r l y i n g s u c h c o n s t r u c t i o n s a n d p o s i t i o n i n g . A n d sexualisation o f t h e w i t c h e s ' m a r k was m a d e especially a p p a r e n t a f t e r 1 6 3 0 . supposedly providing t h a t she has b e w i t c h e d t h e m . f e m a l e ' as d i f f e r e n t a n d i n f e r i o r t o m e n a n d ' t h e w i t c h ' .

a n d it w a s b e t w e e n w o m e n t h a t t h e r e l a t e d t r a n s a c t i o n s o f l e n d i n g a n d b o r r o w i n g w e r e likely t o take p l a c e . Chris Middleton i n d i c a t e s t h a t it w a s specificin ally m e n w h o b e c a m e p r e d o m i n a n t in t h e o c c u p a t i o n s w h i c h w e r e f o r e m o s t in t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e earlier feudal p r o d u c t i o n ) . b e s i t u a t e d (as T h o m a s s i t u a t e s t h e m ) w i t h i n t h e w o m e n ' s c o m m u nity. Yet while C o o p e r c l e a r l y t a k e s a g e n d e r e d v i e w o f t h e c u r s e r . the early m o d e r n p e r i o d . b u t also v u l n e r a b l e t o ' p o s s e s s i o n ' and t o b e c o m i n g b e w i t c h e d . h e a r g u e s t h a t i t was role. It is t o o e a s y t o e n d u p b y f o c u s i n g o n w o m e n ' s a c c u s a t i o n s a g a i n s t o n e a n o t h e r as a p r o b l e m r e l a t e d l a r g e l y t o w o m e n a n d w o m e n ' s c o m m u n i t i e s . m a t e r i a l a n d p s v c h o l o g i c a l p r e s s u r e s o n t h e m t o d o s o . a m o n g s t o t h e r t h i n g s . which r e i n f o r c e w o m e n ' s inferiority and sexual servitude to m e n . yet with decreasing means o f livelihood for women. 3 4 Moreover. S h e is r e c o r d e d as s a v i n g t h a t A l e s w a s m e r e l y a n g r y at J o h n s o n . using the m e a n s available t o t h e m to to i m p r o v e their c o n d i t i o n . N a w a l El S a d a w i e x p l a i n s h o w o l d e r f e m a l e r e l a t i v e s ( m o t h e r s . T h e r e a r e e x a m p l e s in t h e t r i a l p a m p h l e t s a n d r e c o r d s o f w o m e n w i t c h c r a f t t o b e t t e r t h e i r s i t u a t i o n in m a n y d i f f e r e n t w a y s . while w o m e n played a m o r e ancillary 2 9 s e e h e r e an e x a m p l e o f t h e g e n d e r i n g behaviour. B y c o n t r a s t . c a n b e u n d e r s t o o d in m o r e ' r a t i o n a l ' t e r m s w i t h o u t r e c o u r s e t o w i t c h c r a f t . of carrying out clitorectomies on other w o m e n is a c a s e in p o i n t . g r a n d m o t h e r s ) are the ones w h o have the 'privilege' to carry out these operations. the difficulties o f a g r o w i n g mass o f landless peasants. b u t o f e x p e c t a t i o n s a b o u t w o m e n ' s At a local level w e thus see w o m e n S e e i n g w i t c h c r a f t as a f o r m o f n e g a t i v e p o w e r a v a i l a b l e t o w o m e n in a p a r t i c u l a r i n e g a l i t a r i a n c o n t e x t is an o v e r a l l p i c t u r e o f t h e w i t c h . b u t w e also see h o w the c o n s t r u c t s w h i c h led t h e m u s e w i t c h . A t a l o c a l l e v e l . and that t h e r e are vari o u s i d e o l o g i c a l . t h a t is as w o m e n ' s p r o b l e m . o t h e r s a r e d e s c r i b e d as n o t s h a r i n g t h i s b e l i e f a n d a p p e a r e d t o b e m u c h m o r e sceptical a b o u t w i t c h c r a f t . h e m a k e s n o m e n t i o n o f this fact. T h o m a s d o e s n o t t a k e this u p . saw a deterioration o f w o m e n ' s r o l e in p r o d u c t i o n . and r e s u l t a n t p r e s s u r e on r e s o u r c e s . w e h a v e t o t h i n k o f a s o c i e t y w i t h a r a p i d i n c r e a s e in p o p u l a t i o n . and w o m e n w e r e b e i n g e x c l u d e d f r o m c r a f t s a n d t r a d e s s u c h as w e a v i n g a n d b r e w i n g as w e l l as f r o m t h e g u i l d s . or those p r o v i d i n g e v i d e n c e . t h e c o l l e c t o r f o r t h e p o o r . F i n a l l y I w a n t t o l o o k at t h e m a l e female conflict around r e s o u r c e s that f o r m e d W e n e e d t o c o n s i d e r that w o m e n ' s social position m a d e t h e m vulnerable t o b e c o m i n g w i t c h e s . a m o n g s t o t h e r effects r e m o v 3 2 T h o m a s . b u t . and especially w i d o w s . a p p e a r s t o b e l i e v e t h a t she c o u l d a n d did u s e w i t c h c r a f t to v i o l e n c e . for instance. and elite ideas a b o u t t h e unruliness o f w o m e n and the n e e d t o c o n t r o l t h e m . H e q u o t e s T h o m a s C o o p e r ' s ' s t o c k p a t t e r n ' o f t h e link b e t w e e n cursing and witchcraft accusation: ' W h e n a b a d . In t h e t r i a l p a m p h l e t s f r o m E s s e x w e find t h a t . i n s t e a d c o n c l u d i n g in g e n d e r . W h e n w e l o o k use does link s o m e o f these e c o n o m i c changes t o the i m p o v e r i s h m e n t and d e p e n d e n c e o f c e r t a i n l o w e r . exacerbated earlier. that is. A l e s N e w m a n . T h e r o l e w o m e n h a v e in c o n t e m p o r a r y a n d h i s t o r i c a l M i d d l e E a s t e r n a n d N o r t h African societies. u s e o f w i t c h c r a f t c a n b e s e e n as a p a r t o f t h e day t o d a y a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e ' w o m e n ' s c o m m u n i t y ' b u t — c r u c i a l l y — r e l y i n g o n w i d e r patriarchal g e n d e r e d n o t i o n s o f t h e w i t c h . 3 0 a p a r t o f t h e c o n t e x t u a l b a c k g r o u n d t o t h e e a r l y m o d e r n w i t c h . because the words she uses t o signify a n g e r — ' h a r d e d misdemeanour. T h o m a s g i v e s n u m e r o u s e x a m p l e s o f c u r s i n g l e a d i n g t o an a c c u s a t i o n o f w i t c h c r a f t . wdiile s o m e o f t h e w o m e n p r o b a b l y did b e l i e v e t h a t t h e y h a d o r c o u l d h a v e u s e d w i t c h c r a f t . In t a k i n g e a r l y m o d e r n E n g l a n d as o u r e x a m p l e . b u t they w e r e integrally linked t o and served t o r e i n f o r c e — o r r e c o n s t r u c t — the m a l e status q u o . e c o n o m i c change o f male—female conflict and witchcraft accusation — even if w e c a n n o t always establish a direct link b e t w e e n accused o f witchcraft and specific instances a r o u n d r e s o u r c e s and l i v e l i h o o d s . t o a l a r g e e x t e n t . e c h o e d bv Sharpe. F o r e x a m p l e . W e only o f language and m e a n i n g s . p o w e r . as a l r e a d y h i n t e d at b y t h e c a s e o f E l l e i n e S m i t h e ' s i n h e r i t a n c e a n d J o h n C h a u n d e l e r ' s c l a i m s on it. it is a l s o a p p a r e n t . in a 1 5 8 2 t r i a l at S t O s y t h . with w o m e n outnumbering m e n .c l a s s w o m e n . E l i z a b e t h B e n n e t ( w h o is said t o d e n y t h a t s h e h e r s e l f u s e d w i t c h c r a f t ) is s h o w n t o a t t e m p t t o e x p l a i n h o w s h e t h i n k s an a c c u s a t i o n a g a i n s t a n o t h e r w o m a n . e v e n i f t h e i r a c t i o n s at t h e s a m e t i m e p l a c e b o t h t h e m s e l v e s a n d o t h e r w o m e n m o r e firmly within p a t r i a r c h v . a n d h e n c e w i t c h c r a f t . H o l m e s provides s o m e interesting evidence o f m e n ' s and w o m e n ' s relative social positioning and the p r o c e s s o f formal w i t c h c r a f t accusation suggesting that w o m e n ' s accusations against each o t h e r w e r e indeed s e c o n d a r y to m e n bringing the c a s e s t o c o u r t . W i t c h c r a f t accusations m a y t h e r e f o r e . s h e e p a n d a w e a l t h y h u s b a n d via t h e cat-familiar S a t a n . a l t h o u g h his e x a m p l e s a r e a l m o s t e x c l u s i v e l y o f w o m e n . T h e r e appears to b e a link b e t w e e n m a l e individuals female relations.h u n t s . t h a t w i t c h c r a f t b e l i e i s w e r e bv no means h e g e m o n i c among the w o m e n accused of witchcraft. at t h e 1 5 6 6 t r i a l at C h e l m s f o r d o n e o f t h e a c c u s e d . e n c l o s u r e o f c o m m o n l a n d ( a l r e a d y h a p p e n i n g in E s s e x at this t i m e ) ing the space for grazing for w o m e n ' s l i v e s t o c k . A n u m b e r o f historians have d o c u m e n t e d h o w t h e p e r i o d o f pre-capitalism and early capitalism. U s i n g d a t a f r o m t h e E n g l i s h h o m e c i r c u i t .l i k e b e h a v i o u r at t h e s a m e t i m e c o n s t r u c t e d t h e m as w i t c h e s — w h e t h e r t h e y w a n t e d this o r n o t . b u t w e m u s t a l s o b e c a r e ful n o t t o l o s e sight o f t h e c o m p l e x i t y o f m a l e — f e m a l e r e l a t i o n s t h a t s u c h u s e o f w i t c h c r a f t b v w o m e n e n t a i l s . primarily m e n w h o b r o u g h t charges o f witchcraft.n e u t r a l t e r m s t h a t c u r s i n g ' w a s a m e a n s b y w h i c h t h e w e a k and defenceless tried t o avenge themselves u p o n their e n e m i e s ' . has a l s o s u g g e s t e d t h a t w h i l e m e n use physical Elizabeth Frauncis. F u r t h e r m o r e .t o n g u e d w o m a n shall c u r s e a p a r t y . a n d 2 7 p r o c u r e .282 MARIANNE HESTER PATRIARCHAL RECONSTRUCTION AND WITCH-HUNTING 283 Larner. M a t e r i a l f r o m o t h e r societies and p e r i o d s also g i v e s us s o m e i m p o r t a n t c l u e s a b o u t t h e r o l e w o m e n m a y h a v e in r e l a t i o n t o o t h e r w o m e n . then. H e argues that t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e e m e r g e n t c a p i t a l i s t p r o d u c t i o n (as h a d a l s o b e e n t h e c a s e capitalist . 5 3 o f witchcraft was a m e a n s (albeit negative) bv which w o m e n could increase their using more c l o s e l y at w i t c h t r i a l m a t e r i a l . w o m e n w e r e o f t e n t h e o n e s in c h a r g e o f t h e d o m e s t i c g o o d s t h e w i t c h r e q u e s t e d . T h i s m a y also b e u n d e r s t o o d by the m o r e widely a c k n o w l e d g e d c o n c e p t o f the feminisation o f ' p o v e r t y ' — a c o n c e p t that also applies within the p r e s e n t global e c o n o m i c context. b e c a u s e h e did n o t g i v e h e r t h e h a n d o u t s h e r e q u i r e d . a l t h o u g h w h a t she says e n d s u p b e i n g t i e d i n t o t h e evidence against Ales. w o m e n a r e o f t e n p l a c e d in t h e p o s i tion o f m o r a l g a t e k e e p e r s w h o socially c o n t r o l o t h e r w o m e n . as i n d i c a t e d W i t h i n the particular patriarchal c o n t e x t o f early m o d e r n E u r o p e .h u n t s . r a t h e r t h a t as an o u t c o m e o f a w i d e r p a t r i a r c h a l c o n t e x t . not 3 1 d e a t h shall s h o r t l y f o l l o w . C o n v e n t s had b e e n c l o s e d during the R e f o r m a t i o n . W e find t h a t w i t h i n p a t r i a r c h a l s o c i e t i e s . h o w e v e r . B y a c t i n g as m o r a l g a t e k e e p e r s t h e y m a v f e e l v a l u e d o r at l e a s t h a v e s o m e p o w e r . w o m e n a r e m o r e l i k e l y t o u s e v e r b a l v i o l e n c e as r e p r e s e n t e d b y c u r s i n g . this is a s h r e w d t o k e n t h a t s h e is a w i t c h ' . 2 8 s p e e c h e s ' — a r e at t h e s a m e t i m e c o n s t r u c t e d as a sign o f w o m e n ' s as c u r s i n g .

o r in h e r o w n r i g h t as a w i d o w o r as a s i n g l e woman living in h e r father's household. a n d p o o r . S h e is a l m o s t a s t o c k figure in m i s o g y n i s t i c l i t e r a t u r e : 'a g r o t e s q u e o l d w i t c h . and w o m e n ' s relative dependence on m e n ensured. poem.s e l l e r s . suggests that t h e r e was a struggle b e t w e e n the sexes around making a living.l i k e w o m a n ' . B e n n e t t s h o w s c o n v i n c i n g l y h o w t h e p o p u l a r and a l s o n e g a t i v e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e a l e w i f e . Overall. 4 4 It w a s o n l y w i d o w s w h o r e t a i n e d a c c e s s t o b r e w i n g t h r o u g h i n h e r i t a n c e o f ale b e c a m e an 3 9 The women. c a n i n d e e d find s o m e e v i d e n c e o f a r e a l i g n m e n t o f m a l e h i g h l y u n s c r u p u l o u s t r a d e s w o m a n ( p . w h o w e r e l i c e n s e d as a l e h o u s e k e e p e r s ( t h e p o o r e n d o f t h e m a r k e t ) b u t few as i n n k e e p e r s ( t h e r i c h e r p a r t o f t h e m a r k e t ) . W o m e n d i d t h e b r e w i n g o f ale n e e d e d f o r i m m e d i a t e consumption by the h o u s e h o l d . Sylvia W a l b y s u g g e s t s in a d d i t i o n t h a t w h e n t h e r e a r e c h a n g e s in t h e such as changes in production methods. the changes to the b r e w i n g i n d u s t r y m u s t s e r i o u s l y h a v e r e d u c e d t h e e a r n i n g c a p a b i l i t i e s o f village women. w i d o w e d a n d p o s s i b l y o l d e r . and thus c o n t r o l of. For e x a m p l e . w h i l e at t h e s a m e t i m e a l l o w i n g m e n t o b e s e e n in a m u c h m o r e p o s i t i v e l i g h t . b r e w i n g . b u t it w a s d u r i n g t h e s i x t e e n t h and s e v e n t e e n t h centuries that b r e w i n g brewing finallv changed from a female to a male of the a policy pursued bv occupation. F o r w o m e n during the early m o d e r n period m o r e likely to b e financially financial independence was genermarried ally l i n k e d t o t h e i r m a r i t a l s t a t u s . by 1 7 0 0 . r 4 0 W i t h r e g a r d t o t h e d i s c u s s i o n in t h i s c h a p t e r t h e r e a r e a n u m b e r o f i m p o r t a n t issues w h i c h a r i s e f r o m t h e e x a m p l e o f t h e b r e w i n g i n d u s t r y .284 MARIAN NE HESTER PATRIARCHAL RECONSTRUCTION AND WITCH-HUNTING 285 p r o d u c t i o n d e v e l o p e d 'at t h e e x p e n s e o f sexual e q u a l i t y ' . the wife very likely b e c o m i n g m o r e d e p e n d e n t on h e r husband. s c u l p t u r e . 3 8 b a d l y a f f e c t e d : ' T h e y b e c a m e less a n d less a b l e t o c o m p e t e w i t h m e n o r m a r r i e d c o u p l e s for c u s t o m e r s . 1 7 0 ) . l a b o u r i n g w o m e n . 1 6 9 ) was linked t o her d e m i s e . w i d o w s . a n d d r a w i n g s v u l n e r a b l e in t h e e c o n o m y . a n d ' t h e D e v i l a n d s h e b e s i b ' [like b r o t h e r a n d s i s t e r ] ( p . B e n n e t t suggests that the masculinisation o f t h e b r e w i n g trade had the effect o f changing the e c o n o m i c balance b e t w e e n husbands and w i v e s . w o m e n a n d c h i l d r e n a t m o s t m e a l s . a n d t h e p o s i t i o n o f w i d o w s as b o t h b r e w e r s a n d a l e . For instance the earlv sixteenth-century The Tunning of Elynor Rummying and ridiculous old w o m e n . B u t t h e y m i g h t a l s o b e a m o n g s t t h o s e in c o m p e t i t i o n w i t h m e n f o r w o r k in l u c r a t i v e a r e a s s u c h as b r e w i n g . a w o m a n could only practise a craft alongside h e r h u s b a n d . t h e link o f this c o n s t r u c t i o n t o t h e w i t c h . 1 7 1 ) . 4 2 simpli- f y i n g t h e c o l l e c t i o n o f t a x e s . o c c u p a t i o n i n f o r m a l l y r e s e r v e d f o r p o o r w i d o w s d u r i n g this p e r i o d . and. economic 3 5 expense around 3 6 (p. T h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e a l e w i f e as d i f f e r e n t a n d i n f e r i o r t o t h e m a l e b r e w e r o f t e n r e l i e d . D e p e n d e n t o r in . and u n m a r r i e d w o m e n might All oi these changes w e r e v e r y s l o w and u n e v e n . as i d e n t i f i e d b y T h o m a s . licenses and e c o n o m i c l e g i t i m a t i o n ' . w o m e n c a r r y i n g o u t a c r a f t o r t r a d e . w h i c h also had the effect o f ensuring that m e n r a t h e r than w o m e n o b t a i n e d the b e t t e r positions in. land. a n d a m a l e — f e m a l e p o w e r r e l a t i o n s t a k e s p l a c e in o r d e r t o e n s u r e m a l e d o m i n a n c e . with f e m a l e p o w e r r e l a t i o n s in t h e s i x t e e n t h a n d s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s d u e t o t h e m a j o r c h a n g e s t a k i n g p l a c e in t h e e c o n o m y a t t h a t t i m e . T h e c a s e o f b r e w i n g p r o v i d e s an i n t e r e s t i n g e x a m p l e . in p r o s e .b a s e d t r a d e was domii n h e r i t t h e i r f a t h e r s ' l a n d a n d p r o p e r t y o r e n g a g e in o t h e r p r o d u c t i v e Thus during the period o f the witch-hunts w o m e n ' s w o r k was largely defined by the institution o f marriage. a n d in p a r t i c u l a r ale ( b r e w e d w i t h o u t h o p s ) . W o m e n o n t h e i r o w n . and b o t h served t o justify the social c o n t r o l o f w o m e n and the m a i n t e n a n c e o r r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the patriarchal status quo s e c u r i n g m e n ' s d o m i n a n t position within t h e social o r d e r . w h o w e r e still a b l e t o b e b r e w e r s m i g h t t h e r e f o r e p o s e a t h r e a t t o the increasingly male m o n o p o l y o f the trade. patriarchy was maintained within the developing economy. p a r t i c u l a r l y w i d o w s . T h e s e i n c l u d e : t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f w o m e n as i n c a p a b l e o f b r e w i n g . w h i c h had b e e n a h o m e . l i k e the construction o f the witch. was b e c o m i n g a factory-based industry c o n t r o l l e d by a steadily shrinking g r o u p o f wealthy m a l e s . b e c a u s e b e e r . c a r v i n g s . a n d m o r e s p e c i f i c a l l y . that is. p r o p e r t y a n d / o r craft o r trade. g o v e r n m e n t with the aim o f imposing stricter regulation and supposedly Bennett concludes: w i t c h c r a f t : s h e e n t e r t a i n e d a c u s t o m e r w h o ' s e e m e d t o b e a w i t c h ' . conflict We d e p i c t s t h e a l e w i f e E l y n o r R u m m y n g as a g r o t e s q u e sphere. O n the other hand. Sue Wright s i m i l a r l y p o i n t s o u t t h a t in t h e u r b a n e n v i r o n m e n t o f T u d o r a n d S t u a r t S a l i s b u r y t h e r e w e r e n u m e r o u s w o m e n . 4 3 nated by w o m e n four centuries earlier. 3 7 Where the example of brewing is c o n c e r n e d . w a s t h e s t a p l e d r i n k o f m e n . t h a t i s . w o m e n accused o f witchwho were among the most c r a f t t e n d e d t o b e t h o s e . and also o p e n i n g up n e w areas for m a l e c o n t r o l . Unmarried women w e r e also Alongside the other e c o n o m i c changes m e n t i o n e d by T h o m a s . w h o is o f d u b i o u s r e l i g i o u s a n d s e x u a l v i r t u e . w o m e n w e r e d e e m e d s u b o r d i n a t e t o t h e i r h u s b a n d s (as r e f l e c t e d in t h e l a w ) a n d under their husbands' control W i d o w s might inherit their husbands' occasionally activities. at t h e of women. E v i d e n c e o f w o m e n ' s w o r k . in a r e a s s u c h as b r e w i n g and weaving. we in t h e e x a m p l e o f E l y n o r R u m m y n g . on her sexualisation or eroticisation. allusions t o h e r also b e i n g associated find. 1 7 0 ) . Excluding w o m e n f r o m b r e w i n g o c c u r r e d alongside the separation ( b y m e n ) f r o m t h e sale ( b y w o m e n ) o f b e e r . b a l l a d s . p o e t r y . f r o m t h e i r h u s b a n d s . B r e w i n g is a c k n o w l e d g e d as an i m p o r t a n t i n d u s t r y in t h e e a r l y m o d e r n p e r i o d . B e n n e t t argues that such popular representations u n d e r m i n e d t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e a l e w i f e b y q u e s t i o n i n g h e r g e n e r a l t r u s t w o r t h i n e s s . e s p e c i a l l y w i d o w s . b u t a l s o a c o r r u p t t r a d e s w o m a n w h o sells h e r c u s t o m e r s a d u l t e r a t e d d r i n k a t h a r d d r i v e n p r i c e s in a d i s g u s t i n g a t m o s p h e r e (p. t h a t i s . she d r e s s e d u p ' a f t e r t h e S a r a c e n ' s g u i s e ' a n d l i k e an E g y p t i a n ' . T h e y w e r e vulnerable to misogynistic a t t a c k o r p o s s i b l y w i t c h c r a f t a c c u s a t i o n as a r e s u l t . w e r e independent than married w o m e n because financially. and p r i o r t o the s i x t e e n t h and s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s w o m e n also b r e w e d ale f o r s a l e . w h o w e r e m o r e a b l e t o d o s o .e c o n o m i c c h a n g e s in t h e s i x t e e n t h a n d s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s w e find t h a t t h e p i c t u r e r e g a r d i n g w i t c h c r a f t a c c u s a t i o n a n d women becomes more complex. It is d i f f i c u l t t o t e l l w h e t h e r ale w i v e s o r w o m e n who brewed beer were accused of witchcrait directly. J u d i t h B e n n e t t has d o c u m e n t e d h o w t h e e x c l u s i o n o f w o m e n f r o m b r e w i n g t o o k p l a c e o v e r a c o n s i d e r a b l e p e r i o d . as w e l l as i m p r o v i n g t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e b e e r b r e w e d . B u t t h e i r o v e r a l l e f f e c t clear. B y l o o k i n g a t m a t e r i a l c o n c e r n i n g s o c i o . M i c h a e l R o b e r t s d o c u m e n t s h o w t h e selling t o b e w i d o w s . 4 1 Y e t the construction of the alewife and the w i t c h relied on similar t e r m s . t a k i n g o n his c r a f t . the e m e r g i n g capitalist e c o n o m i c structure. p r o c e e d i n g o v e r the course o f several centuries and affecting different regions o f the c o u n t r v at d i f f e r e n t t i m e s a n d in d i f f e r e n t w a y s . d r a m a .

The Women's Renaissance England Marriage in Elizabethan Sex Hair and Sharp ( U r b a n a . Virtue of Necessity S e e A m u s e n . Women and Work in Pre-Industrial 1 9 8 5 ) . D e l p h y . S e e C h a p t e r 2 0 f o r L a r n e r ' s d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n ' s e x . The Main 1977). Early 29 Modern England ( C a m b r i d g e 1 9 8 5 ) . J . K a r l s o n . 1981). W a l k e r and E . Enemies C . O u r u n d e r s t a n d i n g is e n h a n c e d b y c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e c o n f l i c t u a l a n d d y n a m i c m a l e . Instruments C i t e d in L a r n e r . 181—206. 111. Laura G o w i n g .. 26 27 See M o n t e r . M o n t e r suggests that acts such as i n f a n t i c i d e w e r e also a f o c u s f o r p r o s e c u t i o n o f w o m e n in t h e e a r l y m o d e r n p e r i o d t o a g r e a t e r e x t e n t than had b e e n t h e case p r e v i o u s l y . 51. Order and Disorder H o l m e s p r e s e n t s this a r g u m e n t in C h a p t e r 2 3 . S. in C h a r l e s and D u f f i n . ' S c o l d i n g w o m e n c u c k e d o r w a s h e d ' . Lewd Women. 93. a n d b y t a k i n g a d e e p e r l o o k at t h e c o n t e x t o f m a l e female relations than historians h a v e o f t e n t e n d e d t o p u r s u e w i t h r e g a r d t o this p e r i o d a n d t o p i c . K e r m i d e and G . N C in England 1 m e r e l y r e c o n s t r u c t e d t o m a i n t a i n t h e s t a t u s q u o . S t e v e n s o n . f r o m t h e mid-sixteenth to the mid-seventeenth century. 1975). See Ibid. Religion. 1 9 8 5 ) . 5 2 ) . Revenge (London 1935). P . w o m e n a c c u s e d as w i t c h e s w e r e o f t e n p r e s e n t e d as s e x u a l l y deviant. S h e p h e r d . Lewd Women in ally in a less advantageous situation than men within the changing economy. L a r n e r . A .s p e c i f i c at t h i s t i m e .h u n t i n g b e c a m e s e x . S e e also D e m o s . 18 19 E . Courts. The Death of Nature N o r m a n C o h n . C . Women and the English Class Culture Church and P. The Feminisation Face of Eve ( L o n d o n Society. Entertaining K a r l s o n .r e l a t e d t o ( C h i c a g o 1 9 8 6 ) . Analysis S e e C h a p t e r 2 3 in this b o o k b y G i v e H o l m e s . D . f o r a discussion convicted specifically of of K e r m o d e and W a l k e r . c h . D i c k e r m a n . D e m o s . of God ( L o n d o n 1 9 8 1 ) . e d s . El S a d a w i . The Hidden H e s t e r . C l a r k . of a 183^. 1 9 8 5 ) . H . e d s . Chapter 5. An Ordered H . (Chapel Hill. Malleus M e r c h a n t . Forum. H . M . Hester. N .s p e c i f i c ' and ' s e x . Sixteenth 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 T h o m a s . Women History of Women in the Seventeenth and Theory Century (London [1919] 1982). E . 1 9 8 6 ) . Servants. The Devil the Shape 16 17 of a Woman (New York 1988). Entertaining F r a n c e ' . I n g r a m . L. (Cambridge lists m a n y 1972). Europe's Inner Demons Maleficarum 1980). 1 1 3 . by e x a m i n i n g the p r o c e s s e s involving g e n d e r i n g o f social relat i o n s . Servants. d e s c r i b e s h o w s c r a t c h i n g t h e face and e s p e c i a l l y t h e n o s e o f a w o m a n was a p u n i s h m e n t i n d i c a t i n g that she w a s a w h o r e . s e r v i n g as o n e m e a n s o f maintaining and r e c o n s t r u c t i n g male d o m i n a n c e and m a l e p o w e r women. and Magic in Sixteenth and Seventeenth Century Europe (London 30 31 32 33 34 563.h u n t s that t a k e s m a l e and f e m a l e 35 C . 15 F o r a g o o d e x a m p l e o f an a p p r o a c h t o t h e w i t c h . 28 Thomas. Enemy: A Materialist of Women's Oppression (London women's Notes 1 2 3 In C h a p t e r 5 o f this c o l l e c t i o n . H e a t t r i b u t e s t h e i n c r e a s e d f o c u s o n w o m e n as t h e a c c u s e d d u r i n g t h e early m o d e r n p e r i o d t o 'a d r a m a t i c rise in f e a r and hatred o f w o m e n during the era o f the R e f o r m a t i o n ' (p.i n d u s - . Servants of Magic (Harmondsworth 1973). and Wicked Witches (London 1992). An Ordered B . Review. U n d e r d o w n . especially within t h e peasantry and a m o n g s t artisans and traders amongst w h o m witchcraft accusations predominated. M a r t i n I n g r a m p r o v i d e s e x t e n s i v e e x a m p l e s and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f such cases f r o m courts: 1987). An Ordered K e i t h T h o m a s . Religion J . and J . Society.286 MARIANNE HESTER PATRIARCHAL RECONSTRUCTION AND WITCH-HUNTING 287 c o m p e t i t i o n . Ind. Women and Work. in J . L . in A . 139-42. (London G . p . original indictments o u t c o m e s : Before 21 22 23 24 25 the Bawdy Court ( L o n d o n S e e S h a r p e . punishment of women s c o l d i n g appears t o parallel w i t c h c r a f t a c c u s a t i o n in t h a t it b e c a m e m o r e s e v e r e in t h e s a m e p e r i o d as w i t c h c r a f t b e c a m e a m a j o r f e m a l e c r i m e . 520. of Darkness.f e m a l e r e l a t i o n s at t h e t i m e . 173-40. (London 1984). H. Enemies K l a i t s . f o r i n s t a n c e . T h o m a s . t h r o u g h b o t h f o r m a l w i t c h c r a f t a c c u s a t i o n and b y legal r e t r i b u t i o n against o t h e r s e x u a l d e v i a n c e . W e can s p e c u l a t e that t o ' r a c e Women.r e l a t e d ' witchcraft. 512. S p r e n g e r . the areas that w e r e particularly r e l e v a n t t o t h e e m e r g i n g capitalist e c o n o m y and also the g r o u p T o c o n c l u d e . 5 . and ' W o m e n ' s l a b o u r and t h e t r a n s i t i o n t o p r e . W a l k e r . that is. and the Decline Satan ( O x f o r d 1 9 8 2 ) . S e e A m u s s e n . e x p e c t a t i o n s a n d d i s c l o s u r e s c o n c e r n i n g t h e w i t c h in t h e e a r l y m o d e r n p e r i o d w e m a y s u r m i s e t h a t w i t c h . The Devil in the Shape 166-7. The Crime and the Courts. ' A w o m a n u n d e r t h e i n f l u e n c e : a case o f alleged possession in s i x t e e n t h . W o m e n w ere g e n e r r r e l a t i o n s i n t o a c c o u n t at t h e h e a r t o f t h e discussion see C . Lewd Women. M i d d l e t o n . e d s . 4 5 6 7 B . Crime and the Courts (London 1994).c e n t u r v Century Journal. M . W o o d b r i d g e . Working a l t h o u g h w i t h o u t using t h e s e t e r m s . (London ( N u r e m b e r g 1 4 9 6 ) . E. of S e e S. 1 16—36. 8. W r i g h t . H e s t e r . K l a i t s . L e v a c k . An Ordered Women's Studies International M . Witchcraft Society ( O x f o r d 1 9 8 8 ) . H e s t e r . p o w e r and t h e l a w ' . e d s . in h e r discussion o f s l a n d e r litigation in early m o d e r n L o n d o n . 9 2 . S c o t t . S e e also C .6 8 . S e e ' L a n g u a g e . F l e t c h e r and J . 56. 5 7 . 5 3 4 — 5 4 . K r a m e r and J . p o t e n t i a l l y u n d e r t h r e a t in t h e r a p i d l y c h a n g i n g s o c i e t y . Religion. K l a i t s . of Poverty ( B l o o m i n g t o n . 22 ( 1 9 9 1 ) . either way they might b e seen to pose a threat.1 4 ( 1 9 7 9 ) . Klaits also appears t o d o c u m e n t this c h a n g e f r o m s e x . A m u s s e n . 58-9. New Left trial c a p i t a l i s m ' . 562. vis-a-vis was P a t r i a r c h y . D u f f i n . Hester. It thus appears t h a t d u r i n g t h e s i x t e e n t h and s e v e n t e e n t h centuries t h e r e w e r e a v a r i e t y o f a t t e m p t s t o c o n t r o l s e x u a l b e h a v i o u r in p a r t i c u l a r and w o m e n specifically. of God. sex-specific. W i l l i a m M o n t e r suggests that sex remains the m o s t important feature o f m o s t witchcraft accusations. Lewd Women. Satan. Religion. S e e M . K e l l y . C h a r l e s and I. 'The dynamics of male domination 13 ( 1 9 9 0 ) . Middle 20 the church (London 1 9 8 8 ) . D70—1640 and using t h e w i t c h c r a z e in s i x t e e n t h and s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y E n g l a n d as case s t u d y ' . England (London Life Woman. c u r s i n g and in p a r t i c u l a r s c o l d i n g as a specifically f e m a l e o f f e n c e . [Mother S t a u n t o n ' s ] face w i t h a n e d l e ' similarly s y m b o l i s e d that she was b e i n g p r e s e n t e d in s e x u a l i s e d t e r m s . S c a r r e . H o b b y . 5 1 2 . 'The in t a m i n g o f t h e s c o l d ' . Society. A . 1 4 7 . S e e I. 4 8 . The Witch-hunt Satan in Early Modern Europe (London 1 9 8 7 ) . 1987). S e e A m u s e n . in Women. ' T h e s e x u a l division o f l a b o u r in feudal E n g l a n d ' .

s e e m m o r e conspicuously t r u e t h a n w h e n c o n s i d e r i n g t h e p r o s e c u t i o n o f w i t c h c r a f t in T u d o r a n d S t u a r t c o u r t s . T HE PROBLEM OF GENDER is o n e t h a t has o n l y r e c e n t l y b e g u n t o a t t r a c t demonstrated participation the attention o f historians o f c r i m e . in C h a r l e s and D u f h n . 228. 31 ( 1 9 9 1 ) . T h e r e have. 9 ( 1 9 8 4 ) . Women. . 122-80. b e e n a n u m b e r o f w o r k s that have the potential fruitfulness o f various lines o f approach: the different r a t e s o f t h e t w o s e x e s in v a r i o u s t y p e s o f o f f e n c e . W a t k i n s . 3. for witchcraft or related matters b e f o r e the A r c h d e a c o n s o f Essex and C o l c h e s t e r b e t w e e n the 1 5 6 0 s and the . e d s . and Jim Sharpe WOMEN. we discover that the Y e t even the first 4 and W o r k on compathis made 1630s r a b l e s o u r c e s s u g g e s t s t h a t this r a t e w a s f a i r l y u s u a l f o r t h e i n d i c t m e n t o f m a l e f i c 3 step that might be taken b e y o n d figures simple counting exercise exposes complications. As is w e l l k n o w n . Society. w i t c h c r a f t in E n g l a n d . o f course. S e e A m u s s e n . Women Work. 1 0 0 — 2 1 . again at first sight. and d e e d s t h e y are m e n " : I m a g e s o f w o r k and g e n d e r in early m o d e r n E n g l a n d ' . h u s w y f e s and h u c k s t e r s " : T h e e m p l o y m e n t o f w o m e n in T u d o r and S t u a r t S a l i s b u r y ' . WITCHCRAFT AND THE LEGAL PROCESS 40 41 42 43 44 S. Patriarchy Journal. B e n n e t t . m a l e a n d f e m a l e i n v o l v e m e n t i n l i t i g a t i o n . 1986). W r i g h t . M . and w o m e n ' s w o r k ' . R o b e r t s .288 MARIANNE HESTER C h a p t e r Workshop 22 36 37 38 39 S. L . ch. of Family History. W a l b y . History C l a r k . p o p u l a r c u l t u r e . M a c f a r l a n e gives t h e o c c u p a t i o n o f o n e husband o f an a c c u s e d w i t c h ( o u t o f f o r t y n i n e k n o w n f o r E s s e x ) as a b e e r b r e w e r . " ' C h u r m a i d s . 162. p e r h a p s m o s t n o t a b l y in c h u r c h c o u r t s l a n d e r c a s e s . m o r e severe w h e n w o m e n are u n d e r consideration. a n d t h e p u n i s h m e n t s i n f l i c t e d u p o n t h e m . as a b u n d l e o f a s s u m p t i o n s o r a t t i t u d e s about h o w m e n and w o m e n should b e h a v e . and the English c o m m o n law s e e m e d designed t o constrain t h e r i g h t s o f w o m e n as m u c h as p o s s i b l e . ' " W o r d s t h e y are w o m e n . An Ordered Bennett. 3 A t first s i g h t t h e n . t h e s t a t u t e s it e n f o r c e d w e r e d r a w n u p a n d p r o m u l g a t e d by m e n . C h a r l e s and D u f f i n . as w e l l as in u s i n g c o u r t r e c o r d s t o h e l p t o u n d e r s t a n d g e n d e r as a s o c i a l c o n s t r u c t . T h e E n g l i s h l e g a l s y s t e m w a s r u n b y m e n . a r o u n d 9 0 p e r c e n t o f p e r s o n s i n d i c t e d f o r w i t c h c r a f t at t h e H o m e C i r c u i t assizes b e t w e e n t h e p a s s i n g o f t h e E l i z a b e t h a n s t a t u t e in 1 5 6 3 t h e a b o l i t i o n o f l a w s a g a i n s t w i t c h c r a f t in 1 7 3 6 w e r e w o m e n . S e e H e s t e r . and o f the o p e r a t i o n o f legal svstems. ' M i s o g y n y . it w o u l d s e e m t h a t h i s t o r i a n s s t u d y i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n w o m e n a n d t h e l e g a l p r o c e s s in t h e past have had their task r e s t r i c t e d t o doing little m o r e than cataloguing t h e ways in w h i c h w o m e n w e r e d i s a d v a n t a g e d . Working M . R e w o r k i n g the 236 presentments for Essex. 2 T h e d i f f i c u l t i e s in f o l l o w i n g s u c h a course are. unfortunately. 1 Yet it r e m a i n s c l e a r t h a t c o n s i d e r a b l e w o r k n e e d s t o b e d o n e b o t h in c h a r t i n g t h e s t a t i s t i c a l c o n t o u r s o f s u c h m a t t e r s as p r o s e c u t i o n s b r o u g h t a g a i n s t m e n a n d women. a n d o n s u c h g e n d e r related (or indeed gender specific) matters as i n f a n t i c i d e and scolding. 182. at Work ( C a m b r i d g e 169. Lewd S. ' S p i n s t e r s \ Journal Women and Work. in I b i d . Nowhere w o u l d this p r e m i s e . o f the l a w . 'Misogyny'. Life.

s e a r c h e d f o r m a r k s u p o n Some v e a r s l a t e r . o r o f giving e v i d e n c e against alleged witches. passing t h e r e b y c h a n c e ' . w i t h w o m e n . a n o t h e r p a r e n t w h o t h o u g h t h e r child t o b e b e w i t c h e d . 'by a p p o i n t m e n t . t h e c r e d e n t i a l s n e e d e d b y w o m e n s e a r c h e r s w e r e those resulting I r o m g o o d character rather than technical e x p e r t i s e . i n t e n d i n g t h e r e b y t o p r e v e n t t h e i r s e a r c h o f h e r ' . r e c o r d e d h o w in 1 6 2 1 t h e s u s p e c t e d w o m e n w e r e t h e i r b o d i e s ' . suggested that w o m e n with some type o f knowledge might be favoured. A l i c e P u r s t o n . T h e earliest k n o w n r e f e r e n c e to appointing w o m e n for this task c o m e s . England. T o u n d e r s t a n d t h e o p e r a t i o n o f t h e l a w in its full c o n t e x t . ' t o p r o c u r e a w a r r a n t f o r s e a r c h i n g t h e said M a r y S i k e s a n d Susan B e a u m o n t ' . t h e d i r e c t i o n s e e m s t o h a v e c o m e s i m p l y f r o m t h e l o c a l constable. in b o t h t h e s e a r e a s f e m a l e p a r t i c i p a t i o n in t h e l e g a l s y s t e m s e e m e d t o b e at l e a s t e q u a l t o t h a t o f m e n . This suggests that the legitimation f o r s e a r c h i n g o p e r a t e d at b o t h an official a n d a p o p u l a r l e v e l . t h e b e h a v i o u r o f b o t h w i t c h e s a n d t h e i r a c c u s e r s in c o u r t .t h i r d s o f t h e c u n n i n g f o l k w h o m M a c f a r l a n e w a s a b l e t o i d e n t i f y in his E s s e x s t u d y w e r e m e n . a n d as E n g l i s h t r i a l s p r o g r e s s e d its i m p o r t a n c e r e m a i n e d c e n t r a l . T h e m a r k w a s s e e n as a m e t h o d o f establishing g u i l t in some fifteenth-century Continental trials. O n e a r e a w h e r e w o m e n w e r e o f u n i q u e i m p o r t a n c e in t h e j u d i c i a l t r i a l w i t c h c r a f t w a s in t h e i r b e i n g u s e d t o s e a r c h f o r t h e w i t c h ' s m a r k . one such group o f searchers d e s c r i b e d as ' w o m e n o f c r e d i t e ' . S a w y e r ' s t r i a l w a s r a t h e r h a n g i n g fire. w o m e n s h o w e d n o r e l u c t a n c e in a c c u s i n g other women of being witches. D o r o t h y R o d e s . T h e first p a m p h l e t 9 T h e d e c i s i o n t o s e a r c h s e e m s . w i d e r e v i d e n c e a b o u t f e m a l e i n v o l v e m e n t as w i n e s s e s in w i t c h c r a f t c a s e s . in l a r g e m e a s u r e . b a s e d as it m u s t b e o n i m p e r f e c t a n d at t i m e s c o n t r a d i c t o r y m a t e r i a l s . b r o u g h t in b y t h e o f f i c e r o u t o f t h e s t r e e t e . w hose m e m b e r s w e r e aware o f the n e e d t o search for the m a r k . t o h a v e i n v o l v e d an i n t e r p l a y T b e t w e e n official a t t i t u d e s and t h e d e m a n d s o f t h e l o c a l c o m m u n i t y . s t r e s s e d t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e m a r k as a m e a n s o f e s t a b l i s h i n g p r o o f . H e told the court that 'information was given unto h i m b y s o m e o f h e r n e i g h b o u r s .l i k e g r o w t h in t h e p u d e n d a . it is n e c e s s a r y t o g o b e v o n d t h e c o u r t r o o m a n d t h e s t r i c t r u l e s o f legal p r o c e d u r e . but whose services w e r e s o e a g e r l y s o u g h t b y t h e p o p u l a t i o n at l a r g e . a Riding justice w h o s e e m s t o have b e e n m u c h i n v o l v e d in w i t c h c a s e s . t h o s e ' g o o d ' w i t c h e s w h o a t t r a c t e d so m u c h hostility f r o m the writers o f English demonological tracts. 1 4 W h a t it d o e s d e m o n s t r a t e is t h a t w i t c h c r a f t prosecutions dominated c a n n o t b e i n t e r p r e t e d p u r e l y as t h e o p p r e s s i o n o f w o m e n b y a m a l e a c c o u n t o f a w i t c h c r a f t trial in E n g l a n d . was ' s e a r c h e d by w e o m e n appointed bv a justice o f p e a c e ' . A male witness r e c o r d e d h o w he w e n t with o n e o f R o d e s ' sons t o H e n r y T e m p e s t . c a n o n l y l e a d t o v e r y tentative conclusions. 1 2 This being incident involved the searching o f a n u m b e r o f suspected witches by local w o m e n . along with o t h e r felons. f r o m t h e c o u r t l e e t o f S o u t h a m p t o n in 1 5 7 9 . a Y o r k s h i r e g e n t l e m a n w h o t h o u g h t t w o o f his d a u g h t e r s w e r e b e i n g b e w i t c h e d . 'that keepes the Session House for the City o f L o n d o n . S h e w a s j o i n e d b y ' t w o g r a v e m a t r o n s . h o w e v e r . accused of malefic witchcraft w e r e w o m e n . C o n t e m p o r a r y u s a g e d i c t a t e d t h a t i f t h e d i s c o v e r y o f s u c h a m a r k w a s t h o u g h t vital f o r p r o v i n g w i t c h c r a f t . S i x w o m e n . S a w y e r resisted the s e a r c h e r s . 1 0 w e e x a m i n e c u n n i n g m e n a n d w o m e n . 1 3 it s e e m s safe t o t a k e as o u r s t a r t i n g p o i n t t h a t t h e o v e r w h e l m i n g m a j o r i t y o f p e r s o n s and that a study o f w i t c h c r a f t c o u l d o f f e r a p o t e n t i a l l y f r u i t f u l a p p r o a c h t o t h e s t u d y o f w o m e n ' s i n v o l v e m e n t in pause t o p r o c e s s ' . 8 I n d e e d . on the strength o f N o r t h e r n C i r c u i t assize d e p o s i t i o n s . t w o . Perhaps the m o s t r e m a r k a b l e evidence w e have o f the dynamics o f the search f o r t h e m a r k c o m e s f r o m t h e c a s e o f E l i z a b e t h S a w y e r . legal s y s t e m . a n d . w h i c h s u g g e s t s a d e g r e e o f official s a n c t i o n i n g o f t h e p r o c e s s . Four years earlier. ' T h e Bench'.290 JIM SHARPE WOMEN. was d e p e n d e n t on the initiative o f the p e r s o n o f f e n d e d against — the v i c t i m . m o s t c o m m o n l v t o o k t h e f o r m o f a t e a t . M a r y Sikes. S o m e o t h e r cases. w i t h n e i t h e r t h e j u d g e n o r the j u r y apparently having m u c h idea o f w h a t to m a k e o f the evidence b e f o r e t h e m . a w i d d o w o f honest reputat i o n ' . e x e c u t e d a f t e r t r i a l at t h e M i d d l e s e x S e s s i o n s in 1 6 2 1 . w e a r e t o l d . 6 F u r t h e r c o m p l i c a t i o n s arise w h e n that half a d o z e n h o n e s t m a t r o n s should b e a p p o i n t e d t o strip w i d o w W a l k e r and t o d e t e r m i n e i f s h e h a d ' e n y b l u d i e m a r k e o n h i r b o d i e w h i c h is a c o m o n t o k e n t o k n o w all w i t c h e s b y ' . O n e o f these was Margaret W e a v e r . intervened. T h e E n g l i s h c r i m i n a l l e g a l s y s t e m w a s an a c c u s a t o r y o n e . n o t e d h o w the suspected w i t c h . finger. T h e y found a teat 'the bignesse o f the little and the length o f halfe a finger'. A t t h a t p o i n t a j u s t i c e w h o h a d t a k e n c o n s i d e r a b l e i n t e r e s t in t h e c a s e . E d w a r d F a i r f a x . in a n o t h e r Y o r k s h i r e c a s e . T h e w o r d i n g o f t h e r e l e v a n t o r d e r suggests that the practice was already a familiar o n e . consider what we mean by the t e r m 'legal 7 T h a t t h e p r a c t i c e w a s w i d e l y k n o w n at t h i s t i m e is c o n f i r m e d 1 1 b y a t r a c t d e s c r i b i n g t h e p r o s e c u t i o n o f s e v e r a l w o m e n in E s s e x in 1 5 8 2 . t o l d in 1 6 5 5 h o w she a n d o t h e r w o m e n w e r e appointed t o search K a t h e r i n e Earle on the direction o f the constable o f their township w h o was h i m s e l f acting under direction f r o m a justice. a l t h o u g h t h e t h e n c u r r e n t c u s t o m o f s h a v i n g b o d y h a i r f r o m t h e s u s p e c t s t o facilit a t e t h e s e a r c h d o e s n o t s e e m t o h a v e b e e n f o l l o w e d in E n g l a n d . A n o t h e r Y o r k s h i r e w i t n e s s . . however. a n d t h e s u b s e q u e n t b e h a v i o u r o f c o n d e m n e d w i t c h e s o n t h e g a l l o w s . in a n o t h e r Y o r k s h i r e c a s e . behaving ' m o s t sluttish a n d l o a t h s o m e l y t o w a r d s t h e m . F o r t h e p r e s e n t . f r o m w h i c h it w a s t h o u g h t t h a t t h e w i t c h ' s f a m i l i a r s u c k e d b l o o d . It a l s o s e e m s t h a t i t g r a d u a l l y b e c a m e a c c e p t e d t h a t t h e m a r k . t h a t this E l i z a b e t h S a w y e r h a d a p r i v a t e a n d s t r a n g e m a r k e o n her b o d y . ' c o m m a n d e d o f f i c e r s a p p o i n t e d f o r t h o s e p u r p o s e s . t o f e t c h in t h r e e w o m e n to search the body of Elizabeth S a w y e r ' . p u b l i s h e d in 1 5 6 6 . T h e leet jury d i r e c t e d As this c a s e s u g g e s t s . by w h i c h suspition was c o n f i r m e d against h e r ' . cases T h e actual m e c h a n i c s by which w o m e n w e r e appointed t o search w i t c h e s varied e n o r m o u s l y . Arthur R o b i n s o n . the p r o s e c u t i o n o f w i t c h e s . A c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e s e t o p i c s . at F u y s t o n e . t h r e e m a r r i e d a n d t h r e e w i d o w s . perhaps a little u n e x p e c t e d l y . As I have argued e l s e w h e r e . t h e s e a r c h f o r it s h o u l d b e m a d e b y w o m e n . W h e r e a s o v e r 9 0 p e r c e n t o f t h o s e a c c u s e d at t h e E s s e x assizes f o r w i t c h c r a f t w e r e f e m a l e . b u t t h e w o m e n c o n t i n u e d in t h e i r e f f o r t s . t h e l e g a l p r o c e s s in e a r l y m o d e r n We must. w h i c h l o o k e d as t h o u g h it had r e c e n t l y b e e n s u c k e d . In this c h a p t e r I s h o u l d l i k e t o t a k e t h i n g s f u r t h e r . These connection however. e a c h o f t h e m d e p o s i n g s e p a r a t e l y t o c o u r t about the results o f the e x e r c i s e . figures suggest that w e will have t o refine our standard notions o f the b e t w e e n w o m e n and w i t c h c r a f t at s o m e f u t u r e p o i n t . and seek o t h e r points at w h i c h w e can delineate a distinctive f e m a l e contribution t o t h e p r o s e c u t i o n o f w i t c h e s : t h e r o l e o f w o m e n in s e a r c h i n g f o r t h e w i t c h ' s m a r k . WITCHCRAFT AND THE LEGAL PROCESS 291 reveal a male participation rate o f 2 9 per c e n t . This e v i d e n c e p r o v e d decisive and swung the j u r y against S a w y e r . including the alleged victims of witchcraft. a n d e v e n t o s p e c u l a t e a b o u t w h a t w a s g o i n g o n o u t s i d e a r e a s c o v e r e d b y t h e legal r e c o r d . at t h e h o u s e o f w i d o w P u l l e n s . t h e r e f o r e . w e r e a p p o i n t e d .

. f o r r e a s o n s w h i c h r e m a i n e l u s i v e . W a l k e r obviously desired that the search that was intended to clear her n a m e should m i r r o r p r o p e r l e g a l p r o c e s s as f a r as p o s s i b l e . Five w o m e n g a v e e v i d e n c e a g a i n s t J o a n S a l t e r . or near juries. s o m e t i m e s w i t h o f f i c i a l s a n c t i o n . while several o f t h e m offered those searching t h e m f o r t h o s e p h y s i c a l p e c u l i a r i t i e s w h i c h r i s k e d b e i n g i d e n t i f i e d as t h e w a t c h ' s m a r k . 2 1 investigators constitutes a part o f the legal p r o c e s s that m u s t m o d i f y the general assertion that w o m e n w e r e e x c l u d e d f r o m official p a r t i c i p a t i o n in i t . o n e o f t h o s e a c c u s e d o n t h e Isle o f E l y . T h e s u s p e c t e d w i t c h a t t r i b u t e d this t o an i n j u r y s u s t a i n e d w h i l e c a r r y i n g a b u n d l e o f thorns. w h e n the accuracy o f the plea was tested by 'honest w o m e n ' w h o . p e t i t i o n e d t h e b e n c h in t h a t y e a r . t h e g o o d reputation and g o o d c o n d u c t . a n d t h a t t h e p e r s o n s a b u s i n g h e r s h o u l d b e b o u n d o v e r t o a p p e a r t h e r e . P h i l i p s w a s i n v o l v e d as a w i t n e s s in s o m e o f t h e e a r l y E s s e x t r i a l s in t h e s p r i n g o f 1 6 4 5 a n d .292 JIM SHARPE WOMEN. w h e r e a t t h e w o m e n l a u g h i n g she p [ r e ] s e n t l v a f t e r said i t c a m e b y a b u r n e a n d s h e h a d it 3 6 y e a r e s . The English mediaeval ecclesiastical courts had sought female assistance in cases o f a n n u l m e n t o f m a r r i a g e o n the g r o u n d s o f the h u s b a n d ' s i m p o t e n c e . b u t the o p e r a t i o n o f t h e c h u r c h c o u r t s still m a d e o c c a s i o n a l u s e o f w o m e n as e x p e r t s in s e x u a l c a s e s . J o a n S a l t e r e x p l a i n e d t o an i n v e s t i g a t i n g j u s t i c e t h a t ' t h e m a r k e s t h a t s h e h a t h a b o u t h e r a r e n o t t h e m a r k e s o f a w i t c h b u t c a u s e d as i t p l e a s e t h G o d s h e b e l e a v e t h b y c h i l d b e a r i n g ' . H e n c e . Earle asked w h y s h e did n o t t e l l t h e w o e m e n t h a t s e a r c h e d . and t h e n tried by a trial j u r y o f a n o t h e r t w e l v e . one o f which penetrated her shoulder. witnesses or parties t o litigation. T h u s w h e n . T o clear herself. explanations 1 9 l i k e a m o u s e h o l e . it s e e m s c e r t a i n t h a t s i m i l a r s e a r c h e s . T h i s p o i n t is r e i n f o r c e d by a r e m a r k a b l e c a s e f r o m O x f o r d s h i r e in 1 6 8 7 . s u b m i t t e d willingly. t h i s u s e o f f e m a l e j u r i e s o r less f o r m a l g r o u p s o f f e m a l e executed. M o s t f a m i l i a r . e x i s t i n g as it did o n t h e p e r i p h e r i e s o f t h e legal process. M a r y P h i l i p s . again in E s s e x . Elizabeth Harvey. M a r y A r m i t a g e . s h e w as b r o u g h t in b y t h e a u t h o r i t i e s o f A l d e b u r g h in S u f f o l k t o s u p e r vise o t h e r w o m e n searching s u s p e c t e d w i t c h e s t h e r e . and was paid f o r such duties and also r e c e i v e d e x p e n s e s . S o m e t h i n g o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e s e a r c h f o r t h e w i t c h ' s m a r k is c o n v e y e d in t h e e x a m i n a t i o n o f another Yorkshire witch. o u t o f w h i c h being pressed issued b l o o d : that they w e r e n e i t h e r piles n o r e m r o d s (for she k n e w b o t h ) b u t e x c r e s s e n c e s like t o biggs with nipples w h i c h s e e m e d as i f t h e y h a d b e e n f r e q u e n t l y s u c k e d . s e e m s t o h a v e a c q u i r e d a w i d e r r e p u t e as a r finder o f the witch's mark. a t t e m p t e d t o arouse h i m s e x u a l l y . C e r t a i n l y . by ' s o m e t h a t w e r e t h e r e w h o p [ r e ] t e n d e d t o h a v e skill in t h e d i s c o v e r y o f w i t c h e s ' 1 8 T h e Hopkins episode a l s o s a w t h e e m e r g e n c e o f a w o m a n w h o c l e a r l y a t t a i n e d a r e g i o n a l r e p u t a t i o n as a s e a r c h e r f o r t h e w i t c h ' s m a r k . J o a n W a l k e r o f B i c e s t e r . O t h e r s m i g h t c l a i m a m o r e g e n e r a l e x p e r t i s e . uniquely qualified t o c o m m e n t on irregularities in the female genitals. o f c o u r s e . by baring t h e i r breasts and kissing o r fondling the m a n . a Y o r k s h i r e w i t c h . w a s t h e u s e m a d e b y f e m a l e j u r i e s in e x a m i n i n g w o m e n w h o c l a i m e d t o b e p r e g n a n t a f t e r conviction for felony. severall w i c k e d & mallicious persons enveing the g o o d n a m e . b u t also ' u p o n the assertion o f h o n e s t w o m e n . . credit & reputacon fame. 1 5 o f a g e n t l e m a n . A n n e t h e w i f e o f T h o m a s S a v o r y o f U p w e l l in N o r f o l k w a s e x a m i n e d w h o 'sayd that s o m e o f the divles i m p e s had sucked h e r ' . W o m e n w e r e a l s o f r e q u e n t l y i n v o l v e d as w i t n e s s e s a g a i n s t w i t c h e s . T h i s she did. w o u l d b e m a d e b v w o m e n in i n f a n t i c i d e a n d r a p e c a s e s . as t h e c a s e o f E l i z a b e t h S a w y e r s u g g e s t s . w e find a m i d w i f e b e i n g a p p o i n t e d t o s e a r c h the b o d y o f a s u s p e c t e d w i t c h 'in the p r e s e n c e o f s o m e s o b e r w o m e n ' . N o t all o f t h e w o m e n s e a r c h e d . and i n f o r m e d the author o f the narration o f the case t h a t s h e n e v e r s a w t h e l i k e in h e r l i f e : t h a t h e r f u n d a m e n t w a s open o f your p e t i t i o n e r ] have uniustly & without g r o u n d o r c o l l o [ u ] r o f r e a s o n given o u t in s p e e c h e s that y o u r p e t i t i o n e r ] is a w i t c h w h i c h o d i o u s n a m e y o [ u ] r p e t i t i o n e r ] u t t e r l y a b h o r s & d e t e s t s & all t h e w o r k s o f t h e d e v i l l . w a s s e a r c h e d b y f o u r w o m e n in 1 6 5 8 . was widespread and culturally familiar. t h e a t t e n t i o n o f t h e j u r y of women searchers w a s clearly r e c o g n i z e d . it w a s r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e s u s p i c i o n w a s n o t f o u n d e d m e r e l y on ' c o m m o n r e p o r t ' . T h i s last c a s e r e m i n d s us t h a t t h e f e m a l e s e a r c h e r s o f f i c i a l l y s a n c t i o n e d t o s e a r c h w o m e n w e r e but one o f a n u m b e r of types o f juries. and w h o h e n c e h o p e d to delay o r evade being T o g e t h e r . while W a l k e r ' s suggestion that she s h o u l d b e s e a r c h e d b y ' f o u r e & t w e n t y ' w o m e n is i n s t r u c t i v e . WITCHCRAFT AND THE LEGAL PROCESS 293 M i d w i v e s w e r e . a m a n f r o m B a r k i n g in E s s e x w a s p r e s e n t e d f o r i n c e s t w i t h his d a u g h t e r . w h o have had the examinacion of the young w e n c h ' . o f a m a r k e b e t w e e n e h e r e t h i g h s as w e l l as t h a t o f b e h i n d h e r e a r e s h e at first a n s w e r e d t h a t s h e did n o t k n o w o f i t . 2 0 Although the point needs further investi- g a t i o n . in 1 5 9 5 . Katherine Earle. T h e exceptionally rich documentation provided by the Matthew named and H o p k i n s t r i a l s o f 1 6 4 5 — 7 s h o w s a n u m b e r o f t h e m in a c t i o n . t o t h e e f f e c t t h a t d e s p i t e L a t e r in t h e c e n t u r y . T h e y did n o t s e r v e as m a g i s trates or jurors b u t the authority derived f r o m the crucial evidence o f their 'special k n o w l e d g e ' w a s a d r a m a t i c r e v e r s a l o f t h e i r g e n e r a l l y p o w e r l e s s r o l e s as p e t i t i o n e r s . A m i d w i f e T h e f r e q u e n c y o f r e f e r e n c e s in s u r v i v i n g d e p o s i t i o n s t o w o m e n s e a r c h i n g f o r t h e m a r k s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e p r a c t i c e . any widow her Bridget Reynolds searched one o f the Essex witches. w i d o w W a l k e r r e q u e s t e d that t h e b e n c h should o r d e r that she 'may be searched by foure & t w e n t y honest sober iudicious matrons & m a k e r e p o r t o f t h e i r o p i n i o n s at n e x t s e s s i o n s ' . o f female e x p e r t s w h o w e r e c a l l e d in t o a d j u d i c a t e in a n u m b e r o f l e g a l m a t t e r s . T h e H o m e . 1 6 S o m e m i d w i v e s clearly felt t h e m s e l v e s able t o give e x p e r t e v i d e n c e in w i t c h c r a f t 17 cases. d e p o s e d h o w t h e y f o u n d t h r e e t e a t s in h e r p r i v y p a r t s ' w h i c h t h e m i d w i f e a n d t h e rest o f these i n f o r m a n t s have n o t seen the like o n the b o d y o f any o t h e r w o m a n ' . a n d a s u s p i c i o u s h o l e a q u a r t e r o f an i n c h d e e p w a s f o u n d o n h e r r i g h t s h o u l d e r . b o t h c r i m inal and civil. This practice seems to have b e e n discontinued by the sixteenth c e n t u r y . a n d at this s o c i a l l e v e l . A c r i m i n a l a c c u s a t i o n at t h e s e s s i o n s o r assizes t y p i c a l l y w o u l d b e s c r e e n e d b y a g r a n d j u r y o f t w e l v e o r so m e n . B y this t i m e . She explained that the thorn ' c o n t i n e w e d t h e r e about a yeare b e f o r e itt could b e g o t t out and caused a great swelling and since that t y m e t h e r e hath b e e n e a little hole upon h e r s h o u l d e r ' . a n d t h a t in i t w e r e t w o l o n g b i g g s . again d u r i n g t h e H o p k i n s t r i a l s . p e r h a p s .

T h u s in 1 5 8 6 J o a n C a s o n . as R o g e r N o r t h r e c o r d e d o f o n e p o s t . scatt e r e d e v i d e n c e s u g g e s t s t h a t a f e w w o m e n w e r e a b l e t o d e f e n d t h e m s e l v e s in c o u r t . m o r e r a m s h a c k l e . t o a p r e p o n d e r a n c e o f w o m e n w i t n e s s e s in t h e 1 6 6 0 s a n d 1 6 7 0 s .R e s t o r a t i o n c a s e in t h e s o u t h . a n d t h e t h r o n g s o g r e a t . o n e o f t h r e e w i t c h e s e x e c u t e d at E x e t e r in A l l this w a s b a d e n o u g h f o r t h e a c c u s e d . t h e r e m i g h t b e a h e a v y p r e p o n d e r a n c e o f w o m e n w i t n e s s e s : 1 4 w o m e n t o 3 m e n in K e n t in 1 0 w o m e n t o 5 m e n in S u r r e y in 1 6 6 4 . T h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e s e figures is e m p h a s i z e d w h e n w e c o m p a r e t h e m t o t h e g e n d e r r a t i o o f all w i t n e s s e s c a l l e d t o g i v e e v i d e n c e in f e l o n y c a s e s in Hertfordshire between 1 6 1 0 a n d 1 6 1 9 . 6 3 1 ( o r 52 per c e n t ) involved m e n and 576 ( o r 4 8 p e r c e n t ) w o m e n . a l l e g e d m a l i c e a n d an o l d g r u d g e a g a i n s t h e r at h e r t r i a l . a n d as y e t b a r e l y i n v e s t i g a t e d w e b o f a s s u m p t i o n s a b o u t g e n d e r . t a k i n g t h e H o m e C i r c u i t as a w h o l e . T h e official d o c u m e n t a t i o n e n g e n d e r e d b y an E n g l i s h c r i m i n a l trial in this p e r i o d r a r e l y s h e d s m u c h l i g h t o n t h e s e m a t t e r s . w a s t r i e d at t h e b o r o u g h s e s s i o n s f o r i n v o k i n g evil s p i r i t s a n d b e w i t c h i n g a c h i l d t o d e a t h . a n d d e m o n s t r a t e its h o s t i l i t y t o t h e a c c u s e d so f o r c e f u l l y . s o m e t h i n g c a n b e c o n s t r u c t e d f r o m p a m p h l e t a c c o u n t s o f t r i a l s . a n d t h a t t h i s e x p e r i e n c e h a d g i v e n h e r i n s i g h t i n t o s u c h m a t t e r s . scept i c a l a b o u t . 3 2 3 1 S o m e t i m e s t h e t h r o n g in t h e c o u r t d u r i n g a w i t c h c r a f t t r i a l m i g h t b e so o p p r e s s i v e . b u t a l s o in a m u c h w i d e r . while admitting c o n t a c t with what may have b e e n familiars. r e c o r d e d h o w d u r i n g h e r t r a v e l s in C o r n w a l l s h e w a s i n v e s t i g a t e d as a w i t c h . m e m o i r s . witchcraft cases. claiming that h e r adversaries w e r e maliciously accusing h e r and that t h e r e w e r e e x i s t i n g d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e m in w h i c h h e r a c c u s e r s h a d a l r e a d y d o n e her w r o n g . at h e r t r i a l f o r w i t c h c r a f t . a n d t o r e c o n s t r u c t s o m e t h i n g o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f w o m e n in t h e c o u r t r o o m . 2 4 By the later seventeenth century. w h o was sceptical. t h e r e 9 2 m e n a n d 8 2 w o m e n w e r e c a l l e d t o g i v e e v i d e n c e in w o m e n w e r e o v e r 11 t i m e s m o r e l i k e l y t o a c t as w i t n e s s e s in w i t c h c r a f t t r i a l s at t h e assizes t h a n t h e y w e r e in all f e l o n y c a s e s . m a l e and f e m a l e alike. 2 6 steadfastly Margaret Landish. much more female c o m p l e x . T h e i n d i c t m e n t is a n o t o r i o u s l y a r i d d o c u m e n t .t r y i n g w o m a n l o o k e d in m v f a c e . d i a r i e s . 3 0 John A u b r e y n o t e d t h a t at t h e t r i a l o f a w i t c h in 1 6 5 3 ' t h e s p e c t a t o r s m a d e s u c h a n o i s e that the judge could not hear the prisoner nor the prisoner the judge. witchcraft and w i t n e s s e s . and the child had n o friends able t o b e a r the charges o f such a p r o s e c u t i o n ' . b u t e v e n g i v i n g e v i d e n c e c o u l d b e a stressful e x p e r i e n c e . 8 w o m e n a l o n e in E s s e x in 1 6 5 0 . T h e H o m e C i r c u i t r e c o r d s also suggest that the 46 proportion of w o m e n witnesses increased over the seventeenth centurv. 2 7 cases w o u l d s e e m t o support the conclusion advanced e l s e w h e r e . d e r l y . i t did n o w a y d i s m a y m e ' . It is p o s s i b l e t o p u s h b e y o n d s t a t i s t i c s o c c a s i o n a l l y . Such in 1 6 8 5 w a s n o t o n e in w h i c h w i t n e s s e s m i g h t u s u a l l y e x p e c t i n d u l g e n t a t t i t u d e s from judges.294 JIM SHARPE WOMEN. In m a n y c a s e s t h e a c c u s e d w e r e e l d e r l y w o m e n w h o h a d b e e n c o w e d b y the experiences o f c o m m u n i t y hostility. a r a t i o o f over twelve male witnesses to each f e m a l e . S o m e n o t i o n o f typical conditions can b e gained f r o m the case o f M a r y S p e n c e r w h o . of Northern 1657. j u d g e s m u s t h a v e p l a y e d a m a j o r p a r t in h e l p i n g a c c u s e d w i t c h e s e v a d e e x e c u t i o n . t h a t she c o u l d n o t h e a r t h e e v i d e n c e a g a i n s t h e r ' . t h e j u d g e m i g h t b e p r e s s u r e d i n t o c o n v i c t i n g a g a i n s t his i n c l i n a t i o n s . broadly speaking. Cason. 2 9 n o t o n l y in t h e g e n d e r o f t h e a c c u s e d . one point made whole b e n c h ' . Elizabeth W i l l o u g h b y was o n e o f those giving e v i d e n c e on Hathaway's behalf before the sceptical Chief Justice H o l t . i f n o t t h e a b s t r a c t p o s s i b i l i t y o f w i t c h c r a f t . denied bewitching the child t o death. w h e n c o n v i c t i o n s w e r e v e r y r a r e . o f w h a t h a p p e n e d in t h e p u s h a n d s h o v e o f a c o u r t in s e s s i o n . O n these figures. but the words w e r e handed f r o m o n e to the o t h e r by M r R. on the strength C i r c u i t assize d e p o s i t i o n s . In t h a t d e c a d e 5 7 2 m e n a n d 3 6 women w e r e c a l l e d t o g i v e e v i d e n c e in f e l o n y c a s e s at t h e H e r t f o r d s h i r e a s s i z e s . p o w e r . T h e c e n t u r v which witnessed the judicial style o f judge Jeffreys . a n d t h a t a c l e r g y m e n h e l p e d t o f r a m e an i n d i c t m e n t against h e r . T h e j u d g e asked w h y she had n o t p r o s e c u t e d W e n h a m i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r this i n c i d e n t . L o w c o n v i c t i o n r a t e s at t h e assizes s u g g e s t t h a t t h r o u g h o u t t h e p e r i o d o f the operation o f the English witch statutes. O t h e r sources can be and court m o r e r e v e a l i n g a n d . examination by justices and m o b pressure on the way to the place o f trial. w e r e essentiallv pre-trial d o c u m e n t s that by their very n a t u r e u s u a l l y t e l l us n o t h i n g o f w h a t h a p p e n e d in c o u r t . T h e j u d g e . w e r e the accused being a Hertfordshire often browbeaten woman named or r i d i c u l e d b y t h e j u d i c i a r y . judges w e r e . to w h i c h she a n s w e r e d 'she was a p o o r w o m e n . and w h o was subsequently to reprieve W e n h a m after c o n v i c t i o n . t h e I n t e r r e g n u m r e l i g i o u s v i s i o n a r y . O f t h e s e . a n d f r o m i s o l a t e d r e f e r e n c e s in l e t t e r s . t h a t . although a bungle o v e r legal technicalities led t o h e r e x e c u t i o n . 2 5 O t h e r cases o f w h a t a m o u n t e d a l m o s t t o defiance w e r e r e c o r d e d . gave e v i d e n c e against h e r . t h e r e w e r e signs o f w o m e n w i t n e s s e s being t r e a t e d w i t h p o l i t e n e s s . ' b u t though he and the w i t c h . She told h o w W e n h a m had b e w i t c h e d a child o f hers a b o u t nine years previously. a n d at ' a s t r a n g e h o w l i n g in t h e c o u r t t o t h e g r e a t d i s t u r b a n c e o f t h e Temperance L l o y d . asked sarcastically if Field had n o w g r o w n r i c h . Such instances t h r o w light o n w h a t is still o n e o f t h e p r o b l e m a r e a s o f E n g l i s h legal h i s t o r y : t h e v e r y b a s i c i s s u e o f h o w t r i a l s w e r e a c t u a l l y c o n d u c t e d . Holt asked her what skill s h e h a d in m a t t e r s o f w i t c h c r a f t . In 1 7 1 2 t h e r e o c c u r r e d t h e last k n o w n assize t r i a l f o r in E n g l a n d . S e v e n w o m e n a n d o n e m a n . Y e t in o t h e r i n s t a n c e s w o m e n a c c u s e d o f w i t c h c r a f t in t h e c o n f u s i n g a n d h o s t i l e e n v i r o n m e n t o f t h e c o u r t m i g h t find t h e m s e l v e s u n d e r h e a v y p r e s s u r e . t h a t w o m e n f e l t n o q u a l m s a b o u t g i v i n g 2 2 e v i d e n c e against f e m a l e w i t c h e s . T h e g e n e r a l p o i n t t o b e m a d e is t h a t c o u r t p r o c e e d i n g s w e r e m o r e d i s o r o f law. a n d f e m a l e i n t e r a c t i o n in e a r l y m o d e r n England. a n d less s e e m l y t h a n t h o s e o b t a i n i n g in a m o d e r n s u c h l i k e . WITCHCRAFT AND THE LEGAL PROCESS 295 C i r c u i t assize r e c o r d s r e v e a l t h a t t h e r e w e r e 1 2 0 7 calls f o r w i t n e s s e s a t w i t c h t r i a l s between 1 6 0 0 and 1 7 0 2 . from w o m e n t o 8 0 m e n in 1 6 0 0 — 0 9 . c o m p l a i n e d t h a t ' t h e w i n d w a s so l o u d . p o o r p e o p l e b u t h e r n e a r n e i g h b o u r s . at l e a s t o f t h e g u i l t o f t h e individual old w o m e n b r o u g h t b e f o r e t h e m . In i s o l a t e d c a s e s . 2 3 C o n v e r s e l y . Jane W e n h a m . while depositions. as w e shall s e e . o n e o f the Essex witches a c c u s e d in 1 6 4 5 . N e v e r t h e l e s s . a w i d o w o f F a v e r s h a m in K e n t . although invaluable for illustrating other m a t t e r s . C h a n d l e r .w e s t . In 1 7 0 2 R i c h a r d H a t h a w a y w a s t r i e d as a c h e a t f o r a c c u s i n g Sarah M o r d u c k o f w i t c h c r a f t . W e r e t u r n t o t h e n o t i o n t h a t t h e c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n w o m e n a n d w i t c h c r a f t lav j I f t h e t r e a t m e n t o f w o m e n w i t n e s s e s v a r i e d . a n d s h e r e p l i e d t h a t s h e h a d b e e n b e w i t c h e d as a c h i l d . Such w o m e n w e r e unlikely t o m o u n t m u c h by way o f a c o h e r e n t d e f e n c e against the charges levelled against t h e m . and s o m e t i m e s n o t truly reported'. O n e o f t h o s e giving e v i d e n c e against h e r was Elizabeth F i e l d . a b o u t this c l a i m . so did t h a t o f t h e w o m e n a c c u s e d o f w i t c h c r a f t . H e r arguing convinced the R e c o r d e r o f Faversharn o f her i n n o c e n c e . An o b v i o u s l y u n c o n v i n c e d j u d g e H o l t w a s v e r y r e s t r a i n e d in his s u b s e q u e n t q u e s t i o n i n g 2 8 In t h e s a m e d e c a d e . A n n a T r a p n e l . a n e a r l y e v e n s p l i t .

t r i e d at M a i d s t o n e in 1 6 5 2 . at o n e s t a g e . ' w h o c o m f o r t e d her to bear death Christianly. a n d i n d u l g e in b a d b e h a v i o u r t h a t w a s n o t o n l v l i c e n s e d . likewise 'fell i n t o a t r a n c e b e f o r e the j u d g e . In S a w y e r ' s c a s e . S o m e t h i n g o f t h e d i v e r g e n c e in t h e n o r m a l e x p e c t a t i o n s o f a y o u n g w o m a n ' s b e h a v i o u r a n d t h a t o f t h e p o s s e s s e d a d o l e s c e n t g i r l in t h e p r e s e n c e o f a j u d g e c a n b e . d a u g h t e r o f a L o n d o n s h o p k e e p e r . a n d t o d i e as a l a m b ' . should ' m a k e a g o o d e n d ' . b a s h f u l l g i r l e . g a v e a d o l e s c e n t s a unique o p p o r t u n i t y t o cast off their characteristically submissive and repressed r o l e . G o o d c o l e o f f i c i a t e d a t t h e e x e c u t i o n . so a u d a c i o u s ' . w a s w o r k e d on by a minister n a m e d Foster. w e l l as a f t e r h e r t r y a l . their behaviour w h e n attracted considerable c o m m e n t f r o m c o n t e m p o r a r y o b s e r v e r s . w h o w a s t h o u g h t t o b e b e w i t c h e d in 1 6 0 2 . A p p r o p r i a t e l y e n o u g h . w h i l e she w a s a l s o . h o w e v e r . an e x e c u t i o n w o u l d i n v o l v e t h e c o n v i c t e d w i t c h m a k i n g a ' g o o d e n d ' a n d b e h a v i n g in an a p p r o p r i a t e l y e d i f y i n g f a s h i o n . a n d w a s v e r y p a s s i o n a t e w h e n d e n y e d ' . f a l l i n g i n t o a fit w h e n s h e w a s c a l l e d t o g i v e e v i d e n c e in c o u r t . b u t a l s o m a d e t h e m the centre of attention. a n d on her r e c o v e r y claimed that h e r familiar had e n t e r e d h e r b o d y . 4 2 Anne s i m i l a r l y w e n t i n t o fits at t h e t r i a l o f t w o o f t h e w o m e n w h o h a d a l l e g e d l y b e w i t c h e d h e r . at t h e g a l l o w s s h e r e f u s e d t o c o n f e s s . like any o t h e r f e l o n . t r i e d at t h e B e r k Gunter. b a s h f u l l g i r l e ' t h e c h a n c e t o b e c o m e t h e c e n t r e o f a t t e n t i o n A f t e r trial and c o n d e m n a t i o n the w i t c h . the turning o f h e r a r m e s a n d h a n d s . t h e d u b l i n g & s w e l l i n g o f h i r b o d y ' in c o u r t . v o m i t i n g r Another distraction to the court was offered with swelled b y A n n e A s h b y . be excessive. s h e w e n t w i t h a s m a l l p i e c e o f s i l v e r in h e r h a n d . w h i c h s h e d e c l a r e d t o b e t r u e 'in the hearing o f m a n y h u n d r e d s ' . t h e i r c u r i o s i t y f o u n d n o t h i n g b u t s i n c e r i t y in m y children'. B u t w h e n s h e c a m e o u t o f h e r fits. a n d b e i n g a s k e d w h e t h e r she d e s i r e d t h e p r a y e r s o f a n y o f t h e p e o p l e . like o t h e r c o n v i c t e d f e l o n s . c a l l i n g f o r b e e r . T h u s w h e n w a s t h e r e s u l t o f d i v i n e j u s t i c e . it s e e m s t h a t m o s t o f t h e c a s e s o f fits a n d c o n v u l s i o n s o c c u r r i n g in c o u r t o f w h i c h d e t a i l s h a v e c o m e d o w n t o us i n v o l v e d young w o m e n . 39 i n t o a m o n s t r o u s and vast b i g n e s s . this last t y p e o n t h e p a r t o f t h e a l l e g e d v i c t i m s o f w i t c h c r a f t . In f a c t . s c h r e e c h i n g and crying o u t very d o l e f u l l y ' . and ' m a d e e x p e r i m e n t s to p r o v e if they c o u n t e r f e i t e d o r n o t ' . a l t h o u g h c o n f e s s i n g h e r w i t c h c r a f t at h e r t r i a l . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e p a m p h l e t a c c o u n t . s h e ' d i d n o t k n o w w h a t w a s p a s t . i n f a c t . H e m a n a g e d t o b r i n g h e r ' t o t h a t p i t c h as t o p r o m i s e h i m she w o u l d g o e a t r u e p e n i t e n t t o h e r p l a c e o f e x e c u t i o n . Joan Peterson. b u t r a t h e r i m p u d e n t l y a t . 3 7 G i v e n the probability that girls w e r e m o r e likelv than possessed mav 3 8 boys to be deeply socialized into submissiveness. adding 'that she r yet T h e t h e m e o f t h e p o s s e s s i o n o f a d o l e s c e n t s is a m a j o r o n e in t h e h i s t o r y E n g l i s h w i t c h c r a f t in this p e r i o d . f o r u n c l e a r r e a s o n s . w i t h o u t a n y c o n f i d e n c e at all w h e n s h e w a s o u t o f h e r fits'. e x e c u t e d at S a l i s b u r y . foreign b o d i e s . the p r o g r e s s o f w i t c h trials was d i s t u r b e d b y sufferings of c r a f t . this p r o c e s s w o u l d b e e n t r u s t e d t o a c l e r g y m a n . O n e o f t h e r e c u r r i n g t h e m e s o f English w i t c h c r a f t was the possession o f v o u n g p e o p l e by spirits sent by a w i t c h .296 JIM SHARPE WOMEN. a n d m a d e s o g o d l y an e n d t h a t m a n y w h o previously b e e n her enemies lamented her d e a t h . b e i n g r e g a r d e d ( a t l e a s t b y t h e a c c u s e r s ) as e v i d e n c e o f b e w i t c h m e n t . WITCHCRAFT AND THE LEGAL PROCESS 297 1 6 8 2 . a n d d e s i r e d t o d i e q u i e t l y ' . A n n B o d e n h a m . a n d h a d n o t M r U n d e r s h e r i f f s p r u d e n c e b e e n s u c h as t o r e s t r a i n h e r f r o m it s h e w o u l d h a v e d i e d d r u n k ' . less t h a n e d i f y i n g . 4 1 Ideally. It w a s d e s i r a b l e t h a t t h e c o n d e m n e d w i t c h . Frequently these t o o k the form o f dramatic interventions on the first part o f the alleged sufferer w h e n the supposed witch entered the c o u r t or was noticed by the supposedly possessed girl. a n d in o p e n c o u r t ' f e l l i n t o an e x t a s i e b e f o r e t h e b e n c h . and 3 4 W h e n e x a m i n i n g g e n d e r as an a s p e c t o f w i t c h gave M o r e c o m m o n l y . it is c l e a r t h a t b e i n g p o s s e s s e d a n d l a u n c h i n g a w i t c h c r a f t a c c u s a t i o n and t o e x e r c i s e p o w e r o v e r adults. a n d t o m a k e a full c o n f e s s i o n . boldly. exhorted nine or m o r e times to confess by the Ordinary o f N e w g a t e . H e l e n and Elizabeth Fairfax. or by curious diseases inflicted on t h e m by witchcraft. f r e q u e n t l y i n v o l v i n g fits a n d c o n v u l s i o n s . s h i r e assizes at a l m o s t the same time. w a s . w o u l d b e p r e p a r e d f o r d e a t h . and t h e girl fell i n t o fits b e f o r e t h e j u d g e . a n d c h e a r f u l l y ' . a n d d u r s t d o n o o t h e r w i s e ' . a n d at t h e g a l l o w s r e a d t o h e r t h e c o n f e s s i o n t h a t she h a d m a d e e a r l i e r . as all t h e b e h o l d e r s did s e e o n e l y an i n n o c e n t . and indeed h a v e b e e n r e g a r d e d as a d e e p e r a f f r o n t t o s o c i a l n o r m s t h a n t h a t o f y o u n g m a l e s . T h u s in o n e w e l l d o c u m e n t e d c a s e w e find M a r y G l o v e r . T h e accounts of t h e s u f f e r i n g s o f s u c h p o s s e s s e d p e r s o n s . T w o d e c a d e s l a t e r t w o o t h e r daughters o f the g e n t r y . A s h b y c o n f e s s e d t o c o p u l a t i o n t h e D e v i l . 3 6 C a s o n d i e d at F a v e r s h a m in 1 5 8 6 s h e m a d e a g a l l o w s s p e e c h a c c e p t i n g t h a t h e r f a t e B u t n o t all d i e d so e d i f y i n g l y . As s h e w a l k e d t o t h e g a l l o w s . Justices p r e s e n t f o l l o w e d the girls o u t . a n d d e s i r e d o b v i o u s is t h a t b e i n g p o s s e s s e d . H e n c e Henry G o o d c o l e w o r k e d on (to use the c o n t e m p o r a r y phrase) Elizabeth S a w y e r in 1 6 2 1 t o a c c e p t h e r s i n f u l n e s s a n d t h e d e a t h b y h a n g i n g t h a t it h a d d r a w n u p o n h e r . T h e t h r e e s t r o n g m e n w h o c a r r i e d t h e g i r l out o f c o u r t declared that they had ' n e v e r carried a heavier b u r d e n ' . W h a t of is w r o n g f u l l y s u f f e r e d d e a t h . t o w h i c h t h e c l e r g y m a n r e s p o n d e d t h a t ' h e w a s c o m m a n d e d t o d o s o . h o w e v e r . a n d did l a m e n t e x t r e m e l y . a n d is t o o c o m p l e x t o g o i n t o h e r e . 3 b S o m e t i m e s this s o r t o f c l e r i c a l p r e s s u r e c o u l d 1 6 5 2 . not g l i m p s e d in t h e a c c o u n t o f t h e s u f f e r i n g s o f y e t a n o t h e r d a u g h t e r o f t h e gentry m i n d i n g w h a t s h o u l d b e c o m e o f h e r i m m o r t a l s o u l . a gentleman's daughter. sometimes Although m a n y an ' i n n o c e n t . as 3 3 M a r g a r e t M u s c h a m p . as w a s t y p i c a l in s u c h c a s e s . 4 0 p e o p l e o f e i t h e r s e x m i g h t b e p o s s e s s e d . T h e girl and h e r m o t h e r w e r e a t t e m p t i n g t o persuade a sceptical j u d g e t o p r o s e c u t e t h e p e r s o n s s u s p e c t e d o f w i t c h c r a f t . w h e t h e r in t h e c o u r t r o o m o r n o t . s h e a n s w e r e d . is t h e n u m b e r o f o c c a s i o n s w h e n s u c h b e h a v i o u r o c c u r r e d in t h e c o u r t r o o m . h o w e v e r . she w a s ' v e r y d e s i r o u s f o r d r i n k . W h a t is s t r i k i n g . at t h e p l a c e of e x e c u t e d at T y b u r n in execution. a r e s o m e t i m e s v e r y l o n g a n d v e r y h a r r o w i n g . and die p e n i t e n t l y and w i t h d i g n i t y . T h e R e c o r d e r o f L o n d o n a n d o t h e r officials t e s t e d t h e g e n u i n e n e s s o f h e r fit b y b u r n i n g h e r h a n d until it b l i s t e r e d : the girl r e m a i n e d i n s e n s i b l e . w a s ' p e r f e c t l y r e s o l u t e . S h e r e f u s e d . and w e r e carried o u t ' . ' b y e v e r y h o u s e s h e w e n t b y . A t this p o i n t t h e e x e c u t i o n e r c o m m e n t e d t h a t ' t h e O r d i n a r y m i g h t b e a s h a m e d t o t r o u b l e a d y i n g w o m a n so m u c h ' . H e r e x e c u t i o n w a s . Joan had In a n o t h e r c a s e . she h a d as m a n v p r a y e r s a l r e a d y as she i n t e n d e d . T h e girls' father n o t e d t h a t ' r e p o r t said t h a t it w a s n o t s o c i v i l as I e x p e c t e d f r o m s u c h m e n . t o confess t h e m a t t e r s f o r w h i c h she had b e e n c o n v i c t e d . v e r y a n n o y e d w h e n t h e s h e r i f f t o l d h e r s h e c o u l d n o t b e b u r i e d at t h e g a l l o w s . as w i t h E l i z a b e t h S a w y e r . o n e witness referring to the 'gogling o f hir heade & eyes. T h i s s t o r y d o e s at l e a s t d e m o n strate that c o n v i c t e d w i t c h e s c o u l d b e o b d u r a t e at t h e g a l l o w s .

T h i s d i s p u t e h a d a l r e a d y p r o v o k e d a suit w h i c h h a d b e e n a r b i t r a t e d b y a j u s t i c e o f t h e p e a c e . c o n c l u d e d the account o f her trial. WITCHCRAFT AND THE LEGAL PROCESS 299 to have. h a v e t w o r a t h e r c o n t e n t i o u s w o m e n . a c c u s e r s o r w i t n e s s e s . M a n y w i t c h c r a f t a c c u s a t i o n s . I n d e e d . h o w e v e r . m a t e r i a l s f r o m Y o r k s h i r e d e m o n s t r a t e t h a t witchcraft accusations w e r e not simply foisted onto w o m e n by m e n . the defamation suit in d e f e n c e of good name. aged O n e s u c h c a s e w a s t r i e d b e f o r e t h e C h e s t e r C o n s i s t o r v C o u r t in 1 6 6 2 . but cursed those that detained her f r o m h e r death. given that m o s t o f the p e o p l e t o w a r d s w h o m such v i o l e n c e was d i r e c t e d w e r e women. m o r e i m p o r tantly for our immediate purposes. and was i m p o r t u n a t e to g o e up the ladder. of r e f e r e n c e s t o h o s t i l e m o b s is s t r i k i n g . s e e m s v e r y s i m i l a r t o w h a t happened to their m a l e c o u n t e r p a r t s : m e n accused o f felony. aspects o f the prosecution o f felony which w e r e either s p e c i f i c t o o r m o r e m a r k e d in t r i a l s o f w i t c h c r a f t . O f course. notably the ecclesiastical c o u r t s . f e m a l e p o w e r . a b o u t t w e l v e . as w a s t h e c u s t o m . 4 4 R e s t o r a t i o n . S h e a l s o c o m p l a i n e d at claimed a b o u t the s a m e t i m e o f being c o m p e l l e d 'to be a w i t n e s s against h e r husband for Margery Whishall. o r as a ' v e r y wilfull high spirited w o m a n a m o n g s t h e r n e i g h b o u r s ' . S u s p e c t e d w i t c h e s m i g h t b e s u b j e c t e d to s w i m m i n g . diflerent b o t h o f h e r a f f l i c t i n g e a n d l i k e w i s e o f a b r o t h e r o f h e r s w h o w a s sadly a f f l i c t e d b e f o r e t h a t & d y e d in a s t r a n g e m a n n e r ' . T h i s a s s e r t i o n r e m i n d s us o f t h e p r o b l e m s o f d e t e r m i n i n g a s p e c i f i c a l l y f e m a l e e x p e r i e n c e b e f o r e t h e c o u r t s a n d legal p r o c e s s . As I h a v e s u g g e s t e d e l s e w h e r e . defamation suits involving allegations of witchcraft might be pursued t h e r e . B u t b e f o r e m o v i n g t o a n y c o n c l u s i o n s o n t h e e v i d e n c e p r e s e n t e d b y this c o n n e c tion. her wofull death. A n o t h e r w o m e n . w e should r e m i n d ourselves that there w e r e other tribunals involved with witchcraft cases. T h i s c a s e . deposed that W r i g h t claimed Briscoe h a d b e w i t c h e d h e r at t h e t i m e o f t h e c h i l d ' s c o n c e p t i o n . a n d o n ' b y c l e r g y m e n b e f o r e t h e i r e x e c u t i o n in h o p e s t h a t t h e y m i g h t p r o d u c e a m o d e l speech f r o m the gallows. a n d h e w a s v e r y m u c h a f r a i d t h a t s h e w o u l d c o m e t o t h e s a m e e n d as h e r did'. like women convicted of witchcraft. w h o h a d . ' w h i c h t h e said M a r y h a d a g r e a t m i n d o f . W e are examining witchcraft. were witnesses 'worked g i v i n g e v i d e n c e in c o u r t . that W r i g h t had slandered h e r f o r adultery. but was restrained by the e x e c u t i o n e r . W i t h W r i g h t and B r i s c o e w e obviously This creates problems for those investigating constraints on female b e h a v i o u r in e a r l v m o d e r n E n g l a n d . w h i l e . speaking t r e a s o n against the k i n g ' . B r i s c o e w a s d e s c r i b e d as a ' v e r y t r o u b l e s o m e a n d w r a n g l i n g w o m a n a m o n g h e r n e i g h b o u r s ' . the quality o f that e x p e r i e n c e a n d t h e r e a c t i o n s a n d e m o t i o n s it m i g h t p r o v o k e c o u l d h a v e b e e n v e r y for them. a n d s h e did s w e l l m u c h in t h e b o d y a n d s o e d y e d ' . c o r r e c t l y . by fitts'.298 JIM SHARPE WOMEN. h e r husband. t h e n e i g h b o u r l y evaluation. a n d t h e r e a d y p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f w o m e n in s e a r c h i n g f o r t h e w i t c h ' s mark. ' T h u s ' . . T h o s e f o r s a k e G o d in t h e i r l i v e s . w h e t h e r as a c c u s e d . She then tried to turn herself off on the gallows. b u t t h e f r e q u e n c y the legal p r o c e s s . g o s s i p a m o n g w o m e n . t u r n m e o f f . F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i n t o this issue m i g h t lead to s o m e useful insights into attitudes t o g e n d e r . 'you have her wicked life. h a d f a l l e n i l l . Less serious f o r m s o f witchcraft. as a w i t n e s s n a m e d C i c e l y W i n n e d e p o s e d . b u t r a t h e r t w o w o m e n w h o w e r e willing to use t h e law to pursue their own ends. w e m u s t k e e p o u r minds open t o the possibility that although women might have shared with men the experience of going t h r o u g h various stages o f the judicial p r o c e s s . I w o u l d a r g u e . s o r c e r y and charming might b e p r e s e n t e d b e f o r e these c o u r t s . a n d ' w a s v e r y sadly a f f l i c t e d a n d i n a s t r a n g e m a n n e r d u r i n g w h i c h t i m e ' s h e w o u l d m a n y t i m e s say t h a t M a r y B r i s c o e p r i c k e d h e r t o t h e h e a r t w i t h p i n s a n d w o u l d h a v e h e r h e a r t a n d t h e l i k e . as I have stressed. w o r r i e d about t h e s u s p i c i o n o f w i t c h c r a i t a g a i n s t his w i f e . a n d t o l d h e r ' h e w a s m u c h t r o u b l e d at it b u t h e c o u l d n o t r u l e h e r . It a r o s e f r o m p r o b l e m s b e t w e e n M a r y Briscoe and A n n W r i g h t . T h e m o s t o b v i o u s o f t h e s e . d e m o n s t r a t e s h o w t h e e c c l e s i a s t i c a l l a w h e l p e d w o m e n to b e c o m e a g e n t s in l e g a l m a t t e r s . e s p e c i a l l y s i n c e t h e y w e r e o n t h e f r i n g e s o f scratching o r o t h e r f o r m s o f popularly licensed v i o l e n c e . In c o n s e q u e n c e . ' t h e said M a r y B r i s c o e w as s u s p e c t e d b y m a n y n e i g h b o u r s t o b e t h e c a u s e r w o m e n . w e r e a r e a s in w h i c h w o m e n c o u l d e n t e r t h e m a l e d o m i n a t e d m i l i e u o f l e g a l p r o c e s s . the p h e n o m e n o n o f c r o w d action or popular attitudes towards criminals o r at e x e c u t i o n s w a s n o t l i m i t e d t o w i t c h c r a f t c a s e s . w h i c h w e r e t h e last w o r d s she s p o k e ' . a n d f e m a l e c o n c e r n o v e r reputation. has b e e n r e g a r d e d as h a v i n g a p e c u l i a r c o n n e c t i o n with h a v e a r g u e d t h a t w i t c h c r a f t a c c u s a t i o n s w e r e a m e a n s o f c o n t r o l l i n g w o m e n c a n at 4 3 T h i s c h a p t e r has c o n c e n t r a t e d o n w i t c h c r a f t a n d t h e s e c u l a r c r i m i n a l l a w c o u r t s . but rather w e r e f r e q u e n t l y g e n e r a t e d f r o m t e n s i o n s b e t w e e n w o m e n . was the use o f groups o f w o m e n to search suspected witches for the m a r k . H o w e v e r . and m a l e men convicted of felony. T h u s w e h a v e a c a s e w h i c h r e s e m b l e s so m a n y o t h e r s : t h e s t r a n g e d e a t h o f a child. a l r e a d y b e e n l o c k e d i n t o a d i s p u t e o v e r a h o u s e in w h i c h W r i g h t h a d d w e l t . a c r i m e w h i c h . T h e h i g h l e v e l o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f w o m e n w i t n e s s e s in w i t c h c r a f t c a s e s . the allegation o f w i t c h c r a f t . 'She replyed forgive thee? that who A p o x o n t h e e . w h o a s k e d h e r f o r g i v e n e s s . in f a c t . a n d w e r e o f t e n f o r m u l a t e d a n d r e f i n e d in t h e w o r l d o f f e m a l e s o c i a b i l i t y . o r at l e a s t p o p u l a r p r e s s u r e . Unusually. W r i g h t ' s daughter. w h i c h e n d e d in W r i g h t p e r f o r m i n g p u b l i c p e n a n c e in h e r p a r i s h c h u r c h . Ecclesiastical law gave w o m e n greater o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r l i t i g a t i n g t h a n did t h e c o m m o n l a w . and f e m a l e a c t i o n c o u l d r u n . shall b e f o r s a k e n o f h i m in t h e i r d e a t h s ' . the s u r v i v i n g d o c u m e n t a t i o n a l l o w s us t o p i e c e t o g e t h e r s o m e t h i n g o f t h e b a c k g r o u n d . T h e r e w e r e . A n o t h e r r e c u r r i n g t h e m e in a c c o u n t s o f w i t c h c r a i t c a s e s w a s t h e frequent o c c u r r e n c e o f s o m e t h i n g a m o u n t i n g t o m o b a c t i o n . B u t m u c h o f w h a t s e e m s t o h a v e h a p p e n e d t o w o m e n i n v o l v e d in w i t c h c r a f t c a s e s . O n e witness. T h o s e l e a s t t a k e c o n s o l a t i o n in B o d e n h a m ' s c a s e as o n e o f h e g e m o n y ' s failures. h a d r e i u s e d t o i d e n t i f y its f a t h e r t o t h e m i d w i f e a n d h a d r e f u s e d t o do p e n a n c e for it. But Wright h e r s e l f h a d g i v e n b i r t h t o an i l l e g i t i m a t e Moth[er] the child just after T h e w i l l i n g n e s s o f o t h e r w o m e n t o a c t a g a i n s t a l l e g e d w i t c h e s is a l s o a c o n s t a n t t h e m e . W r i g h t a n d B r i s c o e w e r e c l e a r l y n o t v i c t i m s o f a patriarchal legal s y s t e m . m i g h t b e h e c t o r e d o r p r e s s u r e d b y a g g r e s s i v e j u d g e s . however. o f t e n arising f r o m such t r a d i t i o n a l f e m a l e c o n c e r n s as c h i l d r e a r i n g . N e i t h e r w o m a n h a d an u n b l e m i s h e d r e p u t a t i o n . a n d s o m e o f t h e b e t t e r d o c u m e n t e d cases reveal clearly h o w witchcraft accusations m i g h t f o r m part o f a w i d e r b o d v o f tensions and conflicts b e t w e e n women. interestingly. reveal a social arena w h e r e channels o f f e m a l e f o r c e . h a d d i s c u s s e d t h e p r o b l e m w i t h C i c e l y W i n n e . the focusing o f suspicion.

F l e t c h e r and J . L ' E s t r a n g e E w e n . w e r e v i e w e d n o t l e a s t in t h e i r s t a t u s b e f o r e c o m m o n l a w . Baron Guildford. F o r full citations o f t h e archival s o u r c e s u s e d in this c h a p t e r . in Tudor and Stuart England A . D . Witchcraft J . The lives of the right hon Francis and the hon and rev Dr John d e s c r i b e s this c a s e . J . 8 ( 1 9 7 5 ) . W e i n e r . a discourse discoverie on witchcraft (Harrogate 1 8 8 2 ) . see S h a r p e .c e n t u r y E n g l a n d ' . (London 1 9 0 9 ) . A m u s s e n ' s An Ordered 3 4 resolution Trials: Circuit 5 6 7 8 F o r a c o n t e m p o r a r y i n t r o d u c t i o n t o w o m e n and t h e c o m m o n l a w . 5 8 ( Y o r k 1 9 8 0 ) . C . Daemonologia: Goodcole. ' S e x r o l e s and c r i m e in late E l i z a b e t h a n H e r t f o r d s h i r e ' . F o r analysis o f t h e N o r t h e r n D e p o s i t i o n s . and Demonianism. ' W i t c h c r a f t and w o m e n ' . H e l m h o l z . F o r a s o m e w h a t dif- f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e o n t h e s e issues. eds F . f o r i n f a n t i c i d e . J . introduction. suffered lesser p e n a l t i e s . ' O n pleading t h e b e l l y : 6 ( 1 9 8 5 ) . F o r a slightly d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e . 1 8 7 — 2 6 4 . P. T h i s l e a d s us t o a final p o i n t . S h a r p e . o f c o u r s e . 1 1 2 ( o r 2 2 p e r c e n t ) w e r e M a n v o t h e r s . M . (London Witch The tryal of Richard E w e n . a n d in w h i c h w o m e n . S. S. Hertfordshire indictments James I. and J . wytches at Chensford anno 1566 in the countie (London of Essex the xxvi day of July 1566). Witchcraft The examination before the queens Court leet records. Trapnel's report and plea (London 1 6 5 4 ) . Landish was s e n t e n c e d t o d e a t h . sig D 4 . Witch Hunting the indictments AD 1559-1736 117-265. Z . of Assize Justice 189. S o u t h a m p t o n R e c o r d S o c i e t y . H a i r . Criminal Records: History. in Early Modern England ( U C L Press. B e a t t i e . J . eds A . Continuity Holmes. A fall a n d impartial account Hathaway and of the discovery of sorcery and witchcraft practisd by Jane Wenhant (London 1 7 1 2 ) . North. in the year F o r t h e a b s e n c e o f m i d w i v e s a m o n g w i t c h c r a f t s u s p e c t s . ( N e w Y o r k 1 9 8 1 ) . W a i t e . T h i s w o u l d t o b e a line o f investigation w e l l w o r t h pursuing. 125. Litigation in Medieval England Crime and the Courts Notes 1 F o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s . see The of womens rights for (London 1 6 5 2 ) . 1. Sawyer (London 1621). M a c f a r l a n e . H u l l . g i v i n g e v i d e n c e a g a i n s t s u s p e c t e d w o m e n w i t c h e s . G e n d e r as a social c o n s t r u c t has so far r e c e i v e d little a t t e n t i o n f r o m historians o f early Amussen. they w e r e historical actors. l i k e e v e r y t h i n g e l s e . of Essex. The case of witchcraft 21-2" at Coggeshall. at S. in Order and Disorder 2 at York. lawes Witch Home 28 Witchcraft 29 27 1 5 6 0 — 1 7 2 5 ' . H o f f e r and N . T h e t h e m e s raised h e r e are discussed f u r t h e r in S. of the information. s h o w s that o f 5 1 3 p e r s o n s a c c u s e d o f executed. Witch Hunting C f . w h e r e t h e j u d g e w a s 'a m i l d . and the witchcraft from (London 1 9 2 9 ) . a c c u s i n g o t h e r w o m e n as w i t c h e s . Murdering t h e s c o l d ' . of three condemnation . 1—64. 89. examination whereof some and confession were executed of all the and others iM. U n d e r d o w n . and execution T r a p n e l . and Demonianism. 31 32 33 163-7. see C . 117-18. L ' E s t r a n g e E w e n . 79. A. England the w a s a p a t r i a r c h a l s o c i e t y in w h i c h i s s u e s o f g e n d e r . A true and just recorde taken 13 14 15 16 17 18 according H. and Demonianism. Even though c o n t e m p o r a r y attitudes to gender probably m a d e those experiences different for the w o m e n involved. see C h a p t e r 2 3 in this c o l l e c t i o n bv 2 5 6 . B3v. R . 6 ( 1 9 9 1 ) . J . 24 25 26 Calendar of State Papers. 5. ( L o n d o n 1 9 3 3 ) . ed. 1 2 1 — 3 . E . p e r h a p s w i t h i n p a r a m e t e r s d i c t a t e d a n d m a i n t a i n e d b y m e n . C . see C h a p t e r 1 4 bv G a r v K . 4 3 9 — 4 6 . Before the Bawdy Court ( L o n d o n 1 9 7 2 ) . ' T h e taming of in Early Modern England. in t h e l e g a l p r o c e s s a n d b e f o r e t h e c o u r t s as e l s e w h e r e . 4 . part 2 .300 JIM SHARPE 9 10 11 12 WOMEN. O l d h a m . c o u l d c a r v e o u t s o m e r o l e f o r t h e m s e l v e s in t h e p u b l i c s p h e r e . W . Mothers: infanticide in England England 19 20 21 F o r a case o f this t y p e see R . 3 . Circuit of assize 22 T h e s e figures are based o n an analysis o f abstracts o f assize cases given in E w e n . It is a c o m m o n p l a c e t h a t e a r l y m o d e r n in h i e r a r c h i c a l t e r m s . some Give ' W i t c h c r a f t and w o m e n in s e v e n t e e n t h . 30 T h e c o n t e m p o r a r y a c c o u n t o f this case is p r i n t e d in B . 3 vols ( L o n d o n 1 8 9 0 ) . e d s . H . G r a n g e . ' G e n d e r . passive m a n . E. in F l e t c h e r and S t e v e n s o n ( 1 9 8 5 ) 1 9 6 — 2 1 8 . see C h a p t e r s 3 and 6 in this b o o k . I ( S o u t h a m p t o n 1 9 0 6 ) . Essex. and Demonianism Ibid. examinations and confessions 1699 of the and executed in the county of Essex ( L o n d o n 1 6 4 5 ) . Witchcraft The trval. see t h e original v e r s i o n in J e n n y K e r m o d e and G a r t h i n e W a l k e r . 2 7 8 .c e n t u r y E n g l a n d : and Change. family and t h e social o r d e r . t h e s e women f o u n d t h e m s e l v e s in a r e a l w o r l d t h a t i m p o s e d c o n s t r a i n t s u p o n t h e m .9 3 . Witchcraft 1969). sig of Elizabeth w r i t i n g s o n t h e s u b j e c t f r o m t h e 1 9 7 0 s . witches (London 1 6 8 2 ) . Anna E w e n . 63. v o l . Domestic 1634— J . w i t c h c r a f t at t h e H o m e C i r c u i t assizes. they nonetheless establish w o m e n as a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t s in t h e l e g a l s y s t e m . witches treated of certain v o l . I b i d . J . Marriage (Cambridge 1 9 7 4 ) . 20. WITCHCRAFT AND THE LEGAL PROCESS 301 a n d in w h i c h w o m e n . Defamation the church 1558-1803 courts C . L i k e all o f u s . Y e t in t h e p r e c e d i n g p a g e s w e h a v e s e e n w o m e n a c t i n g s t r o n g l y : d e f y i n g j u d g e s a n d e x e c u t i o n e r s . P. 28. 187. H e a r n s h a w and D . 7 8 . 9 9 . Cockburn (London 1975). the records of 1373 assizes held for F o r a list o f t h e s e i n d i c t m e n t s see C . Journal of Social History. . ed. C o c k b u r n ( L o n d o n 1 9 8 5 ) . .. ' T h e and Sexual Slander in Early Modern and New England: c r i m i n a l i t y o f w o m e n in e i g h t e e n t h . w h o had n e i t h e r d e x t e r i t y n o r spirit t o o p p o s e a p o p u l a r r a g e ' . H e a r n s h a w . Stevenson ( C a m b r i d g e 1 9 8 5 ) . B o r t h w i c k P a p e r s . e v e n i f w e e s c h e w s o m e o f t h e w o m e n ' s consider seem E w e n . f o r d e f a m a t i o n l i t i g a t i o n . for scolding. Witchcraft North. A D 1 5 7 8 — 1 6 0 2 . see S. a p p e n d i x L. 1 7 9 — 9 9 . 24. E w e n . 18—37. e d . Witch 23 Hunting and Witch Trials. is s o m e h o w c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h e m a l e d o m i n a t i o n o f w o m e n . ch. R o s e n . (London 1 9 7 0 ) . T h i s p r a c t i c e is discussed in A Calendar a h i s t o r y o f t h e j u r y o f m a t r o n s ' . Women. B2v. a n d suing e a c h o t h e r f o r d e f a m a t i o n a r i s i n g f r o m allegations o f witchcraft. (London 1 7 0 2 ) . A . the hon Sir Dudley 130—1 North. For an i m p o r t a n t preliminary discussion. Oses in the countie to the determination The wonderfull movement of the law ( L o n d o n 1 5 8 2 ) . Society (Oxford 1988). and confession maiesties judges. 8 0 — 1 1 6 . S e e also J . 2 6 . N o r t h . m a t e r i a l s f o r t h e W e s t e r n C i r c u i t p r i n t e d in C . w e r e d i s a d v a n t a g e d . S h a r p e . T h i s is e s p e c i a l l y r e l e v a n t w h e n w e w i t c h c r a f t . modern England. 1 16—36. late A true and exact relation witches arraigned of the severall informations. an o f f e n c e w h i c h . T h e s e figures are d e r i v e d f r o m abstracts o f i n d i c t m e n t s given in A calendar records: 70-223. Trials. London 1 9 9 4 ) . n o r t h e r n e v i d e n c e ' . B o v s . Y e t w i t h i n t h o s e c o n s t r a i n t s a n d l i m i t a t i o n s .

s e e M . ' W a s witch-hunting women- as a c c u s e r s o r w i t n e s s e s . 123—4. passim. 1 9 7 . as I shall a r g u e . Witchcraft Jordan t o g e t h e r in M . Wonderfull G o o d c o l e . B e f o r e d i s c u s s i n g t h e s e i n s t a n c e s . and tragical! history of the try all. examining the involvement of women 3 in Y o r k s h i r e p r o s e c u t i o n s . L. Witch Hunting R o s e n . M o o r e . Sawyer. Wonderfull Ewen. by J o h n D e m o s . 15-16.166—7. which emphasize female weakness greater susceptibility of women to satanic temptation. displays s o m e o f t h e p o t e n t i a l o f t h e s u b j e c t . confession and condemnation of six witches C h a p t e r 23 in Kent ( L o n d o n 1 6 5 2 ) . Clive Holmes a modern enquiry T h i s p h e n o m e n o n is p e r h a p s m o s t familiar in t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e trials at S a l e m . condemn'd (London 1 6 5 3 ) . n o t least. sig D 2 v . Witchcraft news from discoverie and Witch the North of Elizabeth Trials. . M a t e r i a l s r e l a t i n g t o this case are b r o u g h t and Hysteria 1990). t h e d y n a m i c i n t e r w e a v i n g dimension of witchcraft. T HE ROLE PLAYED BY WOMEN in t h e l e g a l p r o c e s s a g a i n s t w i t c h e s . WOMEN: WITCHES AND WITNESSES 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 F o r t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n possession and g e n d e r . (London 1 6 5 0 ) . Yet K a r l s e n ' s a c k n o w l e d g e m e n t t h a t t h e r o l e o f w o m e n as a c c u s e r s r e m a i n s o n e of t h e m o s t baffling q u e s t i o n s a b o u t w i t c h c r a f t d o e s suggest t h e n e e d for further discussion. although n o w s o m e w h a t d a t e d . w o m e n m i g h t t e s t i f y as ' p o s s e s s e d ' v i c t i m s o f t h e w i t c h ' s m a l i c e . n o t least b e c a u s e t h e victims and witnesses were themselves as l i k e l y t o b e w o m e n as m e n ' .302 JIM SHARPE 34 35 A prodigious at Maidstone. designed to discover the incriminating physical characteristics t h a t i n d i c a t e d h e r c o m p l i c i t y w i t h S a t a n a n d his m i n i o n s . o f c o n s i d e r a b l e w i l l i l l u m i n a t e a n u m b e r o f issues r a i s e d b y t h e w i t c h c r a f t oi p r o s e c u t i o n s : t h e s h a p i n g r o l e o f t h e legal s y s t e m . ' W i t c h c r a f t and w o m e n ' . M a c D o n a l d . Daemonologia. F o r a w o r k w h i c h . in Elizabethan London: Edward E w e n . First. has b e e n f r e q u e n t l y c i t e d in t h e c o u r s e o f s k i r m i s h e s as p o s e d b y C h r i s t i n a L a r n e r . about the question. Secondly. 4 . like L a r n e r . and Demonianism. T h i s argument is m i r r o r e d b y t h a t o f A l a n M a c f a r l a n e . a n d an essay b y J . in 1 6 9 2 . have found such reasoning 'simplistic'. it w i l l b e n e c e s s a r y t o e x a m i n e a t h i r d . Dr Lamb revived S h a r p e . M . d o e s f o c u s o n this issue. cultural complexity An exami- n a t i o n o f t h e p r o c e s s o f w i t n e s s i n g — a p r o c e s s . Witchcraft and the Mary Glover case ( L o n d o n 36 37 F a i r f a x . Marianne 1 Feminist scholars. in r e l a t i o n t o t h e N e w England trials. or witchcraft 192—5. 2 Hester. W e m a y d i s t i n g u i s h t h r e e w a y s in w h i c h w o m e n m i g h t p a r t i c i p a t e in t h e t r i a l p r o c e d u r e s against w i t c h e s . 276. c o n t r o l o f t h e i r m i n d s a n d b o d i e s h a d b e e n s e i z e d b y t h e D e v i l at t h e i n s t i g a t i o n o f t h e w i t c h . Carol Karlsen a n d . h u n t i n g ? ' K e i t h T h o m a s has a r g u e d t h a t ' T h e i d e a t h a t w i t c h . Sharpe. most recently. In b o t h instances the sensual t h e f e m a l e d e p o n e n t s a p p e a r t o a c q u i e s c e in a n d r e i n f o r c e t h e o r i e s o f w i t c h c r a f t . T w o o f these are very distinctive. E . M a s s a c h u s e t t s . S t a r k e y . A . The Devil in Massachusetts: into the Salem witch trials (New York 1950). their greater elite theology and the c o n c e r n s o f the populace and. s e e C h a p t e r 1 9 in this c o l l e c tion by M o s h e Sluhovsky.p r o s e c u t i o n s r e f l e c t e d a w a r b e t w e e n the sexes m u s t b e d i s c o u n t e d . B o w e r . women might r e p o r t the results o f physical searches that they had b e e n instructed t o c o n d u c t upon the w i t c h ' s b o d y . the misogvnous d e p r a v i t y . a n d has b e e n f o l l o w e d . developed by theologians and lawyers.

S u c h e v i d e n c e s u r v i v e s in a m u l t i p l i c i t y o f f o r m s : in t h e p r i v a t e p a p e r s o f J P s a n d m i n i s t e r s . B u t t h e legal e l i t e . is t h e e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h e g r o w i n g p r o p o r t i o n o f w o m e n Women. 3 per T h e a p p a r e n t r i s e in t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f f e m a l e w i t n e s s e s is n o t m e r e l v t h e p r o d u c t o f a c h a n g e in t h e r e c o r d i n g p r a c t i c e s o f t h e c l e r k s o f a s s i z e . t o p e r m i t a p r e l i m inary analysis. t h e r e d o e s n o t a p p e a r t o b e a n y g e n d e r bias in t h e d e t e r m i nation o f n a m e s for e n d o r s e m e n t on the earlier i n d i c t m e n t s . m a l e interl o c u t o r s . Y e t . In t h e o f the f o l l o w i n g c e n t u r y s o m e nine h u n d r e d and seventy witnesses w e r e endorsements also suggest that women were becoming some of the course The 8 p e a r f r o m t h e r e c o r d . 2 p e r c e n t o f witnesses against w i t c h e s n a m e s w e r e e n d o r s e d o n t h e i n d i c t m e n t s w e r e w o m e n . i t l a c k s t h e i r c o n c e p t u a l c l a r i t y a n d s o p h i s t i c a t i o n . in 1 4 .w i t c h c r a f t c a s e s in a s a m p l e o f s e s s i o n s o f t h e E s s e x assizes b e t w e e n 1 5 9 6 a n d 1 6 2 5 . t h e t e s t i m o n y of m e n p r e d o m i n a t e d : m e n f o r m e d 8 0 . T h e rising p r o p o r t i o n o f f e m a l e d e p o n e n t s i n w i t c h c r a f t c a s e s in t h e c o u r s e o f t h e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y is n o t an o p t i c a l i l l u s i o n i n d u c e d b y c h a n g i n g c l e r i c a l p r a c t i c e . As t h e c r i m e o f w i t c h c r a f t w a s i n c r e a s i n g l y p e r c e i v e d as i n v o l v i n g m y s t e r i o u s h u m a n a i l m e n t s a n d d e a t h . as in all p r o p e r t y c r i m e s . 3 cent of incidents. at l e a s t f o r t h e H o m e C i r c u i t . 8 p e r c e n t in C h a r l e s I ' s r e i g n . t h e n p l u m m e t e d t o a m e r e 2 . wdiere t h e a c c u s e d w a s d i r e c t l y a l l e g e d t o b e i n v o l v e d in d i a b o l i c p r a c t i c e s . 8 p e r c e n t o f all w i t c h c r a f t c a s e s c o m i n g t o t h e a t t e n t i o n o f t h e assizes i n v o l v e d an i n d i c t m e n t a l l e g i n g t h a t t h e a c c u s e d h a d d a m a g e d s t o c k . anguish and m o r t a l physical t o r m e n t s inflicted by the w i t c h . As the n u m b e r s o f p r o p e r t y o f f e n c e s b r o u g h t b e f o r e t h e assize c o u r t s w a n e d in t h e c o u r s e o f t h e c e n t u r y . 7 gories. 8 p e r c e n t o f witnesses t o these charges. Indictments of stock- d a m a g e . In t h e last v e a r s o f Elizabeth's reign ( 1 5 9 6 . has t o u n d e r t a k e n f r o m t h e s e c o n d o f t h e a v a i l a b l e s o u r c e s : t h e assize i n d i c t m e n t s . n o t a n y c h a n g e in t h e c o u r t s ' r e a d i n e s s t o a c c e p t f e m a l e t e s t i m o n y . b e c a u s e it is t h e b a s i c f o r m o f f e m a l e e n g a g e m e n t in t h e c o u r t s . disapmental l a t t e r .b e d o f t h e v i c t i m . In t h e r e i g n s o f E l i z a b e t h and per J a m e s 3 6 . t o o did t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f m a l e w i t n e s s e s a t t e n d i n g at C h e l m s f o r d . H o w e v e r . dropped to 1 5 . and f r e q u e n t . to calculate. W o m e n w e r e simply b e t t e r placed than m e n to describe the incidents and activities that c o n f o r m e d t o t h e a l t e r e d p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e n a t u r e o f w i t c h c r a f t as a c r i m i n a l o f f e n c e . T h i s r e s t r u c turing o f the o f f e n c e by magistrates and lawyers certainly does n o t indicate l a r y m a t e r i a l p r o d u c e d in t h e official i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e l a t e t h e i r p o w e r s in t h e d e s t r u c t i o n o f s t o c k o r t h e i n t e r r u p t i o n any f u n d a m e n t a l c h a n g e in t h e n a t u r e o f p o p u l a r b e l i e f c o n c e r n i n g w i t c h c r a f t . B u t t h e s u r v i v a l o f t h e s e v a r i o u s s o u r c e s is s o r a n d o m t h a t a n y a t t e m p t to undertake a quantitative study. t h e n . T h e r i s i n g p e r c e n t a g e o f w o m e n w i t n e s s e s in w i t c h c r a f t c a s e s is a l s o r e l a t e d . .1 6 0 2 ) 3 8 . a n d this w a s u n i f o r m l y p r a c t i s e d a f t e r 1 6 0 0 . proportionally formally more whose t e s t i f y i n g in w i t c h c r a f t c a s e s i n t h e c o u r s e o f t h e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y . the proportion o f male a n d f e m a l e d e p o n e n t s in w i t c h c r a f t c a s e s . i n v a r i a b l y a n n o t a t e t h e d o c u m e n t w i t h t h e n a m e s o f all t h o s e w e r e e x p e c t e d t o t e s t i f y at t h e a s s i z e s . 4 3 . T h e shift in t h e c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n o f t h e o f f e n c e w a s i n s t i g a t e d b y t h e l e g a l e l i t e . T h e y w e r e a l s o in a m a j o r i t y in this l a t t e r p e r i o d in i n d i c t m e n t s e m a n a t i n g f r o m t h e assize c o u r t s o f t h e N o r t h e r n C i r c u i t ( 5 6 p e r c e n t ) . A n d in i n d i c t m e n t s c o n c e r n i n g m a l e f i c d a m a g e t o s t o c k . And they indicate the c o n c e r n s that exercised female witnesses. First. W h y did t h i s s i g n i f i c a n t shift in t h e p r o p o r t i o n s o f m a l e a n d f e m a l e d e p o n e n t s o c c u r in t h e c e n t u r y a f t e r 1 5 9 0 ? T h e p h e n o m e n o n is p a r a l l e l e d b y an i n c r e a s e in t h e i n v o l v e m e n t o f f e m a l e d e p o n e n t s in all c a s e s b e f o r e t h e a s s i z e s . t h o u g h h i g h l y f o r m u l a i c a n d c o n s e q u e n t l y o p a q u e in t e r m s o f a n y s u b s t a n tive detail c o n c e r n i n g the cases that they r e c o r d . u n l i k e its E l i z a b e t h a n p r e d e c e s s o r s . m o r e r a r e l y . r o o t e d in p o p u l a r r a t h e r t h a n e l i t e b e l i e f s . 9 p e r c e n t ) in t h e c o u n t i e s t h a t f o r m e d t h e H o m e C i r c u i t . 4 p e r c e n t in t h e r e i g n o f J a m e s I. This k i n d o f t e s t i m o n y is m o r e i n c h o a t e t h a n t h e o t h e r t w o c a t e g o r i e s . H o w e v e r . in p u b l i s h e d w o r k s — a c a d e m i c t r e a t i s e s a n d p o p u l a r b r o a d s i d e s . a t t e n d a n t at t h e s i c k . 6 I T h e sources available for the study o f witnessing can b e divided into t w o cate- B u t this shift r e f l e c t s . t h o u g h n o t in N o r f o l k C i r c u i t c a s e s ( 4 3 cent). w o u l d b e m i s l e a d i n g . though these are. as i n d i c t m e n t s . R i c h in d e t a i l . a f t e r t h e R e s t o r a t i o n t h e p r o p o r t i o n had m o r e than doubled ( 2 2 p e r c e n t ) . b o t h i n v o l v i n g t h e g r e a t e s t n u m b e r o f d e p o n e n t s . stock-damage formed r the sole charge. to stock or crops blighted. T h e a n c i l seventeenth-century exercise and now o f agricultural c a s e s d e m o n s t r a t e s t h a t at t h e l o c a l l e v e l w i t c h e s w e r e still b e l i e v e d t o i n v o l v e d in w i t c h c r a f t a c c u s a t i o n in t h e c o u r s e o f t h e p e r i o d .304 CLIVE HOLMES WOMEN: WITCHES AND WITNESSES 305 g r o u p o f w o m e n i n v o l v e d in c r i m i n a l p r o s e c u t i o n : t h o s e w h o t e s t i f i e d s i m p l v t o t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e w i t c h ' s maleficium — to children lamed or killed. refracted through the pens and the assumptions o f their elite. s u c h t e s t i m o n i e s c e r t a i n l y d i s p l a y t h e i n v o l v e m e n t o f w o m e n in t h e p r o c e s s o f a c c u s a t i o n . r o s e s l i g h t l y t o 2 5 p e r c e n t in t h e I n t e r r e g n u m . a l l e g i n g t h e d e s t r u c t i o n o f 'unum spandonem ( g e l d i n g ) colons white'. in l a t e r r e c o r d s s u c h o m i s s i o n s s e e m who less d o m e s t i c p r o c e d u r e s . t o o f f e n c e s against p r o p e r t y . so t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f f e m a l e w i t n e s s e s i n c r e a s e d . be The A n d in these p r o s e c u so tions the bulk o f the t e s t i m o n y was p r o v i d e d by m e n . W o m e n f o r m e d o n l y 1 0 p e r c e n t o f t h e w i t n e s s e s in n o n . an e s s e n t i a l g r o u n d b a s e t o a d i s c u s s i o n o f w i t c h c r a f t t e s t i m o n y . H e r e . a n d o f t h e f u n c t i o n a r i e s o f t h e e c c l e s i a s t i c a l c o u r t s . in a n y o f t h e i n d i c t m e n t s f o r m a j o r c r i m inal o f f e n c e s . e i t h e r a l o n e o r in c o n j u n c t i o n w ith o t h e r a c t s o f maleficium. it m u s t b e e x a m i n e d first. in t h e o f f i c i a l files o f t h e c l e r k s o f assize a n d o f t h e p e a c e . A f t e r 1660 the local justices and the courts w e r e reluctant t o admit charges o f witchcraft e x c e p t in c a s e s o f m y s t e r i o u s a n d t e r r i f y i n g i l l n e s s l e a d i n g t o d e a t h o r . o f c o u r s e . t h e y d e c l i n e d m a r k e d l y a f t e r 1 6 6 0 . w e r e w e l l p l a c e d t o d e s c r i b e t h e recorded 4 on witchcraft i n d i c t m e n t s : almost half o f these ( 4 7 . d o have the virtue o f surviving in a s u f f i c i e n t c h r o n o l o g i c a l s e r i e s . 9 p e r c e n t a f t e r t h e R e s t o r a t i o n . transcriptions o f the testimony proffered to the examining magistrates o r in c o u r t . housebreaking — had d o m i n a t e d p r o c e e d i n g s f r o m the 1 5 9 0 s until the end o f t h e r e i g n o f J a m e s I. burglary. a f t e r t h e R e s t o r a t i o n f e m a l e w i t n e s s e s w e r e in t h e m a j o r i t y ( 5 2 . E a r l y in t h e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y t h e c l e r k s did n o t . 6 8 per c e n t ) w e r e w o m e n . b u t s i m p l y t h e fall in t h e n u m b e r o f p r o p e r t y o f f e n c e s c o m i n g t o the a t t e n t i o n o f the assizes. P r o p e r t y c r i m e s — l a r c e n y . t h o u g h tangentially. l i k e t h a t a g a i n s t M a r g e r y S t a n t o n o f W i m b i s h in 1 5 7 9 . for instance. In t h e 1 5 9 0 s t h e c l e r k o f assize f o r t h e H o m e C i r c u i t b e g a n t o e n d o r s e o f the indictments upon which the accused w e r e tried with the names w i t n e s s e s in t h e c a s e . e v e n plays a n d b a l l a d s . A n y s t a t i s t i c a l e x e r c i s e . to the interruption o f agricultural or domestic procedures.

if uneasily. . and f r o m the m o t h e r t o the c h i l d r e n ' . R o n a l d S a w y e r has n o t i c e d t h e p l u r a l i t y o f w o m e n b o t h a m o n g t h o s e n a m e d as w i t c h e s ( 9 4 . 7 per c e n t ) . Edward Fairfax noted that the inhabitants o f K n a r e s b o r o u g h Forest c o e x i s t e d w i t h t h e w i t c h . T h e case J a n e W e n h a m .c l a n s in t h e i r m i d s t . 1 4 c o n c e r n i n g t h e analysis o f t h e r o l e o f w i t n e s s e s . L o c a l s u s p i c i o n s a n d c o n c e r n s h a d t o b e m o u l d e d t o t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f legal categorization and p r o c e d u r e and. F r o m a sample o f the cases c o m i n g t o the attention o f Richard 1601 1 6 2 7 . b e v o n d t h e s e . S u s p i c i o n a g a i n s t W e n h a m h a d f e s t e r e d f o r y e a r s . tations. h o w far the authorities tailored the e v i d e n c e t o the constraints i m p o s e d b y t h e c h a n g i n g a s s u m p t i o n s o f a s y s t e m in w h i c h t h e w i t n e s s e s w e r e . It w a s a p e r m a n e n t f e a t u r e o f t h e f o r m a l p r o s e c u t i o n o f w i t c h c r a f t . as t h e c l e r i c a l p r o s e c u t o r s c o m p l a i n e d . t h e m y s t e r i o u s p o w e r s t h a t c o n s t i t u t e d w i t c h c r a f t w o u l d n o r m a l l y b e p o s s e s s e d b y w o m e n . t h e c l e r k o f assize i n s i s t e d t h a t ' h e n e i t h e r c o u l d . T h e g i r l ' s affliction was studied and the charge o f w i t c h c r a f t against W e n h a m e n g i n e e r e d by local Anglican c l e r g y m e n . T h i s w a s . her neighbours 9 also of b e l i e v e d h e r t o b e guilty o f d e s t r o y i n g s t o c k and spoiling b r e w i n g . T h e c a s e . In t h e Wenham case the manipulation of popular concerns and belief by cases. t h e figure f o r f e m a l e p a t i e n t s is 5 8 . n o r w o u l d . an o d d r e a d i n g o f t h e J a c o b e a n l e g i s l a t i o n . T h e r e is l i t t l e o f t h e s o p h i s t i cated misogyny. F i r s t . s a r d o n i c f o r m t a k e n b y t h e ' c o n v e r s i n g f a m i l i a r l y w i t h t h e D e v i l in t h e s h a p e o f a c a t ' — o s t e n s i b l y e n t e r t a i n e e m p l o y f e e d e o r r e w a r d e a n y evill a n d w i c k e d s p i r i t ' . O n e W a l k e r n y e o m a n b e l i e v e d that he had lost s t o c k t o the value o f £ 2 0 0 t h r o u g h h e r malefic e n c e o v e r the years. T h i s raises a critical fire. I u n b e s o u g h t thev p r o v i d e d h e r w i t h and m e a t f r o m their o w n t a b l e s ' . w a s m o v e d b y . developed by elite c o m m e n t a t o r s in p r o s e c u t i o n . a n d t h a t t h e h e a d o f o n e o f t h e l a t t e r ' h a d so p o w e r f u l h a n d o v e r t h e w e a l t h i e s t n e i g h b o u r s a b o u t h e r . a n d a m o n g N a p i e r ' s p a t i e n t s . 7 p e r c e n t ) . T h e latter n o t only tolerated the petty thefts. v i l l a g e r s at first i n s t a n c e m i g h t s e e k t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e y w e r e n o t t h e v i c t i m s o f s u c h p o w e r . R o g e r N o w e l l . is v e r y a p p a r e n t . t o the political and theological c o n c e r n s o f the elite which i n f o r m e d and shaped the juridical forms. in t h e W e n h a m c a s e . t h r e e f o r k i l l i n g b v w i t c h c r a f t a n d o n e f o r e n t e r t a i n i n g evil s p i r i t s . f o r t h e m . from the grandmother to the p o p u l a r l e v e l t o q u e s t i o n s o f t h e o r i g i n o f this p o w e r . lineage: 1 1 e x a m p l e . Fairfax's e n g a g e m e n t in t h e p r o s e c u t i o n o f t h e K n a r e s b o r o u g h w i t c h e s s t e m m e d f r o m the m v s t e r i o u s i l l n e s s o f his d a u g h t e r . From them first.1 6 6 0 c a s e s in w h i c h it e m e r g e s m o s t c l e a r l y . occasioned by abuse or r u m o u r s that suggested that they w e r e n a m e m e n a n d w o m e n in a l m o s t e q u a l n u m b e r s as t h e i r s l a n d e r e r s . m i g h t b e t r e a t e d w i t h an e l a b o r a t e i f c a u t i o u s d e f e r e n c e .306 CLIVE HOLMES WOMEN: WITCHES AND WITNESSES 307 r e f u s e d t o e n t e r t a i n f o r m a l a c c u s a t i o n s b a s e d o n this k i n d o f e v i d e n c e . f o u n d g u i l t y a t t h e H e r t f o r d assizes in 1 7 1 2 f o r d i a b o l i c d e a l i n g s . w a s a s k i r m i s h in t h e w i d e r b a t t l e a g a i n s t d e i s m a n d a g n o s t i c i s m . p a i n e i u l l in t h e s e r v i c e o i his C o u n t r e v ' . d i s t o r t e d b y r e f r a c tion through the conceptual f r a m e w o r k o f the elite. m e n and w o m e n Napier. a fear o f w i t c h e s .f a m i l i e s . a n o t h e r local f a r m e r ' s sheep had died m y s t e r i o u s l y after he t h r e a t e n e d W e n h a m f o r s t e a l i n g his t u r n i p s . B u t s u c h t r a n s m u t a t i o n w a s n o t p e c u l i a r t o t h e p o s t . T h e y sought p r o t e c t i o n f r o m the w i t c h e s ' p o w e r b o t h bv paying blackmail and bv recourse to counter-magic. a t t h e S u f f o l k assizes in 1 6 9 4 f o u r i n d i c t m e n t s . H o w did villagers w h o m a y have c o . t h a t n o n e o f t h e m refused t o d o anything she r e q u i r e d . h e a d e d bv their r e s p e c t i v e m a t r i a r c h s . So. S e c o n d l y . A l l t h e s o u r c e s a r e . begging and e x t o r t i o n o f the suspected w i t c h e s . t h e o d d . in measure. only marginal participants. though no charges w e r e formally levelled. in c o n s e q u e n c e . w h o e v e n t u a l l y a t t r i b u t e d h e r c o n d i t i o n t o t h e i r m a l e f i c e n c e . it a p p e a r s t h a t it w a s t h o u g h t t o i n h e r e in m a t r i l i n e a l 'by discent m o t h e r . H e l e n . T h e w i t c h . seeking t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f the ecclesiastical c o u r t s against the d a m a g e t o t h e i r r e p u - But a general fear o f a local w o m a n possessing the formidable p o w e r s attributed t o w i t c h e s does n o t automatically t r a n s m u t e i n t o legal p r o s e c u t i o n . an i n d i c t m e n t f o r w i t c h c r a f t r e q u i r e d e i t h e r t h e d e a t h o i t h e v i c t i m o r p r o o f o f d i a b o l i c p r a c t i c e s . m i n i s t e r o f G r e a t Linford and astrological physician. a n d w a s r e i n f o r c e d in 1 7 1 1 b y t h e m y s t e r i o u s b e h a v i o u r a n d i l l n e s s o f a p o s s e s s e d m a i d s e r v a n t . 2 p e r c e n t . w i t h the s u s p e c t e d w i t c h c o m e t o t e s t i f y a g a i n s t h e r ? In b o t h K n a r e s b o r o u g h a n d P e n d l e t h a t t r a n s f o r mation was accomplished bv the direct intervention o f m e m b e r s o f the elite. 1 0 obliged to explain the substantial plurality o f w o m e n In s o f a r as any a t t e n t i o n w a s p a i d at t h e . In L a n c a s h i r e t h e z e a l o u s m a g i s t r a t e . and w h i c h was revived after the peculiar c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f the Civil W a r and I n t e r r e g n u m H e n c e . revealed longstanding popular suspicions o f a traditional kind that had little to do with the elite c o n c e r n s that i n f o r m e d the language o f the i n d i c t m e n t .o p e r a t e d . b o t h the T o r y divines crusading against infidelity and t h e c y n i c s o f t h e legal e s t a b l i s h m e n t w h o d e r i d e d a n d s o u g h t t o f r u s t r a t e t h e i r e f f o r t s . b u t e m p l o y e d t h e m r o u t i n e l y b o t h in d o m e s t i c i n d u s t r y a n d as h e a l e r s . Sawyer's figures further suggest that w o m e n w e r e quicker to n o m i n a t e those thev held responsible for their sufferings: 4 5 . b e t w e e n shared and T h e W e n h a m c a s e d e s e r v e s f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n . C o n f r o n t e d b v p o w e r . B u t w h e n t h e d i v i n e s s o u g h t t o i n d i c t W e n h a m f o r ' w a s t i n g a n d c o n s u m i n g ' h e r v i c t i m . p e r h a p s t o c o n t r o l a n d d e p l o y it f o r t h e i r o w n p u r p o s e s .w i e l d i n g w o m e n . O l d C h a t t o x and O l d D e m d y k e . vea. 1 2 Women witches. in s o m e m e a s u r e . eager to use the opportunity to assert the reality o f witchcraft in t h e f a c e o f g r o w i n g i n t e l l e c t u a l s c e p t i c i s m . w h o believed themselves the victims o f witchcraft ( 5 9 . A similarly dense and long-standing n e t w o r k o f s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s is a p p a r e n t in P e n d l e F o r e s t b e t w e e n t h e r i v a l w i t c h . some s e c o n d l y . and the villagers. . w e r e p r e f e r r e d a g a i n s t P h i l i p p a M u n n i n g s of Hartest but. 'a v e r y r e l i g i o u s h o n e s t g e n t l e m a n . a p o w e r f u l b r e w o f biblical and Aristotelian emphases on female inferiority. lay it s o ' . m a l e a n d f e m a l e . W e m u s t c o n s i d e r : h o w local fears and suspicions w e r e drawn t o the attention o f the magistracy. 1 5 6 3 s u s p i c i o n s r o o t e d in f o l k l o r e had t o b e o r c h e s t r a t e d t o to the machinery accommodate point and the values o f the elite. a g r o u p o f 1 0 9 p e r s o n s . b u t it w a s o n e t h a t h a d b e g u n t o b e f a v o u r e d b y t h e j u d g e s in t h e 1 6 3 0 s . It c l e a r l y d i s p l a y s t h e c o m p l e x p r o c e s s w h i c h a t t e n d e d t h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f l o c a l c o n c e r n s i n t o f o r m a l legal p r o c e d u r e . for II It is d i f f i c u l t t o m a k e c o n f i d e n t a s s e r t i o n s a b o u t t h e n a t u r e a n d p a t t e r n s o f p o p u l a r b e l i e f s a b o u t w i t c h c r a f t . Y e t w e m a y suggest a couple o f its f e a t u r e s s a l i e n t t o this e n q u i r y . 1 3 indictment bringing t h e o f f e n c e w i t h i n t h e c o m p a s s o f t h e c l a u s e o f t h e s t a t u t e t h a t m a d e it f e l o n y ' t o e l e m e n t s o f the elite. 5 per cent o f Napier's male patients w e r e ready to n a m e t h e w i t c h p e r s e c u t i n g t h e m .

in 1 5 7 2 at C h e l m s f o r d a s s i z e s . r a r e . b u r n i n g t h e e a r s o f an a f f l i c t e d pig t o c u r e it. H e had sought t h e advice o f a n u m b e r o f e m i n e n t physicians on G r a c e ' s with equal v i g o u r . had afflicted their enemies. N o w e l l ' s i n t e r v e n t i o n . c o u l d b e d a n g e r o u s . f o r w h i c h she h a d s o u g h t h e l p f r o m a c u n n i n g . O f the witnesses. as in K n a r e s b o r o u g h and P e n d l e . l o c a l b e l i e f s h i n t e d at in t h e e a r l i e s t d e p o s i t i o n s w e r e H o w e v e r . Y e t the energetic p r o s e c u t o r w o u l d n o t s t a n d a l o n e . b o t h m e n a n d w o m e n . T h e y w e r e joined by eight additional witnesses. w e have another W a d d e and E a s t c h u r c h : a m a n w i t h w e a l t h . h a d r e f u s e d t o h a t c h her eggs). D a r c y ' s h o m e . Samuel Pacy. . t h e n . o r perhaps suspicions against H e a r d and R o b i n s o n . l i k e R o g e r N o w e l l . W o m e n also s e e m r e a d i e r t o d e p l o y . e x p e r i e n c e o f their maleficence tended. u n d e r D a r c y ' s r e l e n t l e s s q u e s t i o n i n g . held A m v D u n y and R o s e C u l l e n d e r r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e m y s t e r i o u s i l l n e s s o f his t w o d a u g h t e r s . ' t h a t h a t h b e e n as g o o d f o r t h e b r i n g i n g f o o r t h o f h e r b r o o d e as a n y g o o s e in W a l t o n ' . c o n f e s s i n g s a t a n i c p r a c t i c e s a n d n a m i n g a w i d e c o v e n o f a c c o m p l i c e s . h o w e v e r . In s e v e r a l c a s e s in t h e H o m e C i r c u i t in t h e E l i z a b e t h a n and J a c o b e a n period a witch w o u l d b e charged on a n u m b e r o f i n d i c t m e n t s . a wealthy m e m b e r o f the M a l m e s b u r y elite. w h i l e s p u r r e d one o f the accused the b o y a t t e m p t e d suicide - by T h e r o l e o f l o c a l m e n in o r g a n i z i n g t h e p r o c e s s w h e r e b y s u s p i c i o n a n d g o s s i p w e r e t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o f o r m a l a c c u s a t i o n . e x c e p t s u c h a p e r s o n as this M r W e b b ' . Illness. e n c o u r Darcy. swiftly t r a n s f o r m e d t h e m . D a r c y . . w h e r e w e c a n r e c o n s t r u c t a narrative with s o m e confidence.c o n s u m i n g and expensive a n d its f a i l u r e m i g h t l e a v e a c c u s e r s h o s t a g e t o t h e m a l i c e o f t h e w i t c h . was the first f o r m a l l y t o d e n o u n c e H e a r d . deposed c o n c e r n i n g the interruption o f agricultural routines that t h e y a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e w i t c h e s .l a w .m a g i c h e a t i n g a b e w i t c h e d s p i n d l e t o g e t i t t o w o r k a g a i n . o n l y D o r o t h y D u r e n t b l a m e d t h e w i t c h e s f o r a d e a t h . A n n e S a n d e s w e l l r e c a l l e d an i n c i d e n t s e v e n o r e i g h t years b e f o r e . o r r u n t h e hazard o f h e r r e v e n g e if she b e a c q u i t t e d . It is s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t t h e w o m e n w h o b e c a m e i n v o l v e d in t h e p r o c e s s o f t e n r e t a i l e d older grievances and suspicions that had festered b u t previously g o n e u n r e m a r k e d to the authorities. b u t f e m a l e i n t e r r u p t i o n o f d o m e s t i c r o u t i n e s . O n c e the w i t c h c r a f t diagnosis had b e e n suggested. H i s a c t i v i t i e s a c t e d as a c a t a their suspicions o f their n e i g h b o u r s . occasionally mortal. and the child had n o friends' 9 a n d e d u c a t e d b v D a r c y ' s c r u s a d e at n e i g h b o u r i n g St O s y t h . t h e b u l k o f the t e s t i m o n y was p r o v i d e d b y w o m e n w h o had a t t e n d e d the girl during h e r long sickness. d r a w n i n t o the c o u r t to s u p p l e m e n t a case o r c h e s t r a t e d by o t h e r s . 1 8 In s o m e c a s e s t h e a n c i l l a r y t e s t i m o n v o f i e r e d b y w o m e n d e a l s w i t h i n c i d e n t s so r e m o t e as t o r o u s e t h e c o u r t ' s s u s p i c i o n s c o n c e r n i n g t h e w i t n e s s ' s m o t i v e s in c o m i n g f o r w a r d . using a r e d . John Swettson. In 1682 Temperance Lloyd was convicted for afflicting G r a c e T h o m a s o f B i d e f o r d . w h o . A g n e s F r a n c v s K e m p . m a y have b e e n typical o f that o i m a n y w o m e n . initially t o the ecclesiastical c o u r t . T h e s e characteristics w e r e essential. behalf. w e r e o b v i o u s l y o f long duration. w a s t a k e n bv l o c a l men. given that p r o s e c u t i o n was t i m e . the t o r m e n t s o f the Pacy girls. i f t h e y d i d fall f o u l o f H e a r d o r R o b i n s o n . a n d she a l s o t e s t i f i e d c o n c e r n i n g h e r i n f a n t s o n ' s i l l n e s s . and t h e p r o c e s s o f t r a n s m u t a t i o n . their Ursley suspected she a p p e a r e d n o w .c o n g r a t u l a t o r y a c c o u n t o f his s h o r t b u t s p e c t a c u l a r c a r e e r as a w i t c h . a n d had n o t d o n e so b e f o r e b e c a u s e ' s h e d r e w f r o m the judge a stinging a n d i n s e n s i t i v e r e t o r t : ' w a s [she] g r o w n r i c h s i n c e ? " Y e t h e r e x p e r i e n c e . a v e o m a n w h o had suffered heavy stock losses for several years. In t h e b u l k o f c a s e s t h e d e c i s i o n t o b r i n g a w i t c h t o t h e a t t e n t i o n o f t h e authorities appears t o have b e e n u n d e r t a k e n entirely within the n e i g h b o u r h o o d . h e pursued L l o y d ' s d e s t r u c t i o n 1 6 local suspicions and t e n s i o n s . B r i a n D a r c y ' s s e l f . a n d its i m m e d i a t e v i c i n i t y . thev c a m e t o the attention o f the authorities b e c a u s e the villagers w ere inspired r T e n years b e f o r e . t w o m e n and a w o m a n . T h r e e testified c o n c e r n i n g the ailments o f their children. s t o c k had sicke n e d . a local J P had r e p o r t e d that W i d o w P e a c o c k o f M a l m e s b u r y was ' o f very bad fame and very terrible to the p e o p l e ' . in 1 6 5 7 . s e e m s have m a d e little a t t e m p t t o shape p r i m a r y t e s t i m o n y f r o m these peripheral c o m m u n i t i e s . n o t all t h e 1 5 8 2 c a s e s w e r e g e n e r a t e d d i r e c t l y b y D a r c y ' s lvst. T h r e e . encouraging the villagers of Oakley and W a l t o n to voice quickly s w a m p e d by a plethora o f importations f r o m the current theology o f witchcraft. not surprisingly. indicted Margaret C o t t o n f o r t h e d e a t h o f his i n f a n t d a u g h t e r in t h e s u m m e r o f 1 6 0 8 . T h o m a s Eastchurch. a n d h e l e d t h e W a l t o n p r o s e c u t i o n .h u n t e r in n o r t h .e a s t e r n E s s e x in 1 5 8 2 p e r m i t s s o m e d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e l o c a l i n s t i g a t i o n o f p r o s e c u t i o n . B u t t h e e f f e c t i v e d e c i s i o n t o t r a n s m u t e village s u s p i c i o n i n t o o f f i c i a l t e s t i m o n y .m a n . standing and c o n f i d e n c e . s o m e alleging malefic e n t a c t s u n d e r t a k e n y e a r s b e f o r e . is a p p a r e n t in o t h e r c a s e s . c o m p l a i n i n g o f m y s t e r i o u s d e a t h s in t h e i r f a m i l i e s eighteen m o n t h s b e f o r e . c o u n t e r . his i m m e d i a t e c o m p l a i n t a g a i n s t t h e w i t c h w o u l d b e b a c k e d b y c o r r o b o r a t i v e t e s t i m o n y f r o m his n e i g h b o u r s . T h e v i l l a g e r s . Agricultural and d o m e s t i c r o u t i n e s had failed. she r e a d i l y c o n f i r m e d U p c h e r ' s s u s p i c i o n . a Cambridge apothecary. inquisitorial long-held to t e c h n i q u e s o r r e f r a c t e d t h r o u g h his r i c h i m a g i n a t i o n . g e n e r a l l y h e l d .308 CLIVE HOLMES WOMEN: WITCHES AND WITNESSES 309 l o c a l r u m o u r s t o l a u n c h an i n v e s t i g a t i o n . J o h n W a d d e . w a s w e l l v e r s e d in t h e c o n t i nental theories c o n c e r n i n g the satanic dimension o f witchcraft.m a g i c to frustrate the w i t c h . Annis H e a r d and J o a n R o b i n s o n . t h a t o f h e r d a u g h t e r five v e a r s b e f o r e . a respected local m e r c h a n t . D a r c y . Men the The a n d w o m e n c o n c u r r e d in s u s p e c t i n g H e a r d a n d R o b i n s o n o f w i t c h c r a f t . figure like U p c h e r . to concentrate on m e r e l y to a c k n o w l e d g e their use of.i n . a d m i t t e d l y f e w .h o t i r o n t o g e t m i l k t o c h u r n and w o r t t o b r e w . In O a k l e y . h a d r e c o u r s e t o c o u n t e r . h a d b e c o m e his s t a r w i t n e s s . social relations w e r e m a i n t a i n e d w i t h the w i t c h e s . in c a s e s f r o m S t O s y t h . Yet. subsequent t o . H e v i s i t e d t h e g a o l e d S t O s y t h w o m a n . but mirroring. A l l w i t n e s s e s c o n c u r r e d t h a t t o c r o s s t h e s e w o m e n . 1 5 a g e d b y t h e St O s v t h ' s i n v e s t i g a t i o n . Y e t a f e w cases provide significant indicators c o n c e r n i n g that p r o c e s s . a n d t o o r g a n i z e n e i g h b o u r s f o r t h i s . R e l e n t l e s s i n t e r r o g a t i o n o f eventually elicited the required confession o f diabolic activities. a L o w e s t o f t m e r c h a n t . ' t h e O p p o r t u n i t y p r e s e n t i n g i t s e l f . yet ' n o b o d y will e y t h e r b e at the c h a r g e to p r o s e c u t e h e r . while the m e n referred to occasions 'not long s i n c e ' . t o the authorities. 1 7 With Robert Webb. Such e x a m p l e s o f direct elite orchestration are. as in t h e 1 5 8 2 O s k l e v a n d W a l t o n d e n u n c i a t i o n s . d e d i c a t i n g his e n e r g i e s t o t h e p u r s u i t o f t h e S t O s y t h ' s c o v e n . a n d h e a n d o t h e r m e m b e r s o f his f a m i l y t e s t i f i e d t o t h e i r a f f l i c t i o n s at t h e a s s i z e s . to demand the return o f b o r r o w e d articles or p a y m e n t . the j u d g e a s k e d ' w h y she d i d n o t p r o s e c u t e . b u t the accusation was driven on by her b r o t h e r . and he p r o v e d a v i g o r o u s a n d i n v e n t i v e i n q u i s i t o r . t o B r i a n . tw'o p o o r w o m e n j o i n e d h i m in t h e p r o s e c u t i o n . o r a c t e d u n n a t u r a l l y ( T h o m a s R i c e ' s g o o s e . d i e d . is o p a q u e . w h e r e b y s u s p i c i o n b e c a m e p r o s e c u t i o n . . i f a c o m p l a i n t was to b e b r o u g h t t o the attention o f the authorities. i m m e d i a t e l y ? ' H e r a r t l e s s r e p l y was a p o o r w o m a n . W h e n E l i z a b e t h F i e l d t e s t i f i e d that her child had died m a n y years ago upon J a n e W e n h a m ' s t o u c h i n g it. s o . t o r e f u s e t o l e n d o r sell t h e m i m p l e m e n t s or goods. . Edward U p c h e r had long R o b i n s o n f o r t h e d e a t h o f his w i f e .

particularly adolescents. a D u n w i c h O n e further pattern that e m e r g e s last like a black boy 10 years old by a f r o m the H o m e Circuit indictments m a y reinforce the suggestion that w o m e n w e r e being mobilized by m e n . A l i c e C r u t c h w a s a r r a i g n e d u p o n t w o i n d i c t m e n t s for the r e c e n t d e s t r u c t i o n o f t h e s t o c k . his fits d u r i n g t h e t r i a l . but complayned of the hardnes of the t i m e s . particularly the pedlar. Jane T h r o c k m o r t o n . M e n and w o m e n b e l i e v e d that their f e m a l e n e i g h b o u r s c o u l d deploy malefic e n t p o w e r s . T h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f this l a t t e r e m p h a s i s in t h e c o u r s e o f t h e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y e x p l a i n s t h e p r e p o n d e r a n c e o f f e m a l e w i t n e s s e s in l a t e r c a s e s . o f t h e i n f e r i o r i t y o f w o m e n as i n d i c a t e d by their g r e a t e r susceptibility t o satanic t e m p t a t i o n — c o n s t r u c t e d by the elite. w h i c h . b u t (as in t h e c a s e o f S m i t h ) w i t h d i a b o l i s m . is a n o t h e r i n d i c a tion o f the general transformation However. cultural and a d e t a i l e d analysis s u g g e s t s t h a t a m o r e in w h i c h m i n i s t e r s a n d l a w y e r s p l a y e d a d i r e c t immediate role. as v i c t i m s o f d i a b o l i c p o s s e s s i o n t h r o u g h t h e i n s t i g a t i o n o f a w i t c h . the o t h e r t w o dealt with m u r d e r s respectively t h r e e and six y e a r s e a r l i e r . his skill as an i n q u i s i t o r .m a g i c . 7 p e r c e n t o f t h e w i t c h craft accusations b e t w e e n 1 5 9 6 a n d 1 6 4 2 m e n a l o n e a c t e d as w i t n e s s e s . By the Civil w o m e n .t r i a l s . a n o t h e r r e s p o n s e had b e e n m a d e available by the legislation of 1563. and m i g h t b e t r a n s f o r m e d . w h e n b r o u g h t t o the attention o f magistrates and ministers. ' c a m e t o his 'most periect terrible to be tolld'. t o M a t t h e w H o p k i n s ' s acquaintance accused's w i t h c o n t i n e n t a l t h e o r i e s . c o n t r a c t s d i r e c t l y w i t h his a c o l y t e . ' i n t h e s v g h t o i all t h e g r e a t e s t p a r s o n s h e r e . a n d his o w n p r u r i e n t f a n t a s i e s . understanding. if r a r e r . it w a s c l a i m e d . o f popular belief engineered by the complex process of divines. a l s o w i t n e s s e d a g a i n s t w i t c h e s in t w o m o r e d e p o s i t i o n s . generally W e c o u l d s i m p l v a r g u e t h a t t h e t e s t i m o n y o f w o m e n in p o s s e s s i o n c a s e s o r as s e a r c h e r s . bv elaborate d e f e r e n c e . Christianly. s e e m s t o h a v e b e c o m e m o r e understood by the mid-seventeenth century. met the divell midsomer r a r t l e s s a c c o u n t s o f t h e i r d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h S a t a n : so E l i z a b e t h S o u t h e r n e . S u c h t e s t i m o n y . In 2 7 . w a s p r o v i d e d b y t h o s e w h o . t w o alleged r e c e n t incidents o f m u r d e r and the destruction o f stock. with the trivia o f stock-loss or the interruptions of domestic and not agricultural w h i t e t h o r n e as s h e w e n t t o W e s t l e t o n a n d t h e r e h e p r o m i s e d h e r 2s 6 d a n d h e h a d i t n o t t h e n b u t said s h e s h o l d h a v e i t t h e n e x t t i m e she c a m e that way but he favled of his promise. a n d has c a r n a l r e l a t i o n s w i t h h e r .v e a r . T h i s e x t e n sive g r o u p o f d e p o s i t i o n s is a t r i b u t e . Nine w o m e n were c o n v i c t e d at L e i c e s t e r assizes in 1 6 1 6 u p o n t h e t e s t i m o n y o f t h e t h i r t e e n . T h e s e groups w e r e c o n c e r n e d . k n e e l e d a n d a s k e d h e r f a t h e r ' s b l e s s i n g . Y e t the elite w h o controlled the judicial m a c h i n e r y had their o w n agenda. a n d s o l i c i t t h e c o n f i r m a t o r y testimony o f their neighbours. Women. often w o m e n . w e r e d e s i g n e d t o insist o n t h e i r t h e o l o g i c a l c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n .o l d E d w a r d S m i t h . The comprehensively M o s t o f the published accounts o f possession cases provide a narrative w h i c h d e s c r i b e s t h e v i c t i m ' s c o n f r o n t a t i o n w i t h t h e w i t c h as t h e first act o f the subse- . and cases emanating f r o m local tensions and suspicions w o u l d have t o b e adjusted. w h i l e a w o m a n d e p o s e d c o n c e r n i n g t h e e a r l i e r d e a t h . In 1 5 9 6 at H e r t f o r d . p r o c e s s e s . 2 2 t h e f o r m a l legal p r o c e s s a g a i n s t w i t c h e s in t h e b u l k o f t h e c a s e s t h a t c a m e t o t h e a t t e n t i o n o f t h e j u d i c i a r v . o n l y in 4 . a f t e r r a v i n g in t h e p r e s e n c e o f t h e j u d g e s . w e r e l a r g e l y p a s s i v e a c t o r s in whose Ill T h e m o s t s p e c t a c u l a r t e s t i m o n y in w i t c h . w e r e r e i n f o r c e d by w o r k s that w e r e m o r e obviously popular chapbooks. it s e e m s . d e s p i t e t h e i r n u m e r i c a l i n v o l v e m e n t . B u t m a n y o f t h e c o n f e s s i o n s are far f r o m s t e r e o t y p e d . was usually pursued by s u b s t a n t i a l m e n in t h e c o m m u n i t y w h o w o u l d lay t h e c h a r g e . w e r e W i l l i a m A v e r y .310 CLIVE HOLMES WOMEN: WITCHES AND WITNESSES 311 was arraigned on four i n d i c t m e n t s . in this c a s e t w o m e n t e s t i f i e d t o t h e i r l o s s e s . . Protestant divines sought t o t r a n s f o r m the gross popular superstitions that Cases o f diabolic possession through t h e a g e n c y o f a w i t c h p r e s e n t e d t h e m a x i m u m o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r an e d i f y i n g a n d c a t h a r t i c d r a m a in t h e c o u r t T h e y a l s o e m p h a s i z e d t h e d i a b o l i c o r i g i n s o f t h e w i t c h ' s power upon w h i c h t h e d i v i n e s so p e r t i n a c i o u s l y insisted. and u p o n a third i n d i c t m e n t for m u r d e r by w i t c h c r a f t f o u r y e a r s p r e v i o u s l y . w e r e possessed by the Devil through the agency o f a witch. H o w e v e r . 7 p e r c e n t o f t h e m m e n a n d w o m e n t e s t i f i e d t o g e t h e r . by erecting a p r o t e c tive shield o f c o u n t e r . in p a r t . often explicitly designed for 'the capacity o f the simpler sort'. r e f l e c t e d a n d c o n f i r m e d i n t e l l e c t u a l e d i f i c e s — o f w i t c h c r a f t as d i a b o l i s m . a p p a r e n t in t h e i n t e r r o gation o f M a r y S m i t h and the t r i u m p h a n t publication o f h e r eventual confession o f d i a b o l i s m . preponderate among 'possessed' a c c u s e r s . guarding themselves by seeking to avoid conflict. l a r g e l y a b s e n t in e a r l y d e p o s i t i o n s . construction was involved. d e g r e e o f i n v o l v e m e n t o f t h e s e g i r l s w h o in t h e i r t e s t i m o n y so reinforced academic theory. e m e r g e d from h e r fit. w h o w e r e the driving force behind the decision t o bring l o c a l s u s p i c i o n s a n d f e a r s t o t h e a t t e n t i o n o f t h e c o u r t s . s e c o n d l y . broadsides War and ballads — and by the t h e a t r e o f the c o u r t and the g a l l o w s . 2 1 he met her indeed. T h i s l a t t e r c a s e is n o t u n t y p i c a l o f t h o s e i n v o l v i n g s e v e r a l i n d i c t m e n t s in w h i c h t h e n a m e s o f w i t n e s s e s a r e i c e n c e than t o those o f m o r e r e c e n t p r o v e n a n c e . D o e s this a r g u m e n t a l s o h o l d f o r t h o s e w o m e n elite? W o m e n contexts: first. T h e i d e a t h a t a d i r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e D e v i l is t h e f o u n d a t i o n o f t h e w i t c h ' s p o w e r . In c o n f e s s i o n s f r o m E n g l a n d in 1645—7 the Devil figures prominently: h e a p p e a r s in h u m a n eastern guise. o r w i t h m y s t e r i o u s a i l m e n t s a n d d e a t h . s e r m o n s and editions o f confessions. T h e y treated such witches warily. t h a t s a t a n i c c o v e n a n t was the e s s e n c e o f the o f f e n c e . As in N e w England. and. prosecution. w h i l e in 6 7 . as d y v e r s k n y g h t s a n d l a d i e s a n d m a n n y o t h a r s o i t h e b e t t a r s o r t ' . and charitably t o e v e r y p o i n t ' . upon the witch's c o u r t r o o m confession. o n t h e f a c e o f i t . listed: w o m e n f o r m e d a higher proportion o f the witnesses to the charges o f earlier malef2 0 t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l e f f o r t s a p p e a r t o h a v e b o r n e f r u i t . This strategy. 6 p e r c e n t o f t h e c a s e s did w o m e n t e s t i f y a g a i n s t an a c c u s e d w i t c h a l o n e . . in c o n s e q u e n c e . T h e i r treatises. s u g g e s t far m o r e e n g a g e m e n t in t h e c o n c e r n s ot t h e distinctive. deserves discussion. as e x a m i n e r s f o r t h e p h y s i c a l m a r k s w h i c h w e r e i n c r e a s i n g l y s e e n as k e y e v i d e n c e in p r o s e c u t i o n . T h e i r m i s s i o n a r y e f f o r t s . H o r r o r might be punctuated by m o m e n t s o f didactic piety. and . spoke very discreetly. w h e n necessary. 2 3 e m e r g e d in t h e w i t c h c r a f t t r i a l s . in w h i c h t h e y r e p e a t e d a n d c o n f i r m e d e l i t e t h e o r i e s . is o v e r r e p r e s e n t e d in t h e p u b l i s h e d a c c o u n t s .

2 4 identification might prove seductive to those w h o s e s y m p t o m s bewildered medical experts. including the assertion o f the responsibility o f a witch for the victim's e x p e r i e n c e . so t o o w a s t h e s u b s e q u e n t b e h a v i o u r o f t h e v i c t i m s . T h e y t o o confirmed. (1603) 'undistinc- t i v e ' . 'a v e r t u o u s a n d g o d l y g e n t l e . t e s t i f y i n g a t N o r t h a m p t o n assizes w h e r e t h e witch was c o n d e m n e d . b y t h e t i m e it w a s e m p l o v e d b y C o t t o n M a t h e r in his a c c o u n t s o f t h e p o s s e s s i o n o f t h e G o o d w i n c h i l d r e n a n d o f M e r c y S h o r t . bystanders named Joan again: ' H a t h she d o n e i t ? ' . c r y i n g o u t in h e r fits. so that thev c o n f i r m e d with increasing 2 6 D r J o h n C o t t a .w o m a n ' . mony p a r t i c i p a n t s in t h e d r a m a . ' n i c k n a m e d and t a u n t e d ' h e r b e n e f a c t o r s .m a r k s o n t h e a c c u s e d . other t h e s e . 2 5 In o t h e r c a s e s . initiallv clarity' a diagnosis o f possession through w i t c h c r a f t . p h y s i c w a s u n a v a i l i n g . thirteen o f the w o m e n w e r e t o h a v e m a r k s o r p a p s . levelled by a ten-year-old boy. 'Did she?'. T h e ioural traits o f possession. W i l l i a m P e r r v failed t o salute J o a n C o c k e with sufficient c o u r t e s y w h e n they m e t . T h e o r t h o d o x b e g i n n i n g o f t h e a c c o u n t of t h e p o s s e s s i o n o f t h e d a u g h t e r o f L a d v J e n n i n g s — h e r f e a r o f an o l d w o m a n s u d d a i n l y a p p e a r e d t o h e r att t h e d o r e a n d d e m a n d e d a pin o f h e r ' — s e e m s q u i t e i r r e l e v a n t t o t h e s u b s e q u e n t s t o r y . 1619. n o r a n y t h i n g e l y k e a t e a t e o r m a r k e . w r i t i n g in 'ordinarily' sick'. a n d f u r t h e r q u e s t i o n s n o s i s is t h e p r o d u c t o f a d i a l o g u e i n v o l v i n g m a n v a c t o r s . T h e girl n o m i n a t e d w i t c h e s o n l y a f t e r a s e v e r e i l l n e s s o f f o u r m o n t h s d u r i n g wdiich d e s p e r a t e m e d i c a l r e m e d i e s h a d b e e n u n s u c cessfullv a t t e m p t e d . t h e d a u g h t e r o f a n o t o r i o u s l o c a l w i t c h . a n d t h e s e w e r e l o c a t e d in t h e g e n i t a l a r e a o f e l e v e n o f t h e m . t h e s i c k w o m a n a s k e d . F o u r o f the c o n v i c t e d w o m e n w e r e b r o u g h t to L o n d o n and in t h e p r e s e n c e o f a p a n e l o f d i s t i n g u i s h e d p h y s i c i a n s h e a d e d b y W i l l i a m ined. demonstrably absent from their previous affective relations. all w e r e r e j e c t e d until they n a m e d J o a n . T h e actual process w h e r e b v t h e s u f f e r e r ' s a f f l i c t i o n w a s r e c o g n i z e d as p o s s e s s i o n . A c c o r d i n g t o a p a m p h l e t o f 1 6 1 2 M r s E l i z a b e t h B e l c h e r . A f e w documents e n a b l e us t o s e e this p r o c e s s d i r e c t l v . o f f i c i a l l y s a n c t i o n e d . a p o o r k i n s w o m a n w h o lived on the Starkey family's charity. T h e p o s s e s s e d adolescents w e r e the tools o f the divines. b u t also medical professionals and divines. analysing D r S t e p h e n B r a d w e l l ' s a c c o u n t o f the possession o f M a r y G l o v e r . c o m p l a i n e d that the actions and accusations o f the possessed involved 'the abusive impression o f s o m e indiscreete whispering about the p o s s e s s i o n n a r r a t i v e s . could b e individually s h a p e d t o p r o v i d e an o u t l e t f o r p e r s o n a l f e e l i n g s t h a t w o u l d n o t o t h e r w i s e a c h i e v e s a n c t i o n e d e x p r e s s i o n — s e x u a l f a n t a s i e s . T h e L a n c a s t e r c a s e p r o v i d e s t h e first i n s t a n c e o f t h e fullv d e v e l o p e d . 'Heere comes Joane Vaughan. 2 8 B u t . those w h o testified t o the physical m a r k s that w e r e to characterize a witch. if m o r e tangentially. i n c l u d e d an e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e p h y s i o l o g i c a l e v i d e n c e . in t h e f o r m o f e a r l i e r 2 7 T h e b e h a v i o u r and testiother of o f the possessed w e r e thus entangled with the interests o f various chieflv f r o m t h e i r o w n familv n e t w o r k s . A t L a n c a s t e r assizes in 1 6 3 4 s o m e t w e n t y p e o p l e w e r e c o n v i c t e d as w i t c h e s . g a i n i n g d e f i n i t i o n in t h e c e n t u r y a f t e r 1 5 9 0 . If the possession-through-witchcraft and diag- IV A s i m i l a r analysis is a l s o a p p r o p r i a t e in d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e e v i d e n c e o f t h e t h i r d g r o u p o f f e m a l e w i t n e s s e s . Y e t d e s p i t e this c r i t i q u e . and t h e r e had b e e n m u c h discussion a m o n g the family visitors o f the possibilitv o f w i t c h c r a i t .312 CLIVE HOLMES WOMEN: WITCHES AND WITNESSES 313 q u e n t d r a m a . thought suppositions c o n c e r n i n g b o t h the diabolic nature o f witchcraft and female inferiority. their families and neighbours. T e n L o n d o n m i d w i v e s ' m a d e diligent search and inspeccion o f those w o m e n ' T h e y r e p o r t e d t h a t o n e o f t h e w o m e n had u n u s u a l b u t e x p l i c a b l e m a r k s . f r u s t r a tion with the constrictions i m p o s e d by social and g e n d e r r o l e s . they s c o f f e d at S c r i p t u r e as ' b i b l e b a b l e . w e r e a v a i l a b l e in t h e s i c k r o o m . M a r g a r e t B y r o m . l a r g e l v in r e s p o n s e t o t h e e x p e c t a t i o n s o f t h o s e w h o g a t h e r e d a b o u t t h e m t o o f f e r c o n s o l a t i o n and t o p a r t i c i p a t e v i c a r i o u s l y in t h e c o n f l i c t with Satan. Elizabeth responded. as w i t h [Catherine W r i g h t a n d A n n e G u n t e r . i n v o l v e d far m o r e c o m p l e x t r a n s a c t i o n s . a n d t h e w i t c h . n o r any s i g n e t h a t a n y s u c h e t h i n g e h a i t h e v e r b e e n e ' . s a n c t i o n e d b y t h e P r i v y C o u n c i l . And equally it is t h e e l e m e n t o f e l i t e c o n s t r u c t i o n a n d m a n i p u l a t i o n o f t h e i r t e s t i m o n y t h a t is most apparent. when the that E l i z a b e t h w a s in h e r fit. r a g e at p a r e n t s .s t a n d i n g found l o c a l s u s p i c i o n : it w a s c o r r o b o r a t e d b y e v i d e n c e o f t h e w i t c h . t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l f o r m a t o f t h e n a r r a t i v e 'who b a r e l y c o n c e a l s t h e m o r e d i f f u s e r e a l i t y . w h e n an a c c u s e d w i t c h h e l d in B o s t o n g a o l b e g g e d h e r f o r a l i t t l e t o b a c c o . a n d t h e i r u s u a l d i s c o v e r y in t h e p u d e n d a . A manuscript offers a very different account. w h i l e in s e v e r a l c a s e s p a r a d i g m s o f a p p r o p r i a t e b e h a v i o u r . M e r c v S h o r t . as w e r e t h e e f f o r t s o f the local practitioner o f astrological m e d i c i n e . T h e accusation. Richard Napier. M i c h a e l M a c D o n a l d .i n t e r m e d i a r v n o m i n a t e d . T h o m a s D a r l i n g i n a d v e r t e n t l y f a r t e d as h e p a s s e d A l i c e G o o d e r i d g e . shows h o w h e r s y m p t o m s . L a n c a s t e r s h o u l d a l s o h a v e b e e n t h e last i n s t a n c e o f t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n they sought a respite of execution while further investigations w e r e of s u c h e v i d e n c e in c o u r t . awav with J o a n e Vaughan'. o f t e n . themselves.d i a b o l i c . Then.a s . E l i z a b e t h h a d b e e n s i c k f o r fifteen m o n t h s . this w a s simply the f o r m u l a i c c o n v e n t i o n o f a substantial literary g e n r e . a f t e r J o a n had m a d e an o b s c e n e g e s t u r e at h e r : a fewdays l a t e r E l i z a b e t h w a s p o s s e s s e d . t h o s e a t t e n d i n g h e r b e g a n t o n o m i n a t e s u s p e c t s . the structure to which m o s t accusations c o n f o r m e d . ' s t r e n g t h e n e d and changed o v e r t i m e . while c o n f o r m i n g t o a basic p a t t e r n . d e l i g h t e d in ' f i l t h i e a n d u n s a v o u r y s p e e c h e s ' . crucially. w i t h its a n c i l l a r y e m p h a s i s u p o n t h e m o m e n t n e v e r c e a s e d t o a c c u s e J o a n . was firmly r o o t e d in l o n g . o n t h e o t h e r t h r e e t h e v f o u n d ' n o t h i n g u n n a t u r a l l n e y t h e r in t h e s e c r e t s o r a n y p a r t e s o f t h e i r e b o d y e s . and. B e l c h e r ' s friends suspected witchcraft.c o v e n a n t t h e o l o g y . T h e 1 6 3 4 c o n v i c t i o n s t r o u b l e d s o m e o f t h e a u t h o r i t i e s a n d undertaken: re-examHarvey. Nicholas S t a r k e y ' s c h i l d r e n . b i b l e b a b l e ' . b u t she r e f u s e d t o e n t e r t a i n this s u g g e s t i o n . T h e possessed themselves w e r e not simply malleable puppets articulating the c o n c e r n s o f o t h e r s in a p r o c e s s o f s o c i a l v e n t r i l o q u i s m . s t r u c k J o a n V a u g h a n . r e l i g i o u s d o u b t s . A b a s i c p a t t e r n o f l a n g u a g e a n d g e s t u r e . c u l m i n a t i n g in t h e i r c o u r t r o o m p e r f o r m a n c e s . ' a f f r o n t e d t h e h a g ' : all w e r e s u b s e q u e n t l y s u b j e c t e d t o f e a r f u l p h y s i c a l a n d mental t o r m e n t s . F o u r m e n and sixteen w o m e n w e r e accused. The victim behavb e c a m e t h e f o c u s o f an i n t e n s e a t t e n t i o n . was l e a r n e d b v t h e p o s s e s s e d . a g e d n i n e a n d t e n . T h e witchcraft-possession . s e a r c h f o r t h e w i t c h ' s m a r k in E n g l a n d . and from But while the possessed w e r e and a p p r o p r i a t i n g l a n g u a g e a n d b e h a v i o u r in w a y s t h a t w e r e i n t e n s e l y p e r s o n a l liberating. their dramatic performances f r a i l t y o f t h e ' w e a k e r s e x e ' in t h e f a c e o f s a t a n i c t e m p t a t i o n . t h e b o y b i t his m o t h e r a n d c a l l e d h e r ' w h o r e ' . was the p r o d u c t o f a s o c i a l p r o c e s s in w h i c h k e y r o l e s w e r e p l a y e d b y a d u l t s a n d m a l e s . reinforced t h e w i t c h c r a i t .

w e r e a l m o s t u n i q u e t o E n g l i s h f o l k l o r e . and t h e m a g i s t r a c y . w h o d e n o u n c e d t h e p r a c t i c e as u n w a r r a n t e d b y S c r i p t u r e . the D e v i l t h e n provides a familiar w h o regularly sucks b l o o d f r o m t h e r e s u l t i n g w o u n d . w a s r e w a r d e d w i t h a c h i c k e n and a d r o p o f h e r b l o o d . S a t a n a n d his m i n i o n s w e r e d e s c r i b e d in S c r i p t u r e m a s q u e r a d i n g as ' s u c h p a l t r i e v e r m i n . a n d d i v i n e s w e r e t a x e d t o e x p l a i n t h e i r p r e s e n c e in t e r m s o f t h e i r t h e o l o g y o f w i t c h c r a f t . h o w e v e r .g i f t b o r e s o m e affinities t o the idea o f P r o t e s t a n t continental theorists. 3 4 So effec- tive a litmus test p r o v e d attractive t o o t h e r magistrates b e f o r e the Civil W a r . 'the m o r e to aggravate the w i t c h ' s T h e w o r k o f the academics had b e e n to i n c o r p o r a t e local ' e x p e r i e n c e ' e m e r g i n g f r o m t h e s u b s t r a t e o f p o p u l a r b e l i e f i n t o a g e n e r a l t h e o r y . which according professional the original transaction.t r i a l e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e a c c u s e d b y ' a n c i e n t skilfull m a t r o n s a n d m i d w i v e s ' c o n t i n u e d as a f e a t u r e o f t h e w i t c h a c c u s a t i o n s in E n g l a n d and the A m e r i c a n colonies into the eighteenth century.o r i e n t e d d i m e n s i o n o f the a c a d e m i c t h e o r y o f w i t c h c r a f t . Yet 'that which by e x p e r i e n c e is found t o b e t r u e ' could n o t simply b e dismissed. B r i a n D a r c v h a d s u s p e c t s s e a r c h e d 3 5 But the . In E n g l a n d . In 1 6 4 6 J u d g e G o d b o l t h a l t e d t h e u s e o f t h e w a t e r o r d e a l b y H o p k i n s a n d his e n t o u r a g e a n d . T h e mented with the witch's blood. t h e d e s i r e d p o s i t i v i s t i c t e s t o f g u i l t . it w a s an i m p o r t a t i o n f r o m c o n t i n e n t a l p r a c t i c e . t h e t h r e e a c c u s e d w i t c h e s all f l o a t e d . this i n v e r t e d E u c h a r i s t is d e s i g n e d t o ' p u t h e r in m i n d o f damnation'.h u n t in e a s t e r n E n g l a n d . d u p l i c a t i n g t h e E n g l i s h a c c o u n t o f t h e c o v e n a n t b y an e m p h a s i s o n t h e f a m i l i a r . maintaining t h e m on b e e r .314 CLIVE HOLMES WOMEN: WITCHES AND WITNESSES 315 c o n c e r n i n g the reliability o f the search p r o c e d u r e during the wave o f prosecutions in E a s t A n g l i a in 1 6 4 5 — 6 . and t h e t e c h n i q u e w a s u s e d e x t e n s i v e l y in t h e 1 6 4 5 — 6 w i t c h . From this s t r u c t u r a l r e s e m b l a n c e . t h e n . a n d t h u s m e r e l y a f o r m o f i l l i c i t c o u n t e r . that Satan. d r a w i n g b l o o d w i t h w h i c h t o sign t h e c o m p a c t a n d l e a v i n g an i n s e n s i b l e s c a r as its t a n g i b l e s y m b o l . it r e i n f o r c e s t h e g e n d e r . full o f p o w e r . cake and w h i t e b r e a d . was n o w c o n f i r m e d ' . t h i s b l o o d . a c a t . 3 2 l e e t j u r y in 1 5 7 9 t h a t W i d o w W a l k e r s h o u l d b e s e a r c h e d f o r a n y b l o o d y D e c o n t e x t u a l i z e d a n d a n a l y s e d in i s o l a t i o n . is v e r y apparent in t h e divines' wrestling with the to posed by the witches' familiars. from the m o r e detailed narrative o f the w i t c h ' s transaction with Satan that assimilates further as J o s e p h 3 1 popular belief system. t h o u g h r e w o r k e d t o accommod a t e p a r o c h i a l e x p e r i e n c e . A c c o r d i n g l y . These creatures. So. 3 0 T h i s e a r l y a n s w e r is f l e s h e d o u t b y l a t e r w r i t e r s i n t o a Glanvill ingenuously described them. T h e d e v i l s a d o p t t h e s e b a s e g u i s e s s o as n o t t o t e r r i f y t h e i r d u p e s b y r e v e a l i n g t h e i r h o r r e n dous f o r m s and p o w e r . their d i s c o v e r y b y q u a l i f i e d e x p e r t s w a s e s s e n t i a l f o r c o n v i c t i o n in s o m e j u r i s d i c t i o n s . 2 9 c l a w e d his n e w d i s c i p l e . A n d . the conEnglish c o m m e n t a t o r s d e v e l o p e d a syncretist t h e o r y . w e r e t h e v Having p o s e d t h e p r o b l e m . l e a v i n g an i n s e n s i b l e s c a r . w i t h its e m p h a s i s u p o n t h e f e m a l e g e n i t a l s . G i f f o r d set o u t t h e d i f f i c u l t y : S a t a n was the efficient cause 'to o f t h e w i t c h ' s m a l e f i c e n c e . h e r i a m i l i a r . T h a t the a c c o m m o d a t i o n o f p o p u l a r b e l i e f and intellectual t h e o r y o f t e n p r o v e d a w k w a r d . t h e d i s c o v e r y o f t h e s u c k e d t e a t b e c o m e s an a p p r o p r i a t e demonstration. its lavish e m p l o y m e n t b y H o p k i n s a n d S t e a r n e h a r d e n e d o b j e c t i o n s t h a t had already b e e n e x p r e s s e d by a n u m b e r o f clerics. in the absence o f a confession. this she g a v e h i m b y p r i c k i n g h e r h a n d o r f a c e a n d p u t t i n g t h e b l o u d t o his m o u t h w h y c h e h e s u c k e d .o r d e a l . and r e s o n a t e s w i t h t h e m o r e o v e r t c o n t i n e n t a l d i s c u s s i o n s o f w o m e n ' s i n s a t i a b l e l u s t as a m a j o r e l e m e n t in t h e i r c o m p a c t a n d r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h S a t a n . ' w h i c h is a c o m o n t o k e n t o k n o w all w i t c h e s b y ' . f a c e d with a difficult case. a g a i n . p r e . W h y . A f e w E n g l i s h t h e o r i s t s f o l l o w t h e i r c o n t i n e n t a l c o u n t e r p a r t s in d e s c r i b i n g t h e a n a e s thetic mark. and c o n s e q u e n t l y had t o b e read o r s h a p e d in a w a y t h a t p e r m i t t e d its i n c o r p o r a t i o n i n t o t h e i r t h e o r e t i c a l c o n s t r u c t s — h e n c e the misogynous explanations developed by the divines to a c c o u n t for the plurality o f female witches that e m e r g e d f r o m popular accusation. magistrates sought tangible p r o o f o f the w i t c h ' s status. As w i t h t h e p o s s e s s e d a d o l e s c e n t s . H o w e v e r . A c a d e m i c writers w e r e frequently embarrassed by aspects o f the popular beliefs a b o u t w i t c h c r a f t t h a t e m e r g e d in a c c u s a t i o n s . p r o p e r physical e x a m i n a t i o n could reveal such satanic stigmata and. c o m b i n i n g continental cepts and insular f o l k l o r e . In 1 6 1 2 t h e N o r t h a m p t o n s h i r e J P s . t o a d s and w e a s i l s ' ? b e m i g h t i e t e r r i b l e s p i r i t s . and the resultant problem synthesis uneasy. as did t h e w a t e r . d r a w i n g it i n t o a t e a t . r e i n f o r c e d by various dubious bits o f c o n f i r m a t o r y c o u n t e r . but in other writings and in local police practice the test was t r a n s i o r m e d . A c c o u n t s o f the v i c t i m ' s sufferings that f o l l o w e d a c u r s e . after m a k i n g the c o v e n a n t . experimented with the water-ordeal as p r a c t i s e d on the C o n t i n e n t a n d a p p r o v e d b y K i n g J a m e s . 'odd performances'. 'it is e v e n o f s u b t i l t i e ' . T h e discovery o f the physical peculiarities thought to m a r k a w i t c h p r o v i d e d . M o r e o v e r . before 1634: e q u i v a l e n t t o t h e s e a r c h f o r t h e i n s e n s i b l e b r a n d in S c o t l a n d the earliest surviving instance is t h e demand of a or G e n e v a . T h e w i t c h e n t e r s a c o v e n a n t with Satan w h o m a r k s h e r and draws b l o o d .m a g i c . in t h e 1 5 8 2 S t O s y t h i n v e s t i g a t i o n . 3 3 T h e t e s t i m o n y o f t h e s e ' k n o w i n g w o m e n ' r e s u l t e d in t h e c o n d e m n a t i o n o f a n u m b e r o f i n d i v i d u a l s . and d e v e l o p e d . E u r o p e a n c o m m e n t a t o r s a s s e r t e d t h a t at t h e m a k i n g o f t h e c o v e n a n t t h e D e v i l c l a w e d o r b r a n d e d his n e o p h y t e . a l a m b a n d a t o a d in a l a r g e w o o l lined p o t . by 1 6 0 0 . a n d 'the suspition that was b e f o r e n o t well g r o u n d e d . o f the w i t c h ' s pact with Satan. after accomplishing diet s e e m s o r d i n a r y e n o u g h . b u t it w a s o c c a s i o n a l l y s u p p l e Mother W a t e r h o u s e ' s fell p u r p o s e s . i f e x t r a v a g a n t . T h e search was e m p l o y e d intermittently Southampton marks popular b e l i e f w e r e k e p t by t h e w i t c h and e m p l o y e d t o e x e c u t e h e r designs. as did t h e D e r b y s h i r e J P s in 1 5 9 7 . i n c r e a s i n g l y s e e m e d i n s u b s t a n t i a l . T h e i r theories w e r e to b e r e i n f o r c e d . by a n o t h e r g r o u p : lawyers and magistrates. a full u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e c o n t e x t i n w h i c h t h e i r r o l e as w i t n e s s e s d e v e l o p e d a l l o w s us t o s e e t h e m a t r o n s a n d m i d w i v e s as m a r g i n a l p a r t i c i p a n t s in p r o c e d u r e s o r i g i n a t i n g in t h e c o n c e r n s o f e x c l u s i v e l y m a l e g r o u p s : t h e c l e r g y .m a g i c . as c a t s . its official e m p l o y m e n t c e a s e d save in v e r y r e m o t e jurisdictions. notably the influential W i l l i a m P e r k i n s . It a p p e a r s in t h e e a r l i e s t t r i a l s t h a t it w a s c o m m o n l y t h o u g h t that the w i t c h h o u s e d and fed h e r familiars: U r s l e v K e m p l o d g e d h e r t w o c a t s . In c o n s e q u e n c e t h e y w e r e o f t e n t h e b u t t o f t h e j i b e s o f s c e p t i c s . m i s e . w h i l e still m a i n t a i n i n g the c o h e r e n c e o f the latter. T h e i r q u e s t t o o k a n u n i b e r o f d i r e c t i o n s . l i k e t h e o r d e a l . B y t h e e a r l y s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y s o m e l o c a l officials w e r e c l e a r l y t r o u b l e d b y the evidential p r o b l e m s p o s e d b y the usual f o r m o f w i t c h c r a f t a c c u s a t i o n . a l t h o u g h it s u r v i v e d as a v i g o r o u s e l e m e n t in t h e p o p u l a r r e s p o n s e t o w i t c h c r a f t . G i f f o r d s k e t c h e s an a n s w e r . r a g e a n d c r u e l t i e s ' .

a n d t h e r e f o r e r e q u i r e d i l i g e n t a n d c a r e f u l s e a r c h ' . It is t e m p t i n g t o fill t h e l a c u n a e b y i n t r o d u c i n g a c o m p a r a t i v e d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e o t h e r r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s w h e r e w o m e n p l a y e d a r o l e in t h e p e n u m b r a o f the legal s y s t e m . S. ministerial theories c o n c e r n i n g the satanic d i m e n s i o n o f w i t c h c r a f t and the inferiority o f w o m e n . Y e t D a l t o n a l s o t r a n s f o r m s his s o u r c e in a k e v r e s p e c t .m e c u m f o r l o c a l m a g i s t r a t e s in t h e l i g h t o f t h e 1 6 2 7 Guide to Grand-Jury Men b y t h e d i v i n e . C o n n e c t i c u t . in his s u m m a r y . h e r m o t h e r a n d h e r s i s t e r w e r e 'all a l o n g t i m e s u s p e c t e d ' o f w i t c h c r a f t . were protecting their o w n precarious positions by associating themselves with o r t h o d o x 3 8 B u t this h y p o t h e s i s c a n n o t s u r v i v e D a v i d H a r l e y ' s d e m o n s t r a t i o n t h a t its the vulnerability of midwives to witchcraft prosecution. a n d t o d e n o u n c e t h o s e t h e y s e a r c h e d as g u i l t y o f d i a b o l i c r e l a t i o n s . Dalton. were prepared to exculpate individuals. Y e t .316 CLIVE HOLMES W0MEN: WITCHES AND WITNESSES 317 p r a c t i c e w a s n o t u n i v e r s a l : in 1 5 9 3 M o t h e r S a m u e l ' s m a r k w a s d i s c o v e r e d after c r a f t sayd t h a t s o m e o f t h e d e v i l e s i m p e s h a d s u c k e d h e r ' . h a d e x a m i n e d t h e c o r p s e o f an e x e c u t e d w i t c h a n d a r g u e d t h a t t h e g e n i t a l m a r k s w e r e ' s u c h as o t h e r women by in m i g h t h a v e ' . In p a r t i c u l a r . a m o n g t h e m r e s u l t i n g f r o m t h e i r d o u b t s in i n d i v i d u a l c a s e s o r a b o u t t h e p r o c e d u r e i c a l m a r k s w e r e u n n a t u r a l . h e r e x e c u t i o n . T h o s e w o m e n . for t h e y p r o v e fully that t h o s e w i t c h e s h a v e a f a m i l i a r a n d m a d e a l e a g u e w i t h t h e D e v i l ' . t h a t t h e m a r k m a y b e a n y w h e r e . confronted by the e v i d e n t i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s t h a t t y p i f i e d all w i t c h c r a f t a c c u s a t i o n s . m i n i s t e r o f B e v e r l e y . J o h n H a l e . has argued that the j u r y o f w o m e n e m b o d i e d the s e n t i m e n t o f the c o u r t and the w i d e r c o m m u n i t y in f a v o u r o f m e r c y in a p a r t i c u l a r c a s e . w a s t h e s e a r c h s o c o n c e n t r a t e d 1 6 3 4 Lancaster proceedings with 'paps and Massachusetts. . D a l t o n r e v i s e d his i n f l u e n t i a l v a d e . w h i c h sets o u t t h e full-fledged t h e o r y e x p r e s s i n g t h e r o l e o f the familiar in t e r m s o f the diabolic c o m p a c t . 1 6 4 7 . the intellectual regarding the b o t h the efficacy o f the test and. b u t t h a t . found incriminating marks on M a r g a r e t M o r t o n . l i k e t h e m i d w i v e s in 1634. In t h e e v e n t o f a p o s i t i v e d e t e r m i n a t i o n where the jury's 'pregnant' verdict was subsequently proved incorrect. hardly p e r m i t any exhaustive analysis o f h o w London the or to question mark. T h e key event behind the o r m a r k s in h e r s e c r e t s ' in t h e findings their emphasis on female sexuality. they w e r e most execuJ. A n d t h e authoritative. Searchers w e r e often p r e p a r e d t o testify n o t only t o the a c c u s e d ' s physical m a r k s .p e r c e p t i o n of the w o m e n w h o p a r t i c i p a t e d in t h e search colonial search f o c u s e d u p o n t h e g e n i t a l a r e a . validity o f the e n t i r e p r o c e d u r e . . s i n c e it is l i k e l y t o b e in hidden places'. p a s s i n g there bv c h a n c e ' . with three other w o m e n nominated by the constable o f Heath. W h e n Ellen Garrison o f U p w e l l was searched ambiguous. midwives and o t h e r s . a n d r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e a c c u s e d . as D a l t o n ' s m i s r e a d i n g o f his s o u r c e p r o v e d e q u a l l y A similar a r g u m e n t may explain simply s o m e o f t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n s in s e a r c h e s f o r t h e w i t c h ' s m a r k s . R i c h a r d B e r n a r d . In 1 6 4 5 B r i d g e t R e y n o l d s o f R a m s e y s e a r c h e d t h r e e l o c a l w o m e n . W h i l e w o m e n w e r e a p p o i n t e d t o c o n d u c t physical e x a m i n a t i o n s in civil a n d c r i m i n a l cases turning on virginity or p r e g n a n c y . 3 7 'very the shifts be often Fortified bv Dalton's confident p r o n o u n c e m e n t s . But a r g u m e n t s a m o n g the searchers and the ambiguous language with which they often hedged their findings m a y equally have led t o elite c o n c e r n that. o t h e r s w e r e m o r e w a r y . 'these the Devil's marks . in this c a s e t w o o f t h e t h r e e w o m e n w h o e x a m i n e d E l i z a b e t h S a w y e r w e r e ' b r o u g h t in b y t h e O f f i c e r s o u t o f t h e s t r e e t e . a n d t e s t i f i e d a g a i n s t t h e m a t t h e a s s i z e s . M r s Odill o f Fairfield. r e p o r t e d t h e d o u b t s o f 'a skilful m i d w i f e ' c o n c e r n i n g t h e w i t c h ' s colonial j u r i e s . c o n s i d e r i n g t h e f r e q u e n c y w i t h w h i c h s u c h ' m i s t a k e s ' w e r e m a d e . T h e r o l e and s e l f . magistrates after 1 6 3 0 . while s o m e midwives affirmed and r e i n f o r c e d the search p r o c e d u r e s t h a t h a d b e e n s h a p e d in t h e i n t e r s e c t i o n o f t h e o l o g y a n d j u r i s p r u d e n c e divines and l a w y e r s . g e n e r ally s u p p o s e d t o b e a w i t c h . language o f Bernard's argument: the teats. often unwittingly. t h a t a p a r t i c u l a r l y a c t i v e p a r t w a s p l a y e d b y m i d w i v e s w h o . using a n e u t r a l . ' s o m e t h a t w e r e t h e r e t h a t p r e t e n d e d t o h a v e skill in t h e d i s c o v e r y o f w i t c h - . lawyer T h e l a c o n i c r e f e r e n c e s in t h e E n g l i s h r e c o r d s . a n d in 1 6 2 1 a J P h a d t o p r e s s his c o l l e a g u e s o n t h e M i d d l e s e x B e n c h t o i n s t i t u t e t h e s e a r c h o f a s u s p e c t . in a m a c a b r e s c e n e b e n e a t h t h e g a l l o w s . e m p l o y e d t h e r e c o m m e n d e d b o d v s e a r c h as a r o u t i n e a s p e c t o f p r e . e v e n l a n g u a g e in t h e i r d e p o s i t i o n s .t r i a l p r o c e d u r e . t h e n t o u r i n g t h e Isle o f E l y . d e s p i t e t h i s w e i g h t y p r o f e s s i o n a l o p i n i o n f r o m S t e a r n e a n d his c i r c u s . o r t o t h e i r o w n e x p e r i e n c e o f h e r m a l e f i c e n c e . . 3 9 o b v i o u s l y t o o k t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s s e r i o u s l y . is a Certainly s o m e midwives w e r e prepared to assert categorically that physr The searchers arguments essential p r e m i s e . b u t . a n d e v e n t h e f u l l e r v e r d i c t s o f the 'Ansient and K n o w i n g W o m e n ' p e r c e i v e d t h e i r m a r g i n a l r o l e as s e a r c h e r s . t h u s e x c u l p a t i n g an a c c u s e d w i t c h . authoritatively silenced those w o m e n w h o . in t h e s e e a r l y e x a m p l e s . the search o f the W i d o w C o m a n o f Coggeshall. . Frances W a r d . 4 1 o f t h e s e a r c h e r s t h e r e a f t e r . l e a v e f e w t r a c e s in t h e E n g l i s h r e c o r d s . t h o u g h s u c h o c c a s i o n s m a y have b e e n f r e q u e n t . and the f r e q u e n t appearance o f similar t i o n o f t h e f o u r t h e d i t i o n o f The Countrey Justice by Michael Dalton. t h e l o c a l m i d w i f e w a s f a r m o r e c i r c u m s p e c t in h e r t e s t i m o n y . d i a g n o s e d t h e i r m a r k s as s u s p i c i o u s . It has b e e n s u g g e s t e d . In 1653 another m i d w i f e . the search must be diligent. aryi t h e r e s p i t e u s u a l l y b e c a m e a r e p r i e v e . t h o s e s e a r c h e s in w h i c h n o i n c r i m i n a t i n g m a r k s w e r e f o u n d . w h o affirmed that their searches had revealed the D e v i l ' s m a r k r e i n f o r c e d . 3 6 N o r . Y e t W a r d was hardly a neutral o b s e r v e r : she a t t r i b u t e d t h e d e a t h s o f t w o o f h e r c h i l d r e n t o M o r t o n . in 1 6 3 0 . 4 0 on the genital area. frequently employed on juries empanelled to test the claim that a w o m a n convicted o f a c a p i t a l f e l o n y w a s p r e g n a n t . in t h e c o n t e x t . 4 2 p r o c e d u r e s d o n o t a d m i t o f e a s y a n a l y s i s . over the enclosed process of birth and their use of charms. f o u n d n o d i s c o v e r y o f t h a t n a t u r e . b e y o n d viability o f d e m o n o l o g i c a l s p e c u l a t i o n u p o n w h i c h i t r e s t e d so u n e a s i l y . in t h e i r s e c r e t e s t p a r t s . e v e n i n t h o s e c a s e s C o c k b u r n . w i t h c o p i o u s citation o f t h e available English c a s e s . b u t t o h e r r e p u t a t i o n as a w i t c h . g i v e n an official d i s t r u s t o f t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a n d t h e s u s p i c i o n s o f w i t c h c r a f t t h a t f o c u s e d o n t h e i r presidency belief. is t h e p u b l i c a - C a m b r i d g e s h i r e J P . S o m e . t i o n w a s d e l a y e d . a n d this m i g h t l e a d t o in g e n e r a l . D a l t o n cites B e r n a r d with enthusiastic approval a n d e m p h a s i z e s t h e u t i l i t y o f t h e d i s c o v e r y o f t h e m a r k s as i n c o n t r o v e r t i b l e proof — ' m a i n e points t o d i s c o v e r and c o n v i c t . t h e y w e r e expressions o f local s e n t i m e n t c o n c e r n i n g the i n n o c e n c e o r guilt o f the accused. T h e s e a r c h e s w e r e an u n s t a b l e c r e a t i o n t h a t j u x t a p o s e d t h e c o n c e p t u a l s c h e m e s o f the theologians with a pragmatic response by the magistracy to increasingly troubling evidential p r o b l e m s . B e r n a r d insists. Y e t l o n g s t a n d i n g p o p u l a r s u s p i c i o n s did n o t i n v a r i a b l y l e a d t o t h e d i s c o v e r y o f t h e conclusive physical e v i d e n c e . myth.

approved bv the leading practical manual for local magistrates. a n d in t h e d e p l o y m e n t o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l p r o t e c t i v e t h e r a p i e s a n d t e c h n i q u e s t h a t r a t i f i e d a c c u s a t i o n . t r o u b l e d by the absence o f evidence that m e t increasingly strict n o r m s for conviction. F o r t h e local conflicts s u r r o u n d i n g this p r o s e c u t i o n .6 0 . John Devil and Satan (New York 1982). Y e t in t h i s p r o c e s s a s p e c t s o f p o p u l a r b e l i e f w e r e i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t h e t h e o r i e s o f t h e d i v i n e s . Magistrates Understanding and Divines in Early Modern England'. C . T h e judiciary w e r e n o l o n g e r p r e p a r e d to entertain indictments for s t o c k . is a p r o c e s s o f c o n s i d e r a b l e c u l t u r a l c o m p l e x i t y . a n d u l t i m a t e l y d i s c a r d e d b y t h e m a g i s t e r i a l a n d c l e r i c a l e l i t e . t w e n t y c o u r t s b e t w e e n 1 6 0 0 and 1 6 2 4 . Popular Culture (Berlin 1 9 8 4 ) . a p p a r e n t in t h e by the sessions presuppositions. a n d w i t h it t h e c o m m i t t e e s o f w o m e n w h o s e a r c h e d t h e a c c u s e d . s o easily r e a d . M a r i a n n e H e s t e r . was that the m y s t e r i o u s . T h e i r testimony apparently confirmed that w o m e n w e r e the w e a k e r s e x . T h e s a m p l e consists o f t h o s e assizes at w h i c h E s s e x w i t c h c r a f t cases w e r e d e t e r m i n e d . L a w y e r s . In c o n s e q u e n c e . The of a Woman ( N e w Y o r k 1 9 8 7 ) . ' P o p u l a r C u l t u r e ? W i t c h e s . to secure an e f f e c t i v e c o u n t e r . L ' E s t r a n g e E w e n . A n d it w a s t h e y w h o r e a d l o c a l e x p e r i e n c e in t e r m s o f a p a r t i c u l a r i n t e l l e c t u a l s c h e m e .7 1 . S e e also S h a r p e ' s and Witch Trials ( L o n d o n 1 9 2 9 ) . a t t e n d a n t at t h e s i c k b e d o f t h e v i c t i m . 58—60. 'The 15 and Witch Trials. Crime in Early Modern T r a n s c r i b e d in E w e n . . C o n t e x t o f W i t c h c r a f t : T h e C a s e o f J a n e W e n h a m ' . Religion Macfarlane. t o w h i c h m e n had testified. An Historical 5 9 . m o r e easily s e d u c e d b y s a t a n i c t e m p t a t i o n . 94—5. Witchcraft (London 1720). c o n t r o l l e d . Kaplan ed. w e r e b e t t e r p l a c e d t o give e v i d e n c e . S h a r p e . A . T h e r e s p o n s e t o this p o w e r . w e l l r e a d in t h e c o n t i n e n t a l t h e o r y o f t h e e s s e n t i a l l y d i a b o l i c o r i g i n s o f t h e o f f e n c e . V i c t i m s c o u l d n o w c h o o s e t o d e s t r o y t h e i r assailants t h r o u g h t h e f o r m a l l y s a n c t i o n e d p r o c e d u r e s o f t h e c o u r t s . Its j u s t i f i c a t i o n lay in t h e d e v e l o p i n g t h e o r i e s o f t h e o t h e r m a j o r p r o f e s s i o n a l g r o u p i n v o l v e d in w i t c h c r a f t p r o s e c u t i o n . 2 Witchcraft D e m o s . s e e J . T h e c o n s t r u c t i o n section of divergent and shifting systems o f ideas. T h e y c e r t a i n l y d o n o t e l i m i n a t e ' g e n d e r ' o r ' m i s o g y n y ' as k e y c a t e - Notes 1 K e i t h T h o m a s . f o l l o w i n g t h e e x a m p l e o f t h e i r c o n t i n e n t a l c o u n t e r p a r t s . c o n s t r u c t e d a m a c h i n e r y o f p r o s e c u t i o n a n d so a d d e d a n e w w e a p o n in t h e a r m o u r y a g a i n s t w i t c h c r a f t . p r o v i d e s syn- F o r full citations o f t h e archival s o u r c e s used in this c h a p t e r . T h e changing c o n c e r n s o f t h e latter g r o u p s explain g r o w i n g p r o p o r t i o n o f f e m a l e w i t n e s s e s in w i t c h c r a f t t r i a l s . M u c h o f t h e p o p u l a r b e l i e f t h a t e m e r g e d in t h e c o u r t s s e e m e d t o t r i v i a l i z e w i t c h c r a f t a n d t o g i v e a m m u n i t i o n t o s c e p t i c s . W i t c h c r a f t p r o s e c u t i o n s a f t e r 1 5 6 3 p l a c e d t h e c l e r g y . fearful m o r t a l illness o r m e n t a l anguish a l o n e w o u l d sustain a p r o s e c u t i o n and w o m e n . see C l i v e H o l m e s . e n g a g e d d i v i n e s u s e d e v e r y o p p o r tunity to educate the populace concerning their witchcraft-as-heresy formulation.. u s u a l l y t h o s e o f s o m e s t a t u s in t h e i r c o m m u n i t i e s . shared by m e n and w o m e n . All w i t n e s s e s . ratified the misogynous rationalizations p r o f f e r e d bv the divines t o explain the p r e p o n d e r a n t n u m b e r s o f w o m e n accused o f witchcraft. Eighteenth (London 1 9 8 4 ) . T h e opportunity created by the legislation was e m p l o y e d by b o t h m e n and w o m e n . t o p r o p e r t y . e x p e r i m e n t e d with a n u m b e r o f p r o c e d u r e s that might provide tangible p r o o f o f guilt or innoc e n c e . Witches and after 1 6 6 0 . S e e also Alan Stuart England (London 1970).d a m a g e . t h o u g h a c t i v e in t h e c r e a t i o n o f l o c a l s u s p i c i o n s t h r o u g h g o s s i p . t o t h e t h r e a t s t h a t it p o s e d t o l i f e . Lewd Women (London 1 9 9 2 ) . 1 7 9 — 9 9 . Entertaining in the Shape Wicked 3 and the Decline in Tudor and of Magic ( L o n d o n 1 9 7 1 ) . o f t e n at t h e i n s t i g a t i o n o f m e n . proved the m o s t enduring o f these o f f i c i a l c o n f i r m a t o r y t e s t s . 2 2 6 . ASSI 3 5 / 1 3 5 / 1 4 . S h a r p e . b u t particularly those girls w h o d e s c r i b e d their possession and the m a t r o n s w h o discovered the genital m a r k s . Essay Concerning property o f f e n c e s ' . harmful p o w e r that c o n s t i t u t e d w i t c h c r a f t w o u l d i n h e r e in c e r t a i n w o m e n . six b e t w e e n 1 6 6 0 and 1 6 7 5 . 11 to transform popular belief with. T h e f e a t u r e s o f w i t c h c r a f t t h a t e m e r g e d r e g u l a r l y in t h e t r i a l s c o u l d n o t easily b e d i s m i s s e d . 5 6 8 . In 1 5 6 3 t h e e l i t e . a n d t o d o m e s t i c r o u t i n e s . g r o w i n g in t h e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y . 4 8 . We can show that figures of a p r o s e c u t i o n was a c o m p l e x . F o r f u r t h e r discussion o f this issue. see t h e original v e r sion in Past and Present. Some 6 ( 1 9 9 1 ) . 2 0 1 . T h e search for the w i t c h ' s m a r k by c o m m i t t e e s o f w o m e n .C e n t u r y E n g l a n d : N o r t h e r n E v i d e n c e ' Continuity C h a p t e r 2 2 in this c o l l e c t i o n . A. in a q u a n d a r y . 160. and the interfemale is n o t p a r t i c i p a t i o n as w i t n e s s in t h e E n g l i s h t r i a l s w a s e x t e n s i v e a n d . P o p u l a r belief. B u t t h e m a c h i n e r y in w h i c h t h e v b e c a m e i n v o l v e d . ' W i t c h c r a f t and W o m e n in S e v e n t e e n t h . W o m e n . proportionately. F o r a g e n e r a l discussion o f t h e 'fall in t h e levels o f i n d i c t m e n t f o r England 81. a n d h a d t o b e a c c o m m o d a t e d t o theological 10 4 5 6 7 8 9 J . in S. was essentially instrumental: t o placate o r 'curry favour' with the witch. s o m e s u c c e s s . So the animals w h o frequently attended the witch w e r e diabolized as f a m i l i a r s p i r i t s o r e m a n a t i o n s o f S a t a n h i m s e l f . dialogic p r o c e s s . Witch Hunting Francis Hutchinson. w a s c r e a t e d . Witch Hunting o p s e s o f all t h e assize i n d i c t m e n t s . b u t m e n . organizing their neighbours t o testify t o earlier e x p e r i e n c e s o f the accused's m a l i c e . and Change. involving m a n y actors. t o h e a l t h .318 CLIVE HOLMES WOMEN: WITCHES AND WITNESSES 319 V T h e p r o s e c u t i o n o f w i t c h e s in e a r l y m o d e r n E n g l a n d . 145-79. Century Studies. t h e d i v i n e s . F r o m this t h e o l o g i c a l r e a d i n g o f f o l k l o r e e m e r g e d t h e t e s t o f t h e w i t c h ' s m a r k in its i n s u l a r E n g l i s h f o r m . also C a r o l F . 1630s S e e C h a p t e r 2 0 in this b o o k by C h r i s t i n a L a r n e r . see Phyllis G u s k i n . w e r e a n c i l l a r i e s in t h e f o r m a l p r o c e d u r e s o f q u a r t e r and assizes. It w a s t h e y w h o b r o u g h t c h a r g e s a n d w h o o r c h e s t r a t e d t h e p r o s e c u tion. P R O .m a g i c a g a i n s t a s s a u l t s . w e r e t h e m o r e e n g a g e d p a r t i c i p a n t s . T h o s e w h o c h o s e t o e m p l o y t h e official m a c h i n e r y a g a i n s t w i t c h e s w e r e o b l i g e d t o shape the local fears and r u m o u r s f r o m which the p r o s e c u t i o n e m a n a t e d t o the f o r m a l i t i e s o f t h e l a w as d e f i n e d b y t h e s t a t u t e s a n d t o t h e r e a d i n g o f t h e s e magistrates and j u d g e s . 64. T h e c o n c e r n s o f t h e legal elite also e x p l a i n t h e i n v o l v e m e n t o f w o m e n in t h e s e a r c h e s f o r t h o s e p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s tics w h i c h indicated c o n j u n c t i o n with diabolic familiars. 140 (1993). It i n v o l v e d a c o n t i n uous b u t shifting dialogue a m o n g a variety o f social and professional g r o u p s . L. a n d t h u s t h e r o l e o f w o m e n as w i t n e s s e s . B u t t h e s o c i a l m e a n i n g o f t h e s e gories for any discussion o f witchcraft beliefs and p r o s e c u t i o n s . to judge by the mid-seventeenth-century evidence. (1982). K a r l s e n .

Trial (Oxford 1986).2 3 . Sorts of Ignorant 6 9 . Witch Hunting of Witches ( 1 6 4 7 ) . sigs C 3 . T h i s last t e x t is r e p r o d u c e d in R o s e n .6 0 . 239—97. see R o b e r t B a r t l e t t . 3 (1990). Healing 26 27 in Seventeenth-Century ( L o n d o n 1 6 1 2 ) . M d in llth-Century M i c h a e l D a l t o n .. of a Certaine Witch Named of Alse the ( L o n d o n 1 5 9 7 ) . F o r m o r e g e n e r a l discussion o f t h e w a t e r by Fire and The Medieval Judicial Ordeal and Confession o r d e a l . (London 1 5 9 9 ) . M a t t h e w H o p k i n s . 23 T h e a u t h o r c a l c u l a t e s that in English cases that w e r e b e l i e v e d t o i n v o l v e p o s s e s sion t h r o u g h t h e a g e n c y o f a w i t c h . 83—90. 4 6 . 2 n d edn ( L o n d o n 1 6 8 2 . C o t t o n M a t h e r . to the Assize Calendars ( L o n d o n 1 9 8 5 ) . E d w a r d F a i r f a x . S e e C h a p t e r 1 9 in this b o o k f o r t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n p o s s e s s i o n and g e n d e r in F r a n c e . 7 2 . 29 30 Dispossession is Applyed of the Strange Wherein Vexation by the Devil. 1-26. ed. p u b l i s h e d in t h e 1 0 2 pt T ( l 8 3 2 ) . Science Massachusetts Social and Justice: The Massachusetts Witchcraft. W . 101-3. T h e r e is a 1 7 9 5 — 1 8 1 1 ) .320 CLIVE HOLMES WOMEN: WITCHES AND WITNESSES 321 12 13 14 15 B a s e d on an analysis o f t h e E s s e x d e f a m a t i o n cases listed in M a c f a r l a n e . The History and Admirable Discoverie (Amherst. L e t t e r o f an a n o n y m o u s Magazine. 1 9 6 8 ) . 1648-1706. O v . Mass. Witchcraft. Witch Hunting Ibid. ii pt 2 . L. W i n g G 8 2 3 ) pt and Witch Trials. in g e n e r a l . T h i s t e x t is in R o s e n . Discovery Witches of Northamptonshire. A Short Discoverie x x x v i .es ination. 9 3 . W . was m a d e available t o t h e d e m o n i a c W i l l i a m S o m m e r s at N o t t i n g h a m in 1 5 9 7 — 8 . ' O n Pleading t h e B e l l y : A H i s t o r y o f t h e J u r y o f M a t r o n s ' . of the Information. Discoverie of Witches in the Countie of Lancaster (London of All sig. Rosen. and Antiquities 127. A True and Just the Witches. 22—3. ' A B r a n d P l u c k ' d o u t o f t h e B u r n i n g ' . 6 (1985). Three Witches ( E x e t e r 1 6 8 2 ) . A Tryal of Witches. 4 vols ( L o n d o n Strange 41 2 0 9 — 1 2 . Witchcraft 31 32 33 34 J o s e p h G l a n v i l l . Somers: of Possession Dispossession and of Somers ( L o n d o n 1 6 0 0 ) . C 2 . and Religion F r a n c i s B r a g g e . J o h n N i c h o l s .a p p o i n t e d b o d i e s m a d e up o f w o m e n in J a m e s C . D 3 . s e e . E w e n . J o h n H a l e . . 0 4 . 8 8 . G i l b e r t . R i c h a r d B a d d e l e y . Examination 278—301. A True Narration Persons in Lancashire of Demoniah. Hist. 319. 103—57. 4 t h edn ( L o n d o n 1 6 3 0 ) . 3 4 4 — 5 6 . The Wonderfull ' a n o n y m o u s ' t r a c t is o b v i o u s l y D a r c y ' s o w n w o r k . x x x i i i — x x x i x . in Narratives ed. A Full and Impartial (London 1 7 1 2 ) . ' H i s t o r i a n s as D e m o n o l o g i s t s : T h e M y t h o f t h e M i d w i f e . of the Three Witches of Warboys ( L o n d o n 1 5 9 3 ) . 2 1 1 . and of 7 and W. at the Assizes Held at Bury St Edmonds and Admirable Discoverie. A True Discourse of 7 Persons in One Familie T h e s e a r c h was e m p l o y e d in a V i r g i n i a case o f 1 7 0 6 and in t h e a c c u s a t i o n against J a n e W e n h a m o f W a l k e r n in 1 7 1 2 . Criminal Justice Hist. Witchcraft Most Strange Discoverie 37 and Demonianism. first p a g i n a t i o n . 1 7 0 2 ) . 1 7 . Bedlam: Madness. W . True and Just Recorde. 1 2 2 . 40 of the County and Demonianism. E l v . at S. 25 The Witches of Northamptonshire Witchcraft. This of the Informations Wiltshire JP of against 1672. S e e M i c h a e l M a c D o n a l d . 1 7 . E w e n . 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 A True and Impartial esp. Dialogue Concerning Witches and Witchcraftes. sig. in Elizabethan London Practisers (London 1 9 9 1 ) . 24 I[ohn] D j e n i s o n ] . sig. 3 . 42 of Leicester. S a n f o r d F o x . .. sigs B 2 — C I . S a m u e l H a r s n e t . 4 9 2 . Witchcraft J o h n C o t t a . after 2 7 6 . 3 . 2 1 5 . (London 1619). 9 . Burr ( N e w Y o r k 1 9 1 4 ) . 1 9 8 4 ) . . p u b l i s h e d in 1 5 9 3 . W . 4 5 . Darrell Concerning the Pretended and Grevous the Doctrine Concerning Possession of W. Anxiety and England (Cambridge 1 9 8 1 ) . T h e t e x t is r e p r o d u c e d in B a r b a r a in England Relation (University of Massachusetts 1 9 9 1 ) . Medicine. j u s t o v e r 8 0 p e r c e n t o f v i c t i m s w e r e f e m a l e . A 3 .W i t c h ' . C o c k b u r n . 35 36 E w e n . Saducismus 1. Oses in Essex ( L o n d o n 1 5 8 2 ) . Mystical and Hysteria of Severall M i c h a e l M a c D o n a l d . A Discovery the Fraudulent 28 Practices of J. Gentleman's 38 (London 1682). The Wonderfull 1 6 1 3 ) . 32—5. nation. W . and s e c o n d pagthe Certaine Possession in Lancashire (Middleburg). A Modest Enquiry S. 3. Introduction into the Nature of Witchcraft (Boston. sigs B 2 — B 3 . O l d h a m . 185. 2 1 2 . Daemonologia. D a v i d H a r l e y . 2 9 9 . [ 2 7 3 ] : s e c o n d pagiWitchcraft Magic Trials ( B a l t i m o r e . . T h o m a s P o t t s . Witchcraft v e r y useful discussion o f t h e various c o u r t . E 2 v . sigs C .2 3 . E w e n . In N e w E n g l a n d t h e figure is 8 6 p e r c e n t . (London 1622). Mass. G e o r g e M o r e . 2 5 9 . The Boy of Bilson Cases. T h e a c c o u n t o f t h e possession o f t h e T h r o c k m o r t o n c h i l d r e n . William Grainge (Harrogate 1 8 8 2 ) . 28. 1 0 . G i f f o r d . W . of Sorcery and Witchcraft 39 and Witch Trials. 2 . in Tudor and Stuart England. G . ' W i t c h c r a f t in E s s e x ' . The Countrey Justice. Triumphatus. True and Just Recorde. Henry Goodcole. Richard Weisman. Witchcraft Recorde. Water: sig. 1-64. ( L o n d o n 1 6 2 1 ) . The Most Account of the Discovery 7 5 . and t o Ann G u n t e r in B e r k s h i r e in 1 6 0 4 . J o h n D a r r e l l . The Most Wonderfull Goodenige Witchcraft and True Storie.

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