*. . . a library of the subject in miniature, affording helpful insights and convenient material for students at all levels.'

N o t i o n s o f w i t c h c r a f t have h a u n t e d and fascinated the h u m a n m i n d fi h e i g h t o f w i t c h c r a f t persecutions in s i x t e e n t h - a n d s e v e n t e e n t h - c e n 5 0 , 0 0 0 people were executed, they were accused o f acts i n c l u d i n g m black m a g i c and devil worshipping :ction ters a selection o f the best historical writ :gan, a n d the social and cultural c o f historical perspectives is collect recent research o n the r in w i t c h trials, ideas a b o u t the

possession, a n d reasons for the decline o f w i t c h trials. T h e m a j o r t h e m e s and debates in the study o f w i t c h c r a f t are b r o general i n t r o d u c t i o n , w h i c h places the extracts in a critical c o n t e x t , wide range o f i m p o r t a n t w o r k in a single, accessible v o l u m e , The essential reading for a n y o n e intrigued by this c o m p l e x a n d fascinatin The Witchcraft Casement, Reader includes the w o r k o f W o l f g a n g Behringer, R o Clark, Norman Cohn, Owen Davies, Malcol Lou

Stuart

G e n t i l c o r e , C a r l o G i n z b u r g , M a r i a n n e Hester, Clive H o l m e s , Levack, Daniel Maier-Katkin, H.C.E. Midelfort, E.

J e n k i n s , E d m u n d K e r n , R i c h a r d Kieckhefer, G a b o r Klaniczay, C h r i William M u c h e m b l e d , D a v i d N i c h o l l s , Eva I o c s , Lyndal Roper, J i m oharpe

is L e c t u r e r

liversity C o l l e g e Worcester.

11 N e w Fetter Lane, L o n d o n E C 4 P 4 E E 2 9 West 35th Street, N e w York N Y 10001 www, routledge .com Printed in Great Britain
' * Franc'

ISBN

0-415-21493-9

9 '780415

214933

1

The Witchcraft Reader
Edited by

Darren Oldridge

NEWCASTLE 202

UNIVERSITY 0214 3 8 • Vv 6 0 ° .

LIBRARY

>vy,

London and New York

First published 2 0 0 2 bv R o u t l e d g e 11 N e w F e t t e r Lane, London E C 4 P 4 E E Simultaneously published in the U S A and Canada by Routledge 2 9 W e s t 35th S t r e e t , N e w Y o r k , N Y 1 0 0 0 1 Routledge is an imprint of the Taylor S^Francis Group

Individual chapters © the original copyright holders Selection and editorial m a t t e r © 2 0 0 2 D a r r e n Oldridge T y p e s e t in Perpetua and Bell Gothic by F l o r e n c e Production Ltd, Stoodleigh, D e v o n Printed and bound in Great Britain bv T J International Ltd, Padstow, Cornwall All rights reserved. N o part of this b o o k mav be reprinted or reproduced or utilised in anv form or bv anv e l e c t r o n i c , mechanical, o r o t h e r means, n o w k n o w n or hereafter invented, including photocopying and r e c o r d i n g , o r in anv information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publishers. British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data

A catalogue r e c o r d for this b o o k is available from the British Library Library of Congress Cataloging p. c m . Includes bibliographical r e f e r e n c e s and i n d e x . 1. W i t c h c r a f t — History. B F 1 5 6 6 . W 7 3 9 5 2001 1 3 3 . 4 ' 3 ' 0 9 — dc21 ISBN 0 - 4 1 5 - 2 1 4 9 2 - 0 (hbk) ISBN 0 - 4 1 5 - 2 1 4 9 3 - 9 (pbk) 2001048166 I. Oldridge D a r r e n , 1966in Publication Data

T h e W i t c h c r a f t R e a d e r / [edited bv] Darren Oldridge

Contents Acknowledgements General I n t r o d u c t i o n Darren Oldridge PART ONE Mediaeval Origins 1 Richard WITCH Kieckhefer IN MEDIAEVAL EUROPE TRIALS 2 Norman THE Cohn HERETICS D E M 0 N I Z A T I O N OF M E D I A E V A L PART TWO W i t c h c r a f t . THE William Monter OF J U R A WITCHCRAFT SOCIOLOGY . Magic and Culture 3 Robin THE Briggs OF BEWITCHMENT EXPERIENCE 4 Wolfgang WEATHER. SOCIETY AND MENTALITY 5 E. Behringer HUNGER AND FEAR: ORIGINS OF T H E EUROPEAN WITCH-HUNTS IN C L I M A T E .

Waite THE DEVIL AND THE INQUISITOR: AND MAGICAL ANABAPTISTS. Erik Midelfort OF T H E WITCHCRAZE P A R T SIX W i t c h c r a f t . WITCHCRAFT AND THE LEGAL 13 Edmund Kern IDENTITY AND MAGIC BITHNER IN T H E AND LATE WITCHCRAFT 23 Clive Holmes WITCHES AND WITNESSES CONFESSIONAL SIXTEENTH IN STYRIA WOMEN: CENTURY: JAKOB PART 14 Gary K. CATHOLIC WITCHCRAFT 21 Marianne Hester RECONSTRUCTION AND WITCH-HUNTING PATRIARCHAL 22 Jim Sharpe PROCESS PROTESTANT WOMEN. Possession and the Devil 17 David THE Nicholls IN RENAISSANCE FRANCE HEARTLAND DEVIL 8 Carlo Ginzburg THE WITCHES' SABBAT 18 H.C. the State and Social Control 15 Christina THE CRIME Larner OF W I T C H C R A F T IN EARLY MODERN EUROPE WITCHCRAFT THE CASE OF M A R G A R E T MOORE . WITCH-HUNTING P A R T FOUR W i t c h c r a f t and the Reformation 12 Stuart Clark WITCHCRAFT.viii CONTENTS 6 David Gentilcore NARRATIVES ITALY AND FOLKLORE MOTIFS 16 Brian Levack AND WITCH HUNTING IN EARLY WITCHCRAFT IN SOUTHERN STATE-BUILDING MODERN EUROPE PART THREE The Idea of a W i t c h Cult 7 H. BELIEFS 24 BETWEEN EIGHT Reading Confessions Lyndal OEDIPUS Roper AND THE DEVIL DIABOLICAL CONSPIRACIES PART FIVE 25 Malcolm Gaskill AND POWER IN EARLY MODERN ENGLAND: W i t c h c r a f t . THE Erik DEVIL Midelfort AND THE GERMAN PEOPLE DECIPHERING 9 Eva THE Pocs ALTERNATIVE WORLD OF T H E W I T C H E S ' SABBAT 19 Moshe A Sluhovsky APPARITION OR D E M O N I C POSSESSION? DIVINE 10 Robert SATANIC Muchembled MYTHS AND CULTURAL REALITIES PART SEVEN W i t c h c r a f t and Gender 11 Stuart Clark MISRULE AND THE MEANING OF WITCHCRAFT 20 Christina WAS Larner WOMAN-HUNTING? INVERSION.C.

p p . 1 2 1 — 3 5 . C. Felicity Bryan and t h e a u t h o r . p p . p p . Bishop William M o n t e r (copyright © publisher 1 9 7 6 C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y ) .H u n t ? 30 Philip Jenkins and Daniel OCCULT SURVIVORS: THE 413 Maier-Katkin MAKING OF A MYTH 419 Popular and Learned Culture 1300—1500 by Richard Kieckhefer (Routledge & Kegan Inner Demons by N o r m a n Cohn (copy- Paul 1 9 7 6 ) . 31 the Today. Cultural edited by mission o f the Central European R e a l i t i e s ' b v R o b e r t M u c h e m b l e d f r o m Early B e n g t Ankaloo and Gustav H e n n i n g s e n ( O x f o r d University Press 1 9 9 3 ) . 1 9 9 3 ) . pp. . 63—95. 10—26. and mission of T h e G e r m a n History Society. Index 437 F o l k l o r e M o t i f s in S o u t h e r n I t a l y ' f r o m From (Manchester University Press 'Heartland o f the W i t c h c r a z e ' (February 1 9 8 1 ) . u s e d b y p e r University 'Witchcraft to Witch Narratives of the by David Gentilcore author. ' W e a t h e r . 1 3 9 — 6 0 . 115—4-1. ' T h e D e m o n i z a t i o n M e d i a e v a l H e r e t i c s ' r e p r o d u c e d f r o m Europe's right © N o r m a n C o h n 1 9 7 S . WOMEN'S ENGLAND PART NINE The Decline of W i t c h c r a f t 27 Brian THE 367 Acknowledgements Levack OF WITCH TRIALS 373 END 28 Gabor THE Klaniczay OF WITCHES AND THE RISE OF VAMPIRES 387 DECLINE 29 Owen Davies AND OF THE DECLINE OF WITCHCRAFT: 399 URBANIZATION AN EXAMINATION LONDON T h e author and publishers wish t o thank the following for their permission to r e p r o duce copyright material: ' W i t c h T r i a l s in M e d i a e v a l E u r o p e ' f r o m European Witch Trials: Their Foundations in of PART TEN A New W i t c h . by permission o f T a y l o r & Francis. edited ( O x f o r d University Press 1 9 9 3 ) . by permission o f History Modern Today.X CONTENTS 26 Louise AND Jackson WIVES AND MOTHERS: IN WITCHCRAFT PERSECUTION CONFESSIONS S E V E NT E E NT H-C E NT U R Y 353 WITCHES. by permission 'Deciphering Witchcraft. pp. Witches and by Neighbours permission by of Robin Briggs reproduced 31 Patrick THE Casement NOT TO KNOW 433 WISH H a r p e r C o l l i n s Publishers L t d . pp. published by P i m l i c o and r e p r i n t e d bv p e r m i s s i o n o f T h e R a n d o m H o u s e G r o u p Ltd and P F D o n b e h a l f o f P r o f e s s o r Norman Cohn. b y p e r during the Reformation by E. 1—27. b y p e r University Press. European E r i k M i d e l f o r t f r o m History 27—36. H u n g e r and F e a r ' b y W o l f g a n g B e h r i n g e r f r o m German 1 3 ( 1 9 9 5 ) . pp. 5 1 — 7 8 . 'The Sociology of Jura Witchcraft' reprinted f r o m Witchcraft mission of the in France and Switzerland: Cornell The Borderlands Press. pp. 238 5 8 . 'The Experience of Bewitchment' from (HarperCollins 1996). p p . History. ' T h e Alternative W o r l d of the W i t c h e s ' S a b b a t ' f r o m Between the Living and the Dead b y E v a P o c s ( 1 9 9 9 ) . Modern 'Satanic M y t h s and European Witchcraft. o r i g i n a l l y p u b l i s h e d in 1 9 8 7 b y I n s t i t u t e t f o r R a t t s h i s t o r i s k F o r s k n i n g u n d e r by p e r m i s s i o n o f O x f o r d University Press and the Institutet for Rattshistorisk Forskning. W i t c h e s ' S a b b a t ' b y C a r l o G i n z b u r g f r o m Early by B e n g t A n k a l o o and Gustav H e n n i n g s e n t h e t i t l e Hdxomas Europa 1400—1100. 1 9 9 2 ) . p p . by H. 7 3 — 1 0 5 .

2 2 . of Oxford University Press and the of for Rattshistorisk 'Inversion. 'Protestant Witchcraft. and Culture Today. 1 0 6 — 2 4 . by permission o f Louise Jackson.5 5 . Crime and the Courts. Marianne Hester and G a r e t h R o b e r t s ( C a m b r i d g e U n i v e r s i t y Press 1 9 9 6 ) . ch. ' O c c u l t Survivors: T h e Satanism M a k i n g o f a M y t h ' b y P h i l i p J e n k i n s a n d D a n i e l M a i e r . ' W o m e n . 1 9 9 6 by T h e 'Patriarchal in Early Witchcraft edited by Jonathan Barry. p p . Packull and Geoffrey L. C . W i t c h c r a f t a n d t h e L e g a l P r o c e s s ' b y J i m S h a r p e f r o m Women. W a i t e f r o m Studies. w e w o u l d i n v i t e h o l d e r s t o i n f o r m us o f t h e o v e r s i g h t . ch. M a r i a n n e H e s t e r and G a r e t h R o b e r t s ( C a m b r i d g e University Press 1 9 9 6 ) by permission o f C a m b r i d g e University Press and Brian Levack. 323—40. of Social ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS xiii o r i g i n a l l y p u b l i s h e d in 1 9 8 7 b y I n s t i t u t e t f o r R a t t s h i s t o r i s k F o r s k n i n g u n d e r t h e t i t l e Hdxomas Institutet Europa 1400—1700. 2 8 8 — 3 0 8 .H u n t i n g ' by Marianne H e s t e r f r o m Modern Europe: Studies in Culture and Belief. vol.1 2 7 . pp.Xii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS r e p r o d u c e d b y p e r m i s s i o n o f t h e Journal Scare. reproduced by per' B e t w e e n the Devil and the Inquisitor' by Gary K. reproduced by permission. 1 0 3 9 .B u i l d i n g a n d W i t c h H u n t i n g in E a r l y M o d e r n E u r o p e ' b y B r i a n L e v a c k f r o m Witchcraft in Early Modern Europe: in Culture and Belief. 'Oedipus by Lyndal R o p e r ( R o u t l e d g e 1 9 9 4 ) . S t u a r t C l a r k 1 9 9 7 . p p . pp. W i v e s and M o t h e r s ' by Louise Jackson f r o m History Review. ' T h e D e c l i n e o f W i t c h e s a n d t h e R i s e o f V a m p i r e s ' f r o m The Uses of by permission of Princeton University Press. and Reformation. 35—67 and 79—91 Studies P u b l i s h e r s L t d . J e n n y K e r m o d e and Garthine W a l k e r ( U C L Press 1 9 9 4 ) . Power b y G a b o r K l a n i c z a y ( c o p y r i g h t © 1 9 9 0 P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s ) . b y p e r m i s s i o n o f History H . Today. 45—78. edited by J e n n y and K e r m o d e and Garthine W a l k e r ( U C L Press 1 9 9 4 ) . r e p r i n t e d and the Decline W i t c h c r a f t ' b y O w e n D a v i e s f r o m Journal 30 ( 1 9 9 7 ) . Europe T r i a l s ' b y B r i a n L e v a c k f r o m The Witch Hunt in Early Modern ' T h e End of W i t c h (2nd edition copySupernatural of right © Longman G r o u p Ltd 1 9 9 5 ) . 2 7 ( 4 ) ( 1 9 9 6 ) . c h . by permission o f O x f o r d University Press. 'A Divine Apparition o r D e m o n i c Possession?' bv M o s h e Sluhovsky f r o m Sixteenth Century Journal Publishers. ' S t a t e . . R e c o n s t r u c t i o n and W i t c h . by p e r m i s sion o f C a m b r i d g e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s a n d M a r i a n n e H e s t e r . 6 . reprinted by permission o f Pearson Education L t d . by permission o f Taylor & Francis. of Social 'Urbanization History. pp. of Tavlor & Francis. pp. a n d t h e D e v i l ' f r o m Oedipus and the Devil 1 4 0 ( 1 9 9 3 ) . Jonathan B a r r y . p p . 2 5 ( 2 ) ( 1 9 9 4 ) . 9 8 . 1 2 0 — 4 0 . ' T h e Devil in R e n a i s s a n c e F r a n c e ' b y D a v i d N i c h o l l s f r o m History p p . r e p r i n t e d f r o m Thinking Modern Europe in Early by Stuart Clark ( 1 9 9 7 ) by permission o f O x f o r d Century' Century Journal. 4 ( 1 ) ( 1 9 9 5 ) . 2 2 6 — 4 8 . by permission mission o f O x l o r d University Press. copyright © Witchcraft 8 7 ( 1 9 8 0 ) . r e p r o d u c e d by permission o f Aldine D e G r u y t e r .K a t k i n f r o m The edited by J a m e s T . Dipple (Ashgate Witchcraft by and Religion permission by Christina of Blackwell edited by 1 9 9 9 ) . copyRadical U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . p p . p p . ch. ' C o n f e s s i o n a l I d e n t i t y a n d M a g i c in t h e L a t e S i x t e e n t h b y E d m u n d K e r n f r o m The Sixteenth mission. ' T h e Devil and the G e r m a n P e o p l e ' by in the Renaissance edited by Steven O z m e n t (Sixteenth Centurv University The Journal Publishers 1 9 8 9 ) . by perwith Demons: The Idea of G r u y t e r 1 9 9 1 ) . J o e l Best and David G . I n c . by permission o f T a y l o r & F r a n c i s . ' T h e C r i m e o f W i t c h c r a f t in E a r l y M o d e r n E u r o p e ' a n d 'Was Witch-Hunting Woman-Hunting?' from Larner (Blackwell 1984). 2 5 — 3 0 . p p . I f a n y p r o p e r a c k n o w l e d g e m e n t has n o t b e e n m a d e . ' c o p y r i g h t © Press. ' W i t c h c r a f t a n d P o w e r in E a r l v M o d e r n E n g l a n d ' b y M a l c o l m G a s k i l l f r o m Women. E v e r y effort has b e e n m a d e t o obtain p e r m i s s i o n t o r e p r o d u c e c o p y r i g h t m a t e r i a l . edited by W e r n e r O . . B r o m l e y (Aldine D e Treating Survivors of Satanist W i t c h c r a f t ' b y S t u a r t C l a r k f r o m Past and Present. pp. edited by Women's 1 0 . Crime and the Courts. N e w Y o r k . Inc. Reformation right © 1 9 9 4 by T h e Sixteenth Century Journal Publishers. copyright edited by Valerie Sinason ( R o u t l e d g e 1 9 9 4 ) . 'The W i s h N o t to K n o w ' by Patrick Casement from Abuse. 8 . ch. b y p e r m i s s i o n o f T a y l o r & F r a n c i s . 30 (November 1980). E r i k M i d e l f o r t f r o m Religion 11 o f Sixteenth Century Essays and Studies. pp. 597—617. Richardson. ' W i t c h e s .5 . 2. Catholic W i t c h c r a f t ' . Misrule and the Meaning History. 9 9 — 1 1 9 . ' W o m e n : W i t c h e s a n d W i t n e s s e s ' b y C l i v e H o l m e s f r o m Past Present. by permission o f T r u m a n State Sixteenth Century Journal. 8 .. by permission Forskning.

r a n g i n g f r o m learned t r e a individuals entirely a c c u s e d of t h e c r i m e . p r o f i l e in c h i l d r e n ' s b o o k s a n d T V . The texts displayed c o v e r a r a n g e of t o p i c s l o o s e l y r e l a t e d t o t h e h i s t o r y a n d p r a c t i c e of m a g i c . m y t h . t h e y p o p u l a t e i n n u m e r a b l e of W a l t D i s n e y t o The Blair and colourful sub-genre of p o p u l a r literature. T h e w i d e s p r e a d i n t e r e s t in w i t c h c r a f t is n o t h i n g n e w .General Introduction M OST P E O P L E I N T E R E S T E D in w i t c h c r a f t a r e f i r s t a t t r a c t e d t o t h e high films. the t o p i c has e s t a b l i s h e d i t s e l f a s a g e n r e in its o w n r i g h t . W i t c h e s e n j o y a Witch Project. p e r h a p s . and religious speculation. f r o m the c a n o n Body and will s u b j e c t by s t o r i e s a n d i m a g e s f r o m p o p u l a r c u l t u r e . In s o m e 1 i n s t a n c e s .p a g a n m o v e m e n t . the Kennedy a s s a s s i n a t i o n and the search f o r the H o l y G r a i l . B y t h e e a r l y y e a r s of t h e . A t t h e t i m e of t h e m o s t intense w i t c h tises on the persecutions problem of in t h e s i x t e e n t h a n d s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s . These texts attributed b e l i e f s t o t h e f o l l y a n d s u p e r s t i t i o n of t h e ' v u l g a r ' m a s s e s . y o u w i l l n o r m a l l y find a d i s p a r a t e c o l l e c t i o n of p u b l i c a t i o n s under the heading of ' W i t c h c r a f t ' . S p i r i t ' d e p a r t m e n t of a n y l a r g e b o o k s h o p . R a t h e r l i k e J a c k t h e Ripper. a n d i n d i c a t e s its f a s c i n a t i o n f o r a w i d e a u d i e n c e . m o d e r n e d i t i o n s of m u c h o l d e r books like the Malleus Maleficarum. i n c l u d i n g w o r k s by t h e n e o . c o m b i n i n g e l e m e n t s of h i s t o r y . w h i l e a c a d e m i c w o r k s on t h e subject generally assumed a more sceptical tone. and reprints of e c c e n t r i c but still popular reflects on p u b l i c a t i o n s l i k e M o n t a g u e S u m m e r s ' History of Witchcraft. P o p u l a r t a l e s of w i t c h c r a f t c o n t i n u e d t o magical c i r c u l a t e in t h e e i g h t e e n t h a n d n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s . t h e r e satanic magic to ballads recounting the activities was of that a l r e a d y a large m a r k e t f o r p u b l i c a t i o n s on the subject. It is a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t . t h a t b o o k s t h e s u b j e c t a r e c o m m o n l y d i s p l a y e d in a s e c t i o n of t h e i r o w n . a n d v i e w e d t h e p e r s e c u t i o n of w i t c h e s a s a t o k e n of a less e n l i g h t e n e d a g e . d e m a n d w a s so g r e a t fictitious accounts were created. This mixture t h e e x t r e m e l y d i v e r s e r a n g e of i n t e r e s t s t h a t c o n v e r g e on t h e s u b j e c t . a n d t h e y a r e t h e s u b j e c t of a n e c l e c t i c If y o u v i s i t t h e ' M i n d . a c a d e m i c t e x t s .

u n d o u b t e d l y . it is a l t o g e t h e r less s i m p l e t o d i s c o u n t t h e i d e a t h a t n o n . it w o u l d be w r o n g t o d i s m i s s t h e s e p o p u l a r assumptions e n t i r e l y . t h e y h a v e no h i s t o r ical or intellectual c o n n e c t i o n to the twentieth-century w i t c h c r a f t movement. a m o r e r o m a n t i c v i e w of t h e s u b j e c t h a d e m e r g e d in s o m e q u a r ters.p a g a n s a n d s e l f . T h e a t t e m p t t o l y i n g t h e m e s of w i t c h c r a f t research. 5 England named Gerard Nonetheless. is t o a s s u m e t h a t s o m e of t h e p r a c t i c e s d e s c r i b e d by e a r l y m o d e r n d e m o n o l o g i s t s w e r e b a s e d o n r e a l a c t i v i t i e s o r a s p e c t s of f o l k r e l i g i o n . a n d w e r e s o m e t i m e s in m o d i f i e d f o r m in t h e w o r k of h i s t o r i a n s like C a r l o implicated Gabor his in a c c u s a t i o n s of w i t c h c r a f t . T h e r e is no r e a s o n t o a s s u m e t h a t a n y c h a r g e s a g a i n s t w i t c h e s w e r e b a s e d o n f o l k t r a d i t i o n s . If a n y f e r t i l i t y c u l t s e x i s t e d in t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y . extracts Muchembled and L a r n e r e m p h a s i s e t h e r o l e of t h e f a n t a s i e s of e d u c a t e d m e n from in v i e w s d e s c r i b e d a b o v e a r e . a n d r e a c t e d ' h y s t e r i c a l l y ' t o t h e n o n . i n v o l v i n g t h e i d e a of s e c r e t a s s e m b l i e s of w i t c h p e r s e c u t i o n s . o b s e s s i o n s on t h e v i c t i m s of t o r t u r e r a i s e s p r o f o u n d q u e s t i o n s a b o u t t h e o r i g i n s of w i t c h t r i a l s . but the behaviours 7 In a v a r i a t i o n of t h i s i d e a . t h e w i l l i n g n e s s o f t h e a u t h o r i t i e s t o use t o r t u r e w a s s u f f i c i e n t t o e n s u r e a c o n v i c t i o n . K e p h a r t . S o m e c o n f e s s i o n s w e r e e n t i r e l y f a l s e . T h i s a s p i r a t i o n is s u m m e d up n e a t l y in t h e t i t l e of a b o o k by V i v i a n n e C r o w l e y . J o h a n n e s J u n i u s . U n s u r p r i s i n g l y . the idea that w i t c h c r a f t w a s a n a n c i e n t f e r t i l i t y c u l t s u p p r e s s e d by t h e C h r i s t i a n c h u r c h a t t r a c t e d considerable publicity and some academic support. hysteria. W h i l e t h o s e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p r o s e c u t i o n s w e r e n o r m a l l y s i n c e r e in t h e i r m o t i v e s .C h r i s t i a n reli- g i o u s p r a c t i c e s e x i s t e d in t h e e a r l y m o d e r n p e r i o d .2 GENERAL INTRODUCTION GENERAL INTRODUCTION 3 t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y . 3 T h e p o p u l a r s t e r e o t y p e s of p a g a n c u l t s a n d e v i l w i t c h t h e best w a y t o e x p l a i n a l l e g a t i o n s of w i t c h c r a f t s i m p l i f i e d v e r s i o n s of p o s i t i o n s a v a i l a b l e t o a c a d e m i c h i s t o r i a n s . s o m e h i s t o r i a n s h a v e a r g u e d t h a t all t h e e l e m e n t s in w i t c h c r a f t a c c u s a t i o n s s h o u l d be r e g a r d e d a s l e a r n e d f a n t a s i e s . and recurs in d i f f e r e n t c o n t e x t s find t h e m o s t a p p r o p r i a t e p o s i t i o n b e t w e e n t h e s e t w o i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s is one of t h e u n d e r throughout t h i s b o o k . F o r m a n y s c h o l a r s . enforced confession and death. ' w h e n w e a l r e a d y k n o w t h a t it w a s p e r f e c t l y easy t o f a b r i c a t e a c c u s a t i o n s of s o r c e r y .e x i s t e n t t h r e a t of a w i t c h c u l t . T h i s p r i n c i p l e is o f t e n used t o a c c o u n t f o r a l l e g a t i o n s of h a r m f u l m a g i c . D e s p i t e t h e i r o b v i o u s s h o r t c o m i n g s .h u n t i n g ' w a s c o i n e d in A m e r i c a . B e f o r e c o n s i d e r i n g t h e s e issues in d e t a i l . . a l l e g a t i o n s of w i t c h c r a f t inevitably to torture. A t h i r d c o m m o n a s s u m p t i o n is t h e b e l i e f t h a t w i t c h . There w a s nothing inherently i r r a t i o n a l about w i t c h c r a f t a n d t h e m o s t e x t r e m e of t h e s e b e l i e f s beliefs.h u n t s w e r e p u r s u e d by r u t h l e s s a n d s a d i s t i c m e n w h o s t o p p e d a t n o t h i n g t o s e c u r e c o n v i c t i o n s f o r t h e c r i m e . w h i c h h a s a t t r a c t e d t h e a t t e n t i o n of h i s t o r i a n s a n d p h i l o s o p h e r s p r o v i d e a b r i e f s u r v e y of w h a t is k n o w n a b o u t w i t c h p e r s e c u t i o n s in Europe. t h e y d o e n c a p s u l a t e s o m e s e r i o u s issues in t h e h i s t o r y of w i t c h c r a f t . b u t c a n be e x t e n d e d t o e x p l a i n d e t a i l s of t h e w i t c h e s ' s a b b a t . On t h e o p p o s i t e e x t r e m e .c e n t r e d n a t u r e o f t h e ' o l d r e l i g i o n ' . In 1 6 2 8 in the a n d a r e r e p r e s e n t e d in t h e v a r i o u s b o o k s t h a t c o m p e t e f o r t h e a t t e n t i o n of r e a d e r s m a y o r of B a m b u r g . it a p p e a r s t h a t t h e y s o m e t i m e s i m p o s e d t h e i r o w n v i e w s of t h e c r i m e t h e c o u r s e of i n t e r r o g a t i o n s . beyond w h a t I had already endured'.w e r e d e v e l o p e d by t h e m o s t e d u c a t e d m e n in E u r o p e a n s o c i e t y . In t h i s v e r s i o n . when western society was somehow less r a t i o n a l t h a n it is t o d a y . T h u s C a r l o G i n z b u r g a n d E v a P o c s a r g u e in t h i s b o o k t h a t t h e o r i g i n s of t h e s a b b a t c a n be f o u n d in f o l k b e l i e f s . o v e r s i m p l i f i c a t i o n s of t h e h i s t o r y of w i t c h c r a f t . w h i c h w a s b a s e d l o o s e l y on t h e S a l e m w i t c h t r i a l s of have survived into the present age. w h i c h w a s b r u t a l l y s u p p r e s s e d by t h e Christian church. Is it n e c e s s a r y t o a s s u m e t h a t a n y t h i n g ' r e a l ' lay b e h i n d a l l e g a t i o n s of w i t c h c r a f t ? on popular support. a n d s o m e of t h e m a r e s i m p l y u n t r u e . h e r e s y a n d s u n d r y d i s g u s t i n g None of the writers in t h i s collection go quite so f a r . d e c l a r i n g t h a t his c o n f e s s i o n t o t h e c r i m e w a s ' s h e e r lies a n d m a d e . h o w e v e r . T h i s v i e w w a s e x e m p l i f i e d in A r t h u r M i l l e r ' s play The Crucible. Championed by t h e English Egyptologist Margaret Murray. 6 In t h i s i n s t a n c e . A l l t h e s e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of w i t c h c r a f t d r a w n to the t o p i c . ' I f I'd l i v e d in t h e A g e s t h e y ' d h a v e b u r n t m e a s a w i t c h ' . . it is n e c e s s a r y t o D e v i l . when the phrase ' w i t c h . w h o w i s h t o t r a c e t h e l i n e a g e of t h e i r b e l i e f s b a c k t o t h e a n c i e n t w o r l d . a n d t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t p r o s e c u t i o n s w e r e s i m p l y i m p o s e d by e l i t e g r o u p s . s m u g g l e d a t r a g i c l e t t e r t o his d a u g h t e r f r o m his c e l l in t h e t o w n ' s ' w i t c h p r i s o n ' . Middle T h e s e i d e a s a r e c o m b i n e d in t h e c o m m o n E n g l i s h p h r a s e . t h e p o p u l a r i m a g e of t h e c r u e l w i t c h finder who imposed By the 1 9 5 0 s . E q u a l l y . T h i s n o t i o n is l i n k e d t o t h e t e n d e n c y t o a s s u m e t h a t m o s t w i t c h t r i a l s t o o k p l a c e in t h e Middle Ages. T h e f a c t t h a t t h i s w a s p o s s i b l e p r e s e n t s h i s t o r i a n s w i t h s o m e a w k w a r d p r o b l e m s . It w i l l a l s o c o n s i d e r t h e p o p u l a r i m a g e of w i t c h c r a f t a s a n ' i r r a t i o n a l ' b e l i e f . in t h e g e n r e . w h a t e v e r t h e o t h e r c i r c u m s t a n c e s of t h e c a s e . It w o u l d be t e m p t i n g a t t h i s p o i n t t o e x p l o d e t h e s e p o p u l a r c o n c e p t i o n s . and evil witch finders D e s p i t e t h e d i v e r s i t y o f p o p u l a r w r i t i n g o n w i t c h c r a f t .u p t h i n g s . R e l a t i v e l y f e w w i t c h t r i a l s o c c u r r e d in the M i d d l e A g e s . s o m e f e m i n i s t w r i t e r s h a v e s t r e s s e d t h e f e m a l e . 1 6 9 2 . w h i c h w a s i n v e n t e d in t h e 1 9 5 0 s by a r e t i r e d c i v i l s e r v a n t f r o m Gardner. W h i l e it is e a s y t o d i s c r e d i t t h e c l a i m s o f M u r r a y a n d . F o r a l l t h i s I w a s f o r c e d t o s a y t h r o u g h f e a r of Pagan cults. in r e c e n t y e a r s . a c c o r d i n g t o M . J . t h e y t r y t o s t r i k e a b a l a n c e b e t w e e n t h e e v i d e n c e s u g g e s t i n g t h a t w i t c h t r i a l s r e f l e c t e d t h e r e a l a c t i v i t i e s a n d b e l i e f s of o r d i n a r y p e o p l e . Wicca: The Old Religion in the New Age (1989). w i t c h p e r s e c u t i o n s w e r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e s u p p r e s s i o n of d e v i a n t g r o u p s by p o l i t i c a l e l i t e s . E v e n M u r r a y ' s i d e a of a p a g a n f e r t i l i t y c u l t h a s s u r v i v e d Ginzburg and Klaniczay. One c o m m o n a s s u m p t i o n . since the authorities were capable t h r o u g h t h e use of t o r t u r e alone? finders c a n be v i e w e d a s Did witch trials of securing depend convictions C h r i s t i a n a u t h o r i t i e s . In o t h e r w o r d s .p r o c l a i m e d ' w i t c h e s ' . 2 Gardner. d e r i v e d p a r t l y f r o m the is t h a t w i t c h c r a f t w a s a p a g a n c u l t d r i v e n u n d e r g r o u n d by t h e the t o r t u r e w h i c h w a s threatened. T h e m a j o r i t y of h i s t o r i a n s o c c u p y g r o u n d s o m e w h e r e in b e t w e e n . t h i s c l a i m f e a t u r e s m o s t o f t e n in t h e w o r k of n e o .w o r s h i p p i n g c a n n i b a l s . T h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n w i l l e x p l o r e s o m e of t h e p r o b l e m s i n v o l v e d in g e t t i n g t h e b a l a n c e r i g h t . a n u m b e r of g e n e r a l t h e m e s occur frequently w o r k of Murray. The led a g a i n s t a n y g r o u p o r p e r s o n w h o m a u t h o r i t i e s w a n t e d t o g e t r i d of f o r a n y r e a s o n ' . 4 male-dominated in A n o t h e r t h e m e in p o p u l a r a c c o u n t s is t h e c r e d u l i t y a n d ' s u p e r - s t i t i o n ' of t h o s e m e n a n d w o m e n w h o a c c e p t e d t h e e x i s t e n c e of h a r m f u l m a g i c t h e p a s t .

l i k e t h e principalities Germany. . she a d d e d n e w d e t a i l s t o t h i s s t a t e m e n t ' f r o m d a y t o d a y ' .w e r e o n l y i m p l i e d in t h e s u r v i v i n g d o c u m e n t s . t h e y m a y p e r f o r m w h a t e v e r e v i l d e e d s o r s o r c e r y t h e y w i s h a n d be t r a n s p o r t e d to or away f r o m wherever they wish . it w a s e a s y f o r t h e s e e s t e d in t h e s a t a n i c a s p e c t s of w i t c h c r a f t t h a n s i m p l e maleficium. W h i l e w i t c h t r i a l s had ended .4 GENERAL INTRODUCTION GENERAL INTRODUCTION 5 European witch trials. idea that witchcraft was a collective enterprise involving nocturnal gatherings for Devil w o r s h i p . D u r i n g t h e c o u r s e of a t r i a l . w i t c h t r i a l s declined The confession of Frangoise Secretain ideas. rather than groups. p a r t i c u l a r l y in E n g l i s h w i t c h c r a f t a n d c a s e s i n v o l v i n g d e m o n i c s i o n . a n d i n s i s t e d t h a t t h e i r a b i l i t i e s d e r i v e d f r o m a p a c t w i t h t h e D e v i l . the c h r o n o l o g y lady. T h i s c a s e i n v o l v e d m a n y of t h e key e l e m e n t s f o u n d in l a t e r a l l e g a t i o n s of w i t c h c r a f t . In 1 6 9 2 t h e f a m o u s e p i s o d e in S a l e m . t h a t she h a d l o n g s i n c e g i v e n h e r s e l f t o t h e D e v i l . by a s i n g l e w o r d . they s o m e t i m e s inflict upon the representations a n d o t h e r s i g n s of t h e c r o s s v a r i o u s s h a m e f u l t h i n g s by e x e c r a b l e m e a n s . m o s t o f t e n i n v o l v i n g d i s e a s e . T h e e a r l i e s t k n o w n p r o s e c u t i o n o c c u r r e d in K i l k e n n y in I r e l a n d in 1 3 2 4 . regional variations.s c a l e u n t i l a s p e c t a c u l a r e r u p t i o n of p e r s e c u t i o n in 1 6 4 5 . h o w e v e r . as d i d S c o t l a n d after 1 6 2 0 . there were differences between social r i t e s w i t h a s m a l l g r o u p of a s s o c i a t e s . seek o u t a n d a c c e p t r e s p o n s e s f r o m t h e m . r a t h e r t h a n t h e o r i g i n s of t h e i r p o w e r . S u b s e q u e n t l y . and the p r o b l e m it p r e s e n t s f o r t h e inter- T h e c o n f l a t i o n of t h e s e v a r i o u s p r e t a t i o n o f w i t c h c r a f t c o n f e s s i o n s . E v e n t u a l l y . disparate n e n t l y in l a t e r d e s c r i p t i o n s of t h e c r i m e . a n d d e s e r v e s t o be q u o t e d a t l e n g t h : g r o u p s a b o u t t h e m e a n i n g of w i t c h c r a f t i t s e l f . 8 w h e l m i n g l y o n t h e h a r m c a u s e d by t h e w i t c h . Intense place persecutions in relatively o c c u r r e d in r e g i o n s s u f f e r i n g s u s t a i n e d w a r f a r e in t h e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y . A l l t h o s e w h o a c k n o w l e d g e d t h e e x i s t e n c e of w i t c h e s a c c e p t e d t h e i r a b i l i t y t o p e r f o r m h a r m f u l m a g i c . t h a t she h a d w i s h e d five d e v i l s o n L o y s e t h a t t i m e h a d t h e l i k e n e s s of a b i g b l a c k man. she w a s i m p r i s o n e d f o r t h r e e d a y s b e f o r e m a k i n g h e r initial a d m i s s i o n of g u i l t . o c c u r r e d d u r i n g t h e f i r s t w a v e of m a j o r lasted until the early y e a r s of 1 5 6 0 . of in m u c h of E u r o p e by t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y . t h e f e r o c i t y of s o m e w i t c h p a n i c s in C a t h o l i c France was matched of by events but in Presbyterian witch Scotland. t h e v i c t i m s o f w i t c h c r a f t w e r e f a r m o r e w i t h t h e e f f e c t s of maleficium P r i m a r y a l l e g a t i o n s also tended to focus on individuals with posses- concerned The ranks t h a n the supposed pact between S a t a n and the w i t c h . he w a s a b l e t o p r e s e n t t h e ' p r i n c i p a l p o i n t s ' of h e r c o n f e s s i o n as f o l l o w s : New England. A c c o r d i n g t o H e n r i B o g u e t ' s a c c o u n t of h e r i n t e r r o g a t i o n . Prosecutions then declined until around w a v e of t r i a l s began. a n d r e s u r f a c e d in 1 4 3 7 in a l e t t e r f r o m Pope of a s e c r e t s o c i e t y of D e v i l w o r s h i p p e r s a p p e a r s t o h a v e d e v e l o p e d s l o w l y in t h e Eugenius I V ' t o a l l i n q u i s i t o r s of h e r e t i c a l d e p r a v i t y ' . The emphasis in t h e s e allegations was over- T h e y s a c r i f i c e t o d e m o n s . In c o n t r a s t . E q u a l l y . o r maleficium. In c o n t r a s t . t h e e u c h a r i s t . when a second e l e m e n t s to m e r g e t o g e t h e r . S o m e t i m e s t h e y m a k e a r e v e r s a l of t h e h o l y c r o s s . c a n be i l l u s t r a t e d by t h e t e s t i m o n y of F r a n g o i s e S e c r e t a i n . a f i n a l w a v e of s e v e r e p e r s e c u t i o n s b e g a n a r o u n d 1 6 2 0 a n d c o n t i n u e d in m u c h of E u r o p e n u m b e r a n d i n t e n s i t y . a n d o t h e r s a c r a m e n t s . A n o t h e r o u t b r e a k o c c u r r e d t o w a r d s t h e e n d of t h e c e n t u r y . S e c o n d .t r a i n e d l a w y e r s a n d c h u r c h m e n t e n d e d t o s t r e s s t h e s a t a n i c n a t u r e of t h e w i t c h ' s m a g i c . t h e d e s t r u c t i o n of c r o p s o r d i s t u r b a n c e s in t h e w e a t h e r . It is i m p o r t a n t t o n o t e t h a t t h e r e w e r e c o n s i d e r a b l e r e g i o n a l v a r i a t i o n s w i t h i n t h i s p a t t e r n . but w a s mostly absent f r o m the a l l e g a t i o n s brought by European villagers against their n e i g h b o u r s . one of t h e l a s t w i t c h p a n i c s in t h e w e s t e r n w o r l d . b u t e v e n in t h e s e c a s e s . and E n g l i s h t r i a l s t e n d e d t o be s m a l l . a d o r e t h e m . Not h o n o u r i n g the mysteries. P r o t e s t a n t states like Poland England a n d H u n g a r y in t h e s a m e p e r i o d . t h o u g h s o m e of t h e m notably the of a p a c t w i t h t h e D e v i l . e x t e n d i n g t o F l a n d e r s a n d S c o t l a n d . A f t e r a p e r i o d of r e s p i t e in t h e e a r l y 1 6 0 0 s . b u t t h e s a m e c a n be s a i d f o r C a t h o l i c I t a l y a n d S p a i n . . major panics also took peaceful regions like As well as these Scandinavia. desecration and m u r d e r w a s generally confined to the higher of E u r o p e a n s o c i e t y . w h e n a n a r i s t o c r a t i c K y t e l e r . Subsequently. c. witch panics inquisitors Heinrich K r a m e r and J a c o b which Sprenger ingredients Malleus the of t h e R e n a i s s a n c e c o n c e p t of w i t c h c r a f t . T h e r e is s o m e e v i d e n c e t h a t f o l k t r a d i t i o n s l i n k e d maleficium the Devil. G e r m a n y Spain affairs suffered until in the last q u a r t e r of the seventeenth century. w a s a c c u s e d of p r a c t i s i n g h a r m f u l magic and participating in Alice diabolical idea idea a n d t h e N e t h e r l a n d s s u f f e r e d r e l a t i v e l y f e w p e r s e c u t i o n s . Maillat. T h e l a t e r f o u r t e e n t h c e n t u r y . t o u c h o r s i g n . T h e s e v a r i a t i o n s h a v e t h w a r t e d m o s t a t t e m p t s t o E u r o p e a n w i t c h p e r s e c u t i o n s is n o w f a i r l y w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d . a F r e n c h w o m a n c o n v i c t e d in 1 5 9 8 . b u t i n c l u d e s m o s t of t h e o t h e r by t h e G e r m a n Maleficarum. u p o n w h i c h o u r s a v i o u r h a n g e d f o r us. this t i m e e x t e n d i n g beyond G e r m a n y a n d F r a n c e to S w i t z e r l a n d a n d E n g l a n d . u n i v e r s i t y . and m a k e w i t h t h e m a w r i t t e n a g r e e m e n t or a n o t h e r k i n d of p a c t t h r o u g h w h i c h . A l l e g a t i o n s o f t h i s k i n d m a d e up t h e b u l k o f t h e a c c u s a t i o n s l e v e l l e d by o r d i n a r y people against suspected witches. do h o m a g e to t h e m . T h e y m a k e i m a g e s of w a x o r o t h e r m a t e r i a l s . 1400-1750 T h a n k s to the w o r k of R i c h a r d K i e c k h e f e r and N o r m a n C o h n . In t h e i r s o r c e r y t h e y a r e n o t a f r a i d t o use t h e m a t e r i a l s o f b a p t i s m . t h e y r e a c h e d t h e i r p e a k in impose a single-cause e x p l a n a t i o n f o r the t r a g e d y . In 1 4 8 6 t h e s e i n g r e d i e n t s w e r e c o m b i n e d in t h e T h e p u b l i c a t i o n of t h e Malleus in F r a n c e and Germany. p a r t i c u l a r l y w h e n the legal a u t h o r i t i e s w e r e m o r e inter- sixteenth century. T h i s i d e a p l a y e d a c e n t r a l r o l e in t h e w o r k s of l e a r n e d d e m o - This account lacks the i d e a of i n f a n t i c i d e a n d c a n n i b a l i s m t h a t f e a t u r e d promi- nologists like H e n r i Boguet. t h e N e t h e r l a n d s a n d t h r o u g h o u t the w h o l e period. T h e r e w e r e r e l a t i v e l y f e w t r i a l s in I t a l y . T h i s e x p r e s s e d t h e c o n c e p t of w i t c h c r a f t m o r e f u l l y . J e a n B o d i n a n d K i n g J a m e s V I of S c o t l a n d . w h i c h by t h e i r i n v o c a t i o n s t h e y b a p t i s e o r c a u s e t o be b a p t i s e d . was F i r s t . w h o a t p a r t i c u l a r l y savage panics.

find strikingly. Even the lurid detail that his s e m e n was cold reflected the relationship between the accused w o m a n and the Devil owed m u c h to learned stereotheological since he assumption that Satan's earthly b o d y w a s c o m p o s e d of l i f e l e s s m a t t e r . w h i c h p r o b a b l y c o n s t i t u t e d the initial of c a u s i n g to death and sending devils i n t o t h e b o d y of a y o u n g sixteenth century was a folk gods' which religion practised widely Europe to ensure and S e c o n d . a n d t h a t she w e n t t h e r e o n a w h i t e s t a f f w h i c h she p l a c e d b e t w e e n her legs. o r a s a d o g o r c a t . a n d h a d b e a t e n w a t e r t o cause hail. w a s r e m i n i s c e n t of p o p u l a r t a l e s a b o u t t h e D e v i l . even t h o u g h t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e m w a s d e e p l y u n e q u a l . a n d m u c h of c o n t e m p o r a r y Europe. G e r m a n y a n d E n g l a n d . a n i n q u i s i t o r in t h e B a s q u e has s h o w n t h a t c o n t e m p o r a r i e s unable to p h y s i c a l e v i d e n c e of a l l e g e d s a b b a t s w h e n t h e y c a r e f u l l y W h i l e m a n y aspects of S e c r e t a i n ' s final c o n f e s s i o n were p r o b a b l y added to the i n i t i a l c l a i m s of maleficium. B o g u e t r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e first allegation against Secretain came f r o m 8-year-old Loyse M a i l l a t . a n d t h a t his s e m e n w a s v e r y c o l d . T h e t e n d e n c y of w i t c h e s t o c r a f t s t o r i e s o f d e m o n i c e n c o u n t e r s f r o m l o r e is n o t e d by D a v i d G e n t i l c o r e from some event in h e r o w n life. In t h i s p a r t i c u l a r c a s e . S i m i l a r l y . Sixth. A p a r t f r o m the allegations dissenting themselves such g r o u p s s i n c e a n t i q u i t y . p a r t i a l l y a s s i m i l a t e d by t h e m e d i a e v a l c h u r c h . M o s t of Spain in t h e e a r l y s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y . M o r e o v e r . it a p p e a r s S e c r e t a i n m i x e d d e t a i l s f r o m l o c a l f o l k l o r e i n t o h e r s t o r y . G u s t a v H e n n i n g s e n ' s w o r k o n A l f o n s o S a l a z a r . c o m p l e t e w i t h d e t a i l s of w i t c h e s n i g h t a n d t r a n s f o r m i n g t h e m s e l v e s i n t o a n i m a l s . First.1 9 7 0 s . W i t h t h i s n o t e of c a u t i o n in m i n d . the 'witch cult' in of suppressed in the the been a g a i n s t n a m e d i n d i v i d u a l s . t h e r e f e r e n c e s t o t h e s a b b a t w e r e p r o b a b l y n o t p a r t of t h e o r i g i n a l allegations. it b e c o m e s o b v i o u s t h a t t h e y a r e n o t s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d a c c o u n t s of a c t u a l h a p p e n i n g s . C o h n ' s a r g u m e n t s have achieved general acceptance since t h e m i d . a n d s o m e t i m e s o f a F o u r t h . w h e n t h e o l d g o d s w e r e c o n d e m n e d as d e m o n s a n d t h e i r w o r s h i p p e r s w e r e r e d e f i n e d a s w i t c h e s . In t h i s c a s e . this would certainly preoccupation w h i c h she e d i t e d s e l e c t i v e l y t o c r e a t e t h e i m p r e s s i o n t h a t t h e y d e s c r i b e d r e a l e v e n t s . meetings ever t o o k place. w h e n C h r i s t i a n s t h e m s e l v e s w e r e a c c u s e d of n o c t u r n a l g a t h 1 2 s u b j e c t . w h i c h he d e s c r i b e d a t l e n g t h e l s e w h e r e in h i s t e x t . in C h a p t e r 6 . T h i s c o m b i n a t i o n of d i v e r s e t y p i c a l of w i t c h t r i a l s in t h e e a r l y m o d e r n p e r i o d . The more* of c l a i m that S e c r e t a i n was responsible for a d e m o n i c possession was a little unusual. and possibly beliefs was to of first i n c o r p o r a t e d m o r e p e r s o n a l e l e m e n t s a s w e l l . T h e i m a g e of S a t a n a s ' a b i g b l a c k m a n ' . t h e types. she c l a i m e d t o h a v e a t t e n d e d t h e s a b b a t a n d i n d u l g e d in s e x w i t h t h e D e v i l . L y n d a l R o p e r a r g u e s in C h a p t e r 2 4 t h a t w i t c h c r a f t c o n f e s s i o n s c o u l d i n v o l v e a p r o c e s s of n e g o t i a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e a c c u s e d a n d h e r q u e s t i o n e r s . a n d m a k e s e a c h a p p e a l i n g t o d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l a c t o r s in t h e d r a m a o f a p r o s e c u t i o n it e v e n h a r d e r in t e r m s of a s i n g l e c a u s e t h a t s h a p e d t h e b e h a v i o u r e x p l a i n the p h e n o m e n o n a l l t h e g r o u p s i n v o l v e d . it is p o s s i b l e t h a t S e c r e t a i n ' s f a n t a s y folkthan and derived M a l c o l m G a s k i l l in C h a p t e r s 2 4 a n d 2 5 . In c o n t r a s t t o t h e s e a c t s of m a l i c i o u s m a g i c . t h a t the Devil h a d f o u r or five t i m e s k n o w n her c a r n a l l y . 9 o u t l i n e n a r r a t i v e p r o v i d e d by o f f i c i a l s o f t h e c o u r t s . S e v e n t h .6 GENERAL INTRODUCTION GENERAL INTRODUCTION 7 T h i r d . If t h e y w e r e reflect introduced Boguet's in t h e c o u r s e of own Secretain's with the sexual interrogation. She was accused 1 0 A t least t w o layers specific cattle. A s Norman C o h n p o i n t e d o u t in Europe's Inner ( 1 9 7 5 ) . whose parents s u s p e c t e d p o s s e s s i o n w h e n she w a s s t r u c k by a m y s t e r i o u s s i c k n e s s . 1 1 a n d o c c a s i o n a l c o n f e s s i o n s e x t r a c t e d by f o r c e - t h e r e is no e v i d e n c e t h a t p o s s e s s e d no p h y s i c a l b o d y of his o w n . F i f t h . a c t s o f maleficium allegations poisoning against a woman Secretain. C o h n o b s e r v e d t h a t a l l e g a t i o n s s i m i l a r to those m a d e a g a i n s t w i t c h e s had been levelled at erings involving cannibalism and m u r d e r . T h e t h e m e t o e x p l o r e is t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t w i t c h b e l i e f s w e r e i n s p i r e d by s o m e k i n d of real cultic activity. searched f o r it. W h e n t h e s e c o n f e s s i o n s a r e r e a d in f u l l . t h a t she h a d c o u n t l e s s t i m e s been t o t h e s a b b a t a n d a s s e m b l y of w i t c h e s n e a r t h e v i l l a g e of C o y r i e r e s in a p l a c e c a l l e d C o m b e s by t h e w a t e r . but possession w a s closely associated w i t h w i t c h c r a f t f e r t i l i t y of harvests. a d d e d one o n t o p of a n o t h e r as d i f f e r e n t p e o p l e b e c a m e i n v o l v e d in t h e p r o c e s s of a c c u s a t i o n a n d c o n f e s s i o n ' . T h e r e l a t i v e t o l e r a n c e o f t h e a u t h o r i t i e s t o w a r d s t h i s p r a c t i c e e n d e d in t h e late M i d d l e A g e s . girl. M e n a n d w o m e n w o u l d g a t h e r at s a c r e d sites to offer devotion to 'ancient had s u r v i v e d the advent Christianity. t h a t she h a d c a u s e d s e v e r a l c o w s t o d i e . M u r r a y ' s evidence was drawn entirely f r o m witchcraft confessions flying at in t h e f o l k l o r e F r a n c e . A s L o u i s e J a c k s o n p o i n t s o u t in C h a p t e r 2 6 . T h e a l l e g a t i o n s of p o i s o n i n g a n d k i l l i n g l i v e s t o c k w e r e c o m m o n in c a s e s of s u s p e c t e d b e w i t c h m e n t in s i x t e e n t h . T h u s t h e c o n f e s s i o n c o m b i n e d i d e a s f r o m l e a r n e d d e m o n o l o g y w i t h m o r e w i d e l y h e l d c o n c e p t s of maleficium. W h i l e w e c a n d o no m o r e like the confessions discussed by Roper s p e c u l a t e on t h e s u r v i v i n g e v i d e n c e . T h i s i n t e r pretation Demons is n o w u n s u s t a i n a b l e . in This process a l l o w e d suspects to weave their own fantasies and beliefs into the that t h e f o r m s o m e t i m e s o f a d o g . t h a t a t t h e s a b b a t she h a d d a n c e d . that she and Groz-Jacques Bocquet had caused Loys had M o n n e r e t t o d i e by m a k i n g h e r e a t a p i e c e of b r e a d w h i c h t h e y d u s t e d w i t h a p o w d e r g i v e n t o t h e m by t h e D e v i l . there are the death of Did a witch cult exist? In Margaret Murray's original formulation. it a p p e a r s t h a t t h e w o r d s of h e r t e s t i m o n y w e r e not s i m p l y i m p o s e d on h e r by t h e a u t h o r i t i e s .c e n t u r y F r a n c e . f o w l . a n d t h a t she d i d so by t o u c h i n g t h e m w i t h h e r h a n d o r w i t h a w a n d w h i l e s a y i n g c e r t a i n words. It is i m p o s s i b l e t o k n o w f o r c e r t a i n t h e o r i g i n of t h e s e b i z a r r e d i s c l o s u r e s . a n d h a v e been r e i n f o r c e d by m u c h n e w r e s e a r c h . a c o n f e s s i o n t e x t is ' a p a l i m p s e s t m a d e of d i f f e r e n t l a y e r s of d e t a i l a n d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . of m e a n i n g a p p e a r t o be p r e s e n t in B o g u e t ' s d o c u m e n t . it is n o w t i m e t o c o n s i d e r some of the elements t h a t c o n t r i b u t e d to E u r o p e a n w i t c h persecutions. s o m e t i m e s of a c a t . region were 1610. A f t e r a g r o u p o f y o u n g w o m e n c o n f e s s e d t o a t t e n d i n g a s a b b a t in .

a t t e n d i n g w i t c h e s . B o g u e t . F r o m 1 5 8 0 o n w a r d s . h e l p i n g t h e m t o c u r e d i s e a s e s a n d l o c a t e h i d d e n t r e a s u r e . In t h i s t r a v e l l e d in s p i r i t t o r i v a l taltos for control compelling F o r those s y m p a t h e t i c to G i n z b u r g ' s case. These to h a v e f o u n d t h e m i n c o m p r e h e n s i b l e . for who G i n z b u r g ' s thesis has c o m e f r o m the v e r s i o n . . A s a d u l t s . r e j e c t e d by e d u c t a t e d w r i t e r s on t h e s u b j e c t . It a p p e a r s t h a t G i n z b u r g h a s u n c o v e r e d a n a g r a r i a n c u l t r e l a t e d t o w i t c h c r a f t . His argument is p r e s e n t e d in C h a p t e r 8 . m e n a n d w o m e n f r o m b a c k g r o u n d s were organised into ' c o m p a n i e s ' . l i s h e d in S i c i l y d u r i n g t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y . t h e benandante y e a r . T h i s l a s t e d f o r t w o o r three hours until the c o c k c r o w e d . one of its m e m b e r s : w h o s e b e l i e f s w e r e d e s c r i b e d as f o l l o w s by S o m e l i t t l e t i m e a g o . Gabor fight to death w i t h the c o n f e s s i o n t h a t they have been t r a n s p o r t e d w i t h the f a i r i e s such a hill. 2 0 1 9 Clerk through the air Fairies continued to figure in E n g l i s h w i t c h t r i a l s u n t i l t h e to In S c o t l a n d . T h e p r i n c i p a l a r c h i t e c t of t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n is C a r l o G i n z b u r g . beliefJ a m e s V I of S c o t l a n d n o t e d v e r y s i m i l a r c l a i m s in 1 5 9 7 . had a l r e a d y h a d s o m e s u s p i c i o n of h e r b e c a u s e t h e c a t t l e of s o m e of t h e i r 1 6 I a m a benandante because I go w i t h the others to fight four times a y e a r . a n d its a c t i v i t i e s p r o v o k e d a c c u s a t i o n s of w i t c h c r a f t f r o m t h e a u t h o r i t i e s . M o r e o v e r . A g a i n . G u s t a v 2 1 h a s i d e n t i f i e d s i m i l a r b e l i e f s in t h e c o n f e s s i o n s o f w i t c h e s in t h a t c o u n t r y . r e f e r e n c e s t o f a i r i e s o c c u r q u i t e f r e q u e n t l y in c o n n e c t i o n t o w i t c h c r a f t c a s e s . G i n z b u r g ' s w o r k reveals t h a t a f e r t i l i t y cult did exist.t h e ' e m b e r d a y s ' in D e c e m b e r . w h e n he t r i e s t o e x t e n d t h i s m o d e l t o o t h e r a r e a s of Europe. w i t h o u t e v e n b r e a t h i n g . h o w e v e r . . seventeenth c e n t u r y . w h o s e w o r k is b a s e d l a r g e l y o n t h e F r i u l i r e g i o n of n o r t h e r n I t a l y . w h o s e m e m b e r s p e r c e i v e d t h e m s e l v e s a n d t h e i r n o c t u r n a l f o e s in v e r y d i f f e r e n t t e r m s f r o m t h o s e u n d e r s t o o d by t h e m e n r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e i r p r o s e c u t i o n . w h o m she h a d t h r e a t e n e d . c u l t m e m b e r s . still intact around t h e i r b o d i e s . it is u n l i k e l y t h a t these details were i m p o s e d by l a w y e r s o r t h e o l o g i a n s . the most and were generally On t h e Henningsen has s h o w n t h a t f a i r y beliefs were w e l l e v i d e n c e c o m e s f r o m d e t a i l s in w i t c h c r a f t c o n f e s s i o n s t h a t c o n t r a d i c t e d t h e a s s u m p t i o n s of d e m o n o l o g i s t s . H e r e . G i n z b u r g ' s thesis receives i n d i r e c t support f r o m a n o t h e r b o d y of e v i d e n c e . H i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n b e c o m e s m o r e c o n t r o v e r s i a l . they w e n t in. then. d e s p i t e t h e f a c t t h a t t h e y h a d no p l a c e in t h e l e a r n e d s t e r e o t y p e o f t h e w i t c h . we fight 1 4 each other. t h e r e w a s a m a n of O r g e l e t w h o b r o u g h t his w i f e t o t h i s p l a c e a n d a c c u s e d h e r of b e i n g a w i t c h . a t n i g h t . a m o r e s u b t l e a n d p e r s u a s i v e v e r s i o n of t h e t h e o r y h a s been d e v e l o p e d by o t h e r h i s t o r i a n s . and there s a w a f a i r q u e e n ' . f o r e x a m p l e . s a y i n g a m o n g other t h i n g s t h a t w h e n t h e y w e r e in bed t o g e t h e r o n e T h u r s d a y n i g h t he n o t i c e d t h a t his w i f e w a s a b s o l u t e l y s t i l l . of t h e next harvest. and travelled with . a r m e d w i t h t h e b u n c h e s of f e n n e l m e n t i o n e d in t h e d e p o s i t i o n . d e s p i t e his c o n v i c t i o n t h a t they were merely d e l u s i o n s . a s w e l l as t r a n s p o r t i n g Canterbury cathedral. H e p r o v i d e d a n o t h e r e x a m p l e o f t h e b e l i e f .c a l l e d ' f a i r y c u l t s ' in e a r l y m o d e r n E u r o p e . s i d e of E u r o p e . 1 7 M e m b e r s h i p of t h e g r o u p w a s d e t e r m i n e d a t b i r t h . t h a t is d u r i n g t h e e m b e r d a y s . a n d t h i s n e w d e f i n i t i o n of t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s w a s e v e n t u a l l y a c c e p t e d by t h e c o m m u n i t i e s in w h i c h t h e y l i v e d . T h e m a n t h e n s u p p o s e d t h a t she h a d been t o t h e s a b b a t . T h i s r e l a t e s t o s o . he d e m o n s t r a t e s t h a t t h e benandante w e r e g r a d u a l l y r e d e f i n e d by t h e i n q u i s i t i o n as s a b b a t . Agrarian cults and fairies W h i l e M u r r a y ' s c o n c e p t of a w i t c h c u l t c a n be s a f e l y d i s g a r d e d . a n d then his wife suddenly awoke. w e g o f o r t h in t h e s e r v i c e of C h r i s t . It is d i f f i c u l t t o see h o w t h e s e d e t a i l s c o u l d h a v e been i m p o s e d f r o m a b o v e . a n d w h e n he a s k e d h e r w h a t w a s a m i s s . h a d been d y i n g . a s e r i e s of e x t r a o r d i n a r y t e s t i m o n i e s w e r e r e c o r d e d t h e r e by t h e R o m a n I n q u i s i t i o n . we w i t h b u n d l e s of f e n n e l a n d t h e y w i t h s o r g h u m stalks. of t h e w e a t h e r .t o m e e t w i t h a s s e m b l i e s of e v i l s p i r i t s t h e y d e s c r i b e d as w i t c h e s . He o n l y e x p l a i n s u c h c l a i m s by a s s u m i n g t h e y w e r e s a t a n i c d e l u s i o n s . w h o o f t e n a p p e a r in E n g l a n d in 1 4 9 9 . b u t c o u l d n o t w a k e n h e r . o r taltos. she a n s w e r e d t h a t she w a s so t i r e d f r o m t h e w o r k she h a d d o n e t h e d a y b e f o r e t h a t she w a s w e i g h e d d o w n w i t h s l e e p a n d f e l t n o t h i n g of w h a t h e r h u s b a n d h a d d o n e t o h e r . T h e s e r e l a t e d t o a l o c a l c u l t k n o w n as t h e benandante. fairies'. or a m n i o t i c sacs.8 GENERAL INTRODUCTION GENERAL INTRODUCTION 9 Salazar conducted an exhaustive investigation of t h e i r supposed 1 3 activities. a n d t h e w i t c h e s [ g o f o r t h ] in t h e n a m e of t h e Devil. A t a regional level. On t h e b a s i s of t h i s r i c h b o d y of m a t e r i a l . n i g h t w e r e a l s o r e c o r d e d in G e r m a n y in t h e late s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y . J a m e s V I n o t e d t h a t ' s u n d r y w i t c h e s h a v e g o n e could other estabhumble Hungarian historian. r e p u d i a t e d t h e i d e a t h a t ' f o r t h e m o s t p a r t it is o n l y in s p i r i t t h a t w i t c h e s g o t o t h e s a b b a t ' . I g o i n v i s i b l y in s p i r i t a n d t h e b o d y r e m a i n s b e h i n d . t h o u g h c r e d e n c e w a s g i v e n t o t h i s i d e a in t h e r e g i o n ' s d e m o n o l o g i c a l 1 8 A s well as these i n t r i g u i n g details. w h e n t r a v e l l e d in s p i r i t o n c e r t a i n n i g h t s of t h e certain individuals were born with their 'cauls'. w h i c h s u g g e s t s t h a t it w a s a c c e p t e d in F r e n c h f o l k l o r e in t h e l a t e s i x t e e n t h century: c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e y c o u l d be r e g a r d e d o n l y as d e l u s i o n s . w h e r e u p o n he b e g a n t o s h a k e her. L i k e t h e b e l i e f t h a t w i t c h e s c o u l d t r a v e l a t n i g h t in s p i r i t f o r m . 1 5 p e r f o r m e d v a r i o u s f e a t s on t h e f a m i l y ' s b e h a l f . G i n z b u r g h a s r e c o n s t r u c t e d t h e s y s t e m of t h e benandante. whose m e m b e r s believed they were conveyed through the a i r to attend joyful gatherings w i t h fairies. d e s p i t e t h e f a c t t h a t one of t h e w i t c h e s a c c u s e d a l o n g s i d e Frangoise S e c r e t a i n c l a i m e d it w a s ' q u i t e p o s s i b l e ' t o d o s o . w i t h t h e o u t c o m e of t h i s c o m b a t the fate torture. f o r he n e i g h b o u r s . details None of t h e s e t e s t i m o n i e s consistent were obtained of and their were remarkably over a period deciding through several R e p o r t s t h a t t h e s p i r i t s o f w i t c h e s left t h e i r b o d i e s a t little literature. A n e a r l y e x a m p l e of f a i r y b e l i e f s w a s p r e s e r v e d in t h e r e g i s t e r o f t h e a r c h d e a c o n ' s c o u r t of N o r w i c h for consorting with spirits they described Three m e m b e r s of t h e C l e r k f a m i l y f r o m S u f f o l k w e r e c o n v i c t e d of ' h e r e t i c a l as ' g r a c i o u s Marion depravity' creatures to d e c a d e s . T h e i r p u r p o s e w a s t o fight t h e w i t c h e s . and a n d it is q u i t e p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e y o r i g i n a t e d in p o p u l a r c u l t u r e . S u p p o r t Klaniczay. w h i c h o p e n i n g .

w h o f o u n d it e a s y t o a t t r i b u t e t o w i t c h e s i n t e n t o n destroying o b j e c t i o n c a n be m a d e t o o t h e r a t t e m p t s t o e x p l a i n w i t c h t r i a l s in t e r m s of p o p u l a r b e l i e f s .10 GENERAL INTRODUCTION GENERAL INTRODUCTION 11 t h e c r e a t u r e s a s t h e y p e r f o r m e d g o o d d e e d s in t h e h o m e s of t h e i r n e i g h b o u r s . it a p p e a r s t h a t t h e c a s e of F r a n g o i s e S e c r e t a i n s i t u a t i o n o f s o c i a l c o n f l i c t . B u t in c o m m o n w i t h m o s t o t h e r a c c u s a t i o n s o f h a r m f u l m a g i c . Thus unnatural inverted 1 1 . its p r i n c i p a l w e a k n e s s is t h a t it is less a p p l i c a b l e t o l a r g e . It w o u l d be n e c e s s a r y t o e x p l a i n w h y o f f i c i a l a t t i t u d e s c h a n g e d f r o m i n d i f f e r e n c e t o erance. In t h e e a r l y m o d e r n p e r i o d . A c c o r d i n g t o B o g u e t ' s a c c o u n t . it w o u l d be n e c e s s a r y t o s h o w fifteenth that these fears increased f r o m the late century onwards. largely c h a r i t y t o a less f o r t u n a t e One c o n s e q u e n c e of t h i s w a s a f e e l i n g s t r i k i n g t h a t s c h o l a r l y a c c o u n t s of w i t c h c r a f t tended to reverse t h e i r a u t h o r s ' most c h e r i s h e d r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s . a n d in S c o t l a n d and central E u r o p e d u r i n g the seventeenth century. it is p r o b l e m a t i c t o a r g u e t h a t t h e e x i s t e n c e of f e r t i l i t y cults gave rise to w i t c h p e r s e c u t i o n s .b a s e d o n t h e n e e d of e a r l y m o d e r n s o c i e t i e s t o m a k e sense of n a t u r a l c a l a m i t i e s . p r i n c i p a l l y t h e g r o w t h in p o p u l a t i o n a n d t h e of c a p i t a l i s m . were occasionally attributed to entirely unrelated William p r e s e n t in m e d i a e v a l d e s c r i p t i o n s of h e r e t i c s . Ginzburg in w h i c h t h e infer an T h e d y n a m i c s o f t h i s s t o r y w e r e f a i r l y t y p i c a l of v i l l a g e . and why popular beliefs were demonised at this p a r t i c u l a r time. In t h e e a r l y 1 9 7 0 s .s o c i e t y ' w h i c h in C h a p t e r The view that w i t c h t r i a l s were a response to increased social tensions t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y is m o s t c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h E n g l i s h r e s e a r c h . T h e s e e v e n t s w e r e r e i n t e r p r e t e d by t h e i n q u i s i t i o n as s a b b a t s . some serious weaknesses in t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . B e h r i n g e r p o i n t s o u t t h a t t h e m o s t s a v a g e p e r i o d o f w i t c h p e r s e c u t i o n s f r o m 1 5 6 0 c o i n c i d e d w i t h t h e c l i m a t i c p h e n o m e n o n k n o w n as t h e ' l i t t l e ice a g e ' . It w a s d u r i n g t h e g i r l ' s e x o r c i s m t h a t she n a m e d S e c r e t a i n a s t h e p e r s o n r e s p o n s i b l e her s u f f e r i n g . It is Thus James G o u g e a s s e r t e d in 1 6 2 6 t h a t A m e r i c a n t r i b e s m e n ' e x c e l l e d in 2 3 c o n f l i c t a n d t h e e x p l a n a t i o n of s u f f e r i n g h a v e p l a y e d a p r o m i n e n t r o l e in a t t e m p t s cruelty. l i k e S c o t l a n d . W i t h h e r husband away. t h e t e n s i o n s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i n e q u a l i t y w e r e c r e a t e d by e c o n o m i c t r a n s i t i o n s f o r t h o s e w h o lost o u t . w h i c h c o u l d e a s i l y be t r a n s f e r r e d t o t h e p e r s o n w h o h a d been t u r n e d In M a c f a r l a n e ' s v i e w . W e c a n n o w t u r n . g i r l w a s p o s s e s s e d w i t h d e m o n s e n c o u r a g e d a n a l l e g a t i o n of w i t c h c r a f t . w h i c h m u c h o f t h e s u r v i v i n g e v i d e n c e .w h i c h w e r e n o t a c c o m p a n i e d by a n a d e q u a t e s y s t e m of 2 7 V I . c l a i m e d t h a t a b l a s p h e m o u s p a r o d y o f a s e r m o n w a s t h e c e n t r e p i e c e of t h e w i t c h e s ' a s s e m b l y . as S t u a r t Clark argues M a n y e l e m e n t s of t h e s a b b a t c o u l d h a v e d e r i v e d f r o m t h e f a n t a s y of a n ' a n t i . or that the authorities prosecutions were imposed 'from were prepared to take t h e m more seriously for some reason. In C h a p t e r 4. d o w n t o s p e c i f i c d e t a i l s of c o n f e s s i o n a l p r a c t i c e . Such a p p r o a c h can ignore the specific c u l t u r a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s of w i t c h e s occurred. however. t h i s in i t s e l f c o u l d n o t e x p l a i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of a w i t c h p a n i c . a n d it o f f e r e d a n e x p l a n a t i o n . A t a m o r e b a s i c l e v e l . her parents began to suspect bewitchfor m e n t a n d t o o k h e r t o a p r i e s t . social t w o m a j o r f u n c t i o n s f o r t h e p e o p l e i n v o l v e d : it p r o v i d e d a n o u t l e t f o r a n g e r in a f o r a m i s f o r t u n e t h a t w a s o t h e r w i s e h a r d t o u n d e r s t a n d . t h e n r e l e n t e d in t h e T h e r o l e of f a i r y beliefs notion in E u r o p e a n w i t c h c r a f t is a s u b j e c t t h a t a w a i t s f u l l e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n . S o m e days later. it a p p e a r s t h a t t h e k i n d of f u l l y d e v e l o p e d b e l i e f . h e r y o u n g d a u g h t e r L o y s e w a s a f f l i c t e d w i t h a s t r a n g e illness t h a t w e a k e n e d her l i m b s a n d t w i s t e d her m o u t h 'in a very s t r a n g e m a n n e r ' . in c o n t r a s t . villager felt obliged to refuse of away. a l t e r n a t i v e s o u r c e f o r t h e m y t h of t h e s a b b a t . b u t t h e r e is l i t t l e e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e y w e r e i n t e g r a t e d i n t o a c o h e r e n t b o d y of r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s . These points relate to t h e m u c h w i d e r q u e s t i o n of w h e t h e r w i t c h c r a f t to that question. Even if s u c h c u l t s e x i s t e d in Renaissance intolsimilar E u r o p e . T h i s w e a t h e r p a t t e r n w a s c o r r e c t l y p e r c e i v e d as a b n o r m a l by c o n t e m p o r a r i e s .s c a l e w i t c h p a n i c s s u c h a s t h o s e in E a s t A n g l i a in 1 6 4 5 . a n d p o s s i b l y a served remedy. a l l e g i n g 2 4 g u i l t . t h e b e l i e f t h a t t h e o f w i t c h c r a f t . T h e s e t h e m e s of to explain witchcraft ' f r o m below'.s y s t e m s t h a t c o u l d h a v e i n s p i r e d t h e i d e a of t h e s a b b a t w e r e c o n f i n e d t o a r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l a r e a of E u r o p e . Ideas Scotland f a c e of h e r v i s i t o r ' s p e r s i s t e n c e . Humberte first r e f u s e d a n d a s k e d h e r t o l e a v e . w h o c o n f i r m e d t h e d i a g n o s i s of p o s s e s s i o n . t h a t a b l a c k t u r n i p a n d urine w e r e o f f e r e d as the body a n d b l o o d of C h r i s t . t h e e v e n t s l e a d i n g t o h e r a p p r e h e n s i o n b e g a n w h e n she v i s i t e d t h e h o u s e of H u m b e r t e a n d C l a u d e M a i l l a t t o a s k f o r o v e r n i g h t l o d g i n g s . 2 5 beginnings provision with T h e s e i m a g i n a r y r e v e r s a l s of a c c e p t e d b e h a v i o u r p r o v i d e a p l a u s i b l e . s i m i l a r t o t h o s e h e l d by t h e I t a l i a n benandante c a n be f o u n d in G e r m a n y . were a r g u e d t h a t the c o n c e p t of w i t c h c r a f t c o u l d h a v e a r i s e n w i t h o u t a n y r e f e r e n c e t o p o p u l a r N o r m a n C o h n s h o w s in C h a p t e r 2 t h a t t h e m a j o r i n g r e d i e n t s of t h e s a b b a t t h e i d e a s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e w i t c h e s ' g a t h e r i n g . s i n c e t h e c o n d i t i o n w a s o f t e n a t t r i b u t e d t o w i t c h e s . 2 2 Social and political contexts It is i n s t r u c t i v e a t t h i s p o i n t t o r e t u r n t o t h e c a s e o f F r a n g o i s e S e c r e t a i n .l e v e l c a s e s In t h i s p a r t i c u l a r i n s t a n c e . A s R i c h a r d M u c h e m b l e d p o i n t s o u t in C h a p t e r 1 0 . during persecution learned beliefs. t h e C a t h o l i c B o g u e t e m p h a s i s e d t h e d e s e c r a t i o n of t h e m a s s in t h e s a b b a t . a b o v e ' o r s h o u l d be r e g a r d e d a s a r e s p o n s e t o p o p u l a r c o n c e r n s . M o r e o v e r . 2 6 a n d F r a n c e . t h e r e is a d a n g e r t h a t h i s t o r i a n s c a n t a k e f r a g m e n t s f r o m p o p u l a r t r a d i t i o n a n d from them a composite belief-system critics that of never existed have as a whole. Second. b u t it is p o s s i b l e t h a t such p o p u l a r ideas p r o v i d e d the r a w m a t e r i a l f r o m w h i c h the learned of a w i t c h c u l t w a s f o r m e d . w h i c h s u f f e r e d m o r e i n t e n s e p e r s e c u t i o n s . s o m e of Devil-worship groups. t h e c o n v e n t i o n s of o f f i c i a l r e l i g i o n . the e c o n o m i c changes e x p e r i e n c e d in E n g l a n d w e r e n o t m i r r o r e d in o t h e r c o u n t r i e s . A T h e s t r e n g t h of t h i s a p p r o a c h is t h a t it p r o v i d e s a p l a u is c o n s i s t e n t s i b l e a c c o u n t of t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s of l o c a l a c c u s a t i o n s . w h i c h s e e m e d t o r e s e m b l e a d e m o n i c v e r s i o n of a Scots Protestant service. T h e o t h e r k i n d of e x p l a n a t i o n f o r w i t c h t r i a l s ' f r o m b e l o w ' . f o r e x a m p l e . one a r g u e s t h a t t h e p e r s e c u t i o n s w e r e c a u s e d by f e a r s of maleficium a m o n g the European p o p u l a t i o n . w h i c h c a u s e d c r o p f a i l u r e s a c r o s s m u c h of E u r o p e u n t i l t h e m i d d l e y e a r s of t h e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y . A d i s p u t e b e t w e e n t w o w o m e n w a s f o l l o w e d by t h e i l l n e s s of a c h i l d . If. There are. F i r s t of a l l . sacrificing their children and offering t h e m to d e v i l s ' .h a s been a d v a n c e d m o s t p e r s u a s i v e l y by t h e G e r m a n h i s t o r i a n W o l f g a n g B e h r i n g e r . l i k e t h e p r a c t i c e of and infanticide. T h e n e x t m o r n i n g . t h e s t u d i e s of K e i t h T h o m a s a n d A l a n M a c f a r l a n e s u g g e s t e d t h a t a c c u s a tions typically occurred when a relatively wealthy neighbour. s u b s e q u e n t l y a s c r i b e d t o maleficium.

3 1 the of and was Nicholas in w h i c h Remy explained. as h a p p e n e d in s i x t e e n t h - c e n t u r y B a v a r i a a n d T r i e r . In t h e l a t t e r c a s e .p r o f i l e d i s p o s s e s s i o n s w e r e a p o w e r f u l t o o l of c o n f e s s i o n a l p r o p a g a n d a in F r a n c e . 2 9 t h a t G e r m a n J e s u i t s in t h e l a t e r s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y used e x o r c i s m s t o v a l i d a t e t h e 3 3 n o t e s in C h a p t e r t h a t h i g h . h o w e v e r . T h i s i n c r e a s e d t h e p o l i t i c a l i m p o r t a n c e of m a i n t a i n i n g r e l i g i o u s o r t h o d o x y . Furthermore. In one i n s t a n c e . it a p p e a r s t h a t m a j o r p a n i c s e n d e d w h e n local authorities ceased to regard witchcraft satanic witchcraft. T h i s w a s e v i d e n t in c a s e s of d e m o n i c p o s s e s s i o n . who claimed that papists and their 'secret friends' . L y n d a l p o w e r of t h e Roman church. t h a t p o p u l a r a n x i e t i e s Lauderdale w a s a s k e d by a p r i e s t if t h e p o w e r of t h e J e s u i t e x o r c i s t s c o u l d p e r s u a d e h i m t o 3 5 P u r i t a n e x o r c i s t s in E n g l a n d w e r e c a u g h t in a t w o . 3 4 in p a r t s of D e n m a r k a n d S p a i n a s late a s t h e 1 9 6 0 s . Similarly. Regions where this concept was absent f r o m confederates learned witch these developments c a m p a i g n s against satanic w i t c h c r a f t could c o n f i r m their agents a s t h e c h a m p i o n s of t r u e r e l i g i o n .s o c i e t y ' w a s p a r t i c u l a r l y i m p o r t a n t h e r e . A s Behringer of a c k n o w l e d g e s . of c o u r s e . By the same token. Moshe Sluhovsky R o p e r has s h o w n 19 B e h r i n g e r ' s w o r k s h o w s t h e m a j o r r o l e p l a y e d by p o p u l a r c o n c e r n s in s o m e w i t c h p e r s e c u t i o n s .' d o w h a t t h e y c a n [ s o ] t h a t t h e t r u e c h u r c h of C h r i s t m a y n o t h a v e c r e d i t 3 6 c o u l d n o t s o m e t i m e s p r o v o k e j u d i c i a l a c t i o n . w h i c h o c c u r r e d in a g r e a t v a r i e t y of d i f f e r e n t c o n t e x t s : t h e r e d e f i n i t i o n of a g h o s t a s t h e D e v i l in 1 5 6 0 s F r a n c e ( C h a p t e r 1 9 ) . t h e v e r y e x i s t e n c e of w i t c h e s w a s s o m e t i m e s v i e w e d a s a h e l l i s h e n d o r s e m e n t of t h e a u t h o r i t y of r u l i n g g r o u p s . in t h e m s e l v e s . D a r r e l ' s a c t i v i t i e s led t o a s e r i e s of w i t c h t r i a l s The effects of religious division in a satanic The A n o t h e r c o n s e q u e n c e of t h e R e f o r m a t i o n w a s t h e a t t e m p t by l o c a l e l i t e s . d e s p i t e M a r t i n L u t h e r ' s f i r m b e l i e f in t h e e x i s t e n c e of w i t c h e s a n d his i n s i s t e n c e on S a t a n ' s great earthly p o w e r . d o c t r i n e s of P r o t e s t a n t i s m d i d n o t . w h o s h o u l d s t r i k e a g a i n s t t h e m ' w i t h c o n f i d e n c e . B r o a d l y s p e a k i n g . this entailed an a t t a c k on folk ideas and p r a c t i c e s a s p a r t of ' a n o v e r a l l m i s s i o n a r y e f f o r t t o r e f o r m t h e c o m m o n p e o p l e of 3 7 F r o m t h e 1 5 2 0 s o n w a r d s . church was that 3 0 A s p a r t of t h i s p r o c e s s .w a y c o n f l i c t b e t w e e n t h e i r C a t h o l i c r i v a l s a n d t h e h i e r a r c h y of t h e e s t a b l i s h e d c h u r c h . w h e r e t h e V I f r o m a p l o t t o d e s t r o y h i m by w i t c h c r a f t d e l i v e r a n c e of J a m e s policies. h o w e v e r . w h i c h c o n s t i t u t e d by f a r t h e l a r g e s t w i t c h p e r s e c u t i o n in While England. ^interorthodox were If t h e y c o u l d n o t be incorporated within the f r a m e w o r k of t h e o f f i c i a l of R a t h e r . A s Edmund Europe'. b u t a l s o h e l p e d s h a p e t h e b e h a v i o u r of Protestant and Catholic c l e r g y . a n d t h e c o u r t s in m o s t c o u n t r i e s c e a s e d t o r e c o g n i s e it as a c r i m e . I n d e e d . religion. in w h i c h t h i s i d e a c a m e t o be T h e r e l e v a n c e of t h e s e p r o p a g a n d a b a t t l e s w a s t h a t p o s s e s to w i t c h c r a f t in p o p u l a r belief. Indeed. witches had a special hatred he w i l l always have G o d a s his c h a m p i o n in 1 5 9 1 t h e p i o u s m a g i s t r a t e . t h e D u k e of convert to C a t h o l i c i s m . w h i c h f e a r e d t h a t s u c c e s s f u l d i s p o s s e s s i o n s c o u l d b o l s t e r t h e a u t h o r i t y of n o n c o n f o r m i n g m i n i s t e r s . T h i s w a s t h e c a s e Germany. t h e h a r d s h i p s i n d u c e d by t h e ' l i t t l e ice a g e ' c a n n o t p r o v i d e a complete explanation for Europe's witch trials. attributed a t t e n d e d by a l l e g a t i o n s France and England. b e l i e f s e x p e r i e n c e d r e l a t i v e l y f e w t r i a l s . increasingly reluctant to a c c e p t t h e r e a l i t y of s a t a n i c w i t c h c r a f t . A t t h e level of r u r a l c o m m u n i t i e s . In t h e c o n t e x t of c h u r c h . T h i s w a s t h e c a s e in D e n m a r k a n d E n g l a n d u n t i l t h e 1 6 4 0 s . F o r a start. t r a d i t i o n a l b e l i e f s a b o u t g h o s t s . maleficium as a p r o b l e m . A t the same time. T h e l e a r n e d c o n c e p t of a s a t a n i c ' a n t i . H e ' s e c r e t l y s e n t f o r a C a t h o l i c p r i e s t . D u r i n g a v i s i t t o t h e p o s s e s s e d c o n v e n t of L o u d o n in 1 6 3 4 . e d u c a t e d Europeans were allegations c o n t i n u e d t o be m a d e in E n g l a n d t h r o u g h o u t t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y . t h e i m p o r t a n c e of t h e R e f o r m a t i o n lay in t h e m a n y elites across E u r o p e were forced to identify with one a n d p o p u l a r e x p r e s s i o n s of p i e t y l i k e p r o p h e t i c v i s i o n s . a n d t h e p o l i t i c a l t h r e a t p o s e d by r e l i g i o u s d i s s e n t . conflict between C a t h o l i c s and P r o t e s t a n t s recast E u r o p e a n p o l i t i c s a s a c r u s a d e b e t w e e n t h e f o r c e s of G o d a n d H i s e n e m i e s . s i n c e t h e i d e a of a w i t c h c u l t e n c o u r a g e d t h e c o u r t s t o p u r s u e t h e a l l e g e d of c o n v i c t e d w i t c h e s . or a p p e a r e d to threaten the a u t h o r i t y i n d i r e c t c o n s e q u e n c e s of r e l i g i o u s d i v i s i o n . w h o used t h e a c c u s t o m e d e x o r c i s m s of t h e R o m a n c h u r c h w i t h s u c h s i n c e r i t y t h a t t h e p o s s e s s e d w a s s o o n d e l i v e r e d ' . the first wave panics commenced some eighty years earlier. and exorcisms in were and of t h e c r i m e . t h e n o t i o n of t h e s a b b a t a c h i e v e d p r o m i n e n c e f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e d u r i n g t h e E a s t A n g l i a n t r i a l s of 1 6 4 5 . b o t h C a t h o l i c a n d P r o t e s t a n t . f a i r i e s a n d s a i n t s . one m a j o r f a c t o r t h a t e n c o u r a g e d b e l i e f c o n s p i r a c y w a s t h e d i v i s i o n of E u r o p e i n t o C a t h o l i c a n d P r o t e s t a n t f a c t i o n s . i n d u c e w i t c h p e r s e c u t i o n s . d e s p i t e t h e e f f e c t s of c l i m a t i c c h a n g e . A s Catholic demonologist is p u r s u i n g a v o c a t i o n defender'. Kern remarks in C h a p t e r 1 3 . t h e c o n d e m n a t i o n of t h e benandante ( C h a p t e r 8 ) .including some by c a s t i n g o u t d e v i l s ' . of maleficium a n d it a p p e a r s t h a t s i m i l a r b e l i e f s p e r s i s t e d in m u c h of m a i n l a n d witch beliefs were flourishing In t h e s a m e p e r i o d . T h e p o p u l a r c l a m o u r f o r a c t i o n caused the p o l i t i c a l elites of central Europe to move against those b e l i e v e d t o be r e s p o n s i b l e . a n d it is n e c e s s a r y to consider the p o l i t i c a l and religious c i r c u m s t a n c e s a c c e p t e d by a s e c t i o n of E u r o p e ' s g o v e r n i n g c l a s s . large-scale witch-hunts o f t e n o c c u r r e d w h e n t h e l e a r n e d c o n c e p t of c o l l e c t i v e w i t c h c r a f t w a s i n v o l v e d . where at least t w o e x e c u t i o n s . sion was often frequently English b i s h o p s . t o i m p o s e C h r i s t i a n b e l i e f s on t h e p o p u l a t i o n a t l a r g e . b u t it s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e r e s p o n s e of e l i t e g r o u p s t o s u c h a n x i e t i e s h e l p e d t o d e t e r m i n e t h e e x t e n t a n d s e v e r i t y of p a n i c s . they r e a d i l y e x p l a i n e d in t e r m s of d e m o n i c a c t i v i t y . about about p r o s e c u t i o n s e n d e d e a r l i e r in r e g i o n s l i k e S p a i n w h e r e e l i t e s w e r e s c e p t i c a l T h i s d o e s n o t m e a n . it is h a r d t o see h o w t r i a l s c o u l d h a v e s p r e a d w i t h o u t t h e a c t i v e s u p p o r t of r u l i n g e l i t e s . S e v e r a l of t h e c o n t r i b u t o r s t o t h i s b o o k d e s c r i b e t h i s p r o c e s s . t h e d e n u n c i a t i o n of f o l k m a g i c a s d i a b o l i s m . 2 8 p r e s e n t e d a s a v i n d i c a t i o n of his f a i t h a n d a t a c i t e n d o r s e m e n t of his e c c l e s i a s t i c a l 3 2 T h e p o l i t i c s of r e l i g i o u s d i v i s i o n n o t o n l y a f f e c t e d t h e p o l i t i c a l e l i t e s of e a r l y modern E u r o p e . T h i s c o n f l i c t w a s e p i t o m i s e d in t h e 1 5 9 0 s by t h e e x o r c i s t J o h n Darrel. k n o w i n g he T h e s a m e a r g u m e n t w a s a d v a n c e d in P r o t e s t a n t S c o t l a n d .12 GENERAL INTRODUCTION GENERAL INTRODUCTION 13 w h o l e c o m m u n i t i e s . Europe. B o g u e t t o l d t h e s t o r y of a H u g u e n o t g e n t l e m a n w h o s e s o n w a s p o s s e s s e d by a d e m o n b u t f o u n d t h a t his l o c a l p a s t o r ' h a d no p o w e r against d e v i l s ' . w e r e s u b j e c t e d t o pretation. T h i s i m p r e s s i o n is s u p p o r t e d by t h e p a t t e r n of d e c l i n e in p r o s e c u t i o n s f r o m a r o u n d 1 6 8 0 . One r e s u l t of t h e s p l i t in t h e m e d i a e v a l political d e n o m i n a t i o n a l f a c t i o n a g a i n s t a n o t h e r .

explanation for 'any various physical s y m p t o m s to bad feelings between f a m i l y m e m b e r s or n e i g h b o u r s . A f e w days later. M e d i c a l s t u d i e s s u g g e s t t h a t m a n y a d u l t s l i v i n g in t r a d i t i o n a l A f r i c a n societies have a high natural resistance to disease. In p a r t . The link between life. a n d t h e s u p p r e s s i o n of ' v i s i o n a r y ' w o m e n in I t a l y ( C h a p t e r 6 ) . H e m a d e t h e b o y r e m o v e t h e b a g so he c o u l d i n s p e c t its c o n t e n t s . J o a n Fellow. s u c h as t h e w e a t h e r . a n d m a k e a c a s e f o r t h e e s s e n t i a l r a t i o n a l i t y of s u c h t h i n k i n g in t h e e a r l y period. 3 8 The rational basis for witch beliefs A t t h e level of v i l l a g e c o m m u n i t i e s . in e a r l y c o m m u n i t i e s . and s o m e t i m e s provided the basis f o r w i t c h c r a f t a l l e g a t i o n s . t h e y a c c u s e d t h e h e a l e r o f maleficium when the boy's fits returned. w h i l e w h o l e . a l l e g a t i o n s of w i t c h c r a f t p l a y e d a s i m i l a r r o l e t o t h e less c o m m o n p r a c t i c e of p r o s ecuting animals for crimes against people and their 4 2 property. m a n y c h a r g e s of w i t c h c r a f t strained R e f o r m a t i o n . t h i s a r o s e f r o m t h e a b o l i t i o n of m o n a s t i c i s m a n d p r i e s t l y c e l i b a c y in P r o t e s t a n t r e g i o n s . this. T h e c h a l l e n g e t o h i s t o r i a n s is t o e x p l a i n resisting the t e m p t a t i o n to impose a single theory to e x p l a i n the tragedy of t h e e x i s t e n c e of h a r m f u l magic. In t h e c o n t e x t of t h e s e w i d e r c o n c e r n s .w h i c h i n v o l v e d a s e c r e t c u l t d e v o t e d t o s e x u a l i t y a n d t h e m u r d e r of i n f a n t s w i t c h p e r s e c u t i o n s . maleficium i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of it a p p e a r s t h a t w i t c h c r a f t f u n c t i o n e d e s s e n Maillat an T h e d e s i r e of P r o t e s t a n t s a n d C a t h o l i c s t o r e f o r m p o p u l a r r e l i g i o n w a s a c c o m p a n i e d by a n x i e t i e s a b o u t s e x u a l c o n d u c t . f e l l i l l . modern Equally. t h e m o s t p l a u s i b l e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of w i t c h c r a f t i n v o l v e t h e i n t e r a c t i o n of n u m e r o u s causes. w h i c h t u r n e d o u t t o be a p a p e r inscribed w i t h m a g i c a l w o r d s . 4 4 a t t e m p t t o s u g g e s t t h a t t h e r e is a s i n g l e c a u s e . C r a b ' s master and parents began to suspect w i t c h c r a f t . his p a r e n t s t o o k h i m f o r t r e a t m e n t to one g a v e h i m ' a b a g t o h a n g a b o u t his n e c k ' w i t h instructions to remove it a f t e r of t h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n w i l l c o n s i d e r t h e s o c i a l c o n t e x t in w h i c h t h i s b e l i e f o p e r a t e d . as well as Similar accom- France England. encouraged new s t a n d a r d s of ' G o d . and increased parts regulation Germany. since those lacking this quality o f t e n p e r i s h in i n f a n c y . a n d t h e s o c i a l a n d e n v i r o n m e n t a l c h a n g e s t h a t e n c o u r a g e d f e a r s of maleficium in s o m e p a r t s of E u r o p e : a l l c o n t r i b u t e d t o w i t c h p e r s e c u t i o n s in t h e . a n d in s o m e c a s e s t h e y led d i r e c t l y t o a c c u s a t i o n s of w i t c h c r a f t . it is h e l p f u l t o r e m e m b e r Robin Briggs' warning that m e d i c a l b a s i s . w h i c h r e p r e s e n t e d a n a t t a c k on t h e f a m i l y . the desire t o e n f o r c e s e x u a l m o r a l i t y r e f l e c t e d t h e need t o m a i n t a i n s o c i a l o r d e r in a t i m e of p o l i t i c a l a n d r e l i g i o u s c h a n g e . T h e t e n d e n c y t o a t t r i b u t e m i s f o r t u n e t o o n e ' s n e i g h b o u r s w a s a l s o e n c o u r a g e d by a s o c i a l e n v i r o n m e n t in w h i c h m o s t p e o p l e w o r k e d a n d l i v e d in e x t e n d e d h o u s e h o l d s comprising profound social f a m i l y members. They supplied an e x p l a n a t i o n it a f f e c t e d t o in r u r a l f o r a n o t h e r w i s e a r b i t r a r y event. which occurred assume com- s p o r a d i c a l l y in e a r l y m o d e r n G e r m a n y a n d F r a n c e . the various consequences of the s a m e c i r c u m s t a n c e s p r e v a i l e d in p r e . M o r e g e n e r a l l y . in w h i c h p a r e n t s development family trends have 4 0 t i a l l y as a t h e o r y of c a u s a t i o n . in t h e e a r l y s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y . N a p i e r It is r e a s o n a b l e t o a s s u m e t h a t s u c h e x p e r i e n c e s w e r e c o m m o n it is p l a u s i b l e t o a r g u e t h a t t h e d i a g n o s i s of maleficium attributed 4 3 E u r o p e a n s . T h i s was been paralleled identified by o f f i c i a l in o t h e r intolerance of towards perceived threats 3 9 m u n i t i e s w h o s e l i v e l i h o o d s d e p e n d e d l a r g e l y on f o r c e s b e y o n d h u m a n c o n t r o l . One s u c h i n s t a n c e w a s r e c o r d e d in 1 6 8 8 w h e n a g r o u p devout Protestants w r o t e to the English divine. S u c h m e c h a n i s m s were i m p o r t a n t n e w r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s f o r t h e r e l i g i o u s e d u c a t i o n of t h e i r c h i l d r e n a n d s e r v a n t s . an how as a t h e s e v a r i o u s f a c t o r s i n t e r a c t e d in p a r t i c u l a r r e g i o n s a t p a r t i c u l a r m o m e n t s . u n m a r r i e d m o t h e r s a n d w o m e n a c c u s e d of While the impact of religious division offers an infanticide. T h e l a s t section modern o u t b r e a k o f w i t c h c r a f t in E x e t e r . Lyndal assumed to and R o p e r h a s c h r o n i c l e d t h e r i s e of ' t h e h o l y h o u s e h o l d ' . Richard Baxter. t h a t w o m e n w e r e t h e p r i n c i p a l t a r g e t s of c u l t u r e . p h y s i c a l i l l n e s s . adding that 'her m o t h e r in l a w h a t h used h e r v e r y u n k i n d l y ' . of m a r r i a g e . w h o b e l i e v e d t h a t it m i g h t be a c h a r m . it is e a s y t o see h o w t h e i d e a of s a t a n i c w i t c h c r a f t . W h e n a l o c a l a p p r e n t i c e n a m e d N a t h a n C r a b w a s a f f l i c t e d w i t h e p i l e p s y . this trend was p a n i e d by a rise in p r o s e c u t i o n s f o r ' s e c r e t c r i m e s ' l i k e i n f a n t i c i d e . in t u r n . A s a r e s u l t . he n o t e d t h a t one of his p a t i e n t s . a h i d d e n key t o t h e m y s t e r y . servants or apprentices. f o r e x a m p l e . s i c k n e s s f r e q u e n t l y a r i s e s f r o m a w e a k e n i n g of t h e i m m u n e s y s t e m . t h e y a l l depended on the general a c c e p t a n c e t h a t is w i d e l y r e g a r d e d a s u n t e n a b l e idea in w e s t e r n s o c i e t i e s t o d a y . In a p a t r i a r c h a l was able to gain support a m o n g illicit educated sense of i n t e r d e p e n d e n c y . w h i c h m e a n t t h a t h o u s e holds became the focus for religious devotion. R i c h a r d N a p i e r . of an who a s i x t e e n t h a n d s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s . this m e d i c a t i o n a r o u s e d the s u s p i c i o n of the boy's G o d . W h a t e v e r t h e l o c a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s of w i t c h p e r s e c u t i o n s . a n d t h e a t t a c k o n w i t c h e s m i g h t be v i e w e d a s a n a d j u n c t t o t h e p r o s e c u t i o n of o t h e r f e m a l e e n e m i e s of t h e ' h o l y h o u s e h o l d ' . In s i x t e e n t h . w h i c h c a n be t r i g g e r e d by s t r e s s f u l s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s . a n d t h e also provided o p p o r t u n i t y t o r e l i e v e t h e i r c h i l d ' s s u f f e r i n g by a c t i n g a g a i n s t h e r .c e n t u r y A u s t r i a ( C h a p t e r 1 3 ) . a n d a l l o w e d t h o s e w h o m some c o n t r o l over the s i t u a t i o n . On o t h e r o c c a s i o n s . W h e n t h e d a u g h t e r of H u m b e r t e a n d C l a u d e Frangoise S e c r e t a i n as t h e p e r s o n r e s p o n s i b l e w a s one of t h e p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n s a v a i l a b l e t o t h e m . m a y w e l l h a v e r e f l e c t e d t h e r e a l o r i g i n of t h e v i c t i m ' s s y m p t o m s in t h e i r relationship with another person.f e a r i n g m a s t e r . S u c h e v e n t s w e r e s y m p t o m s of a g e n e r a l c l i m a t e of a n x i e t y a b o u t t h e D e v i l ' s p o w e r in t h e w o r l d . o r e v e n a d o m i n a n t one. A s a r e s u l t . In 1 6 3 4 . Such a r r a n g e m e n t s created a tial to emotional and physical wellbeing. however. p e r h a p s .f e a r i n g ' b e h a v i o u r w i t h i n the f a m i l y . 4 1 If t h e The learned fantasy of the sabbat. s u c h as p r o s t i t u t e s . attractive in s u c h c a s e s h a d a s o u n d E u r o p e a n w i t c h t r i a l s . O n c e it w a s e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t G i b s w a s a ' c u n n i n g m a n ' r a t h e r than a legitimate physician.i n d u s t r i a l E u r o p e . as p r o s t i t u t e s . s h o u l d be t r e a t e d w i t h g r e a t s u s p i c i o n ' . s i n c e t h e s t a b i l i t y of h o u s e h o l d s w a s v i e w e d as e s s e n t i a l t o t h e w e l f a r e of s o c i e t y a s a w h o l e . concerning Mr Gibs. In t h i s r e s p e c t .14 GENERAL INTRODUCTION GENERAL INTRODUCTION 15 in s i x t e e n t h . A s C h r i s t i n a L a r n e r p o i n t s o u t in C h a p t e r 15. a n d t h e h e a l t h of l i v e s t o c k a n d c r o p s . A s B r i g g s p o i n t s o u t . h o w e v e r . d i s o r d e r l y w o m e n w e r e p e r c e i v e d as such t h e m a i n d a n g e r t o f a m i l y l i f e . week. a n d m e a n t t h a t g o o d p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s w e r e e s s e n ill health and f r i c t i o n w a s a c k n o w l e d g e d by t h e E n g l i s h p h y s i c i a n . It is a l s o r e l e v a n t . was afflicted with acute insomnia and 'light-headedness'.c e n t u r y Augsburg.

These are spoken secretly or openly. T h e s y n d r o m e themselves sensations of f e a r witchcraft individuals or and Thus Henri W i t h such activin England culture c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h o s e a c c u s e d of w i t c h c r a f t w e r e n o t c h o s e n a t r a n d o m : ' t h e y w e r e t h o s e w h o h a d c u l t i v a t e d a r e p u t a t i o n f o r w i t c h c r a f t a s a m e a n s of s u r v i v a l . whatever 5 3 suffer hallucinations readily maleficium. . w a s e m p l o y e d f o r a w i d e r a n g e of p r a c t i c a l p u r p o s e s . . especially n a m e s of M a r y . ities in m i n d . 4 6 in his b e d o n e n i g h t . . r e m a i n e l u s i v e . t h o u g h he d e n i e d e v e r d o i n g s u c h t h i n g s . w i t h the of Christ. A n o t h e r a r e a o f e x p e r i e n c e of ' s l e e p p a r a l y s i s ' and sometimes to attributed immobilised. n u m e r o u s saints. t h e a u t h o r of a recent study of popular 5 2 W i t c h c r a f t a l s o p r o v i d e d a n e x p l a n a t i o n f o r less s e v e r e h a l l u c i n a t o r y experiences English work has t h a t a r e s t i l l v e r y c o m m o n . a m a n f r o m D o r s e t w a s t r i e d f o r a s s a u l t i n g a n o l d w o m a n w h o m he b e l i e v e d 4 8 In t h e s e a n d s i m i l a r c a s e s . D e v i l . does or refrains f r o m doing a n y t h i n g . . P o p u l a r magic. 5 4 T h e f e a r o f maleficium many parts of b e c o m e s s t i l l e a s i e r t o u n d e r s t a n d w h e n it is p l a c e d in from wide1594 beliefs and practices were t h e c o n t e x t of p o p u l a r r e l i g i o n a s a w h o l e . M a n y of t h e s e w e r e o b t a i n e d t h r o u g h t o r t u r e . w i t h o u t e m p l o y i n g some p a r t i c u l a r blessing. wholly reasonable response. 4 9 . it is m o r e d i f f i c u l t p e r h a p s t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e less c o m m o n b u t i m p o r t a n t i d e a of a c l a n d e s t i n e . M a l c o l m G a s k i l l p o i n t s o u t in C h a p t e r 2 5 t h a t b e r e a v e d p e o p l e o f t e n h a v e v i s i o n s o f t h e d e a d .16 GENERAL INTRODUCTION GENERAL INTRODUCTION 17 The idea of w i t c h c r a f t c o u l d also e x p l a i n m e n t a l a n d p h y s i c a l e x p e r i e n c e s t h a t w e r e o t h e r w i s e v e r y h a r d t o d e f i n e o r c o m p r e h e n d . a n d t o f e t c h s o m e c h a r m t o use a g a i n s t t h e enchanter . the three kings. e x c e p t t h e c o n f e s s i o n s of a l l e g e d c u l t m e m b e r s . B e l i e f in t h e w i t c h c u l t w a s a l s o e n c o u r a g e d by c h a n g e s in i n f o r m a t i o n t e c h n o l o g y . It is s t r i k i n g t h a t a l l e g a t i o n s of c o l l e c t i v e w i t c h c r a f t d i d n o t l e a d t o p r o s e c u t i o n s on t h o s e o c c a s i o n s w h e n t h e a u t h o r i t i e s s o u g h t c o r r o b o r a t i n g e v i d e n c e f o r c o n f e s s i o n s .p e r p e t u a t i n g b o d y of l i t e r a t u r e . they are w r i t t e n on s c r a p s of p a p e r . a n d c a r r i e d at least as m u c h w e i g h t as e m p i r i c a l witches. T h e r e s u l t w a s a l a r g e l y s e l f . w h o w a s in t h e s h a p e of a c a t . s o c i a l p r a c t i c e m a k e s it e n t i r e l y u n d e r s t a n d a b l e t h a t m e n a n d w o m e n the acts. In lence of s u c h a c t i v i t i e s : t h e L u t h e r a n i n s p e c t o r s of t h e p r o v i n c e of W e i s b a d e n in G e r m a n y n o t e d t h e p r e v a - investigations Maleficarum into the alleged activities of V i e w e d in t h i s l i g h t . w h e n s o m e o n e f e e l s s i c k l y o r a c o w a c t s q u e e r . t h i s c a n be r e g a r d e d a s a m o d e r n E u r o p e . charms 5 1 c o u l d be r e v e r s e d t o c r e a t e h a r m f u l s p e l l s . names. W h e n e v e r a n a r t i c l e of c l o t h i n g has b e e n m i s l a i d a n d c a n n o t be f o u n d . . T h i s p o i n t is e s p e c i a l l y d e p r e s s i o n . s i n c e t h e g e n u i n e n e s s of its c l a s s i c a l s o u r c e s w a s b e y o n d q u e s t i o n . A s S y d n e y A n g l o h a s o b s e r v e d . b u t t h i s e m p h a s i s on e m p i r i c a l i n q u i r y w a s n o t w i d e l y a c c e p t e d a m o n g s c h o l a r s u n t i l t h e l a t t e r p a r t o f t h e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y . A f t e r a l l . t h e Europe. the Holy Trinity. d i d t h e c o n c e p t of a w i t c h c u l t s e e m so c r e d i b l e t o e d u c a t e d E u r o p e a n s ? In p a r t . a s w a s t h e c a s e in S p a i n in 1 6 1 0 . it w a s m u c h h a r d e r f o r a c a d e m i c s t o p r o v e t h e e x i s t e n c e of t h e c r i m e . . a s i m i l a r affliction 'strangely w a s v i s i t e d o n L a d y C r o m w e l l o f H u n t i n g d o n s h i r e in E n g l a n d . W h y . t h e a n s w e r lies in t h e c o n v e n t i o n s of s c h o l a r l y d e b a t e in e a r l y m o d e r n E u r o p e . the visitors to W e i s b a d e n c l a i m e d that spells were p e r f o r m e d 'to h a r m on others or to do good. A l l t h e p e o p l e h e r e a b o u t s e n g a g e in s u p e r s t i t i o u s God. the twelve apostles. r e s e a r c h E u r o p e has shown that m a g i c a l spread a m o n g the peasant p o p u l a t i o n . W h i l e it is r e l a t i v e l y e a s y t o a c c e p t t h e r a t i o n a l b a s i s f o r f e a r s of maleficium t h a t m o s t of t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s a r e s t i l l l i t t l e u n d e r s t o o d . a n d t h e e f f o r t s of e x o r c i s t s t o r e l i e v e t h e s y m p t o m s of s c h i z o p h r e n i c s psychiatrists 4 5 S i m i l a r p r a c t i c e s w e r e r e c o r d e d in F r a n c e . s u c h a s s c h i z o p h r e n i a a n d syndromes today. incantation. E n g l a n d a n d S p a i n . It a l s o h e l p e d t o c o n s o l i d a t e t h e m y t h of a s a t a n i c c u l t . w h i c h e n c o u r a g e d e x a c t l y t h e k i n d of c o n f e s s i o n s t h a t c o u l d be f e d b a c k m a n or w o m a n begins. t h e n . t o r m e n t e d in h e r s l e e p ' by a w i t c h ' s f a m i l i a r had sent s p i r i t s to a t t a c k h i m at n i g h t . 4 7 A s late as 1 8 7 1 . t h e r e w a s no e m p i r i c a l e v i d e n c e t o s u p p o r t t h i s b e l i e f . s i n c e a c c o u n t s of t r i a l s w e r e d e m o n o l o g i e s t h a t w e r e s u b s e q u e n t l y used by t h o s e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r c o n d u c t i n g f u r t h e r p r o s e c u t i o n s . A s Roy P o r t e r has noted. often m i x e d with elements of o f f i c i a l r e l i g i o n . a n d t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t t h e y c o u l d be u s e d f o r E n g l i s h m a g i c i a n J o h n W a l s h d e s c r i b e d h o w the w o r d s of was sometimes attempted. m a k e s it l i k e l y t h a t maleficium In 1 5 6 6 . I t a l y . successful e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r these sometimes appear to have been as effective as those of relevant t o c o n d i t i o n s l a t e r d e f i n e d as p s y c h o l o g i c a l ' d i s o r d e r s ' . was linked to in w h i c h w a s sleep d i s t u r b a n c e . or o t h e r s u c h h e a t h e n i s h m e a n s . Likewise. m u c h of t h e e v i d e n c e f o r s a t a n i c w i t c h c r a f t w a s d e r i v e d f r o m s c r i p t u r e a n d t h e w r i t i n g s of t h e c h u r c h f a t h e r s . t h e y r u n a t o n c e t o t h e s o o t h s a y e r t o a s k w h o h a s s t o l e n it o r p u t a b a d s p e l l o n it. spell. T h e r e a l i t y of m a g i c a s a sometimes of actual consequences Boguet described how a bewitched man was paralysed w a s e v e n u n a b l e t o c a l l t o his n e i g h b o u r s f o r h e l p . a n e x p e r i e n c e t h a t w a s d e s c r i b e d in witchcraft awake extreme to confessions find in 1 6 4 5 . suspected magical their neighbours of witchcraft. s w a l l o w e d o r w o r n a s c h a r m s . In 1 5 9 2 . t h e Malleus made a very strong case f o r T h e use o f s p e l l s is so w i d e s p r e a d a m o n g t h e p e o p l e h e r e t h a t n o t a t h e e x i s t e n c e of s a t a n i c w i t c h c r a f t . S i n c e t h e late 1 9 6 0 s . a n d a c r o s s m u c h of w e s t e r n E u r o p e f r o m a r o u n d 1 6 8 0 . These c i t a t i o n s were g e n e r a l l y r e g a r d e d as a u t h o r i t a t i v e . T h e d e v e l o p m e n t of p r i n t f r o m t h e late fifteenth century a l l o w e d i n f o r m a t i o n about w i t c h c r a f t to spread quickly reproduced and in w i d e l y a m o n g t h e l i t e r a t e m i n o r i t y of t h e E u r o p e a n p o p u l a t i o n .w o r s h i p p i n g c u l t . 5 0 The general accepboth t a n c e o f m a g i c a l t e c h n i q u e s . to m a k e things better or w o r s e ' . and rhymes. . the verses f r o m the pracVirgin New tices with f a m i l i a r and unfamiliar words. O n c e t h e c i t a t i o n of c l a s s i c a l s o u r c e s w a s no l o n g e r r e g a r d e d a s s u f f i c e n t e v i d e n c e . w h o w e r e l i n k e d t o s u c h p e o p l e by b l o o d o r h o u s e h o l d t i e s . undertakes. a n d w e r e p r o b a b l y t y p i c a l of p o p u l a r c u l t u r e a c r o s s w e s t e r n g o o d a n d b a d p u r p o s e s . o r w h o a c t u a l l y t h o u g h t t h a t t h e y p r a c t i s e d t h e a r t of b l a c k o r w h i t e w i t c h c r a f t ' . c e r t a i n angels. it a p p e a r s t h a t Given The credibility of a witch cult in e a r l y v i c t i m s of w i t c h c r a f t w e r e a t t r i b u t i n g r e a l e x p e r i e n c e s t o m a l i c i o u s m a g i c .r e f e r e n t i a l a n d s e l f . . the w o u n d s his s e v e n w o r d s on t h e c r o s s [and] T e s t a m e n t .

as a d i s e m b o d i e d at length i n t h e Malleus spirit. m o t i v a t e d c h i e f l y by t h e i r compassion for the apparent victims of a t e r r i b l e crime. Oxford London Keith Religion the Decline of Magic M u r r a y ' s t h e o r y of a w i t c h c u l t w a s e c h o e d in e a r l y e d i t i o n s of C h r i s t o p h e r H i l l ' s t e x t b o o k Reformation to Industrial Revolution (2nd edn. Henningsen.18 GENERAL INTRODUCTION GENERAL INTRODUCTION 19 into the g e n r e as ' e v i d e n c e ' . Studies Wonderfull Children: Child Witch Trials in E a r l y Modern contemporaries'. R. w h i c h p r o v i d e s f u r t h e r e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e m a t t e r is n o d r e a m . Advocate: Press. of Radical similar c l a i m s . S e t o n . origins of w i t c h beliefs are not to of be Discoverie ( 1 6 1 9 ) . Pimlico. (Women's 5 Press. of Darkness: chapter in A n k a r l o o and Henningsen's For Denmark. New Age (Aq uarian. Witchcraft in Europe: A Documentary History (University of Pennsylvania 7 M . James. of it h a v e are inspired some accurate. it is t e m p t i n g t o 6 m o c k the a p p a r e n t n a i v e t y of s u c h c l a i m s . 1 7 7 . L o u i s e J a c k s o n . Press 1 9 9 2 ) . See also D o r e e n V a l i e n t e . e d . London 1 9 8 4 ) . H e r w o r k w a s regarded as sufficiently Norman 3 Crowley Cohn's Europe's Inner Demons i m p o r t a n t t o m e r i t a d e t a i l e d c r i t i q u e in London 1993). 5. Boguet. for example. but w e s h o u l d r e m e m b e r t h a t the p o t e n t i a l l y d i s t o r t i n g effects of p r i n t c u l t u r e w e r e i m p o s s i b l e to a n t i c i p a t e . 29 Owen 1550-1750 r e m i n d s m o d e r n . 1999).7 Witchcraft in England. ' T h e Devil's Change. m o s t of w h i c h c o l l a p s e d t h r o u g h of 'satanic in Part abuse' continues to arouse acceptable issue intense some about 12 13 witches w a s discussed Witchcraft. trials in E n g l a n d . Early Modern European Witchcraft: Peripheries (Clarendon. . in M a x i m p a c t o f t h e i n t e r n e t c a n n o t be a d e q u a t e l y p r e d i c t e d t o d a y . J a m e s S h a r p e . An (2nd edn. . and political circumstances that can recur even Ankarloo and and Gustav e d s . 1 9 8 9 ) . 5 5 Metaethics Feminism 1978). . An Press 1 9 9 9 ) . Tudor F o r a n i c e e x a m p l e . (Crescent. Reno Basque 1980). s u c h a s The Strange 2 Margaret Murray. in Tudor and and Stuart England (2nd edn. and variants 5 7 15 Gabor Klaniczay. Boguet. L o n d o n 1 9 8 3 ) . b e l i e v e in s a t a n i c w i t c h c r a f t w a s n o t c o n f i n e d t o t h e e a r l y m o d e r n p e r i o d . Cohn. e d s . Philadelphia 1972). Witchcraft in s u p e r s t i t i o n or hysteria. r e p r i n t e d in B a r b a r a R o s e n . Witchcraft 8 9 Kors and Peters. 6. Press.f i n d i n g c a n be c o n d u c t e d by p e r f e c t l y r e a s o n a b l e a n d m e t h o d i c a l p e o p l e . 2 8 2 . c h . Vivianne Crowley. See. The a n d 1 9 9 0 . Wellingborough Davies. C h a p t e r 2 6 in this c o l l e c t i o n . moveOxford F o r a fascinating account of the origins a n d c l a i m s of the m o d e r n w i t c h c r a f t ment. Oxford Duties 1 9 9 3 ) .W a t s o n . w a s able to copulate with B r i t a i n between 1 9 8 2 evidence. 2 5 9 . In 1 5 9 5 . If these claims Examen. w h i l e the a n t h r o p o l o g i s t P h i l i p Stevens has c l a i m e d t h a t ' a d e m o n o l o g y is flourishing. 152-60. and is e x a m i n e d in d e t a i l 10. e d . ch. H. Inner Maleficarum. Continuity t h e p u r s u i t o f s a t a n i c c h i l d a b u s e r s s h o w s t h a t t h e b u s i n e s s o f w i t c h . b e l i e f in s e c r e t s a t a n i c o r g a n i s a t i o n s d e v o t e d t o t h e s e x u a l a b u s e . Bengt Centres 23 William Boguet. see (Hamish (2nd edn. Nicholas 4 of Witchcraft (Robert Hale. 36. H e n o t e d t h a t ' t h e y a r e e v e n p a r t i c u l a r i n d e s c r i b i n g its c o l o u r . Alan (University of Massachusetts Daemonologie. such beliefs were the p r o d u c t s today. d e s p i t e t h e p a s s i o n a t e a d v o c a c y o f s o m e apists and social w o r k e r s . J . 1989). Notes 1 Fictitious accounts of English w i t c h c r a f t included later editions of the story of M o t h e r S h i p t o n . J o h n a n d A n n e Tedeschi (Routledge. ch. 5 1 . 1736-1951 12-13. 8. Penguin. . (1996). see T . it is u n d e n i a b l e t h a t m a n y of the s p e c i f i c a l l e g a t i o n s Europe's Demons. Of Domestical! 60. Montague Summers (John Rodker. This late leads to one f i n a l p o i n t a b o u t the r a t i o n a l i t y of w i t c h b e l i e f s . trans. of the Witchcrafts of in Margaret England. Gouge. 7. s c h o l a r l y w r i t e r s r e f e r r e d e x p l i c i t l y t o the c o n s i s t e n c y o f c o n f e s s i o n s a s p r o o f o f a s a t a n i c c u l t . 3 7 7 . Walinski-Keihl. social 21 22 1558-1618 James. Macfarlane. and Agrarian Cults in the Sixteenth and Witchcraft and the Spanish t h e m h a v e p r o v e d t o be f a l s e . men a set of strikingly in similar ideas attracted and the During support the of The ' R a t i o n a l i s t s vs. 7 2 . The 152-60. 46-7. Instruments Hamilton. Gyn/Ecology: New York The 1981). Henri Boguet. London 1971). Persuasions to the Witches' Craft (Blackwell. 28 Nicolson. Witchcraft Thomas. 1-3. 74-5. Harmondsworth 1969). 5. Early Modern see J e n s European 1 0 9 . see C o l i n W i l s o n . Robert N J 1 9 9 0 ) . 1921). Uses of Supernatural Power (Princeton University Press. On o c c a s i o n s . L u h r m a n n . Examen. Mary London R e m y o b s e r v e d t h a t w i t c h e s often d e s c r i b e d h o w they s m e a r e d an o i n t m e n t on t h e i r b o d i e s t o e n a b l e t h e m t o fly t o t h e s a b b a t . Harmondworth 1982). See Kors and Peters. Examen highly educated and women northern America western Europe. 1626). While it is p o s s i b l e t h a t s a t a n i c cults do exist. Walinski-Keihl 5 6 psychotherRobert of Henningsen. Equally. James. When the horrors they Germany'. R o m a n t i c s and Sorcery 101. s e e The and Phillip Flower d e s c r i b e p r o v e t o be n o m o r e s u b s t a n t i a l t h a n t h e i m a g i n e d s a b b a t s o f t h e s i x t e e n t h century. (2nd edn. for the 1 6 4 5 . 19 20 and 11 (2). Witches' This has led h i s t o r i a n s like Robin Briggs and (University of N e v a d a Battles: C a r l o G i n z b u r g . Gustav Inquisition 14 136-45. e d . Daemonologie. a w i t c h cult. F o r a non-religious work making Witches Daly. W i t h t h e b e n e f i t o f h i n d s i g h t . Routledge. Christian Johansen's Witchcraft. century.d a y w i t c h e s t h a t t h o u s a n d s of t h e i r f e l l o w s p e r i s h e d in the Wicca: The Old Religion in the ABC L o n d o n 1 9 9 6 ) . b u t visible and perceptible to the e y e s ' . controversy.4 . Among Scholars of W i t c h c r a f t ' . 1 3 . The Night Seventeenth Centuries. Henningsen. (Weidenfeld and (Clarendon. M a r w i c k . 24 25 26 27 Daemonologie. m u c h as the Alan Kors and Edward Peters. found it is a p o w e r f u l r e m i n d e r that the Rather. The means by w h i c h t h e Devil. of Witches. Witchcraft. Examen. 39. m u r d e r a n d c a n n i b a l i s m of y o u n g c h i l d r e n and Great of led t o a s e r i e s o f legal proceedings in t h e United States lack 10 11 L o n d o n 1 9 2 9 ) . (London 1924). Penguin. The Witch and Cult Wonderful in Western History Europe of Mother Shipton (1682). Advocate. (Manchester University sixteenth a n d seventeenth centuries. Magic Witches' and Culture. twentieth Witchcraft. f o r e x a m p l e . c h . The Witchcraft to suggest that satanic abuse is a n u p d a t e d v e r s i o n o f t h e m y t h trans. it local witch-hunts appears that the among capacity our to 16 17 18 Princeton. Kephart. 3 4 1 .

Cambridge. Lauderdale The Certainty r e c o u n t e d t h i s s t o r y in a letter t o R i c h a r d of the World The Trial! of Spirits (1691). (Routledge. 242-3. New York J . 47-52.3 7 . Folklore and A n i m a l Lore'. Sexuality and Religion in Early Roper. (Yale Mediaeval Origins Gender. t h e e n d o f t h e t h r e a d in h e r h a n d s . W h e n the to drag fire h a d b e e n l i g h t e d in t h e c i t y a n d t h e o f f i c i a l s w e r e to the punishment decreed. 66. in J o n a t h a n B a r r y . however. 6 (1986). w h i c h c o n f o r m e d c l o s e l y t o t h e k n o w n b e l i e f s of t h e C a t h a r s . 6 2 . The Satanism (Lexington Books. Barry 130. by t h e m i n i s t r y o f t h e e v i l s p i r i t s w h o o n c e c a u g h t Simon Magus up into the a i r . e d . was a humble 45 46 47 48 49 R o y P o r t e r . Oxford 39 Thomas Anthony University 40 41 Baxter. 1989). she s u d d e n l y now to burn pulled a ball (Macmillan. t h e n in a l o u d v o i c e . E u r o p e . Oberman. T . W h a t became of t h a t w i c k e d w o m a n in n o w i s e discover. see E s t h e r 110 (1986). H o p t o n .150v. 54 Sydney Damned Anglo. w h o f a c e d h e r d e a t h so ' s t e a d f a s t l y a n d e a g e r l y ' t h a t even those 82-93. 8. 29. (1599). A Department w i t h e r she w a s t r a n s p o r t e d . Best heresy was the Devil. Scare a n d D. e d . responsible f o r her p r o s e c u t i o n . 1550-1750 (Longman. (Fontana. London 1996). Newes Lyndal Modern from Scotland Oedipus (Edinburgh and the 1592). The s u s t a i n e d . 67 (1975). Briggs. 131r. that mistress of vile about error me of F o r a n e x c e l l e n t c o l l e c t i o n o f s o u r c e s r e l a t i n g t o p o p u l a r a n d l e a r n e d m a g i c . The w o m a n it unnamed R. 47. B a x t e r . of Maist. she s a i d ' C a t c h ! ' A t the w o r d . . and Neighbours the ultimate source of all (HarperCollins. or (Routledge and Kegan Witchcraft. Ashmole Traditional M S 4 1 2 . T h i s f o u n d t h a t e l e m e n t s s m a l l n u m b e r of cases. A Social Boguet. from Gerald Strauss. London 1994). 31 32 33 Kors and Peters. N e w Haven. 102-6. This Examen. History of Madness Mass. H e r e he o f f e r e d a b r i e f e x p o s i t i o n of t h e B r o m l e y . G. . Robin Robisheaux. Maxwell-Stuart. Household: Women and Morals in Reformation Augsburg (Clarendon. Philip of Health investigation Jean L a Fontaine in 1 9 9 2 . T h e t r i a l e n d e d w i t h t h e b u r n i n g o f a n y o u n g w o m a n . 6 3 . and Western Science'. t h r e a d f r o m h e r b o s o m a n d t h r e w it o u t o f a l a r g e w i n d o w . Y o u n g . Reay. 6 . London 1996). London 1976). Certainty. 55 56 Kors and Peters.20 GENERAL INTRODUCTION 30 For Luther's Between views on witchcraft a n d t h e D e v i l . F o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f a n i m a l t r i a l s in m e d i a e v a l a n d e a r l y m o d e r n Cohen. do you t h i n k in y o u r flames?' . Popular Cultures in England. see P. ch. Chapter Roper. w e b e l i e v e . the c h r o n extraordinary climax of a heresy Coggeshall described 43 44 Bodleian Library. Subordination 1995). Phoenix. Press. ' L a w . 5 1 .1 1 . Oxford. 'Success and Failure'. 1991). A t t h e e n d of t h i s p a s s a g e . . Davies. The link between religious dissent and S a t a n was reinforced doctrines 'The Demonology of S a t a n i s m ' . W R I T I N G icler Ralph IN of T H E L A S T Q U A R T E R the of the t w e l f t h century. 34 35 Boguet. (2nd edn. 50 and Present. in England. The Holy 1 3 in this c o l l e c t i o n . a heretical community whose alleged sentenced to the flames. Luther: Man God and the Devil Witchcraft. Europe Examen. . t h r o u g h 254. With these w o r d s . Conn. 'Peasants Sex and Pastors'. Witchcraft. Art 'Evident Authority and Authoritative Paul. t h e o n l o o k e r s c o u l d into allegations in B r i t a i n w a s c o n d u c t e d by involved in a This bizarre story underlined Ralph's conviction that of ' r i t u a l ' were satanism. she w a s lifted f r o m the e a r t h r i g h t e v e r y o n e ' s e y e s a n d f o l l o w e d t h e b a l l o u t C o f ] t h e w i n d o w in r a p i d before flight. a heretical C h r i s t i a n sect that flourished in s o u t h e r n F r a n c e in t h e l a t e t w e l f t h Ralph added a dark and e a r l y t h i r t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s . 1500-1800 281-300. 51 52 53 Rosen. 1971).6 . but d i s m i s s e d t h e idea of o r g a n i s e d 57 R o b i n B r i g g s . Witchcraft. 'Many Reasons Why: Witchcraft and the Problem of Multiple Witchcraft E x p l a n a t i o n ' . 1999). see H e i k o London 1993). e d s . 245. London The Occult in Early Modern Europe: A Documentary History them e x c l a i m e d . 'Oh f o o l i s h and unjust judges. and Social History.1 . in 42 Early Modern Europe (Cambridge University Press 1 9 9 6 ) . G . 'Success and Failure in t h e German the i n t e r v e n t i o n of a demon: report is t a k e n Past Reformation'. in A n g l o . 9 0 . in J . h e l d by t h e t w o w o m e n . M a r i a n n e H e s t e r a n d G a r e t h R o b e r t s . 1 . rumour . in t h e c o n c l u s i o n o f h i s a c c o u n t . b u t keeping Strauss. Dorrell Edmund Lyndal Kern. Devil: Witchcraft.3 1 . Rosen. a u d i b l e t o a l l . a n d w a s also T h e o l d e r w o m a n e s c a p e d her p u n i s h m e n t . t r i a l in t h e F r e n c h t o w n o f R h e i m s . Witches Stevens. ' A f r i c a n Knowledge and Control Thought astonished member of (Addison Wesley. 17. in M . 150r. 4 1 0 . w h i c h he p u b l i s h e d in PART ONE 36 37 38 John Darrel. 70-1. Evidence'. 181-2.3 . Richardson. 41. leader w a s t r i e d a l o n g s i d e her. Witchcraft. e d s . Fletcher. 3 5 . London 1998). Past and Present.

is t o be t h o u g h t of t h o s e w i t c h e s w h o . ' a d d i n g . A n d w h e n he t r i e d t o t a k e a b i g one. S h e t o l d t h e a f f l i c t e d m a n t o c l i m b a c e r t a i n t r e e . I n t e r r u p t i n g t h e i r d i s c u s s i o n of t h e w i t c h ' s p o w e r t o impotence following Sprenger information: A n d w h a t . . a n d eat oats a n d c o r n . On t h i s p o i n t t h e d e m o n o l o g i s t s w e r e . he a p p r o a c h e d a k n o w n w i t c h t o a s k h e r t o r e s t o r e it t o h i m . a n d t h a t he m i g h t t a k e w h i c h e v e r m e m b e r he l i k e d o u t of a nest in w h i c h t h e r e w e r e s e v e r a l t h a t o n e . t h i s s t r a n g e a n e c d o t e c a n be r e a d as a t e s t a m e n t t o m a l e a b o u t t h e s e x u a l p o w e r of w o m e n . t h e w i t c h s a i d . Kramer (1486) and is a s t o r y so s u r r e a l a n d c o m i c t h a t it is cause the invite their readers to consider i m p o s s i b l e t o f o r g e t . s o m e t i m e s c o l l e c t m a l e o r g a n s in g r e a t n u m b e r s . members. culture than learned theories 2 anxieties popular of A t a n o t h e r . as m a n y as t w e n t y o r t h i r t y m e m b e r s t o g e t h e r . . T h e w a s by no m e a n s c o n f i n e d t o t h e l e a r n e d e l i t e . t h e n . o r s h u t t h e m up in a b o x . ' b e c a u s e it b e l o n g e d t o a p a r i s h priest'. as has been seen by m a n y a n d is a m a t t e r of c o m m o n r e p o r t ? . . e a c h of w h i c h a d d e d w e i g h t t o t h e i r t h a t s u c h m a t e r i a l w a s a v a i l a b l e s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e s t e r e o t y p e of t h e f e m a l e a r g u m e n t s a b o u t t h e e x i s t e n c e of w i t c h e s a n d t h e d a n g e r s t h e y p o s e d . w h e r e they m o v e t h e m s e l v e s like living m e m b e r s . when he h a d lost his m e m b e r . it is n o t e w o r t h y b e c a u s e it r e s e m the nature of w i t c h c r a f t . The inclusion b l e d t h e c o n t e n t of c o n t e m p o r a r y j e s t b o o k s .PART SEVEN W i t c h c r a f t and Gender B URIED the Malleus in A W A Y IN THE TURGID. . a n d p u t t h e m in a b i r d ' s nest. ' Y o u m u s t n o t t a k e 1 A t one l e v e l . For a certain man tells that. a n d p r o b a b l y o w e d m o r e t o about s u c h m a t e r i a l in t h e Malleus i n d i c a t e s t h e w i l l i n g n e s s of its a u t h o r s t o incorporate central fact witch t h e w i d e s t p o s s i b l e r a n g e of s o u r c e s . relentlessly misogynistic pages of Maleficarum men.

s i n c e p e r s e c u t i o n s t o o k p l a c e in so m a n y d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l a n d p o l i t i c a l c o n t e x t s . w h i l e p o s s e s s i n g a n e x c e s s of a r c h e t y p a l l y f e m a l e v i c e s . he e m p h a s i s e s t h e i n f o r m a l e f f o r t s t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s m a d e t o p l a c a t e a n d c o e x i s t w i t h t h o s e s u s p e c t e d of maleficium: the witches at Pendle Y o r k s h i r e . w h o p o i n t s o u t in C h a p t e r 2 6 t h a t a c c u s a t i o n s of w i t c h c r a f t was a a l w a y s c l o s e l y i d e n t i f i e d w i t h w o m e n . where some 70 o u t c o m e of a s i n g l e c a u s e : t h e r e s t r u c t u r i n g of g e n d e r r e l a t i o n s d u r i n g a p e r i o d of change. lust a n d p r i d e . w e r e a p p e a s e d by t h e i r n e i g h b o u r s f o r d e c a d e s b e f o r e t h e i r . t h o u g h t h e s o c i a l p o s i t i o n of w o m e n m a d e t h e m u n u s u a l l y v u l n e r a b l e t o p r o s e c u tions. B o t h i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s i n v o l v e a c o n s i d e r a b l e d e g r e e of g e n e r a l i s a t i o n . T h i s is a d i f f i c u l t t a s k . T h e y h a d t h e e f f e c t of m a r g i n a l i s i n g w o m e n i n v o l v e d in c e r t a i n t r a d e s . h o l d s t h a t a c c u s a t i o n s w e r e a i m e d p r i m a r i l y a g a i n s t witches r a t h e r t h a n w o m e n as s u c h . p e r s o n s a p p o i n t e d by t h e c o u r t s t o e x a m i n e t h e b o d i e s of t h o s e a c c u s e d f o r h i d d e n t e a t s used t o s u c k l e f a m i l i a r s p i r i t s . T h i s a r g u m e n t c o m p l e m e n t s t h e v i e w s of L o u i s e involved r e v e r s a l of a c c e p t e d f e m a l e r o l e s : w i t c h e s w e r e p o i s o n e r s i n s t e a d of p r o v i d e r s of f o o d . 4 S u c h records have obliged h i s t o r i a n s to evaluate the relationship between w i t c h h u n t i n g a n d g e n d e r r e l a t i o n s in t h e e a r l y m o d e r n p e r i o d . This a p p r o a c h c o m p l e m e n t s argument represented encouraged in C h a p t e r 15 of t h i s book that the Reformation of and w i t c h t r i a l s f o r e v i d e n c e of g e n d e r c o n f l i c t in p a r t i c u l a r s o c i a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s .r e l a t e d ' but n o t ' s e x . w h i l e t h i s w a s less l i k e l y t o h a p p e n t o m e n . B u t d e s p i t e t h e c o n s i d e r a b l e a t t e n t i o n p a i d t o t h i s issue. a n d c h i l d k i l l e r s i n s t e a d of c h i l d p r o t e c t o r s . Hester suggests t h a t v i l l a g e r s a n d m a g i s t r a t e s m i g h t have been l o o k i n g for not w i t c h e s r a t h e r t h a n w o m e n . however. s i n c e it w a s n e v e r d e n i e d t h a t m e n a s w e l l a s w o m e n c o u l d be g u i l t y of t h e c r i m e . h o w e v e r . a n d t h i s m e a n t t h a t t h e c r i m e J a c k s o n . knowledge of f e m a l e a n a t o m y . with their specialist witchcraft. he s u g g e s t s . w h e r e 9 0 per cent of w i t c h e s were f e m a l e .268 PART SEVEN: WITCHCRAFT AND GENDER PART SEVEN: WITCHCRAFT AND GENDER 269 a t one w i t h o r d i n a r y women.s p e c i f i c ' . Europeans wider of the the c a m e t o a c c e p t t h e r e a l i t y of s a t a n i c w i t c h c r a f t . T h e potential influence of sexual stereotypes on prosecutions w a s illustrated in a list of ' p r e s u m p t i o n s against witches' d r a w n up f o r j u s t i c e s of t h e p e a c e ( J P s ) in Y o r k s h i r e in 1 5 9 2 : t h e f i r s t p r e s u m p tion was 'that they are most c o m o n l y weeke w o m e n ' . 3 countries were per These figures o u t w e i g h e d . In e a c h of t h e s e a r e a s . who acknowledges that ordinary women frequently voiced concerns about attempts to deal with to the courts. A l l of t h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e i d e a of w i t c h c r a f t s t r o n g l y i m p l i e d f e m a l e c u l p a b i l i t y . s u c h a s v e n g e a n c e . A n alternative. T h e b e s t recent estimates suggest that three-quarters of t h o s e e x e c u t e d f o r w i t c h c r a f t in E u r o p e were w o m e n . One o b j e c t i o n t o Hester's work is t h a t it t r i e s t o e x p l a i n w i t c h t r i a l s as t h e it is o p e n t o t h e c h a r g e of overgenerand T h i s a s s u m p t i o n is r e f l e c t e d in t h e s u r v i v i n g r e c o r d s of w i t c h t r i a l s . t h u s r e v e r s i n g t h e p o p u l a r i d e a t h a t m i d w i v e s w e r e c o m m o n l y a c c u s e d of 5 ruling groups to investigate 'secret c r i m e s ' against f a m i l y . M a r i a n n e H e s t e r o f f e r s a s t i m u l a t i n g c r i t i c i s m of L a r n e r ' s w o r k in C h a p t e r 2 1 .h u n t i n g ' f o r c e s its proponents to e x p l a i n 'why w o m e n appeared p a r t i c u l a r l y threatening to p a t r i a r c h a l o r d e r a t t h i s t i m e . S h e a r g u e s t h a t w i t h c r a f t i n v o l v e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t w e r e s o c i a l l y c o n s t r u c t e d as ' f e m i n i n e ' . a n y i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f w i t c h t r i a l s as ' w o m a n . S h e a r g u e s t h a t a t t e m p t s t o e x p l a i n w i t c h . a n d w h y t h e y c e a s e d t o be so t h r e a t e n i n g a b o u t 1 7 0 0 ' . if e i t h e r . f o r e x a m p l e . h a r m e r s i n s t e a d of h e a l e r s . T h e t h e m e s r a i s e d in S h a r p e ' s c h a p t e r a r e r e v i e w e d witchcraft. i n f a n t i c i d e a n d w i t c h c r a f t . T h e s a m e o b j e c t i o n c o u l d . t h e n t o c o n s i d e r w h y w o m e n w e r e Larner's politics W o m e n f e a t u r e d o f t e n as a c c u s e r s a n d v i c t i m s of w i t c h e s . t h e w i t c h t r i a l s of t h e e a r l y m o d e r n p e r i o d w e r e p a r t of a w i d e r m o v e m e n t t o r e c o n s t i t u t e g e n d e r r e l a t i o n s d u r i n g a t i m e of s o c i a l c h a n g e .s u c h as b r e w i n g a l l o w i n g m e n t o a s s u m e m o r e a u t h o r i t y in e x p a n d i n g a r e a s of t h e e c o n o m y . Like t h r e a t of h a r m f u l m a g i c . One i m p o r t a n t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . M e n a n d w o m e n a p p e a r t o h a v e b e e n e q u a l l y v u l n e r a b l e t o a c c u s a t i o n s in p a r t s of F r a n c e . It s e n t e d a n a t t e m p t by m e n t o c o n t r o l i n d e p e n d e n t w o m e n . r e p r e s e n t e d in C h a p t e r 2 0 by C h r i s t i n a L a r n e r . T h u s a t y p i c a l w i t c h w a s t h e m i r r o r . In s o m e instances. a n d r e g i o n s l i k e H u n g a r y . S h a r p e ' s a r g u m e n t challenges the view that E n g l i s h w i t c h t r i a l s reprein e a r l y m o d e r n v i l l a g e s . L i c e n c e d m i d w i v e s . v i l l a g e r s : they assumed t h a t the m a j o r i t y of w i t c h e s were w o m e n a n d m e n c o u l d e n g a g e in i d e n t i c a l t y p e s of b e h a v i o u r b u t w i t h v e r y d i f f e r e n t outcomes: women who asked their neighbours for food and were turned away could s u b s e q u e n t l y be a c c u s e d of maleficium. t h a t a n x i e t i e s a b o u t malefi- Holmes. He s u g g e s t s t h a t w o m e n in England J i m S h a r p e e x p l o r e s a f a m i l i a r t h e m e in t h e d e b a t e : t h e r o l e of w o m e n in t h e p r o s unusually active in t h e p r o s e c u t i o n of w i t c h c r a f t in c o m p a r i s o n t o o t h e r crimes. t h e r e is s t i l l no c o n s e n s u s a m o n g a c a d e m i c s in t h e f i e l d . Like all monocausal explanations. D e n m a r k a n d E n g l a n d . w i t c h c r a f t was ' s e x . i n c l u d i n g s e x u a l o f f e n c e s . a l i s a t i o n : did the e c o n o m i c circumstances that allegedly encouraged gender conflict in E n g l a n d a p p l y t o o t h e r c o u n t r i e s t h a t e x p e r i e n c e d p e r s e c u t i o n s ? A s L a r n e r p o i n t s o u t in C h a p t e r 2 0 . T h i s is t h e m e t h o d e m p l o y e d in t h e r e m a i n i n g c h a p t e r s in t h i s s e c t i o n . less a m b i t i o u s a p p r o a c h is t o e x a m i n e t h e r e c o r d s of s p e c i f i c 22. t h o u g h the figures varied c o n s i d e r a b l y f r o m place to place. s o m e a l s o p l a y e d t h e s p e c i a l i s t r o l e of ' s e a r c h e r s ' . F o r H e s t e r . a n d r e a d e r s w i l l h a v e t o d e c i d e w h i c h . a n d s e e k s t o r e l o c a t e t h e p r o s e c u t i o n s in t h e c o n t e x t of t h e f e m a l e c o m m u n i t y cium were most frequently expressed. t h e s o c i a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s of w o m e n w e r e e n o u g h in t h e m s e l v e s t o a c c o u n t f o r t h e i r t a r g e t i n g a s w i t c h e s . In C h a p t e r ecution of other w o m e n as w i t c h e s . by t h o s e f r o m Germany and Scotland. women's encounters with formal witches Robin in of t a k i n g B r i g g s in C h a p t e r 3 . w h i l e m e n o u t n u m b e r e d w o m e n as w i t c h c r a f t s u s p e c t s in s o m e on the periphery of t h e c o n t i n e n t like Iceland and Estonia. e v e n t h o u g h it w a s p o s s i b l e f o r m e n t o be i n v o l v e d a s well.i m a g e of a ' g o o d w o m a n ' . M o r e o v e r . F o r stopped short Holmes. w e r e o f t e n e m p l o y e d in t h i s c a p a c i t y .l e v e l accusations in C h a p t e r 2 3 by Clive the w a s in t h i s w o r l d of f e m a l e r e l a t i o n s h i p s . be l e v e l l e d a g a i n s t L a r n e r ' s o w n v i e w t h a t t h e p r o s e c u t i o n s a r o s e f r o m t h e ' p o l i t i c i s a t i o n of r e l i g i o n ' in t h e early m o d e r n p e r i o d (see C h a p t e r 1 5 ) . w o m e n were more exposed to accusations than men.h u n t s in t e r m s t h e s u p p r e s s i o n of w o m e n by m e n d i s t r a c t h i s t o r i a n s f r o m t h e w i d e r p o l i t i c a l r e l i g i o u s c o n t e x t of t h e p e r s e c u t i o n s : it is n e c e s s a r y f i r s t t o e x p l a i n w h y especially vulnerable to accusations. normally and were often prominent in v i l l a g e . were c e n t of t h e a c c u s e d w e r e w o m e n . of t h e s e g e n e r a l i s a t i o n s t h e y find m o s t c o n v i n c i n g . A c c o r d i n g to L a r n e r ' s f a m o u s f o r m u l a t i o n . b u t t h e i r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t h e c r i m e i n c l i n e d t h e m t o l o o k f o r f e m a l e s u s p e c t s . of c o u r s e .

restraints. w e r e m o r e w i c k e d a n d m o r e e a s i l y led t h a n m e n . w h o argues t h a t the c o n s t r a i n t s i m p o s e d by p a t r i a r c h a l culture London meant that w o m e n were more likely to resort to m a g i c than m e n : For men. as c o n t e m p o r a r i e s t h o u g h t . Montague less i n c l i n e d t o m o v e b e y o n d t h i s s t r a t e g y of a c c o m m o d a t i o n seek l e g a l r e m e d i e s t h a n m e n . A l l e g a t i o n s of c a u s i n g i m p o t e n c e w e r e c o m p a r a t i v e l y r a r e in w i t c h trials. Europe sacrifices. M e n . Publications. b u t b e c a u s e t h e i r s o c i a l and e c o n o m i c position imposed greater c o n s t r a i n t s on their possibilities of a c t i o n .d e f i n i t i o n . New York It s h o u l d be n o t e d . Surviving A l l t h e c h a p t e r s in t h i s p a r t c o n c e n t r a t e on t h e a c c u s a t i o n a n d t r i a l of a l l e g e d w i t c h e s by o t h e r m e m b e r s of t h e i r c o m m u n i t y . H o l m e s s e e k s t o r e t u r n o u r a t t e n t i o n t o w h a t he c a l l s ' t h e m i s o g y n o u s dimension 4 5 A r c h i v e s of the Y o r k s h i r e A r c h a e o l o g i c a l DD146/12/2/10. (Macmillan. Malleus Maleficarum. t h e i d e a of w i t c h c r a f t Geoffrey Scarre. 1971). Society. a n d it is p o s s i b l e h a v e b e e n l i s t e n e d t o . a n d t h i s w i l l be p i c k e d up in P a r t 8 . b u t t h e r e is a d a n g e r t h a t it o b s c u r e s t h e e x p e r i e n c e of t h e w i t c h h e r s e l f . London 1996). A s i m i l a r p i c t u r e h a s e m e r g e d f r o m t h e s t u d y of w i t c h c r a f t c o n f e s s i o n s in r e c e n t y e a r s : t h e s e t e x t s r e v e a l h o w s o m e w o m e n c a m e t o i n t e r n a l i s e t h e i d e a of w i t c h c r a f t a s a n a c t of s e l f . encour- T h e i d e a t h a t m i d w i v e s w e r e c o m m o n l y a c c u s e d of w i t c h c r a f t w a s o r i g i n a l l y a g e d b y t h e e x c e s s i v e r e l i a n c e o f h i s t o r i a n s o n t h e Malleus that midwife witches abducted infants for ritual Maleficarum. however.W i t c h ' . there were usually more direct methods for attaining their that e n d s o r r e v e n g i n g t h e m s e l v e s o n t h e i r e n e m i e s . T h i s a p p r o a c h is e s s e n t i a l f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e s o c i a l d y n a m i c s o f p e r s e c u t i o n s . that m i d w i v e s were not p a r t i c u l a r l y prone to accusations. relationship . 201. H e p o i n t s o u t t h a t f e m a l e w i t n e s s e s in t r i a l s suggesting t h a t these acts were not accused. 121.d i s t r i b u t i o n o f w i t c h c r a f t s u s p e c t s . and London 1994). were generally Holmes argues that women and often the He crucial account. Lyndal Modern Magic Roper. h o w e v e r . t h a t t h e Malleus' was absent in m o s t later demonologies. w o m e n s u s p e c t e d of maleficium c o u l d p l a y a n a c t i v e r o l e in t h e f o r m a t i o n of t h e i r provided a cultural resource for 6 which claimed trial records David History Witchcraft. Witchcraft 1987). 6 Scarre's interpretation r e s t o r e s t h e a g e n c y of w o m e n w h o t h o u g h t t h e m s e l v e s b u t p l a c e s t h i s in t h e c o n t e x t of w i d e r s o c i a l to be c a p a b l e of maleficium. o w n r e p u t a t i o n s . 1-26. Europe in Sixteenth Oedipus and the Devil: Sexuality Religion in Early and 53. wickedness later trans. T h i s idea has been developed by S c a r r e . Briggs. See H a r l e y . a n d m a d e t h e into F o r a s u r v e y o f d a t a o n t h e s e x . A s t h e c h a p t e r by C l i v e H o l m e s s u g g e s t s . h o w e v e r . in t h e l e g a l d r a m a . b u t d i d so in a c u l t u r e t h a t a l l o w e d t h e m o n l y a l i m i t e d r a n g e of a l t e r n a t i v e m o d e l s by w h i c h t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e i r o w n f e e l i n g s a n d a c t i o n s . on the other instrumental in t h e p r o c e e d i n g s recent a c t s of t e s t i f i e d a b o u t m i s d e e d s t h a t h a d o c c u r r e d m a n y y e a r s b e f o r e t h e p r o s e c u t i o n itself. described more maleficia. ( 1 9 2 8 . Social of Medicine and 3(1). repr. 260-2. of w i t c h c r a f t ' . Seventeenth-Century t h o s e w h o f e l l u n d e r s u s p i c i o n of t h e c r i m e as w e l l as t h e i r a c c u s e r s : t h e s u p p o s e d p o w e r s of t h e P e n d l e w i t c h e s p r o b a b l y a f f o r d e d t h e m m o r e i n f l u e n c e in t h e i r c o m m u nity t h a n they w o u l d Geoffrey otherwise have enjoyed. m o r e than those of a w o m a n . T h e s t u d y of t h i s m a t e r i a l p r o v i d e s a f u r t h e r i n s i g h t i n t o t h e b e t w e e n g e n d e r a n d w i t c h c r a f t . (Routledge. Notes 1 Heinrich Summers 2 Kramer and James Dover Sprenger. suggest.270 PART SEVEN: WITCHCRAFT AND GENDER PART SEVEN: WITCHCRAFT AND GENDER 271 a c t i v i t i e s r e a c h e d t h e a t t e n t i o n of l o c a l m a g i s t r a t e s . a n d d e p i c t s h e r a s t h e p a s s i v e v i c t i m of f o r c e s c o m p l e t e l y b e y o n d h e r c o n t r o l . see R o b i n Witches and Neighbours (HarperCollins. W i t c h c r a f t may have t h e c o m p l a i n t s of a m a n a g a i n s t h a r s h o r u n c h a r i t a b l e t r e a t m e n t w o u l d sympathetically appeal for women held more w o m e n t h a n f o r m e n n o t b e c a u s e . I n d e e d . (1990). ' H i s t o r i a n s a s D e m o n o l o g i s t s : T h e M y t h o f t h e M i d w i f e . preoccupation with female though there was a consensus a m o n g c o n c l u d e s t h a t it w a s m e n r a t h e r t h a n w o m e n w h o t o o k t h e l e a d in w i t c h e s : they were the p r i m a r y a c t o r s d e c i s i o n s a b o u t w h o s h o u l d be t r i e d f o r t h e c r i m e . against hand. j u s t b e c a u s e he w a s a m a n . By t a k i n g this prosecuting 3 w r i t e r s that w o m e n ' s weaknesses made t h e m m o r e susceptible to the Devil's t e m p t a tions.

w e r e put through a c o m p l e x judicial process administered bv m e n . a n d a b u s i n g all t h o s e w h o c a m e n e a r h e r . O n l y t h e children? A n d w h a t do M a r g a r e t T h a t c h e r a n d a p a u p e r i s e d e s c a p e e f r o m t h e w e l f a r e s t a t e h a v e in c o m m o n ? T h e s t e r e o t y p e w i t c h is an i n d e p e n d e n t a d u l t w o m a n w h o d o e s n o t c o n f o r m t o t h e m a l e i d e a o f p r o p e r f e m a l e b e h a v i o u r . T o what e x t e n t . t h e n .h u n t is a s t r o n g o n e .c e n t u r v R u s s i a .h u n t ( b e t w e e n the late Middle Ages and t h e beginning o f the eighteenth c e n t u r v ) a response t o a perceived threat t o t h e s o c i a l o r d e r t h r o u g h s o m e c h a n g e in t h e s t a t u s o r p o w e r o f w o m e n ? D u r i n g those years. All w o m e n threaten m a l e h e g e m o n y with their exclusive therefore. she m a y have o t h e r .h u n t w as a w o m a n . S h e has t h e p o w e r o f w o r d s — t o d e f e n d h e r s e l f o r t o c u r s e . was the European w i t c h . t h e s t e r e o t y p e o f a w i t c h in C h r i s t i a n E u r o p e has a l w a y s b e e n t h a t o f a w o m a n . asserting h e r p r i v a c y a n d i n d e p e n d e n c e . It w a s n o t e d t h a t s h e h a d b e e n t h e bane o f the social w o r k d e p a r t m e n t for vears. In addition. n o r c a r e f o r t h e w e a k . s h e d o e s n o t r e q u i r e o r give love ( t h o u g h she m a y e n c h a n t ) . t h e v a r r e s t e d all b u t t w o o f t h e . and e x e c u t e d for witchcraft. t h e a u t h o r i t i e s in o n e d i s t r i c t b e c a m e anxious about the prevalence o f witchcraft and began to round up the entire female p o p u l a t i o n . set against h e r n o t only m a l e s . T h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f a n y w o m a n as a w i t c h w i l l . mostlv peasant w o m e n . p o w e r t o give life. T h e s a m e w e e k t h e d e a t h o f an e l d e r l y w o m a n f r o m s t a r v a t i o n w a s r e p o r t e d in t h e p r e s s . b u t also c o n f o r m i n g f e m a l e s and their children. T h e r e p o r t a l s o n o t e d that the local children called h e r 'the w i t c h ' . S h e is a s s e r t i v e . several thousands o f people. and social o r d e r d e p e n d s o n w o m e n c o n f o r m i n g t o m a l e ideals o f f e m a l e b e h a v i o u r . i t w a s l e f t t o a s c h o o l g i r l first p l a c e . a n d t h e s c h o o l g i r l g a v e u p . In t h e r W HEN THE ORGANISERS o f an u n e m p l o y m e n t r a l l v s u g g e s t e d 'Ditch t h e W i t c h ' [ M a r g e r e t T h a t c h e r ] as a b a n n e r s l o g a n . refusing offers o f h e l p .C h a p t e r 20 Christina Larner WAS WITCH-HUNTING HUNTING? WOMAN- m e m b e r o f t h e l o c a l L a b o u r P a r t y t o p r o t e s t t h a t this w a s s e x i s t . In t w e l f t h . she does n o t n u r t u r e m e n o r c h i l d r e n . in L a n g e n d o r f in t h e R h i n e l a n d . In 1 4 9 2 . m o r e mysterious p o w e r s which do n o t derive f r o m the established order. T h e y c h a n g e d i t t o ' D i t c h t h e B i t c h ' . W a s this a t h i n l y d i s g u i s e d a t t a c k o n w o m e n as s u c h ? T h e c a s e t h a t t h e w i t c h .

d r a w a t t e n t i o n t o t h e m o r e s u b s t a n t i a l o b j e c tion that the c r i m e o f witchcraft. T h e cursing and b e w i t c h i n g w o m e n w e r e the f e m a l e equivalent o f violent m a l e s . his d o g w o u l d be able to sniff out w h i c h o f t h e m was the w i t c h . s i n c e w o m e n a c c u s e d o t h e r w o m e n a n d w e r e f r e q u e n t l y c h i e f w i t n e s s e s in t h e c o u r t s . W h e n t h e w i t c h .o r d e r c r i s e s g e n e r a t e d b y the n e w regimes o f early m o d e r n E u r o p e . W h e r e m e n m i g h t use knives.h u n t was a straightf o r w a r d . e x c e p t during certain mass panics. vounger w o m e n Women urban labouring. If you are looking for a w i t c h . o n e Scottish w i t c h said at h e r t r i a l . 8 0 per c e n t o f the accused w e r e f e m a l e . w e r e n o t ' n i c e p e o p l e ' . T h e r e are o t h e r reasons for doubting w h e t h e r the w i t c h . t h e y w e r e t h o s e w h o c o u l d n o t easilv c o o p e r a t e with o t h e r s . T h e fact that these ideological e n e m i e s t u r n e d out t o be 8 0 p e r cent f e m a l e could have added fuel t o the m i s o g y n y o f the age r a t h e r than b e a direct c o n s e q u e n c e o f it. a witch threatens the established o r d e r . It d o e s . A witch to t h e m was a person w h o had r e n o u n c e d Christian baptism. p r e s s u r e s w h i c h c a m e l a r g e l y f r o m w o m e n . W h e t h e r anonvmous or publicly identified. o f f the w e s t coast o f S c o t l a n d . W h e n J a n e t M a c M u r d o c h . t h e i d e a t h a t t h e a u t h o r i t i e s in t h e s i x t e e n t h a n d s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s c o n s c i o u s l y s o u g h t t o t e r r o r i z e a n d i n t i m i d a t e w o m e n g a i n s f u r t h e r s t r e n g t h . a n d w a s in c o n s p i r a c y w i t h o t h e r w i t c h e s t o o v e r t h r o w the social o r d e r . w o m e n . T h o s e w h o w e r e p r o s e c u t e d for witchcraft w e r e n o t . i f all t h e w o m e n in C o l l w e r e p l a c e d t o g e t h e r in a p e n .h u n t . floated suggests that. A b o u t 2 0 per cent o f suspects w e r e male. v o u a r e l o o k i n g f o r a w o m a n . persecutions than randomly w e n t to the stake during the w i t c h . W h i l e I a m c o n s i d e r i n g d u b i o u s b u t n o t q u i t e p o i n t l e s s s t a t i s t i c s . was n o t sex-specific. T h e last t e r m s e e m s t o h a v e had m u c h t h e s a m e p e j o r a t i v e m e a n i n g it c a r r i e s t o d a y : a l i b e r a t e d woman who w h o insists o n m a k i n g an i s s u e o f i t . ' A n d w h e n I gave m y malison [the o p p o s i t e o f b e n i s o n j ' . w o m e n w e r e a p r i m e symbol o f disorder.a n d . While were older women were for coming into the courts for The witchcraft offences women of or activity. t h e p u r s u i t of w i t c h e s was n o m o r e a p e r s e c u t i o n o f w o m e n than the p r o s e c u t i o n o f killers and m a i m e r s w a s a p e r s e c u t i o n o f m e n .r e l a t e d t o f e m a l e s in j u s t t h e s a m e p r o p o r t i o n as s a n c t i t y ( t h e u l t i m a t e in h u m a n g o o d ) w a s s e x . sixteenth c e n t u r y d e m o n o l o g i s t s spent m u c h t i m e puzzling o v e r w h y w o m e n w e r e so m u c h m o r e w i c k e d than men. a n d it c o u l d b e any w o m a n .h u n t i n g in l a w and o r d e r c r i s e s . r a n d o m l y s e l e c t e d (anv m o r e m a l e s w h o w e r e p r o s e c u t e d f o r c r i m e s o f v i o l e n c e in this p e r i o d w e r e selected). less s e x u a l l y . f o r e x a m p l e was n e a r e r 9 5 — 1 0 0 per cent.h u n t is p u t i n t o its c r i m i n a l c o n t e x t . areas at the but reliable centre figures for particular criminal in Germany. t h e r e w a s n o t h i n g m i s o g vnous about witch-hunting. thinly disguised w o m a n . while s e x . T h e actual n u m b e r o f those involved is p e r m a n e n t l y suggest that in inaccessible. she a r g u e d t h a t J e a n s h o u l d n o t b e a c c e p t e d as a w i t n e s s s i n c e she w a s as g r e a t a w i t c h h e r s e l f . T h e p r i m e i n t e r e s t o f t h e a u t h o r i t i e s at t h e t i m e w a s t h e p u r s u i t o f w i t c h e s as such. O n the island o f C o l l .h u n t was the prising out o f dangerous p e r s o n s w h o w e r e e n e m i e s o f G o d . m o s t w o m e n will n o t only c o n f o r m . Male judges w e r e simply responding to pressures from b e l o w . since male a b s u r d a r g u m e n t w h i c h has b e e n s u s p e c t s a p p e a r t o h a v e b e e n t r e a t e d w i t h t h e s a m e h a r s h n e s s as f e m a l e s o n c e t h e y r e a c h e d t h e c o u r t s . F r o m this p e r s p e c t i v e . a m a n c l a i m e d t o h a v e b e e n a t t a c k e d b v a w i t c h w h o h a d t u r n e d h e r s e l f i n t o an a n g r y s h e e p . o u t a f u r t h e r r a n g e o f q u e s t i o n s a b o u t t h e f u n c t i o n o f C h r i s t i a n i t y as a p o l i t i c a l i d e o l o g y in this p e r i o d . T h e ratio o f females to males put on trial for w i t c h c r a f t r e i n f o r c e s the t h e o r y that the w i t c h . a n d t h e l e g i t i m a c y o f p a r a l l e l s w i t h o t h e r g r e a t . D e s p i t e the longt e r m s t e r e o t y p e . T h e w o m e n w a s d e f e n d i n g h e r s e l f a g a i n s t t h e a c c u s a t i o n s o f J e a n S p r o t in D u m f r i e s in 1 6 7 1 . w o m e n t e n d e d t o b e r e g a r d e d in l a w as t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f t h e i r f a t h e r s o r t h e i r h u s b a n d s . W i t c h e s . it m i g h t b e w o r t h a d d i n g t h a t w i t c h c r a f t ( t h e u l t i m a t e in h u m a n e v i l ) w a s s e x .h u n t i n g is t h a t it l e a d s us t o ask t o o n a r r o w a r a n g e o f q u e s t i o n s a b o u t i t . T h e y w e r e t h e d i s t u r b e r s o f s o c i a l o r d e r . It w a s n o t f o r n o t h i n g t h a t M a r g a r e t L i s t e r o f F i f e w a s d e s c r i b e d in h e r i n d i c t m e n t in 1 6 6 2 as 'a w i t c h . b u t also attack w o m e n w h o by their n o n c o n f o r m i t y t h r e a t e n the s e c u ritv o f c o n f o r m i s t women. the state and the p e o p l e . T h e r e is m u c h t o s u g g e s t t h a t in t h e l a w . H e said t h a t . lacking the male escape routes o f m e r c e n a r y v a g a b o n d s . n e v e r t h e l e s s . like m a l e bullies. U p t o this p e r i o d . T h e p a r a l l e l is n o t e x a c t .h u n t i n g s i m p l y as w o m a n . archives France. W i t c h e s a r e c o n s p i c u o u s . D e p e n d e n t for their livelihood on the goodwill o f m e n . T h e o b j e c t i o n t o v i e w i n g w i t c h .h u n t w e n t cursing. against (including unofficial healing) and f o r k e e p i n g disorderly h o u s e s . T h e p u r p o s e o f a w i t c h . often for the c r i m e o f cursing. t h e r o l e p l a v e d b v w i t c h . they w e r e aggressive. a c h a r m e r a n d a l i b b e r ' .r e l a t e d . h o w e v e r . n o bias a g a i n s t w o m e n c a n b e d e t e c t e d in t h e a u t h o r i t i e s . h o w e v e r . W e m u s t ask w h y w o m e n a p p e a r e d p a r t i c u l a r l y t h r e a t e n i n g t o p a t r i a r c h a l o r d e r a t this t i m e . S h e c o u l d t e l l f o r t u n e s f r o m t h e way A more a person walked. In t h e sixteenth c e n t u r v . b u t it is n o t a b s u r d .s p e c i f i c and purges o f past and p r e s e n t . y o u n g e r being prosecuted infanticide and p r o s t i t u t i o n . c a m e in t h e w a k e o f n e w p u n i t i v e a t t i t u d e s t o s e x u a l were also particularlv vulnerable to the new laws first the proportion of females criminalization fighting with children. W a s it b e c a u s e o f a r i s e in t h e i r s t a t u s a n d i n d e p e n d e n c e ? W a s t h e r e a s u p e r f l u o u s f e m a l e p o p u l a t i o n ? W a s it ( p a r a d o x i c a l l y ) because the Christianization o f the peasantry through the R e f o r m a t i o n and C o u n t e r Reformation i n c r e a s e d the individual responsibilitv o f w o m e n for their spiritual opens l i v e s ? W a s it b e c a u s e t h e r e l i g i o n so d i f f u s e d w a s r e l e n t l e s s l v p a t r i a r c h a l ? T h e thought that witch-hunting was actuallv witch-hunting. certain activities o f w o m e n w e r e m a d e into c r i m e s for the time. T h i s ignores the crucial p r o c e s s through w h i c h t h o s e w h o w e r e put on trial w e r e s e l e c t e d in t h e first p l a c e .r e l a t e d to males during the 'sanctity e p i d e m i c ' o f the later Middle Ages. given h i s / h e r s o u l t o t h e D e v i l .h u n t w a s n o t d i r e c t e d p r i m a r i l y b y m e n a g a i n s t w o m e n ? O n e l i n e o f a r g u m e n t is t h a t .274 CHRISTINA LARNER WAS WITCH-HUNTING W 0 MA N-HUNTING? 275 adult w o m e n . w o m e n used w o r d s . a n d w h v t h e v c e a s e d t o b e s o t h r e a t e n i n g a b o u t 1 7 0 0 .h u n t was part o f the sex w a r . o f the witch-hunt. ' i t a l w a y s l i g h t e d ' . many accusations o f witchcraft w e r e between A t village l e v e l . T h i s l i n e o f r e a s o n i n g is b a s e d on a failure to recognize that a patriarchal social structure divides women. S o w h a t is t h e c a s e f o r a r g u i n g t h a t t h e w i t c h . Switzerland and Scotland. F o r areas on t h e p e r i p h e r v — in E n g l a n d a n d R u s s i a .

village conflicts around neighbourliness g r e w especially acute. this s c e n a r i o o f s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s in a c o n t e x t o f c h a n g i n g . conflictual. but w e r e m o r e to do with the imposition o f a Christian p o l i t i c a l i d e o l o g y . and especially because the accusations w e r e often from o n e w o m a n t o another rather than b e t w e e n w o m e n and m e n . i f m i s f o r t u n e h a p p e n e d t o t h e o n e w h o had d e n i e d h e r . the witch-hunts w e r e n o t actually about w o m e n hunting. T h o m a s argues that w i t c h c r a f t accusation was related t o failure t o carry o u t s o m e hitherto recognised social obliga t i o n .f e m a l e conflict with regard t o resources.p r o d u c t o f a patriarchal society. o f d e p e n d e n c y a n d p o v e r t y . ideology. T h e erosion o f the manorial system w i t h l o s s o f c u s t o m a r y t e n a n c i e s a n d c o m m o n l a n d c r e a t e d p o v e r t y w h i l e at t h e same t i m e b r e a k i n g up old c o o p e r a t i v e village c o m m u n i t i e s . 1 o f wdtchcraft w e r e w o m e n . about witchcraft and neighbourliness. b u t d e n i e d and eventually. when formal witchcraft accusation w a s at its h e i g h t . t h a t is m a l i c e a n d a l l e g e d s u p e r n a t u r a l p o w e r .h u n t s at this t i m e . H e points o u t that during t h e late T u d o r and earlv Stuart period. the o n g o i n g m e c h a n i s m s for social c o n t r o l o f w o m e n within a general c o n t e x t o f social change and the r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a patriarchal s o c i e t y . Keith T h o m a s . H e a r g u e s t h a t b e c a u s e t h e m i s o g y n i s t i c o r ' b l a t a n t l y s e x u a l a s p e c t s ' o f w i t c h c r a f t c o m m o n in c o n t i n e n t a l l i t e r a t u r e s u c h as t h e Malleus Maleflcarum w e r e n o t a feature o f English trials. W i d o w s w e r e particularly adversely affected by these changes leaving t h e m vulnerable t o w i t c h c r a f t a c c u s a t i o n . religions and political systems. n o r m e r e l y t h e b y . i t a r g u e s t h a t in o u r q u e s t t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e p h e n o m f e m a l e c o n f l i c t u a l r e l a t i o n s as a n integral part o f the process o f accusation and p e r s e c u t i o n . and o n e e x a m p l e of. that ' t h e judicial r e c o r d s reveal t w o essential facts a b o u t a c c u s e d w i t c h e s : w e r e p o o r . Nonetheless. ' S e x .h u n t s in e a r l y m o d e r n E u r o p e ( a n d e s p e c i a l l y in S c o t l a n d . a n d t h a t 4 w o r k o f C h r i s t i n a L a r n e r has p r o b a b l y h a d t h e g r e a t e s t i m p a c t o n h i s t o r i a n s ' p e r c e p t i o n s o f w h y it w a s l a r g e l y w o m e n w h o w e r e a c c u s e d o f w i t c h c r a f t d u r i n g t h e e a r l y m o d e r n p e r i o d . and they w e r e usually w o m e n ' . ' t h e idea that w i t c h p r o s e c u t i o n s r e f l e c t e d a w a r between the sexes must be discounted'. the witch-hunts w e r e a part of. h e d o e s n o t a c t u a l l y m a n a g e t o e x p l a i n w h y i t s h o u l d b e w o m e n r a t h e r t h a n m e n w h o a r e in this p o s i t i o n o f v u l n e r a b i l i t y . t h e a r e a o f h e r r e s e a r c h e s ) w e r e s e x . It w a s t h e a g e . w o m a n ) .s p e c i f i c ' w o u l d b e a p p l i e d o n l v i f all t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e w i t c h w e r e a t t r i b u t a b l e t o w o m e n . a p o o r w o m a n w o u l d ask f o r c h a r i t y o r t o b o r r o w e s s e n t i a l s u p p l i e s ( o f t e n f r o m a n o t h e r . enon o f the witch-hunts w e have t o see male o f p o s s i b l e l i n k s b e t w e e n e a r l y m o d e r n s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s at t h e v i l l a g e l e v e l . has r i g h t l y p o i n t e d o u t t h a t c h a n g e is n o t a f e a t u r e u n i q u e t o t h i s p e r i o d . m o r a l obligations does explain w h y t h e accused w e r e older. p o o r and often w i d o w e d w o m e n . T h o m a s . T h i s is b e c a u s e his s o m e w h a t p o s i t i v i s t i c a p p r o a c h t o t h e m a t e r i a l detailing the accused and victims o f witchcraft does n o t allow him t o e x a m i n e the p r o c e s s o f g e n d e r i n g o f t h e social relations h e o t h e r w i s e so e l o q u e n t l y d e s c r i b e s . w o u l d b e a c c u s e d o f using w i t c h c r a f t t o c a u s e t h e m i s f o r t u n e . e c o n o m y . 8 e a r l v m o d e r n w i t c h . in p a r t i c u l a r l i n k s b e t w e e n ' t h e f e m a l e ' a n d t h e w i t c h . d e s p i t e his c l a i m s t o t h e c o n t r a r y . S i n c e Religion and the Decline of Magic w a s first p u b l i s h e d in t h e e a r l y 1 9 7 0 s t h e m a i n l y o n E n g l i s h m a t e r i a l . S h e c o n c l u d e s t h a t w h i l e t h e vast m a j o r i t y o f t h o s e a c c u s e d a m i d those p r o s e c u t e d for witchcraft w e r e w o m e n . Essentially. a n d in p r a c t i c e . L a r n e r did n o t give p r e c i s e definitions f o r these t e r m s .PATRIARCHAL RECONSTRUCTION AND WITCH-HUNTING 277 C h a p t e r 21 e n v i r o n m e n t . T h i s c h a p t e r e x a m ines s o m e o f the evidence for t h e relationship b e t w e e n witchcraft and patriarchal r e c o n s t r u c t i o n . 3 tensions conflicts n o t least with regard to m a l e female relations.o l d g e n d e r s t e r e o t v p e o f t h e w i t c h t h a t m a d e t h e m the sixteenth and s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s . ' c h a n g e ' a l o n e c a n n o t e x p l a i n t h e w i t c h . F o r T h o m a s . t h e g e n d e r i n g o f expectations and meanings and m a l e . a n a l y s i s in Religion T h o m a s t h u s p r e s e n t s a c o m p l e x analysis and social change which incorporates o f 'sex-related versus sex-specific' set up by Christina Larner's w o r k . slightly b e t t e r off. b e l i e f s w o m e n ' s p o s i t i o n as d e p e n d e n t p o o r a n d e s p e c i a l l y as p o o r w i d o w s .s p e c i f i c . t h r o u g h o u t E u r o p e and the so-called New World. talking o f course primarily about the English c o n t e x t . B u t . turing o f society which created many uncertainties. she a r g u e d . this is n o t t h e c a s e b e c a u s e 'the t w o principal characteristics o f the w i t c h . W i t h i n this context w i t c h p e r s e c u t i o n s e r v e d — in a d y n a m i c r a t h e r t h a n f u n c t i o n a l s e n s e — as a m e a n s o f r e c r e a t i n g t h e m a l e s t a t u s q u o in t h e e m e r g i n g s o c i a l o r d e r . T h e accusation o f w o m e n w a s n o t m e r e l v a r e f l e c t i o n o f an a g e . but indicated that the t e r m ' s e x . 6 states they H e p l a c e s w i t c h c r a f t w i t h i n its s o c i a l . l i k e M a c f a r l a n e .o l d s t e r e o t y p e . E u r o p e e x p e r i e n c e d changes and a r e s t r u c ambiguities. a r e h u m a n r a t h e r t h a n f e m a l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ' . c l e a r l y shies a w a y f r o m s e e i n g this o u t c o m e Marianne Hester PATRIARCHAL AND RECONSTRUCTION WITCH-HUNTING O NE OF T H E MOST CONSISTENT yet least u n d e r s t o o d aspects o f the f o r w o m e n as in a n y w a y r e l a t e d t o m a l e — f e m a l e c o n f l i c t . T h i s c l a s s i c m o d e l o f w i t c h c r a f t a c c u s a t i o n has s i n c e b e e n shown t o have a w i d e r application than m e r e l y for E n g l a n d / although o n e might q u e s t i o n w h e t h e r it actually explains w h y it w a s w o m e n w h o p r e d o m i n a t e d a m o n g s t t h e a c c u s e d . L a r n e r a r g u e d t h a t t h e w i t c h . 3 It is g e n e r a l l y recognised Levack during and t h a t E u r o p e in t h e e a r l y m o d e r n p e r i o d e x p e r i e n c e d a v a r i e t y o f m a j o r c h a n g e s in t e r m s o f d e m o g r a p h y .h u n t s is h o w a c c u s a t i o n a n d p e r s e c u t i o n f o r w i t c h c r a f t In an a t t e m p t t o q u e s t i o n w h y t h e g r e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n o f t h o s e a c c u s e d this c h a p t e r seeks t o m o v e b e y o n d K e i t h of Magic Thomas's Focusing and the Decline ( 1 9 7 1 ) and also b e y o n d t h e d i c h o t o m y 2 c a m e t o b e largely d i r e c t e d against w o m e n . a r g u i n g t h a t t h e a n s w e r t o w h o t h e w i t c h e s w e r e c a n b e f o u n d at the village level w h e r e allegations a r o s e .r e l a t e d w i t h r e g a r d t o w o m e n b u t n o t s e x .r e l a t e d ' m e a n t that witch-hunts w e r e ' o n e degree r e m o v e d f r o m an a t t a c k o n w o m e n as s u c h ' .

seventeenth centuries.r e l a t e d ' a n d ' s e x . This misses the point (otherwise implicit in the q u o t a t i o n f r o m L a r n e r ) t h a t g e n d e r r e l a t i o n s a r e an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f C h r i s t i a n p o l i t ical i d e o l o g y . w h e r e continuity o f inequality b e t w e e n m e n and w o m e n relies on changing f o r m s o f oppression o v e r t i m e .s p e c i f i c at t h i s t i m e . with a resultant g e n d e r i n g o f social r e l a t i o n s . T from Women Finally.c e n t u r y E n g l a n d . M a r r i a g e . c o n s t r u c t i n g a n d b e i n g c o n s t r u c t e d b y t h i s . 2 0 i n s t a n c e s o f l o c a l l y n c h i n g s . O n e o f t h e r e s u l t s . t h a t all a p p e a r t o b e o f w o m e n . for e x a m p l e . p r o c r e a t i v e s e x u a l i t y u n d e r t h e c o n t r o l o f m e n . h e t e r o s e x u a l i n t e r c o u r s e outside m a r r i a g e .h u n t p e r i o d t h e f o c u s o f p e r s e c u t i o n w a s t h o s e p e r s o n s c o n s i d e r e d b y t h e C a t h o l i c c h u r c h as ' h e r e t i c s ' . o r ing. 11 procreative In r e c e n t v e a r s t h e r e has b e e n a t r e m e n d o u s d e v e l o p m e n t in t h e t h e o r i s i n g o f t h e p r o c e s s i n v o l v e d in w h a t T h o m a s t e r m s t h e ' w a r b e t w e e n t h e s e x e s ' . o f ' t h e f e m a l e ' i n a v a r i e t y o f w a y s o v e r t i m e . T h i s l e a d s us t o a n o t h e r r e l a t e d p r o b l e m . that is. a n d s e x u a l i s a t i o n .d e t e r m i n e d : it c a n n o r m a l l y o n l y o c c u r w i t h i n t h e l i m i t s and on t h e t e r m s o f t h e f r a m e w o r k set by the d o m i n a n t g r o u p . 9 p o o r e r . b u t this capitulation o r resist a n c e is n o t f r e e o r s e l f . a l b e i t l i m i t e d o n e s : ' W o m e n find w a y s o f c o p i n g w i t h their o p p r e s s i o n and ways o f resisting it. t o u s e S c a r r e ' s w o r d s . C o h n .w i t c h . w e must take into a c c o u n t that European p r i o r t o . W i t h r e g a r d t o t h e e a r l y m o d e r n p e r i o d t h e r e is s o m e e v i d e n c e t o s u g g e s t t h a t t h e p r i n c i p a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e w i t c h were of 1 0 If w e are to understand was society at h o w a female w i t c h s t e r e o t y p e d e v e l o p e d .h u n t i n g is w o m e n h u n t i n g o r at l e a s t i t is t h e h u n t i n g o f w o m e n who h o w w o m e n ought to conduct t h e m s e l v e s ' . I w o u l d suggest that the witchh u n t s w e r e n o t m e r e l y s e x . as t h e site o f a h e t e r o s e x u a l . t h a t o f p l a c i n g as c e n t r a l t o w i t c h h u n t i n g t h e i m p o s i t i o n o f a C h r i s t i a n p o l i t i c a l i d e o l o g y and t h e a r g u m e n t t h a t t h e s e x .s p e c i f i c . ' t o sav t h a t m o r e w o m e n t h a n m e n w e r e t r i e d f o r w i t c h c r a f t b e c a u s e the stereotypical witch was a w o m a n ' . We may. sex under male control. Witchcralt In m o s t o f t h e c o u n t r i e s a f f e c t e d b v w i t c h . It is n o t e n o u g h . p a m p h l e t s and o t h e r l i t e r ature at the t i m e take p l a c e . b v c o n t r a s t t o t h e ' n o r m ' w h i c h w a s c o n s t r u e d as h e t e r o s e x u a l . b e l i e f s a n d a c t i v i t i e s a g a i n s t w i t c h e s w e r e — in m o s t E u r o p e a n c o u n t r i e s — s e x .h u n t s w e s e e an o r i e n t a t i o n o f p e r s e c u t i o n a w a v f r o m m e n . As I have p o i n t e d o u t e l s e w h e r e . I f w e f o c u s o n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e w i t c h c r a f t c o n s t r u c t a m o n g s t t h e l e a r n e d e l i t e in t h e c e n t u r i e s l e a d i n g up t o the w i t c h . societies that are m a l e dominated rely on constructions o f 'the f e m a l e ' which present w o m e n as b o t h d i f f e r e n t a n d i n f e r i o r t o m e n .r e l a t e d v e r s u s s e x . w e see that u n e q u a l male—female social relations w e r e also r e f l e c t e d in a n d c o n s t r u c t e d b y t h e e m e r g i n g n o t i o n o f t h e w i t c h . 1 1 W h e r e the early m o d e r n witch-hunts r a r e c o n c e r n e d w e h a v e m u c h e v i d e n c e o f this s e x u a l i s i n g p r o c e s s .s p e c i f i c . w h i l e at a l o c a l l e v e l . is o b v i o u s in t e x t s s u c h as t h e Malleus Malefcarum. talking specifically about w o m e n ' s activities within the patriarchal c o n t e x t o f s e v e n t e e n t h . older and often w i d o w e d w o m e n during the sixteenth and m o r e s e x .278 MARIANNE HESTER PATRIARCHAL RECONSTRUCTION AND WITCH-HUNTING 279 sex-related. structures and discourses that characterise patriarchy for w o m e n . t h e p a t r i a r c h a l i d e a l f o r w o m e n w a s t h a t they should b e quiet ( n o t scolds) and subservient t o their husbands ( n o t c u c k o l d i n g t h e l a t t e r ) . t h e n w e s h o u l d use the t e r m s to reflect a m o r e c o m p l e x situation.h u n t s .h u n t s w e r e indeed sex-specific. i n c l u d i n g b o t h m e n a n d w o m e n . w a s — as e x p r e s s e d in m a n y s e r m o n s . t h e r e is s o m e e v i d e n c e t o s u g g e s t t h a t t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p is d i r e c t : ' W i t c h .r e l a t e d n e s s o f a c c u s a t i o n s is s e p a r a t e f r o m this a n d m e r e l y t o d o w i t h t h e a g e old stereotype of the witch. c o n s i d e r b e l i e f s a m o n g s t t h e l e a r n e d e l i t e a n d t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a legal f r a m e w o r k f o r d e a l i n g w i t h w i t c h c r a f t .h u n t s . documents n T h e s e ideas w e r e e x p r e s s e d m o s t obviously by the middle and u p p e r c l a s s e s . men'.s p e c i f i c ' at a l l . Formal witch accusations change from being m e r e l y sex-related to being 1 4 W e n e e d t o m o v e b e y o n d the d i c h o t o m y set up by L a r n e r ' s w o r k so that w e m a y d e v e l o p a m o r e s o p h i s t i c a t e d analysis o l w h y t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h o s e a c c u s e d o f w i t c h c r a f t d u r i n g t h e s i x t e e n t h a n d s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s w e r e w o m e n . b u t — at d i f f e r e n t t i m e s a n d at d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s — b o t h r e l a t e d t o a n d s p e c i f i c t o w o m e n . b u t also h o w w o m e n a c t e d w i t h i n this c o n t e x t as s u b j e c t s m a k i n g c h o i c e s . and how and w h y w i t c h . t h a t is the oppressive relations. w h i l e n o t t h i n k i n g b e y o n d this a n d m e r e l y r i d i c u l i n g and marginalising the a r g u m e n t that the w i t c h . p e r s e c u t i o n o f t h o s e d e e m e d t o b e w i t c h e s was probablv m o r e specific to w o m e n even then. and t h e r e b y m a i n t a i n i n g . this d i f f e r e n c e . T h e r e are. r 1 3 d o n o t fulfill t h e m a l e v i e w o f Secondly. L a r n e r ' s use o f the d i c h o t o m y o f w e r e c o n s i d e r e d s e x u a l l y i n s a t i a b l e a n d p r o n e t h e r e f o r e t o sinful a n d d e v i a n t b e h a v i o u r .h u n t s w a s m a l e d o m i n a t e d o r p a t r i a r c h a l . a l t h o u g h at a l o c a l and i n f o r m a l l e v e l . is p a r t i c u l a r l y i m p o r t a n t in c o n s t r u c t 1 6 m a l i c e a n d u s e o f s u p e r n a t u r a l p o w e r as m o r e l i k e l y t o b e f e m a l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . t o w a r d s w o m e n and in p a r t i c u l a r a c c u s a t i o n m u s t b e s e e n in this c o n t e x t o f w i d e s p r e a d f e a r s t h a t w o m e n w e r e b y . social s t r u c t u r e s and discourses manv different levels.h u n t i n g directly linked to s e x / g e n d e r . b u t t h e y w e r e a l s o r e f l e c t e d in a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s a n d d e c i s i o n s a b o u t t h e b e h a v i o u r o f w o m e n f r o m t h e l o w e r c l a s s e s as e x e m p l i f i e d b y c h u r c h c o u r t c a s e s : m a n y w o m e n w e r e p u n i s h e d t h r o u g h t h e s e c o u r t s f o r b e a r i n g an i l l e g i t i m a t e c h i l d and for f o r n i c a t i o n .r e l a t e d o r m e r e l v s e x . has o u t l i n e d t h e m a n y w a y s w o m e n ' s lives w e r e c u r t a i l e d by c o m p a r i s o n t o t h o s e o f m e n . 1 9 d e e m e d the only a p p r o p r i a t e place f o r any sexual activity t o B u t in this p r e . defining 'sex-specific' by r e f e r e n c e to a set o f characteristics which c a n s e e m i n g l y a p p l y t o o n l y o n e s e x i g n o r e s t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f c h a n g e in t h e p e r c e p t i o n and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f anv characteristics a t t r i b u t a b l e t o m e n o r w o m e n .h u n t s . M a l e s e x u a l i t v w as n o t d i s c u s s e d in a s i m i l a r l y n e g a t i v e m a n n e r .r e l a t e d n e s s . a m o n g s t t h e p e a s a n t r y . h o w e v e r . s o m e p r o b l e m s with L a r n e r ' s d i c h o t o m y ol sexrelated versus sex-specific. a s e x u a l d o u b l e s t a n d a r d w i t h f e m a l e s e x u a l i t v p r e s e n t e d as i n f e r i o r t o t h a t o i m e n .s p e c i f i c has u n f o r t u n a t e l y s e t u p a d u a l i s m w h i c h it is o f t e n difficult to l o o k b e v o n d — w h e r e historians t e n d to c o n c u r emphatically with h e r a r g u m e n t o f s e x . 1 8 D u r i n g this p e r i o d o f t h e w i t c h . eroticisation. n o m e a n s c o m p l y i n g w i t h the ideal o f the quiet c o m p l i a n t w i f e . and t h i s r e q u i r e s a d e e p e r l o o k at m a l e — f e m a l e r e l a t i o n s ( o r g e n d e r r e l a t i o n s ) d u r i n g t h i s period than most historians have so far a t t e m p t e d . H o b b y . e s p e c i a l l y p r i o r t o t h e w i t c h . 1 7 s e x . as w e l l as d u r i n g . i n c l u d i n g a p e r c e p t i o n nature o f patriarchy. for i n s t a n c e . N e i t h e r s e x has a m o n o p o l y o n a n y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o r b e h a v i o u r — e x c e p t as c o n s t r u c t e d a n d s p e c i f i e d at a n y p a r t i c u l a r t i m e . a n d a l s o a w a y f r o m t h e e l i t e . w h e r e it w as particularly female sexuality that was perceived to m a k e w o m e n different men. I f w e are t o u s e t h e t e r m s ' s e x . Larner's own work is actually more a m b i g u o u s t h a n t h e d i c h o t o m y t h a t has a r i s e n f r o m it s u g g e s t s . s u p p o s e d l y o f w i t c h e s . W e n e e d in p a r t i c u l a r t o t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t t h e dynamic b e i n g p e r c e i v e d i n c r e a s i n g l y as f e m a l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . t h e w i t c h . A s she says w h e n d i s c u s s i n g t h e l i n k b e t w e e n w i t c h c r a f t a n d t h e t y p e o f p e r s o n a c c u s e d . as s e x r e l a t e d . For a start.

u p o n w h i c h a c c u s a t i o n o f w i t c h c r a f t r e l i e d . 2 3 marks be 'focused upon the genital a r e a ' . s e l f . J a m e s V I o f S c o t l a n d ( l a t e r a l s o J a m e s I o f E n g l a n d ) w r o t e . T h e p a m p h l e t for the trial describes M o t h e r S t a u n t o n walking past T h o m a s P r a t ' s h o u s e w i t h s o m e g r a i n . serving the material interests of men a n d a l s o . . H e w a n t s s o m e f o r his c h i c k e n s a n d t a k e s i t f r o m h e r . John Chaundeler. m u s t b e s e e n as a g e n d e r e d i d e o l o g y within m e r e l v . H e has p r e v i o u s l y e q u i v o c a t e d a b o u t w h e t h e r o r n o t s h e is a w i t c h . Here we have a direct example o f the link b e t w e e n 2 3 women w e r e b v d e f i n i t i o n ( l i k e E v e in t h e g a r d e n o f E d e n ) . o t h e r w o m e n a n d m e n ) as i n f e r i o r a n d s u b o r d i n a t e t o m e n . 2 4 than m e n . In t h e c i r c u l a r . M i c h a e l D a l t o n . It t r a n s p i r e s t h a t J o h n a n d E l l e i n e h a v e f a l l e n o u t o v e r his d e m a n d f o r t h e m o n e y . b u t also changes B e r n a r d ' s insistence that w i t c h e s ' m a r k s m a y b e found a n y w h e r e — a l t h o u g h in ' v e r y h i d d e n p l a c e s ' Thereafter. A n d d e v i a n c e . t h e n d e m a n d e d f o r h i m s e l f . Daemonologie: T h e r e a s o n is e a s i e : f o r as t h a t s e x e is f r a i l e r t h a n m e n i s . E u r o p e and N e w England. B u t i f a m a n m a k e s d e m a n d s o f a w o m a n t h e n it still t h e w o m a n w h o is a c c u s e d o f w i t c h c r a f t — as in t h e c a s e o f J o h n C h a u n d e l e r a n d E l l e i n e S m i t h e a t t h e 1 5 7 9 t r i a l in C h e l m s f o r d . B e r n a r d ' s Guide to Grand-Jury Men. h e n c e s i n f u l b e i n g . as f o u n d patriarchal relations. w i t h r e g a r d t o social relations in F r e n c h peasant s o c i e t y . which Alice's widowed husband. O n e p a t t e r n w e a r e all familiar w i t h f r o m the trial material involves the suspect asking s o m e o n e a n o t h e r h o u s e h o l d . w h e r e m e n and w o m e n carry out similar activities b u t only w o m e n end up accused o f witchcraft. f r o m t h e s a m e t r i a l . in his The which time and When his chickens eat Mother evidence amongst the construction of 'the Staunton's grain t h r e e o r four dozen o f t h e m die. 2 1 C l i v e H o l m e s n o t e s t h a t T h o m a s C o o p e r . T h o m a s a r g u e s t h a t this s h o w s t h e r e w a s a c o n f l i c t between rather than a struggle b e t w e e n the sexes. supposedly providing t h a t she has b e w i t c h e d t h e m . as w a s w e l l p r o v e d t o b e t r u e . that w o m e n w h o w e r e accused o f witchcraft largely used witchcraft against o t h e r w o m e n . makes him the h o m e l i e r with that sex ever s i n c e . o t h e r household items and even m o n e y . G e n e r a l b e l i e f s a b o u t w i t c h c r a f t in t h e e a r l y m o d e r n p e r i o d w e r e l i n k e d t o s e x / g e n d e r in s u c h a w a y t h a t it w a s e x p e c t e d t h a t w o m e n a n d n o t m e n w o u l d u s e w i t c h c r a f t f o r r e t r i b u t i o n and t o cause h a r m — that is. .h u n t p e r i o d w o m e n w e r e p e r c e i v e d as m o r e l i k e l y t o b e s e x u a l l y d e v i a n t t h a n m e n b e c a u s e in a G o d . In t h i s .280 MARIANNE HESTER PATRIARCHAL RECONSTRUCTION AND WITCH-HUNTING 281 T h e w o m e n a c c u s e d o f w i t c h c r a f t m a y b e s e e n as v i c t i m s o f t h e w i t c h . T h e p a m p h l e t f o r t h e t r i a l t e l l s us t h a t E l l e i n e S m i t h e i n h e r i t e d s o m e m o n e y from Alice. conflict and discourse to gain a b e t t e r understanding o f h o w the c o n s t r u c t 'unneighbourly' others. so it is e a s i e r t o b e i n t r a p p e d in t h e s e g r o s s e s n a r e s o f t h e D e v i l l . A n d sexualisation o f t h e w i t c h e s ' m a r k was m a d e especially a p p a r e n t a f t e r 1 6 3 0 . w a s c o n s t r u e d as witchcraft. witch's magistrates r e c o m m e n d e d that the pre-trial body search for 2 2 material f r o m England. In t h e E n g l i s h t r i a l m a t e r i a l this a l l e g i a n c e w a s e x p l i c i t w i t h s o m e o f t h e l a t e r t r i a l s s u c h as t h e 1 6 4 5 t r i a l s i n E s s e x i n v o l v i n g M a t t h e w H o p k i n s . b u t t h e c o n s t r u c t o f t h e f e m a l e as an a c t i v e l v s e x u a l . u n a b l e t o use the m e a n s 2 6 usually e m p l o y e d by m e n . as b o t h T h o m a s a n d L a r n e r i n d i c a t e . u t e d this s i t u a t i o n t o w o m e n ' s p o s i t i o n a n d g e n e r a l l a c k o f p o w e r in a p a t r i a r c h a l p a b l e o f u s i n g t h e m o r e n o r m a l o r s o c i a l l v a p p r o v e d m e a n s o f r e v e n g e s u c h as o r r e c o u r s e t o law c o u r t s ' . a n d t h e m a n y s u b t l e o r n o t so s u b t l e p r e s s u r e s u n d e r l y i n g s u c h c o n s t r u c t i o n s a n d p o s i t i o n i n g . I h a v e a l r e a d v i n d i c a t e d t h a t T h o m a s in Religion and the Decline of Magic. W h e n refused this. in i t s e l f e x p l a i n w h y w o m e n p r e d o m i n a t e d a m o n g s t t h e a c c u s e d d u r i n g the early m o d e r n period. b o t h E n g l i s h a n d other E u r o p e a n . D e l p h y has p o i n t e d out. W e have to look to the general c o n t e x t o f male—female r e l a t i o n s . W e c a n s e e t h i s p r o c e s s c l e a r l v in t r i a l might ' m a d e an e x p l i c i t a t t e m p t t o c o n f l a t e t h e f a m i l i a r ' s s u c k i n g b l o o d f r o m t h e w i t c h with the continental discussion o f the coven and the w i t c h ' s relationship with Satan'. D a l t o n c i t e s B e r n a r d ' w i t h e n t h u s i a s t i c a p p r o v a l ' . the refuser o r her/his family subsequently suffers death o r i l l n e s s . a d e c a d e l a t e r . b u t this c o u l d also m a k e t h e m appear u l t i m a t e l y stronger o f ' t h e f e m a l e ' b e c a m e s y n o n y m o u s w i t h t h e w i t c h . her mother. W o m e n ' s supposedly insatiable and i m m o r a l sexuality was likely t o lead t h e m i n t o a l l e g i a n c e w i t h t h e D e v i l w h o c o u l d fulfill t h e i r s e x u a l d e s i r e s e v e n b e t t e r . s h o w s us t h a t w o m e n w e r e b y n o m e a n s c o n s i d ered passive or compliant. It w a s m e n w h o s t o o d t o g a i n b y t h e l i n k i n g o f w i t c h c r a f t a n d ' t h e f e m a l e ' b e c a u s e it p r o v i d e d t h e m w i t h a g r e a t e r m o r a l and social status than w o m e n . w i t h t h e p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h e f o u r t h e d i t i o n o f The Country Justice a n d J P . In a n o t h e r i n s t a n c e . does n o t agree that the witch-hunts m a y be linked directly t o male—female c o n f l i c t o r s e x s t r u g g l e . w h e r e a p p a r e n t u s e o f w i t c h c r a f t b e c a m e an a l t e r n a t i v e f o r w o m e n physical v i o l e n c e . i t is T h o m a s P r a t w h o t a k e s M o t h e r S t a u n t o n ' s g r a i n b u t it is M o t h e r S t a u n t o n w h o e n d s u p a c c u s e d o f w i t c h c r a f t . to a more explicit focus on the genitals. in a t e x t o f 1 6 1 7 . so it w a s f e a r e d .h u n t s . p r o v i d e d a fullv a r g u e d t h e o r y by lawyer o f this link. S u b s e q u e n t l y J o h n C h a u n d e l e r d i e s . t h a t it is t h e s e x o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l t h a t d e t e r m i n e s h o w a t a s k is p e r c e i v e d rather than the nature o f the task i t s e l f . t h a n m e r e m o r t a l m e n . a n d b e f o r e his d e a t h states that Elleine b e w i t c h e d h i m so that he was unable t o eat or digest m e a t . T h e a g e . the process o f c o n s t r u c t i o n and positioning o f w o m e n ( b y t h e m s e l v e s . S i n c e w e find f r o m t h e t r i a l m a t e r i a l . b e c a u s e it p r o b a b l y a l l o w e d t h e m g r e a t e r a c c e s s t o r e s o u r c e s a n d p o t e n T h e b e l i e f in w i t c h c r a f t . as a m e a n s o f d e a l i n g w i t h g u i l t a f t e r behaviour.f u l f i l l i n g . s t a t i n g at o n e t h a t she is n o t b u t h a v i n g o n a n o t h e r o c c a s i o n ' r a c e d h e r f a c e w i t h a N e d l e ' subsequently believed himself bewitched. b u t a l s o i m p l i c i t in t h e s y m b o l i s m o f t h e f a m i l i a r a n d t h e w i t c h e s ' m a r k s in o t h e r t r i a l s .o l d f e m a l e s t e r e o t y p e o f t h e w i t c h d o e s n o t . or w h e r e it is w o m e n w h o e n d u p a c c u s e d o f m e n ' s m i s d e m e a n o u r s . from for f o o d . that is. Women were perceived to be morally weak by c o m p a r i s o n with m e n . r e s u l t is t h a t s h e e n d s u p as t h e a c c u s e d . T h e p r o c e s s o f g e n d e r i n g is o f central i m p o r t a n c e : that is. and not d u r i n g t h e s i x t e e n t h a n d s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s . and that accusations w e r e often directed by women women attrib'incaa g a i n s t w o m e n . usually a w o m a n .f e a r i n g a n d d e e p l y s u p e r s t i t i o u s s o c i e t y . b y t h e S e r p e n t s d e c e i v i n g o f E v e at t h e b e g i n n i n g . O t h e r s have m o r e convincingly s o c i e t y . tially l u c r a t i v e c r a f t s a n d t r a d e s t h a n w o m e n . f o r e x a m p l e . . T h e w o m a n m a k i n g t h e d e m a n d is t h e n a c c u s e d o f w i t c h c r a f t . s e x u a l l v d e v i a n t . as T h o m a s s u g g e s t s . t h e r e was a g e n d e r i n g o f e x p e c tations and m e a n i n g s . as I shall d i s c u s s further b e l o w . g e n d e r d i s c o u r s e o f t h e w i t c h . f e m a l e ' as d i f f e r e n t a n d i n f e r i o r t o m e n a n d ' t h e w i t c h ' .

and especially w i d o w s . wdiile s o m e o f t h e w o m e n p r o b a b l y did b e l i e v e t h a t t h e y h a d o r c o u l d h a v e u s e d w i t c h c r a f t . b e s i t u a t e d (as T h o m a s s i t u a t e s t h e m ) w i t h i n t h e w o m e n ' s c o m m u nity. w o m e n a r e o f t e n p l a c e d in t h e p o s i tion o f m o r a l g a t e k e e p e r s w h o socially c o n t r o l o t h e r w o m e n .c l a s s w o m e n . u s e o f w i t c h c r a f t c a n b e s e e n as a p a r t o f t h e day t o d a y a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e ' w o m e n ' s c o m m u n i t y ' b u t — c r u c i a l l y — r e l y i n g o n w i d e r patriarchal g e n d e r e d n o t i o n s o f t h e w i t c h . W e only o f language and m e a n i n g s . this is a s h r e w d t o k e n t h a t s h e is a w i t c h ' . while w o m e n played a m o r e ancillary 2 9 s e e h e r e an e x a m p l e o f t h e g e n d e r i n g behaviour. T h e r o l e w o m e n h a v e in c o n t e m p o r a r y a n d h i s t o r i c a l M i d d l e E a s t e r n a n d N o r t h African societies. T h o m a s d o e s n o t t a k e this u p . a m o n g s t o t h e r t h i n g s . h e a r g u e s t h a t i t was role. H e argues that t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e e m e r g e n t c a p i t a l i s t p r o d u c t i o n (as h a d a l s o b e e n t h e c a s e capitalist . e n c l o s u r e o f c o m m o n l a n d ( a l r e a d y h a p p e n i n g in E s s e x at this t i m e ) ing the space for grazing for w o m e n ' s l i v e s t o c k . b u t o f e x p e c t a t i o n s a b o u t w o m e n ' s At a local level w e thus see w o m e n S e e i n g w i t c h c r a f t as a f o r m o f n e g a t i v e p o w e r a v a i l a b l e t o w o m e n in a p a r t i c u l a r i n e g a l i t a r i a n c o n t e x t is an o v e r a l l p i c t u r e o f t h e w i t c h .t o n g u e d w o m a n shall c u r s e a p a r t y .282 MARIANNE HESTER PATRIARCHAL RECONSTRUCTION AND WITCH-HUNTING 283 Larner. T h o m a s g i v e s n u m e r o u s e x a m p l e s o f c u r s i n g l e a d i n g t o an a c c u s a t i o n o f w i t c h c r a f t . the difficulties o f a g r o w i n g mass o f landless peasants. g r a n d m o t h e r s ) are the ones w h o have the 'privilege' to carry out these operations. and w o m e n w e r e b e i n g e x c l u d e d f r o m c r a f t s a n d t r a d e s s u c h as w e a v i n g a n d b r e w i n g as w e l l as f r o m t h e g u i l d s . Yet while C o o p e r c l e a r l y t a k e s a g e n d e r e d v i e w o f t h e c u r s e r . and r e s u l t a n t p r e s s u r e on r e s o u r c e s . r a t h e r t h a t as an o u t c o m e o f a w i d e r p a t r i a r c h a l c o n t e x t . H o l m e s provides s o m e interesting evidence o f m e n ' s and w o m e n ' s relative social positioning and the p r o c e s s o f formal w i t c h c r a f t accusation suggesting that w o m e n ' s accusations against each o t h e r w e r e indeed s e c o n d a r y to m e n bringing the c a s e s t o c o u r t . T h e r e a r e e x a m p l e s in t h e t r i a l p a m p h l e t s a n d r e c o r d s o f w o m e n w i t c h c r a f t t o b e t t e r t h e i r s i t u a t i o n in m a n y d i f f e r e n t w a y s . In t a k i n g e a r l y m o d e r n E n g l a n d as o u r e x a m p l e . h e m a k e s n o m e n t i o n o f this fact. as a l r e a d y h i n t e d at b y t h e c a s e o f E l l e i n e S m i t h e ' s i n h e r i t a n c e a n d J o h n C h a u n d e l e r ' s c l a i m s on it. a n d it w a s b e t w e e n w o m e n t h a t t h e r e l a t e d t r a n s a c t i o n s o f l e n d i n g a n d b o r r o w i n g w e r e likely t o take p l a c e . t o a l a r g e e x t e n t . S h e is r e c o r d e d as s a v i n g t h a t A l e s w a s m e r e l y a n g r y at J o h n s o n . In t h e t r i a l p a m p h l e t s f r o m E s s e x w e find t h a t . E l i z a b e t h B e n n e t ( w h o is said t o d e n y t h a t s h e h e r s e l f u s e d w i t c h c r a f t ) is s h o w n t o a t t e m p t t o e x p l a i n h o w s h e t h i n k s an a c c u s a t i o n a g a i n s t a n o t h e r w o m a n . c a n b e u n d e r s t o o d in m o r e ' r a t i o n a l ' t e r m s w i t h o u t r e c o u r s e t o w i t c h c r a f t . e c o n o m i c change o f male—female conflict and witchcraft accusation — even if w e c a n n o t always establish a direct link b e t w e e n accused o f witchcraft and specific instances a r o u n d r e s o u r c e s and l i v e l i h o o d s . not 3 1 d e a t h shall s h o r t l y f o l l o w . for instance. U s i n g d a t a f r o m t h e E n g l i s h h o m e c i r c u i t . It is t o o e a s y t o e n d u p b y f o c u s i n g o n w o m e n ' s a c c u s a t i o n s a g a i n s t o n e a n o t h e r as a p r o b l e m r e l a t e d l a r g e l y t o w o m e n a n d w o m e n ' s c o m m u n i t i e s . e c h o e d bv Sharpe. W h e n w e l o o k use does link s o m e o f these e c o n o m i c changes t o the i m p o v e r i s h m e n t and d e p e n d e n c e o f c e r t a i n l o w e r . w e h a v e t o t h i n k o f a s o c i e t y w i t h a r a p i d i n c r e a s e in p o p u l a t i o n . A n u m b e r o f historians have d o c u m e n t e d h o w t h e p e r i o d o f pre-capitalism and early capitalism.l i k e b e h a v i o u r at t h e s a m e t i m e c o n s t r u c t e d t h e m as w i t c h e s — w h e t h e r t h e y w a n t e d this o r n o t . which r e i n f o r c e w o m e n ' s inferiority and sexual servitude to m e n . T h i s m a y also b e u n d e r s t o o d by the m o r e widely a c k n o w l e d g e d c o n c e p t o f the feminisation o f ' p o v e r t y ' — a c o n c e p t that also applies within the p r e s e n t global e c o n o m i c context. b u t also v u l n e r a b l e t o ' p o s s e s s i o n ' and t o b e c o m i n g b e w i t c h e d .h u n t s . a p p e a r s t o b e l i e v e t h a t she c o u l d a n d did u s e w i t c h c r a f t to v i o l e n c e . C o n v e n t s had b e e n c l o s e d during the R e f o r m a t i o n . a l t h o u g h his e x a m p l e s a r e a l m o s t e x c l u s i v e l y o f w o m e n . A t a l o c a l l e v e l . 5 3 o f witchcraft was a m e a n s (albeit negative) bv which w o m e n could increase their using more c l o s e l y at w i t c h t r i a l m a t e r i a l . H e q u o t e s T h o m a s C o o p e r ' s ' s t o c k p a t t e r n ' o f t h e link b e t w e e n cursing and witchcraft accusation: ' W h e n a b a d . or those p r o v i d i n g e v i d e n c e . exacerbated earlier. h o w e v e r . t h a t is as w o m e n ' s p r o b l e m . a n d 2 7 p r o c u r e . b u t w e also see h o w the c o n s t r u c t s w h i c h led t h e m u s e w i t c h . saw a deterioration o f w o m e n ' s r o l e in p r o d u c t i o n . the early m o d e r n p e r i o d . using the m e a n s available t o t h e m to to i m p r o v e their c o n d i t i o n . in a 1 5 8 2 t r i a l at S t O s y t h . t h e c o l l e c t o r f o r t h e p o o r . has a l s o s u g g e s t e d t h a t w h i l e m e n use physical Elizabeth Frauncis. F o r e x a m p l e . b u t they w e r e integrally linked t o and served t o r e i n f o r c e — o r r e c o n s t r u c t — the m a l e status q u o . M a t e r i a l f r o m o t h e r societies and p e r i o d s also g i v e s us s o m e i m p o r t a n t c l u e s a b o u t t h e r o l e w o m e n m a y h a v e in r e l a t i o n t o o t h e r w o m e n . primarily m e n w h o b r o u g h t charges o f witchcraft. yet with decreasing means o f livelihood for women. B y a c t i n g as m o r a l g a t e k e e p e r s t h e y m a v f e e l v a l u e d o r at l e a s t h a v e s o m e p o w e r . p o w e r . a l t h o u g h w h a t she says e n d s u p b e i n g t i e d i n t o t h e evidence against Ales. it is a l s o a p p a r e n t . B y c o n t r a s t .n e u t r a l t e r m s t h a t c u r s i n g ' w a s a m e a n s b y w h i c h t h e w e a k and defenceless tried t o avenge themselves u p o n their e n e m i e s ' . at t h e 1 5 6 6 t r i a l at C h e l m s f o r d o n e o f t h e a c c u s e d . 3 4 Moreover. and that t h e r e are vari o u s i d e o l o g i c a l . then. W i t c h c r a f t accusations m a y t h e r e f o r e . a n d h e n c e w i t c h c r a f t . Chris Middleton i n d i c a t e s t h a t it w a s specificin ally m e n w h o b e c a m e p r e d o m i n a n t in t h e o c c u p a t i o n s w h i c h w e r e f o r e m o s t in t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e earlier feudal p r o d u c t i o n ) . F u r t h e r m o r e . o t h e r s a r e d e s c r i b e d as n o t s h a r i n g t h i s b e l i e f a n d a p p e a r e d t o b e m u c h m o r e sceptical a b o u t w i t c h c r a f t . b u t w e m u s t a l s o b e c a r e ful n o t t o l o s e sight o f t h e c o m p l e x i t y o f m a l e — f e m a l e r e l a t i o n s t h a t s u c h u s e o f w i t c h c r a f t b v w o m e n e n t a i l s . a m o n g s t o t h e r effects r e m o v 3 2 T h o m a s . A l e s N e w m a n . b e c a u s e h e did n o t g i v e h e r t h e h a n d o u t s h e r e q u i r e d . W e find t h a t w i t h i n p a t r i a r c h a l s o c i e t i e s . 3 0 a p a r t o f t h e c o n t e x t u a l b a c k g r o u n d t o t h e e a r l y m o d e r n w i t c h .h u n t s . of carrying out clitorectomies on other w o m e n is a c a s e in p o i n t . with w o m e n outnumbering m e n . and elite ideas a b o u t t h e unruliness o f w o m e n and the n e e d t o c o n t r o l t h e m . b u t . 2 8 s p e e c h e s ' — a r e at t h e s a m e t i m e c o n s t r u c t e d as a sign o f w o m e n ' s as c u r s i n g . w o m e n a r e m o r e l i k e l y t o u s e v e r b a l v i o l e n c e as r e p r e s e n t e d b y c u r s i n g . t h a t w i t c h c r a f t b e l i e i s w e r e bv no means h e g e m o n i c among the w o m e n accused of witchcraft. that is. N a w a l El S a d a w i e x p l a i n s h o w o l d e r f e m a l e r e l a t i v e s ( m o t h e r s . m a t e r i a l a n d p s v c h o l o g i c a l p r e s s u r e s o n t h e m t o d o s o . F i n a l l y I w a n t t o l o o k at t h e m a l e female conflict around r e s o u r c e s that f o r m e d W e n e e d t o c o n s i d e r that w o m e n ' s social position m a d e t h e m vulnerable t o b e c o m i n g w i t c h e s . s h e e p a n d a w e a l t h y h u s b a n d via t h e cat-familiar S a t a n . e v e n i f t h e i r a c t i o n s at t h e s a m e t i m e p l a c e b o t h t h e m s e l v e s a n d o t h e r w o m e n m o r e firmly within p a t r i a r c h v . because the words she uses t o signify a n g e r — ' h a r d e d misdemeanour. T h e r e appears to b e a link b e t w e e n m a l e individuals female relations. as i n d i c a t e d W i t h i n the particular patriarchal c o n t e x t o f early m o d e r n E u r o p e . i n s t e a d c o n c l u d i n g in g e n d e r . w o m e n w e r e o f t e n t h e o n e s in c h a r g e o f t h e d o m e s t i c g o o d s t h e w i t c h r e q u e s t e d .

and thus c o n t r o l of. E v i d e n c e o f w o m e n ' s w o r k .b a s e d t r a d e was domii n h e r i t t h e i r f a t h e r s ' l a n d a n d p r o p e r t y o r e n g a g e in o t h e r p r o d u c t i v e Thus during the period o f the witch-hunts w o m e n ' s w o r k was largely defined by the institution o f marriage. For e x a m p l e . licenses and e c o n o m i c l e g i t i m a t i o n ' . 4 1 Y e t the construction of the alewife and the w i t c h relied on similar t e r m s . T h e c a s e o f b r e w i n g p r o v i d e s an i n t e r e s t i n g e x a m p l e . a n d t h e p o s i t i o n o f w i d o w s as b o t h b r e w e r s a n d a l e . by 1 7 0 0 . conflict We d e p i c t s t h e a l e w i f e E l y n o r R u m m y n g as a g r o t e s q u e sphere. t h a t i s . 3 7 Where the example of brewing is c o n c e r n e d . the e m e r g i n g capitalist e c o n o m i c structure. B e n n e t t suggests that the masculinisation o f t h e b r e w i n g trade had the effect o f changing the e c o n o m i c balance b e t w e e n husbands and w i v e s . a n d p o o r . w h o w e r e still a b l e t o b e b r e w e r s m i g h t t h e r e f o r e p o s e a t h r e a t t o the increasingly male m o n o p o l y o f the trade. O n the other hand. b a l l a d s . 1 7 0 ) . Unmarried women w e r e also Alongside the other e c o n o m i c changes m e n t i o n e d by T h o m a s . B e n n e t t s h o w s c o n v i n c i n g l y h o w t h e p o p u l a r and a l s o n e g a t i v e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e a l e w i f e .l i k e w o m a n ' . Sue Wright s i m i l a r l y p o i n t s o u t t h a t in t h e u r b a n e n v i r o n m e n t o f T u d o r a n d S t u a r t S a l i s b u r y t h e r e w e r e n u m e r o u s w o m e n . a n d d r a w i n g s v u l n e r a b l e in t h e e c o n o m y . w i d o w e d a n d p o s s i b l y o l d e r . 1 6 9 ) was linked t o her d e m i s e . w o m e n accused o f witchwho were among the most c r a f t t e n d e d t o b e t h o s e . a n d m o r e s p e c i f i c a l l y . For instance the earlv sixteenth-century The Tunning of Elynor Rummying and ridiculous old w o m e n . b u t a l s o a c o r r u p t t r a d e s w o m a n w h o sells h e r c u s t o m e r s a d u l t e r a t e d d r i n k a t h a r d d r i v e n p r i c e s in a d i s g u s t i n g a t m o s p h e r e (p. b r e w i n g . B u t t h e y m i g h t a l s o b e a m o n g s t t h o s e in c o m p e t i t i o n w i t h m e n f o r w o r k in l u c r a t i v e a r e a s s u c h as b r e w i n g . patriarchy was maintained within the developing economy. poem. o c c u p a t i o n i n f o r m a l l y r e s e r v e d f o r p o o r w i d o w s d u r i n g this p e r i o d . g o v e r n m e n t with the aim o f imposing stricter regulation and supposedly Bennett concludes: w i t c h c r a f t : s h e e n t e r t a i n e d a c u s t o m e r w h o ' s e e m e d t o b e a w i t c h ' . T h e y w e r e vulnerable to misogynistic a t t a c k o r p o s s i b l y w i t c h c r a f t a c c u s a t i o n as a r e s u l t . p a r t i c u l a r l y w i d o w s . p o e t r y . and w o m e n ' s relative dependence on m e n ensured. t h e link o f this c o n s t r u c t i o n t o t h e w i t c h . allusions t o h e r also b e i n g associated find. b u t it w a s d u r i n g t h e s i x t e e n t h and s e v e n t e e n t h centuries that b r e w i n g brewing finallv changed from a female to a male of the a policy pursued bv occupation. T h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e a l e w i f e as d i f f e r e n t a n d i n f e r i o r t o t h e m a l e b r e w e r o f t e n r e l i e d . as i d e n t i f i e d b y T h o m a s . Overall. a n d a m a l e — f e m a l e p o w e r r e l a t i o n s t a k e s p l a c e in o r d e r t o e n s u r e m a l e d o m i n a n c e . and b o t h served t o justify the social c o n t r o l o f w o m e n and the m a i n t e n a n c e o r r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the patriarchal status quo s e c u r i n g m e n ' s d o m i n a n t position within t h e social o r d e r . J u d i t h B e n n e t t has d o c u m e n t e d h o w t h e e x c l u s i o n o f w o m e n f r o m b r e w i n g t o o k p l a c e o v e r a c o n s i d e r a b l e p e r i o d . w h i c h also had the effect o f ensuring that m e n r a t h e r than w o m e n o b t a i n e d the b e t t e r positions in. 3 8 b a d l y a f f e c t e d : ' T h e y b e c a m e less a n d less a b l e t o c o m p e t e w i t h m e n o r m a r r i e d c o u p l e s for c u s t o m e r s . w h i c h had b e e n a h o m e . B r e w i n g is a c k n o w l e d g e d as an i m p o r t a n t i n d u s t r y in t h e e a r l y m o d e r n p e r i o d .e c o n o m i c c h a n g e s in t h e s i x t e e n t h a n d s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s w e find t h a t t h e p i c t u r e r e g a r d i n g w i t c h c r a f t a c c u s a t i o n a n d women becomes more complex. in a r e a s s u c h as b r e w i n g and weaving. w h o w e r e l i c e n s e d as a l e h o u s e k e e p e r s ( t h e p o o r e n d o f t h e m a r k e t ) b u t few as i n n k e e p e r s ( t h e r i c h e r p a r t o f t h e m a r k e t ) . w h o w e r e m o r e a b l e t o d o s o . 1 7 1 ) . the changes to the b r e w i n g i n d u s t r y m u s t s e r i o u s l y h a v e r e d u c e d t h e e a r n i n g c a p a b i l i t i e s o f village women. p r o c e e d i n g o v e r the course o f several centuries and affecting different regions o f the c o u n t r v at d i f f e r e n t t i m e s a n d in d i f f e r e n t w a y s . c a n i n d e e d find s o m e e v i d e n c e o f a r e a l i g n m e n t o f m a l e h i g h l y u n s c r u p u l o u s t r a d e s w o m a n ( p . F o r w o m e n during the early m o d e r n period m o r e likely to b e financially financial independence was genermarried ally l i n k e d t o t h e i r m a r i t a l s t a t u s . Sylvia W a l b y s u g g e s t s in a d d i t i o n t h a t w h e n t h e r e a r e c h a n g e s in t h e such as changes in production methods. W o m e n o n t h e i r o w n . l a b o u r i n g w o m e n . at t h e of women. a w o m a n could only practise a craft alongside h e r h u s b a n d . the wife very likely b e c o m i n g m o r e d e p e n d e n t on h e r husband. e s p e c i a l l y w i d o w s . d r a m a . with f e m a l e p o w e r r e l a t i o n s in t h e s i x t e e n t h a n d s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s d u e t o t h e m a j o r c h a n g e s t a k i n g p l a c e in t h e e c o n o m y a t t h a t t i m e . on her sexualisation or eroticisation. a n d ' t h e D e v i l a n d s h e b e s i b ' [like b r o t h e r a n d s i s t e r ] ( p . and. p r o p e r t y a n d / o r craft o r trade. f r o m t h e i r h u s b a n d s . w o m e n w e r e d e e m e d s u b o r d i n a t e t o t h e i r h u s b a n d s (as r e f l e c t e d in t h e l a w ) a n d under their husbands' control W i d o w s might inherit their husbands' occasionally activities. land. suggests that t h e r e was a struggle b e t w e e n the sexes around making a living. w h i l e at t h e s a m e t i m e a l l o w i n g m e n t o b e s e e n in a m u c h m o r e p o s i t i v e l i g h t . c a r v i n g s . w o m e n c a r r y i n g o u t a c r a f t o r t r a d e . w a s t h e s t a p l e d r i n k o f m e n . o r in h e r o w n r i g h t as a w i d o w o r as a s i n g l e woman living in h e r father's household. w h o is o f d u b i o u s r e l i g i o u s a n d s e x u a l v i r t u e . she d r e s s e d u p ' a f t e r t h e S a r a c e n ' s g u i s e ' a n d l i k e an E g y p t i a n ' . that is. Excluding w o m e n f r o m b r e w i n g o c c u r r e d alongside the separation ( b y m e n ) f r o m t h e sale ( b y w o m e n ) o f b e e r . B u t t h e i r o v e r a l l e f f e c t clear. B e n n e t t argues that such popular representations u n d e r m i n e d t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e a l e w i f e b y q u e s t i o n i n g h e r g e n e r a l t r u s t w o r t h i n e s s . It is d i f f i c u l t t o t e l l w h e t h e r ale w i v e s o r w o m e n who brewed beer were accused of witchcrait directly. 4 3 nated by w o m e n four centuries earlier. D e p e n d e n t o r in . in p r o s e . 1 7 0 ) . and p r i o r t o the s i x t e e n t h and s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s w o m e n also b r e w e d ale f o r s a l e . and also o p e n i n g up n e w areas for m a l e c o n t r o l . W o m e n d i d t h e b r e w i n g o f ale n e e d e d f o r i m m e d i a t e consumption by the h o u s e h o l d . r 4 0 W i t h r e g a r d t o t h e d i s c u s s i o n in t h i s c h a p t e r t h e r e a r e a n u m b e r o f i m p o r t a n t issues w h i c h a r i s e f r o m t h e e x a m p l e o f t h e b r e w i n g i n d u s t r y . w i d o w s . B y l o o k i n g a t m a t e r i a l c o n c e r n i n g s o c i o . economic 3 5 expense around 3 6 (p. M i c h a e l R o b e r t s d o c u m e n t s h o w t h e selling t o b e w i d o w s . T h e s e i n c l u d e : t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f w o m e n as i n c a p a b l e o f b r e w i n g . as w e l l as i m p r o v i n g t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e b e e r b r e w e d . t h a t i s . 4 2 simpli- f y i n g t h e c o l l e c t i o n o f t a x e s .s e l l e r s . 4 4 It w a s o n l y w i d o w s w h o r e t a i n e d a c c e s s t o b r e w i n g t h r o u g h i n h e r i t a n c e o f ale b e c a m e an 3 9 The women. S h e is a l m o s t a s t o c k figure in m i s o g y n i s t i c l i t e r a t u r e : 'a g r o t e s q u e o l d w i t c h . w e r e independent than married w o m e n because financially. t a k i n g o n his c r a f t . was b e c o m i n g a factory-based industry c o n t r o l l e d by a steadily shrinking g r o u p o f wealthy m a l e s .284 MARIAN NE HESTER PATRIARCHAL RECONSTRUCTION AND WITCH-HUNTING 285 p r o d u c t i o n d e v e l o p e d 'at t h e e x p e n s e o f sexual e q u a l i t y ' . w o m e n a n d c h i l d r e n a t m o s t m e a l s . b e c a u s e b e e r . l i k e the construction o f the witch. s c u l p t u r e . a n d in p a r t i c u l a r ale ( b r e w e d w i t h o u t h o p s ) . and u n m a r r i e d w o m e n might All oi these changes w e r e v e r y s l o w and u n e v e n . we in t h e e x a m p l e o f E l y n o r R u m m y n g .

W a l k e r and E . 181—206. c u r s i n g and in p a r t i c u l a r s c o l d i n g as a specifically f e m a l e o f f e n c e . I n g r a m . 5 . in J . 1 9 8 5 ) . S e e also C . 1975). 5 2 ) .f e m a l e r e l a t i o n s at t h e t i m e . Enemies C . D e l p h y . punishment of women s c o l d i n g appears t o parallel w i t c h c r a f t a c c u s a t i o n in t h a t it b e c a m e m o r e s e v e r e in t h e s a m e p e r i o d as w i t c h c r a f t b e c a m e a m a j o r f e m a l e c r i m e . 1987). Analysis S e e C h a p t e r 2 3 in this b o o k b y G i v e H o l m e s . H . ' A w o m a n u n d e r t h e i n f l u e n c e : a case o f alleged possession in s i x t e e n t h . 1 9 8 6 ) . (Cambridge lists m a n y 1972). U n d e r d o w n . Early 29 Modern England ( C a m b r i d g e 1 9 8 5 ) .c e n t u r v Century Journal. M . 93. Instruments C i t e d in L a r n e r . of God. S c a r r e . Satan. Europe's Inner Demons Maleficarum 1980). a n d b y t a k i n g a d e e p e r l o o k at t h e c o n t e x t o f m a l e female relations than historians h a v e o f t e n t e n d e d t o p u r s u e w i t h r e g a r d t o this p e r i o d a n d t o p i c . w o m e n a c c u s e d as w i t c h e s w e r e o f t e n p r e s e n t e d as s e x u a l l y deviant. K l a i t s . S p r e n g e r . H e s t e r . c h . original indictments o u t c o m e s : Before 21 22 23 24 25 the Bawdy Court ( L o n d o n S e e S h a r p e .h u n t i n g b e c a m e s e x . and Magic in Sixteenth and Seventeenth Century Europe (London 30 31 32 33 34 563. sex-specific. 22 ( 1 9 9 1 ) . in h e r discussion o f s l a n d e r litigation in early m o d e r n L o n d o n . of a 183^. and Wicked Witches (London 1992). 15 F o r a g o o d e x a m p l e o f an a p p r o a c h t o t h e w i t c h . Society. Klaits also appears t o d o c u m e n t this c h a n g e f r o m s e x . Laura G o w i n g . El S a d a w i . Women and Work in Pre-Industrial 1 9 8 5 ) . Forum. Working a l t h o u g h w i t h o u t using t h e s e t e r m s . S e e ' L a n g u a g e . 51. and the Decline Satan ( O x f o r d 1 9 8 2 ) . Courts. K a r l s o n . 4 8 . H o b b y . S. The Women's Renaissance England Marriage in Elizabethan Sex Hair and Sharp ( U r b a n a . Enemies K l a i t s . D70—1640 and using t h e w i t c h c r a z e in s i x t e e n t h and s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y E n g l a n d as case s t u d y ' . Entertaining F r a n c e ' . K l a i t s . S e e A m u s e n . M o n t e r suggests that acts such as i n f a n t i c i d e w e r e also a f o c u s f o r p r o s e c u t i o n o f w o m e n in t h e e a r l y m o d e r n p e r i o d t o a g r e a t e r e x t e n t than had b e e n t h e case p r e v i o u s l y . M a r t i n I n g r a m p r o v i d e s e x t e n s i v e e x a m p l e s and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f such cases f r o m courts: 1987). Hester. An Ordered Women's Studies International M . e d s . ' S c o l d i n g w o m e n c u c k e d o r w a s h e d ' . Servants. 173-40. S e e C h a p t e r 2 0 f o r L a r n e r ' s d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n ' s e x . 562. 1 9 8 5 ) .h u n t s that t a k e s m a l e and f e m a l e 35 C . either way they might b e seen to pose a threat. Revenge (London 1935). An Ordered H . S e e M . in A . C h a r l e s and I. Sixteenth 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 T h o m a s . New Left trial c a p i t a l i s m ' . of God ( L o n d o n 1 9 8 1 ) . and ' W o m e n ' s l a b o u r and t h e t r a n s i t i o n t o p r e . 56. Chapter 5. D u f f i n . [Mother S t a u n t o n ' s ] face w i t h a n e d l e ' similarly s y m b o l i s e d that she was b e i n g p r e s e n t e d in s e x u a l i s e d t e r m s . D e m o s . of Darkness. f r o m t h e mid-sixteenth to the mid-seventeenth century. e d s . The Witch-hunt Satan in Early Modern Europe (London 1 9 8 7 ) . M i d d l e t o n . of S e e S. in C h a r l e s and D u f f i n . Hester. W e can s p e c u l a t e that t o ' r a c e Women. Servants of Magic (Harmondsworth 1973).6 8 . H. Religion. e x p e c t a t i o n s a n d d i s c l o s u r e s c o n c e r n i n g t h e w i t c h in t h e e a r l y m o d e r n p e r i o d w e m a y s u r m i s e t h a t w i t c h . L . W o o d b r i d g e . S e e also D e m o s . (London ( N u r e m b e r g 1 4 9 6 ) . Review. p .1 4 ( 1 9 7 9 ) . 1981). especially within t h e peasantry and a m o n g s t artisans and traders amongst w h o m witchcraft accusations predominated. s e r v i n g as o n e m e a n s o f maintaining and r e c o n s t r u c t i n g male d o m i n a n c e and m a l e p o w e r women. D . 512. S t e v e n s o n . S c o t t . The Feminisation Face of Eve ( L o n d o n Society. ' T h e s e x u a l division o f l a b o u r in feudal E n g l a n d ' . Lewd Women. 520. W a l k e r . Crime and the Courts (London 1994). Lewd Women.s p e c i f i c at t h i s t i m e . The Devil the Shape 16 17 of a Woman (New York 1988). 1 16—36. E. f o r a discussion convicted specifically of of K e r m o d e and W a l k e r .i n d u s - . 8. 4 5 6 7 B . K e r m i d e and G . C l a r k . 5 7 . vis-a-vis was P a t r i a r c h y . p o w e r and t h e l a w ' . N . The Crime and the Courts. C . 5 3 4 — 5 4 . 58-9. Virtue of Necessity S e e A m u s e n . e d s . J . L. W r i g h t .. K r a m e r and J . S h e p h e r d . P . The Death of Nature N o r m a n C o h n . Middle 20 the church (London 1 9 8 8 ) . Enemy: A Materialist of Women's Oppression (London women's Notes 1 2 3 In C h a p t e r 5 o f this c o l l e c t i o n .286 MARIANNE HESTER PATRIARCHAL RECONSTRUCTION AND WITCH-HUNTING 287 c o m p e t i t i o n . Entertaining K a r l s o n . 9 2 . by e x a m i n i n g the p r o c e s s e s involving g e n d e r i n g o f social relat i o n s . 18 19 E . F l e t c h e r and J . 1 1 3 . W o m e n w ere g e n e r r r e l a t i o n s i n t o a c c o u n t at t h e h e a r t o f t h e discussion see C . (Chapel Hill. of Poverty ( B l o o m i n g t o n . A m u s s e n .r e l a t e d t o ( C h i c a g o 1 9 8 6 ) . The Devil in the Shape 166-7. the areas that w e r e particularly r e l e v a n t t o t h e e m e r g i n g capitalist e c o n o m y and also the g r o u p T o c o n c l u d e . A . Servants. 'The in t a m i n g o f t h e s c o l d ' . t h r o u g h b o t h f o r m a l w i t c h c r a f t a c c u s a t i o n and b y legal r e t r i b u t i o n against o t h e r s e x u a l d e v i a n c e . W i l l i a m M o n t e r suggests that sex remains the m o s t important feature o f m o s t witchcraft accusations. H e s t e r . in Women.r e l a t e d ' witchcraft. N C in England 1 m e r e l y r e c o n s t r u c t e d t o m a i n t a i n t h e s t a t u s q u o . M . e d s . England (London Life Woman. K e l l y . E . L e v a c k . f o r i n s t a n c e . T h o m a s . It thus appears t h a t d u r i n g t h e s i x t e e n t h and s e v e n t e e n t h centuries t h e r e w e r e a v a r i e t y o f a t t e m p t s t o c o n t r o l s e x u a l b e h a v i o u r in p a r t i c u l a r and w o m e n specifically. See Ibid. The Hidden H e s t e r . 139-42. Women and the English Class Culture Church and P. (London 1984). O u r u n d e r s t a n d i n g is e n h a n c e d b y c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e c o n f l i c t u a l a n d d y n a m i c m a l e . 28 Thomas. H . p o t e n t i a l l y u n d e r t h r e a t in t h e r a p i d l y c h a n g i n g s o c i e t y . H e a t t r i b u t e s t h e i n c r e a s e d f o c u s o n w o m e n as t h e a c c u s e d d u r i n g t h e early m o d e r n p e r i o d t o 'a d r a m a t i c rise in f e a r and hatred o f w o m e n during the era o f the R e f o r m a t i o n ' (p. Ind. Witchcraft Society ( O x f o r d 1 9 8 8 ) . Order and Disorder H o l m e s p r e s e n t s this a r g u m e n t in C h a p t e r 2 3 . Society. Women and Work. Religion J . Lewd Women in ally in a less advantageous situation than men within the changing economy. that is. S e e I. L a r n e r . 1 4 7 . (London G . Religion. 111. Lewd Women. An Ordered K e i t h T h o m a s . S e e A m u s s e n . Women History of Women in the Seventeenth and Theory Century (London [1919] 1982). An Ordered B . d e s c r i b e s h o w s c r a t c h i n g t h e face and e s p e c i a l l y t h e n o s e o f a w o m a n was a p u n i s h m e n t i n d i c a t i n g that she w a s a w h o r e . 5 1 2 . and J . Malleus M e r c h a n t .s p e c i f i c ' and ' s e x . The Main 1977). Religion. 'The dynamics of male domination 13 ( 1 9 9 0 ) . D i c k e r m a n . 26 27 See M o n t e r . A .

ch. 162. R e w o r k i n g the 236 presentments for Essex. in C h a r l e s and D u f h n . unfortunately. 1 Yet it r e m a i n s c l e a r t h a t c o n s i d e r a b l e w o r k n e e d s t o b e d o n e b o t h in c h a r t i n g t h e s t a t i s t i c a l c o n t o u r s o f s u c h m a t t e r s as p r o s e c u t i o n s b r o u g h t a g a i n s t m e n a n d women. 228. W a t k i n s . Lewd S. o f course. a n d t h e p u n i s h m e n t s i n f l i c t e d u p o n t h e m . M a c f a r l a n e gives t h e o c c u p a t i o n o f o n e husband o f an a c c u s e d w i t c h ( o u t o f f o r t y n i n e k n o w n f o r E s s e x ) as a b e e r b r e w e r . s e e m m o r e conspicuously t r u e t h a n w h e n c o n s i d e r i n g t h e p r o s e c u t i o n o f w i t c h c r a f t in T u d o r a n d S t u a r t c o u r t s . Women Work. W a l b y . M . as w e l l as in u s i n g c o u r t r e c o r d s t o h e l p t o u n d e r s t a n d g e n d e r as a s o c i a l c o n s t r u c t . W r i g h t . 1986). and o f the o p e r a t i o n o f legal svstems. WITCHCRAFT AND THE LEGAL PROCESS 40 41 42 43 44 S. C h a r l e s and D u f f i n . ' M i s o g y n y . An Ordered Bennett. m a l e a n d f e m a l e i n v o l v e m e n t i n l i t i g a t i o n . 1 0 0 — 2 1 . 9 ( 1 9 8 4 ) . t h e s t a t u t e s it e n f o r c e d w e r e d r a w n u p a n d p r o m u l g a t e d by m e n . b e e n a n u m b e r o f w o r k s that have the potential fruitfulness o f various lines o f approach: the different r a t e s o f t h e t w o s e x e s in v a r i o u s t y p e s o f o f f e n c e . we discover that the Y e t even the first 4 and W o r k on compathis made 1630s r a b l e s o u r c e s s u g g e s t s t h a t this r a t e w a s f a i r l y u s u a l f o r t h e i n d i c t m e n t o f m a l e f i c 3 step that might be taken b e y o n d figures simple counting exercise exposes complications. as a b u n d l e o f a s s u m p t i o n s o r a t t i t u d e s about h o w m e n and w o m e n should b e h a v e . at Work ( C a m b r i d g e 169. a r o u n d 9 0 p e r c e n t o f p e r s o n s i n d i c t e d f o r w i t c h c r a f t at t h e H o m e C i r c u i t assizes b e t w e e n t h e p a s s i n g o f t h e E l i z a b e t h a n s t a t u t e in 1 5 6 3 t h e a b o l i t i o n o f l a w s a g a i n s t w i t c h c r a f t in 1 7 3 6 w e r e w o m e n . 'Misogyny'. w i t c h c r a f t in E n g l a n d . Life. again at first sight. B e n n e t t . of Family History. R o b e r t s . " ' C h u r m a i d s . p o p u l a r c u l t u r e . L . e d s . Working M . and w o m e n ' s w o r k ' . m o r e severe w h e n w o m e n are u n d e r consideration. Society. T h e r e have. a n d o n s u c h g e n d e r related (or indeed gender specific) matters as i n f a n t i c i d e and scolding. Patriarchy Journal. Women. and the English c o m m o n law s e e m e d designed t o constrain t h e r i g h t s o f w o m e n as m u c h as p o s s i b l e . S e e A m u s s e n . T HE PROBLEM OF GENDER is o n e t h a t has o n l y r e c e n t l y b e g u n t o a t t r a c t demonstrated participation the attention o f historians o f c r i m e . T h e E n g l i s h l e g a l s y s t e m w a s r u n b y m e n . 31 ( 1 9 9 1 ) . ' S p i n s t e r s \ Journal Women and Work. ' " W o r d s t h e y are w o m e n . o f the l a w . 2 T h e d i f f i c u l t i e s in f o l l o w i n g s u c h a course are. and d e e d s t h e y are m e n " : I m a g e s o f w o r k and g e n d e r in early m o d e r n E n g l a n d ' . and Jim Sharpe WOMEN. 122-80. in I b i d . it w o u l d s e e m t h a t h i s t o r i a n s s t u d y i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n w o m e n a n d t h e l e g a l p r o c e s s in t h e past have had their task r e s t r i c t e d t o doing little m o r e than cataloguing t h e ways in w h i c h w o m e n w e r e d i s a d v a n t a g e d . S e e H e s t e r . . for witchcraft or related matters b e f o r e the A r c h d e a c o n s o f Essex and C o l c h e s t e r b e t w e e n the 1 5 6 0 s and the .288 MARIANNE HESTER C h a p t e r Workshop 22 36 37 38 39 S. Nowhere w o u l d this p r e m i s e . 182. As is w e l l k n o w n . 3 A t first s i g h t t h e n . History C l a r k . 3. p e r h a p s m o s t n o t a b l y in c h u r c h c o u r t s l a n d e r c a s e s . h u s w y f e s and h u c k s t e r s " : T h e e m p l o y m e n t o f w o m e n in T u d o r and S t u a r t S a l i s b u r y ' .

t h r e e m a r r i e d a n d t h r e e w i d o w s . E d w a r d F a i r f a x . T h e m a r k w a s s e e n as a m e t h o d o f establishing g u i l t in some fifteenth-century Continental trials. cases T h e actual m e c h a n i c s by which w o m e n w e r e appointed t o search w i t c h e s varied e n o r m o u s l y . was ' s e a r c h e d by w e o m e n appointed bv a justice o f p e a c e ' . including the alleged victims of witchcraft.290 JIM SHARPE WOMEN. t h e s e a r c h f o r it s h o u l d b e m a d e b y w o m e n . p u b l i s h e d in 1 5 6 6 . a Y o r k s h i r e g e n t l e m a n w h o t h o u g h t t w o o f his d a u g h t e r s w e r e b e i n g b e w i t c h e d . f r o m w h i c h it w a s t h o u g h t t h a t t h e w i t c h ' s f a m i l i a r s u c k e d b l o o d . Perhaps the m o s t r e m a r k a b l e evidence w e have o f the dynamics o f the search f o r t h e m a r k c o m e s f r o m t h e c a s e o f E l i z a b e t h S a w y e r . t o l d in 1 6 5 5 h o w she a n d o t h e r w o m e n w e r e appointed t o search K a t h e r i n e Earle on the direction o f the constable o f their township w h o was h i m s e l f acting under direction f r o m a justice. w h i c h s u g g e s t s a d e g r e e o f official s a n c t i o n i n g o f t h e p r o c e s s . a w i d d o w o f honest reputat i o n ' . S a w y e r resisted the s e a r c h e r s . but whose services w e r e s o e a g e r l y s o u g h t b y t h e p o p u l a t i o n at l a r g e . in a n o t h e r Y o r k s h i r e c a s e .t h i r d s o f t h e c u n n i n g f o l k w h o m M a c f a r l a n e w a s a b l e t o i d e n t i f y in his E s s e x s t u d y w e r e m e n . w e a r e t o l d . w h i c h l o o k e d as t h o u g h it had r e c e n t l y b e e n s u c k e d . WITCHCRAFT AND THE LEGAL PROCESS 291 reveal a male participation rate o f 2 9 per c e n t . a n o t h e r p a r e n t w h o t h o u g h t h e r child t o b e b e w i t c h e d . at F u y s t o n e . n o t e d h o w the suspected w i t c h . figures suggest that w e will have t o refine our standard notions o f the b e t w e e n w o m e n and w i t c h c r a f t at s o m e f u t u r e p o i n t . e x e c u t e d a f t e r t r i a l at t h e M i d d l e s e x S e s s i o n s in 1 6 2 1 . A c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e s e t o p i c s . S a w y e r ' s t r i a l w a s r a t h e r h a n g i n g fire. 1 2 This being incident involved the searching o f a n u m b e r o f suspected witches by local w o m e n . t h o s e ' g o o d ' w i t c h e s w h o a t t r a c t e d so m u c h hostility f r o m the writers o f English demonological tracts. T o u n d e r s t a n d t h e o p e r a t i o n o f t h e l a w in its full c o n t e x t . b u t t h e w o m e n c o n t i n u e d in t h e i r e f f o r t s . c a n o n l y l e a d t o v e r y tentative conclusions. at t h e h o u s e o f w i d o w P u l l e n s . a n d as E n g l i s h t r i a l s p r o g r e s s e d its i m p o r t a n c e r e m a i n e d c e n t r a l . and seek o t h e r points at w h i c h w e can delineate a distinctive f e m a l e contribution t o t h e p r o s e c u t i o n o f w i t c h e s : t h e r o l e o f w o m e n in s e a r c h i n g f o r t h e w i t c h ' s m a r k . w e r e a p p o i n t e d . a Riding justice w h o s e e m s t o have b e e n m u c h i n v o l v e d in w i t c h c a s e s . along with o t h e r felons. consider what we mean by the t e r m 'legal 7 T h a t t h e p r a c t i c e w a s w i d e l y k n o w n at t h i s t i m e is c o n f i r m e d 1 1 b y a t r a c t d e s c r i b i n g t h e p r o s e c u t i o n o f s e v e r a l w o m e n in E s s e x in 1 5 8 2 . ' c o m m a n d e d o f f i c e r s a p p o i n t e d f o r t h o s e p u r p o s e s . a n d e v e n t o s p e c u l a t e a b o u t w h a t w a s g o i n g o n o u t s i d e a r e a s c o v e r e d b y t h e legal r e c o r d . one such group o f searchers d e s c r i b e d as ' w o m e n o f c r e d i t e ' . Arthur R o b i n s o n . England.l i k e g r o w t h in t h e p u d e n d a . S o m e o t h e r cases. intervened. a l t h o u g h t h e t h e n c u r r e n t c u s t o m o f s h a v i n g b o d y h a i r f r o m t h e s u s p e c t s t o facilit a t e t h e s e a r c h d o e s n o t s e e m t o h a v e b e e n f o l l o w e d in E n g l a n d . ' t o p r o c u r e a w a r r a n t f o r s e a r c h i n g t h e said M a r y S i k e s a n d Susan B e a u m o n t ' . T h e w o r d i n g o f t h e r e l e v a n t o r d e r suggests that the practice was already a familiar o n e . . These connection however. A t t h a t p o i n t a j u s t i c e w h o h a d t a k e n c o n s i d e r a b l e i n t e r e s t in t h e c a s e . w i t h w o m e n . 'by a p p o i n t m e n t . a n d t h e s u b s e q u e n t b e h a v i o u r o f c o n d e m n e d w i t c h e s o n t h e g a l l o w s . T h e earliest k n o w n r e f e r e n c e to appointing w o m e n for this task c o m e s . This e v i d e n c e p r o v e d decisive and swung the j u r y against S a w y e r . was d e p e n d e n t on the initiative o f the p e r s o n o f f e n d e d against — the v i c t i m . m o s t c o m m o n l v t o o k t h e f o r m o f a t e a t . t o f e t c h in t h r e e w o m e n to search the body of Elizabeth S a w y e r ' . in a n o t h e r Y o r k s h i r e c a s e . t o h a v e i n v o l v e d an i n t e r p l a y T b e t w e e n official a t t i t u d e s and t h e d e m a n d s o f t h e l o c a l c o m m u n i t y . b r o u g h t in b y t h e o f f i c e r o u t o f t h e s t r e e t e . passing t h e r e b y c h a n c e ' . behaving ' m o s t sluttish a n d l o a t h s o m e l y t o w a r d s t h e m . finger. C o n t e m p o r a r y u s a g e d i c t a t e d t h a t i f t h e d i s c o v e r y o f s u c h a m a r k w a s t h o u g h t vital f o r p r o v i n g w i t c h c r a f t . D o r o t h y R o d e s . w o m e n s h o w e d n o r e l u c t a n c e in a c c u s i n g other women of being witches. S i x w o m e n . 1 0 w e e x a m i n e c u n n i n g m e n a n d w o m e n . w i t h n e i t h e r t h e j u d g e n o r the j u r y apparently having m u c h idea o f w h a t to m a k e o f the evidence b e f o r e t h e m . b a s e d as it m u s t b e o n i m p e r f e c t a n d at t i m e s c o n t r a d i c t o r y m a t e r i a l s . t h e l e g a l p r o c e s s in e a r l y m o d e r n We must. s e a r c h e d f o r m a r k s u p o n Some v e a r s l a t e r . S h e w a s j o i n e d b y ' t w o g r a v e m a t r o n s . however. t h e d i r e c t i o n s e e m s t o h a v e c o m e s i m p l y f r o m t h e l o c a l constable. F o r t h e p r e s e n t . A l i c e P u r s t o n . It a l s o s e e m s t h a t i t g r a d u a l l y b e c a m e a c c e p t e d t h a t t h e m a r k . w hose m e m b e r s w e r e aware o f the n e e d t o search for the m a r k . As I have argued e l s e w h e r e . it is n e c e s s a r y t o g o b e v o n d t h e c o u r t r o o m a n d t h e s t r i c t r u l e s o f legal p r o c e d u r e . 'that keepes the Session House for the City o f L o n d o n . r e c o r d e d h o w in 1 6 2 1 t h e s u s p e c t e d w o m e n w e r e t h e i r b o d i e s ' . 6 F u r t h e r c o m p l i c a t i o n s arise w h e n that half a d o z e n h o n e s t m a t r o n s should b e a p p o i n t e d t o strip w i d o w W a l k e r and t o d e t e r m i n e i f s h e h a d ' e n y b l u d i e m a r k e o n h i r b o d i e w h i c h is a c o m o n t o k e n t o k n o w all w i t c h e s b y ' . t h a t this E l i z a b e t h S a w y e r h a d a p r i v a t e a n d s t r a n g e m a r k e o n her b o d y . t h e c r e d e n t i a l s n e e d e d b y w o m e n s e a r c h e r s w e r e those resulting I r o m g o o d character rather than technical e x p e r t i s e . suggested that w o m e n with some type o f knowledge might be favoured. h o w e v e r . 1 3 it s e e m s safe t o t a k e as o u r s t a r t i n g p o i n t t h a t t h e o v e r w h e l m i n g m a j o r i t y o f p e r s o n s and that a study o f w i t c h c r a f t c o u l d o f f e r a p o t e n t i a l l y f r u i t f u l a p p r o a c h t o t h e s t u d y o f w o m e n ' s i n v o l v e m e n t in pause t o p r o c e s s ' . A male witness r e c o r d e d h o w he w e n t with o n e o f R o d e s ' sons t o H e n r y T e m p e s t . ' T h e Bench'. legal s y s t e m . s t r e s s e d t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e m a r k as a m e a n s o f e s t a b l i s h i n g p r o o f . W h e r e a s o v e r 9 0 p e r c e n t o f t h o s e a c c u s e d at t h e E s s e x assizes f o r w i t c h c r a f t w e r e f e m a l e . t h e b e h a v i o u r o f b o t h w i t c h e s a n d t h e i r a c c u s e r s in c o u r t . O n e a r e a w h e r e w o m e n w e r e o f u n i q u e i m p o r t a n c e in t h e j u d i c i a l t r i a l w i t c h c r a f t w a s in t h e i r b e i n g u s e d t o s e a r c h f o r t h e w i t c h ' s m a r k . a n d . by w h i c h suspition was c o n f i r m e d against h e r ' . in b o t h t h e s e a r e a s f e m a l e p a r t i c i p a t i o n in t h e l e g a l s y s t e m s e e m e d t o b e at l e a s t e q u a l t o t h a t o f m e n . perhaps a little u n e x p e c t e d l y . i n t e n d i n g t h e r e b y t o p r e v e n t t h e i r s e a r c h o f h e r ' . T h e E n g l i s h c r i m i n a l l e g a l s y s t e m w a s an a c c u s a t o r y o n e . This suggests that the legitimation f o r s e a r c h i n g o p e r a t e d at b o t h an official a n d a p o p u l a r l e v e l . T h e leet jury d i r e c t e d As this c a s e s u g g e s t s . 8 I n d e e d . o r o f giving e v i d e n c e against alleged witches. M a r y Sikes. w i d e r e v i d e n c e a b o u t f e m a l e i n v o l v e m e n t as w i n e s s e s in w i t c h c r a f t c a s e s . e a c h o f t h e m d e p o s i n g s e p a r a t e l y t o c o u r t about the results o f the e x e r c i s e . 1 4 W h a t it d o e s d e m o n s t r a t e is t h a t w i t c h c r a f t prosecutions dominated c a n n o t b e i n t e r p r e t e d p u r e l y as t h e o p p r e s s i o n o f w o m e n b y a m a l e a c c o u n t o f a w i t c h c r a f t trial in E n g l a n d . Four years earlier. O n e o f these was Margaret W e a v e r . t h e r e f o r e . t w o . H e told the court that 'information was given unto h i m b y s o m e o f h e r n e i g h b o u r s . accused of malefic witchcraft w e r e w o m e n . A n o t h e r Y o r k s h i r e w i t n e s s . the p r o s e c u t i o n o f w i t c h e s . In this c h a p t e r I s h o u l d l i k e t o t a k e t h i n g s f u r t h e r . on the strength o f N o r t h e r n C i r c u i t assize d e p o s i t i o n s . f r o m t h e c o u r t l e e t o f S o u t h a m p t o n in 1 5 7 9 . T h e y found a teat 'the bignesse o f the little and the length o f halfe a finger'. in l a r g e m e a s u r e . T h e first p a m p h l e t 9 T h e d e c i s i o n t o s e a r c h s e e m s .

by baring t h e i r breasts and kissing o r fondling the m a n . W a l k e r obviously desired that the search that was intended to clear her n a m e should m i r r o r p r o p e r l e g a l p r o c e s s as f a r as p o s s i b l e . explanations 1 9 l i k e a m o u s e h o l e . S o m e t h i n g o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e s e a r c h f o r t h e w i t c h ' s m a r k is c o n v e y e d in t h e e x a m i n a t i o n o f another Yorkshire witch. W o m e n w e r e a l s o f r e q u e n t l y i n v o l v e d as w i t n e s s e s a g a i n s t w i t c h e s . o n e o f t h o s e a c c u s e d o n t h e Isle o f E l y . s o m e t i m e s w i t h o f f i c i a l s a n c t i o n . A m i d w i f e T h e f r e q u e n c y o f r e f e r e n c e s in s u r v i v i n g d e p o s i t i o n s t o w o m e n s e a r c h i n g f o r t h e m a r k s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e p r a c t i c e . and was paid f o r such duties and also r e c e i v e d e x p e n s e s . w a s s e a r c h e d b y f o u r w o m e n in 1 6 5 8 . as t h e c a s e o f E l i z a b e t h S a w y e r s u g g e s t s . or near juries. a Y o r k s h i r e w i t c h . p e r h a p s . Katherine Earle. was widespread and culturally familiar. b u t the o p e r a t i o n o f t h e c h u r c h c o u r t s still m a d e o c c a s i o n a l u s e o f w o m e n as e x p e r t s in s e x u a l c a s e s . T h i s p o i n t is r e i n f o r c e d by a r e m a r k a b l e c a s e f r o m O x f o r d s h i r e in 1 6 8 7 . one o f which penetrated her shoulder. T h e s u s p e c t e d w i t c h a t t r i b u t e d this t o an i n j u r y s u s t a i n e d w h i l e c a r r y i n g a b u n d l e o f thorns. P h i l i p s w a s i n v o l v e d as a w i t n e s s in s o m e o f t h e e a r l y E s s e x t r i a l s in t h e s p r i n g o f 1 6 4 5 a n d . t h e g o o d reputation and g o o d c o n d u c t . B y this t i m e . T h u s w h e n .292 JIM SHARPE WOMEN. 1 5 o f a g e n t l e m a n . severall w i c k e d & mallicious persons enveing the g o o d n a m e . M o s t f a m i l i a r . any widow her Bridget Reynolds searched one o f the Essex witches. b o t h c r i m inal and civil. M a r y A r m i t a g e . M a r y P h i l i p s . w h e n the accuracy o f the plea was tested by 'honest w o m e n ' w h o . T h e exceptionally rich documentation provided by the Matthew named and H o p k i n s t r i a l s o f 1 6 4 5 — 7 s h o w s a n u m b e r o f t h e m in a c t i o n . while several o f t h e m offered those searching t h e m f o r t h o s e p h y s i c a l p e c u l i a r i t i e s w h i c h r i s k e d b e i n g i d e n t i f i e d as t h e w a t c h ' s m a r k . N o t all o f t h e w o m e n s e a r c h e d . t h e a t t e n t i o n o f t h e j u r y of women searchers w a s clearly r e c o g n i z e d . it s e e m s c e r t a i n t h a t s i m i l a r s e a r c h e s . O t h e r s m i g h t c l a i m a m o r e g e n e r a l e x p e r t i s e . T h i s last c a s e r e m i n d s us t h a t t h e f e m a l e s e a r c h e r s o f f i c i a l l y s a n c t i o n e d t o s e a r c h w o m e n w e r e but one o f a n u m b e r of types o f juries. T h e y did n o t s e r v e as m a g i s trates or jurors b u t the authority derived f r o m the crucial evidence o f their 'special k n o w l e d g e ' w a s a d r a m a t i c r e v e r s a l o f t h e i r g e n e r a l l y p o w e r l e s s r o l e s as p e t i t i o n e r s . This practice seems to have b e e n discontinued by the sixteenth c e n t u r y . J o a n W a l k e r o f B i c e s t e r . a n d a s u s p i c i o u s h o l e a q u a r t e r o f an i n c h d e e p w a s f o u n d o n h e r r i g h t s h o u l d e r . w a s t h e u s e m a d e b y f e m a l e j u r i e s in e x a m i n i n g w o m e n w h o c l a i m e d t o b e p r e g n a n t a f t e r conviction for felony. t h i s u s e o f f e m a l e j u r i e s o r less f o r m a l g r o u p s o f f e m a l e executed. o u t o f w h i c h being pressed issued b l o o d : that they w e r e n e i t h e r piles n o r e m r o d s (for she k n e w b o t h ) b u t e x c r e s s e n c e s like t o biggs with nipples w h i c h s e e m e d as i f t h e y h a d b e e n f r e q u e n t l y s u c k e d . by ' s o m e t h a t w e r e t h e r e w h o p [ r e ] t e n d e d t o h a v e skill in t h e d i s c o v e r y o f w i t c h e s ' 1 8 T h e Hopkins episode a l s o s a w t h e e m e r g e n c e o f a w o m a n w h o c l e a r l y a t t a i n e d a r e g i o n a l r e p u t a t i o n as a s e a r c h e r f o r t h e w i t c h ' s m a r k . A n n e t h e w i f e o f T h o m a s S a v o r y o f U p w e l l in N o r f o l k w a s e x a m i n e d w h o 'sayd that s o m e o f the divles i m p e s had sucked h e r ' . T o clear herself. again in E s s e x . o f c o u r s e . again d u r i n g t h e H o p k i n s t r i a l s . Elizabeth Harvey. w h o have had the examinacion of the young w e n c h ' . credit & reputacon fame. s e e m s t o h a v e a c q u i r e d a w i d e r r e p u t e as a r finder o f the witch's mark. e x i s t i n g as it did o n t h e p e r i p h e r i e s o f t h e legal process. o f a m a r k e b e t w e e n e h e r e t h i g h s as w e l l as t h a t o f b e h i n d h e r e a r e s h e at first a n s w e r e d t h a t s h e did n o t k n o w o f i t . w e find a m i d w i f e b e i n g a p p o i n t e d t o s e a r c h the b o d y o f a s u s p e c t e d w i t c h 'in the p r e s e n c e o f s o m e s o b e r w o m e n ' . p e t i t i o n e d t h e b e n c h in t h a t y e a r . o f female e x p e r t s w h o w e r e c a l l e d in t o a d j u d i c a t e in a n u m b e r o f l e g a l m a t t e r s . The English mediaeval ecclesiastical courts had sought female assistance in cases o f a n n u l m e n t o f m a r r i a g e o n the g r o u n d s o f the h u s b a n d ' s i m p o t e n c e . it w a s r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e s u s p i c i o n w a s n o t f o u n d e d m e r e l y on ' c o m m o n r e p o r t ' . w i d o w W a l k e r r e q u e s t e d that t h e b e n c h should o r d e r that she 'may be searched by foure & t w e n t y honest sober iudicious matrons & m a k e r e p o r t o f t h e i r o p i n i o n s at n e x t s e s s i o n s ' . in 1 5 9 5 . 2 1 investigators constitutes a part o f the legal p r o c e s s that m u s t m o d i f y the general assertion that w o m e n w e r e e x c l u d e d f r o m official p a r t i c i p a t i o n in i t . T h i s she did. . 2 0 Although the point needs further investi- g a t i o n . while W a l k e r ' s suggestion that she s h o u l d b e s e a r c h e d b y ' f o u r e & t w e n t y ' w o m e n is i n s t r u c t i v e . and w h o h e n c e h o p e d to delay o r evade being T o g e t h e r . a n d t h a t in i t w e r e t w o l o n g b i g g s . Earle asked w h y s h e did n o t t e l l t h e w o e m e n t h a t s e a r c h e d . and t h e n tried by a trial j u r y o f a n o t h e r t w e l v e . a m a n f r o m B a r k i n g in E s s e x w a s p r e s e n t e d f o r i n c e s t w i t h his d a u g h t e r . Five w o m e n g a v e e v i d e n c e a g a i n s t J o a n S a l t e r . d e p o s e d h o w t h e y f o u n d t h r e e t e a t s in h e r p r i v y p a r t s ' w h i c h t h e m i d w i f e a n d t h e rest o f these i n f o r m a n t s have n o t seen the like o n the b o d y o f any o t h e r w o m a n ' . C e r t a i n l y . . A c r i m i n a l a c c u s a t i o n at t h e s e s s i o n s o r assizes t y p i c a l l y w o u l d b e s c r e e n e d b y a g r a n d j u r y o f t w e l v e o r so m e n . s h e w as b r o u g h t in b y t h e a u t h o r i t i e s o f A l d e b u r g h in S u f f o l k t o s u p e r vise o t h e r w o m e n searching s u s p e c t e d w i t c h e s t h e r e . t o t h e e f f e c t t h a t d e s p i t e L a t e r in t h e c e n t u r y . a n d at this s o c i a l l e v e l . w o u l d b e m a d e b v w o m e n in i n f a n t i c i d e a n d r a p e c a s e s . WITCHCRAFT AND THE LEGAL PROCESS 293 M i d w i v e s w e r e . w h e r e a t t h e w o m e n l a u g h i n g she p [ r e ] s e n t l v a f t e r said i t c a m e b y a b u r n e a n d s h e h a d it 3 6 y e a r e s . a n d t h a t t h e p e r s o n s a b u s i n g h e r s h o u l d b e b o u n d o v e r t o a p p e a r t h e r e . She explained that the thorn ' c o n t i n e w e d t h e r e about a yeare b e f o r e itt could b e g o t t out and caused a great swelling and since that t y m e t h e r e hath b e e n e a little hole upon h e r s h o u l d e r ' . s u b m i t t e d willingly. J o a n S a l t e r e x p l a i n e d t o an i n v e s t i g a t i n g j u s t i c e t h a t ' t h e m a r k e s t h a t s h e h a t h a b o u t h e r a r e n o t t h e m a r k e s o f a w i t c h b u t c a u s e d as i t p l e a s e t h G o d s h e b e l e a v e t h b y c h i l d b e a r i n g ' . a t t e m p t e d t o arouse h i m s e x u a l l y . witnesses or parties t o litigation. 1 6 S o m e m i d w i v e s clearly felt t h e m s e l v e s able t o give e x p e r t e v i d e n c e in w i t c h c r a f t 17 cases. f o r r e a s o n s w h i c h r e m a i n e l u s i v e . H e n c e . b u t also ' u p o n the assertion o f h o n e s t w o m e n . T h e H o m e . uniquely qualified t o c o m m e n t on irregularities in the female genitals. and i n f o r m e d the author o f the narration o f the case t h a t s h e n e v e r s a w t h e l i k e in h e r l i f e : t h a t h e r f u n d a m e n t w a s open o f your p e t i t i o n e r ] have uniustly & without g r o u n d o r c o l l o [ u ] r o f r e a s o n given o u t in s p e e c h e s that y o u r p e t i t i o n e r ] is a w i t c h w h i c h o d i o u s n a m e y o [ u ] r p e t i t i o n e r ] u t t e r l y a b h o r s & d e t e s t s & all t h e w o r k s o f t h e d e v i l l .

She told h o w W e n h a m had b e w i t c h e d a child o f hers a b o u t nine years previously. Elizabeth W i l l o u g h b y was o n e o f those giving e v i d e n c e on Hathaway's behalf before the sceptical Chief Justice H o l t . T h e official d o c u m e n t a t i o n e n g e n d e r e d b y an E n g l i s h c r i m i n a l trial in this p e r i o d r a r e l y s h e d s m u c h l i g h t o n t h e s e m a t t e r s . although invaluable for illustrating other m a t t e r s . on the strength C i r c u i t assize d e p o s i t i o n s . to w h i c h she a n s w e r e d 'she was a p o o r w o m e n . t h a t . c o m p l a i n e d t h a t ' t h e w i n d w a s so l o u d . t o a p r e p o n d e r a n c e o f w o m e n w i t n e s s e s in t h e 1 6 6 0 s a n d 1 6 7 0 s . w e r e essentiallv pre-trial d o c u m e n t s that by their very n a t u r e u s u a l l y t e l l us n o t h i n g o f w h a t h a p p e n e d in c o u r t .294 JIM SHARPE WOMEN. m a l e and f e m a l e alike. T h u s in 1 5 8 6 J o a n C a s o n . a n d t h e t h r o n g s o g r e a t . a b o u t this c l a i m . a n d f e m a l e i n t e r a c t i o n in e a r l y m o d e r n England. p o w e r . Such in 1 6 8 5 w a s n o t o n e in w h i c h w i t n e s s e s m i g h t u s u a l l y e x p e c t i n d u l g e n t a t t i t u d e s from judges. j u d g e s m u s t h a v e p l a y e d a m a j o r p a r t in h e l p i n g a c c u s e d w i t c h e s e v a d e e x e c u t i o n . t h a t w o m e n f e l t n o q u a l m s a b o u t g i v i n g 2 2 e v i d e n c e against f e m a l e w i t c h e s . and the child had n o friends able t o b e a r the charges o f such a p r o s e c u t i o n ' . while depositions. asked sarcastically if Field had n o w g r o w n r i c h . Cason. a n d s h e r e p l i e d t h a t s h e h a d b e e n b e w i t c h e d as a c h i l d . i f n o t t h e a b s t r a c t p o s s i b i l i t y o f w i t c h c r a f t . a n d at ' a s t r a n g e h o w l i n g in t h e c o u r t t o t h e g r e a t d i s t u r b a n c e o f t h e Temperance L l o y d . S e v e n w o m e n a n d o n e m a n . of Northern 1657. a n d as y e t b a r e l y i n v e s t i g a t e d w e b o f a s s u m p t i o n s a b o u t g e n d e r . 2 3 C o n v e r s e l y . 2 4 By the later seventeenth century. m o r e r a m s h a c k l e . O n e o f t h o s e giving e v i d e n c e against h e r was Elizabeth F i e l d . a n d d e m o n s t r a t e its h o s t i l i t y t o t h e a c c u s e d so f o r c e f u l l y . claiming that h e r adversaries w e r e maliciously accusing h e r and that t h e r e w e r e e x i s t i n g d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e m in w h i c h h e r a c c u s e r s h a d a l r e a d y d o n e her w r o n g . r e c o r d e d h o w d u r i n g h e r t r a v e l s in C o r n w a l l s h e w a s i n v e s t i g a t e d as a w i t c h . O n these figures. A n n a T r a p n e l . T h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e s e figures is e m p h a s i z e d w h e n w e c o m p a r e t h e m t o t h e g e n d e r r a t i o o f all w i t n e s s e s c a l l e d t o g i v e e v i d e n c e in f e l o n y c a s e s in Hertfordshire between 1 6 1 0 a n d 1 6 1 9 . W e r e t u r n t o t h e n o t i o n t h a t t h e c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n w o m e n a n d w i t c h c r a f t lav j I f t h e t r e a t m e n t o f w o m e n w i t n e s s e s v a r i e d .t r y i n g w o m a n l o o k e d in m v f a c e . i t did n o w a y d i s m a y m e ' . It is p o s s i b l e t o p u s h b e y o n d s t a t i s t i c s o c c a s i o n a l l y . 2 9 n o t o n l y in t h e g e n d e r o f t h e a c c u s e d . t h e r e 9 2 m e n a n d 8 2 w o m e n w e r e c a l l e d t o g i v e e v i d e n c e in w o m e n w e r e o v e r 11 t i m e s m o r e l i k e l y t o a c t as w i t n e s s e s in w i t c h c r a f t t r i a l s at t h e assizes t h a n t h e y w e r e in all f e l o n y c a s e s . Jane W e n h a m . so did t h a t o f t h e w o m e n a c c u s e d o f w i t c h c r a f t . 2 6 steadfastly Margaret Landish. a n e a r l y e v e n s p l i t . a n d t h a t a c l e r g y m e n h e l p e d t o f r a m e an i n d i c t m e n t against h e r . judges w e r e . 2 5 O t h e r cases o f w h a t a m o u n t e d a l m o s t t o defiance w e r e r e c o r d e d . a n d t o r e c o n s t r u c t s o m e t h i n g o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f w o m e n in t h e c o u r t r o o m . t h e I n t e r r e g n u m r e l i g i o u s v i s i o n a r y . although a bungle o v e r legal technicalities led t o h e r e x e c u t i o n . at l e a s t o f t h e g u i l t o f t h e individual old w o m e n b r o u g h t b e f o r e t h e m . T h e H o m e C i r c u i t r e c o r d s also suggest that the 46 proportion of w o m e n witnesses increased over the seventeenth centurv. w e r e the accused being a Hertfordshire often browbeaten woman named or r i d i c u l e d b y t h e j u d i c i a r y . o n e o f t h r e e w i t c h e s e x e c u t e d at E x e t e r in A l l this w a s b a d e n o u g h f o r t h e a c c u s e d . at h e r t r i a l f o r w i t c h c r a f t . 6 3 1 ( o r 52 per c e n t ) involved m e n and 576 ( o r 4 8 p e r c e n t ) w o m e n . T h e j u d g e . N e v e r t h e l e s s . a l l e g e d m a l i c e a n d an o l d g r u d g e a g a i n s t h e r at h e r t r i a l . 2 7 cases w o u l d s e e m t o support the conclusion advanced e l s e w h e r e . witchcraft and w i t n e s s e s . O f t h e s e . b u t e v e n g i v i n g e v i d e n c e c o u l d b e a stressful e x p e r i e n c e . a n d less s e e m l y t h a n t h o s e o b t a i n i n g in a m o d e r n s u c h l i k e . Y e t in o t h e r i n s t a n c e s w o m e n a c c u s e d o f w i t c h c r a f t in t h e c o n f u s i n g a n d h o s t i l e e n v i r o n m e n t o f t h e c o u r t m i g h t find t h e m s e l v e s u n d e r h e a v y p r e s s u r e . O t h e r sources can be and court m o r e r e v e a l i n g a n d . t h e r e w e r e signs o f w o m e n w i t n e s s e s being t r e a t e d w i t h p o l i t e n e s s . d i a r i e s . 3 2 3 1 S o m e t i m e s t h e t h r o n g in t h e c o u r t d u r i n g a w i t c h c r a f t t r i a l m i g h t b e so o p p r e s s i v e . In 1 7 1 2 t h e r e o c c u r r e d t h e last k n o w n assize t r i a l f o r in E n g l a n d . 3 0 John A u b r e y n o t e d t h a t at t h e t r i a l o f a w i t c h in 1 6 5 3 ' t h e s p e c t a t o r s m a d e s u c h a n o i s e that the judge could not hear the prisoner nor the prisoner the judge. one point made whole b e n c h ' . w h o was sceptical. from w o m e n t o 8 0 m e n in 1 6 0 0 — 0 9 . gave e v i d e n c e against h e r . w a s t r i e d at t h e b o r o u g h s e s s i o n s f o r i n v o k i n g evil s p i r i t s a n d b e w i t c h i n g a c h i l d t o d e a t h . m e m o i r s . as R o g e r N o r t h r e c o r d e d o f o n e p o s t . examination by justices and m o b pressure on the way to the place o f trial. a n d f r o m i s o l a t e d r e f e r e n c e s in l e t t e r s . a r a t i o o f over twelve male witnesses to each f e m a l e . scept i c a l a b o u t . and s o m e t i m e s n o t truly reported'. while admitting c o n t a c t with what may have b e e n familiars. Holt asked her what skill s h e h a d in m a t t e r s o f w i t c h c r a f t . t h e j u d g e m i g h t b e p r e s s u r e d i n t o c o n v i c t i n g a g a i n s t his i n c l i n a t i o n s . p o o r p e o p l e b u t h e r n e a r n e i g h b o u r s . T h e j u d g e asked w h y she had n o t p r o s e c u t e d W e n h a m i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r this i n c i d e n t . An o b v i o u s l y u n c o n v i n c e d j u d g e H o l t w a s v e r y r e s t r a i n e d in his s u b s e q u e n t q u e s t i o n i n g 2 8 In t h e s a m e d e c a d e . o n e o f the Essex witches a c c u s e d in 1 6 4 5 . 8 w o m e n a l o n e in E s s e x in 1 6 5 0 . scatt e r e d e v i d e n c e s u g g e s t s t h a t a f e w w o m e n w e r e a b l e t o d e f e n d t h e m s e l v e s in c o u r t . ' b u t though he and the w i t c h . In i s o l a t e d c a s e s . broadly speaking. b u t a l s o in a m u c h w i d e r . as w e shall s e e . S o m e n o t i o n o f typical conditions can b e gained f r o m the case o f M a r y S p e n c e r w h o . WITCHCRAFT AND THE LEGAL PROCESS 295 C i r c u i t assize r e c o r d s r e v e a l t h a t t h e r e w e r e 1 2 0 7 calls f o r w i t n e s s e s a t w i t c h t r i a l s between 1 6 0 0 and 1 7 0 2 . t h a t she c o u l d n o t h e a r t h e e v i d e n c e a g a i n s t h e r ' . s o m e t h i n g c a n b e c o n s t r u c t e d f r o m p a m p h l e t a c c o u n t s o f t r i a l s . In t h a t d e c a d e 5 7 2 m e n a n d 3 6 women w e r e c a l l e d t o g i v e e v i d e n c e in f e l o n y c a s e s at t h e H e r t f o r d s h i r e a s s i z e s . C h a n d l e r . L o w c o n v i c t i o n r a t e s at t h e assizes s u g g e s t t h a t t h r o u g h o u t t h e p e r i o d o f the operation o f the English witch statutes. t h e r e m i g h t b e a h e a v y p r e p o n d e r a n c e o f w o m e n w i t n e s s e s : 1 4 w o m e n t o 3 m e n in K e n t in 1 0 w o m e n t o 5 m e n in S u r r e y in 1 6 6 4 . w h e n c o n v i c t i o n s w e r e v e r y r a r e . o f w h a t h a p p e n e d in t h e p u s h a n d s h o v e o f a c o u r t in s e s s i o n . t a k i n g t h e H o m e C i r c u i t as a w h o l e . T h e g e n e r a l p o i n t t o b e m a d e is t h a t c o u r t p r o c e e d i n g s w e r e m o r e d i s o r o f law. T h e c e n t u r v which witnessed the judicial style o f judge Jeffreys . denied bewitching the child t o death. d e r l y .w e s t . Such w o m e n w e r e unlikely t o m o u n t m u c h by way o f a c o h e r e n t d e f e n c e against the charges levelled against t h e m . H e r arguing convinced the R e c o r d e r o f Faversharn o f her i n n o c e n c e . In 1 7 0 2 R i c h a r d H a t h a w a y w a s t r i e d as a c h e a t f o r a c c u s i n g Sarah M o r d u c k o f w i t c h c r a f t . T h e i n d i c t m e n t is a n o t o r i o u s l y a r i d d o c u m e n t . In m a n y c a s e s t h e a c c u s e d w e r e e l d e r l y w o m e n w h o h a d b e e n c o w e d b y the experiences o f c o m m u n i t y hostility. much more female c o m p l e x . a n d t h a t t h i s e x p e r i e n c e h a d g i v e n h e r i n s i g h t i n t o s u c h m a t t e r s . witchcraft cases. a w i d o w o f F a v e r s h a m in K e n t . Such instances t h r o w light o n w h a t is still o n e o f t h e p r o b l e m a r e a s o f E n g l i s h legal h i s t o r y : t h e v e r y b a s i c i s s u e o f h o w t r i a l s w e r e a c t u a l l y c o n d u c t e d . but the words w e r e handed f r o m o n e to the o t h e r by M r R.R e s t o r a t i o n c a s e in t h e s o u t h . and w h o was subsequently to reprieve W e n h a m after c o n v i c t i o n .

sometimes Although m a n y an ' i n n o c e n t . a r e s o m e t i m e s v e r y l o n g a n d v e r y h a r r o w i n g . a n d c h e a r f u l l y ' . exhorted nine or m o r e times to confess by the Ordinary o f N e w g a t e . T h e accounts of t h e s u f f e r i n g s o f s u c h p o s s e s s e d p e r s o n s . and w e r e carried o u t ' . T h e girls' father n o t e d t h a t ' r e p o r t said t h a t it w a s n o t s o c i v i l as I e x p e c t e d f r o m s u c h m e n . O n e o f t h e r e c u r r i n g t h e m e s o f English w i t c h c r a f t was the possession o f v o u n g p e o p l e by spirits sent by a w i t c h . t h e d u b l i n g & s w e l l i n g o f h i r b o d y ' in c o u r t . o n e witness referring to the 'gogling o f hir heade & eyes. 39 i n t o a m o n s t r o u s and vast b i g n e s s . 4 2 Anne s i m i l a r l y w e n t i n t o fits at t h e t r i a l o f t w o o f t h e w o m e n w h o h a d a l l e g e d l y b e w i t c h e d h e r . v e r y a n n o y e d w h e n t h e s h e r i f f t o l d h e r s h e c o u l d n o t b e b u r i e d at t h e g a l l o w s . it is c l e a r t h a t b e i n g p o s s e s s e d a n d l a u n c h i n g a w i t c h c r a f t a c c u s a t i o n and t o e x e r c i s e p o w e r o v e r adults. S h e r e f u s e d . H e r e x e c u t i o n w a s . T h u s w h e n w a s t h e r e s u l t o f d i v i n e j u s t i c e . In f a c t . w h o w a s t h o u g h t t o b e b e w i t c h e d in 1 6 0 2 . T h e t h r e e s t r o n g m e n w h o c a r r i e d t h e g i r l out o f c o u r t declared that they had ' n e v e r carried a heavier b u r d e n ' . t o confess t h e m a t t e r s f o r w h i c h she had b e e n c o n v i c t e d . a n d at t h e g a l l o w s r e a d t o h e r t h e c o n f e s s i o n t h a t she h a d m a d e e a r l i e r . a n d t o d i e as a l a m b ' . the turning o f h e r a r m e s a n d h a n d s . like any o t h e r f e l o n . B u t w h e n s h e c a m e o u t o f h e r fits. should ' m a k e a g o o d e n d ' . and t h e girl fell i n t o fits b e f o r e t h e j u d g e . A s h b y c o n f e s s e d t o c o p u l a t i o n t h e D e v i l . and 3 4 W h e n e x a m i n i n g g e n d e r as an a s p e c t o f w i t c h gave M o r e c o m m o n l y . T h e R e c o r d e r o f L o n d o n a n d o t h e r officials t e s t e d t h e g e n u i n e n e s s o f h e r fit b y b u r n i n g h e r h a n d until it b l i s t e r e d : the girl r e m a i n e d i n s e n s i b l e . this p r o c e s s w o u l d b e e n t r u s t e d t o a c l e r g y m a n . b a s h f u l l g i r l e .296 JIM SHARPE WOMEN. b u t a l s o m a d e t h e m the centre of attention. f r e q u e n t l y i n v o l v i n g fits a n d c o n v u l s i o n s . W h a t is s t r i k i n g . 3 6 C a s o n d i e d at F a v e r s h a m in 1 5 8 6 s h e m a d e a g a l l o w s s p e e c h a c c e p t i n g t h a t h e r f a t e B u t n o t all d i e d so e d i f y i n g l y . at t h e g a l l o w s s h e r e f u s e d t o c o n f e s s . As s h e w a l k e d t o t h e g a l l o w s . a n d in o p e n c o u r t ' f e l l i n t o an e x t a s i e b e f o r e t h e b e n c h . she h a d as m a n v p r a y e r s a l r e a d y as she i n t e n d e d . at t h e p l a c e of e x e c u t e d at T y b u r n in execution. c a l l i n g f o r b e e r . f o r u n c l e a r r e a s o n s . d a u g h t e r o f a L o n d o n s h o p k e e p e r . t h e i r c u r i o s i t y f o u n d n o t h i n g b u t s i n c e r i t y in m y children'. a n d m a d e s o g o d l y an e n d t h a t m a n y w h o previously b e e n her enemies lamented her d e a t h . the p r o g r e s s o f w i t c h trials was d i s t u r b e d b y sufferings of c r a f t . their behaviour w h e n attracted considerable c o m m e n t f r o m c o n t e m p o r a r y o b s e r v e r s . be excessive. A t this p o i n t t h e e x e c u t i o n e r c o m m e n t e d t h a t ' t h e O r d i n a r y m i g h t b e a s h a m e d t o t r o u b l e a d y i n g w o m a n so m u c h ' . as 3 3 M a r g a r e t M u s c h a m p . w o u l d b e p r e p a r e d f o r d e a t h . a n d did l a m e n t e x t r e m e l y . A p p r o p r i a t e l y e n o u g h . Joan had In a n o t h e r c a s e . ' w h o c o m f o r t e d her to bear death Christianly. a n d d u r s t d o n o o t h e r w i s e ' . i n f a c t . s h e a n s w e r e d . T h i s s t o r y d o e s at l e a s t d e m o n strate that c o n v i c t e d w i t c h e s c o u l d b e o b d u r a t e at t h e g a l l o w s . w h i l e she w a s a l s o . a n d b e i n g a s k e d w h e t h e r she d e s i r e d t h e p r a y e r s o f a n y o f t h e p e o p l e . w h e t h e r in t h e c o u r t r o o m o r n o t . less t h a n e d i f y i n g . a n d i n d u l g e in b a d b e h a v i o u r t h a t w a s n o t o n l v l i c e n s e d . Justices p r e s e n t f o l l o w e d the girls o u t . and indeed h a v e b e e n r e g a r d e d as a d e e p e r a f f r o n t t o s o c i a l n o r m s t h a n t h a t o f y o u n g m a l e s . w a s . it s e e m s t h a t m o s t o f t h e c a s e s o f fits a n d c o n v u l s i o n s o c c u r r i n g in c o u r t o f w h i c h d e t a i l s h a v e c o m e d o w n t o us i n v o l v e d young w o m e n . she w a s ' v e r y d e s i r o u s f o r d r i n k . S o m e t h i n g o f t h e d i v e r g e n c e in t h e n o r m a l e x p e c t a t i o n s o f a y o u n g w o m a n ' s b e h a v i o u r a n d t h a t o f t h e p o s s e s s e d a d o l e s c e n t g i r l in t h e p r e s e n c e o f a j u d g e c a n b e . t o w h i c h t h e c l e r g y m a n r e s p o n d e d t h a t ' h e w a s c o m m a n d e d t o d o s o . likewise 'fell i n t o a t r a n c e b e f o r e the j u d g e . A n n B o d e n h a m . v o m i t i n g r Another distraction to the court was offered with swelled b y A n n e A s h b y . t r i e d at t h e B e r k Gunter. w h i c h s h e d e c l a r e d t o b e t r u e 'in the hearing o f m a n y h u n d r e d s ' . a n d w a s v e r y p a s s i o n a t e w h e n d e n y e d ' . a n d on her r e c o v e r y claimed that h e r familiar had e n t e r e d h e r b o d y . g a v e a d o l e s c e n t s a unique o p p o r t u n i t y t o cast off their characteristically submissive and repressed r o l e . 4 0 p e o p l e o f e i t h e r s e x m i g h t b e p o s s e s s e d . and ' m a d e e x p e r i m e n t s to p r o v e if they c o u n t e r f e i t e d o r n o t ' . T h e girl and h e r m o t h e r w e r e a t t e m p t i n g t o persuade a sceptical j u d g e t o p r o s e c u t e t h e p e r s o n s s u s p e c t e d o f w i t c h c r a f t . like o t h e r c o n v i c t e d f e l o n s . b a s h f u l l g i r l e ' t h e c h a n c e t o b e c o m e t h e c e n t r e o f a t t e n t i o n A f t e r trial and c o n d e m n a t i o n the w i t c h . not g l i m p s e d in t h e a c c o u n t o f t h e s u f f e r i n g s o f y e t a n o t h e r d a u g h t e r o f t h e gentry m i n d i n g w h a t s h o u l d b e c o m e o f h e r i m m o r t a l s o u l . h o w e v e r . t r i e d at M a i d s t o n e in 1 6 5 2 . as all t h e b e h o l d e r s did s e e o n e l y an i n n o c e n t . adding 'that she r yet T h e t h e m e o f t h e p o s s e s s i o n o f a d o l e s c e n t s is a m a j o r o n e in t h e h i s t o r y E n g l i s h w i t c h c r a f t in this p e r i o d . boldly. ' b y e v e r y h o u s e s h e w e n t b y . w a s ' p e r f e c t l y r e s o l u t e . a l t h o u g h c o n f e s s i n g h e r w i t c h c r a f t at h e r t r i a l . b e i n g r e g a r d e d ( a t l e a s t b y t h e a c c u s e r s ) as e v i d e n c e o f b e w i t c h m e n t . w e l l as a f t e r h e r t r y a l . an e x e c u t i o n w o u l d i n v o l v e t h e c o n v i c t e d w i t c h m a k i n g a ' g o o d e n d ' a n d b e h a v i n g in an a p p r o p r i a t e l y e d i f y i n g f a s h i o n . f a l l i n g i n t o a fit w h e n s h e w a s c a l l e d t o g i v e e v i d e n c e in c o u r t . b u t r a t h e r i m p u d e n t l y a t . h o w e v e r . foreign b o d i e s . T h u s in o n e w e l l d o c u m e n t e d c a s e w e find M a r y G l o v e r . H e l e n and Elizabeth Fairfax. as w a s t y p i c a l in s u c h c a s e s . 4 1 Ideally. Frequently these t o o k the form o f dramatic interventions on the first part o f the alleged sufferer w h e n the supposed witch entered the c o u r t or was noticed by the supposedly possessed girl. 3 b S o m e t i m e s this s o r t o f c l e r i c a l p r e s s u r e c o u l d 1 6 5 2 . this last t y p e o n t h e p a r t o f t h e a l l e g e d v i c t i m s o f w i t c h c r a f t . so a u d a c i o u s ' . a gentleman's daughter. 3 7 G i v e n the probability that girls w e r e m o r e likelv than possessed mav 3 8 boys to be deeply socialized into submissiveness. T w o d e c a d e s l a t e r t w o o t h e r daughters o f the g e n t r y . It w a s d e s i r a b l e t h a t t h e c o n d e m n e d w i t c h . a n d is t o o c o m p l e x t o g o i n t o h e r e . s c h r e e c h i n g and crying o u t very d o l e f u l l y ' . or by curious diseases inflicted on t h e m by witchcraft. WITCHCRAFT AND THE LEGAL PROCESS 297 1 6 8 2 . is t h e n u m b e r o f o c c a s i o n s w h e n s u c h b e h a v i o u r o c c u r r e d in t h e c o u r t r o o m . w i t h o u t a n y c o n f i d e n c e at all w h e n s h e w a s o u t o f h e r fits'. H e m a n a g e d t o b r i n g h e r ' t o t h a t p i t c h as t o p r o m i s e h i m she w o u l d g o e a t r u e p e n i t e n t t o h e r p l a c e o f e x e c u t i o n . s h i r e assizes at a l m o s t the same time. w a s w o r k e d on by a minister n a m e d Foster. W h a t of is w r o n g f u l l y s u f f e r e d d e a t h . H e n c e Henry G o o d c o l e w o r k e d on (to use the c o n t e m p o r a r y phrase) Elizabeth S a w y e r in 1 6 2 1 t o a c c e p t h e r s i n f u l n e s s a n d t h e d e a t h b y h a n g i n g t h a t it h a d d r a w n u p o n h e r . G o o d c o l e o f f i c i a t e d a t t h e e x e c u t i o n . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e p a m p h l e t a c c o u n t . s h e ' d i d n o t k n o w w h a t w a s p a s t . and die p e n i t e n t l y and w i t h d i g n i t y . s h e w e n t w i t h a s m a l l p i e c e o f s i l v e r in h e r h a n d . e x e c u t e d at S a l i s b u r y . a n d d e s i r e d o b v i o u s is t h a t b e i n g p o s s e s s e d . as w i t h E l i z a b e t h S a w y e r . h o w e v e r . Joan Peterson. a n d d e s i r e d t o d i e q u i e t l y ' . a n d h a d n o t M r U n d e r s h e r i f f s p r u d e n c e b e e n s u c h as t o r e s t r a i n h e r f r o m it s h e w o u l d h a v e d i e d d r u n k ' . a n d t o m a k e a full c o n f e s s i o n . at o n e s t a g e . In S a w y e r ' s c a s e .

a n d s o m e o f t h e b e t t e r d o c u m e n t e d cases reveal clearly h o w witchcraft accusations m i g h t f o r m part o f a w i d e r b o d v o f tensions and conflicts b e t w e e n women. h a d d i s c u s s e d t h e p r o b l e m w i t h C i c e l y W i n n e . a n d t h e r e a d y p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f w o m e n in s e a r c h i n g f o r t h e w i t c h ' s mark. m o r e i m p o r tantly for our immediate purposes. S h e a l s o c o m p l a i n e d at claimed a b o u t the s a m e t i m e o f being c o m p e l l e d 'to be a w i t n e s s against h e r husband for Margery Whishall. the s u r v i v i n g d o c u m e n t a t i o n a l l o w s us t o p i e c e t o g e t h e r s o m e t h i n g o f t h e b a c k g r o u n d . as a w i t n e s s n a m e d C i c e l y W i n n e d e p o s e d . ' t h e said M a r y B r i s c o e w as s u s p e c t e d b y m a n y n e i g h b o u r s t o b e t h e c a u s e r w o m e n . w h i c h w e r e t h e last w o r d s she s p o k e ' . T h i s a s s e r t i o n r e m i n d s us o f t h e p r o b l e m s o f d e t e r m i n i n g a s p e c i f i c a l l y f e m a l e e x p e r i e n c e b e f o r e t h e c o u r t s a n d legal p r o c e s s . t h e n e i g h b o u r l y evaluation. notably the ecclesiastical c o u r t s . a n d ' w a s v e r y sadly a f f l i c t e d a n d i n a s t r a n g e m a n n e r d u r i n g w h i c h t i m e ' s h e w o u l d m a n y t i m e s say t h a t M a r y B r i s c o e p r i c k e d h e r t o t h e h e a r t w i t h p i n s a n d w o u l d h a v e h e r h e a r t a n d t h e l i k e . W r i g h t a n d B r i s c o e w e r e c l e a r l y n o t v i c t i m s o f a patriarchal legal s y s t e m . h e r husband. o r at l e a s t p o p u l a r p r e s s u r e . I w o u l d a r g u e . that W r i g h t had slandered h e r f o r adultery. w e r e a r e a s in w h i c h w o m e n c o u l d e n t e r t h e m a l e d o m i n a t e d m i l i e u o f l e g a l p r o c e s s . diflerent b o t h o f h e r a f f l i c t i n g e a n d l i k e w i s e o f a b r o t h e r o f h e r s w h o w a s sadly a f f l i c t e d b e f o r e t h a t & d y e d in a s t r a n g e m a n n e r ' . b u t t h e f r e q u e n c y the legal p r o c e s s . h a d f a l l e n i l l . her wofull death. W e are examining witchcraft. w e m u s t k e e p o u r minds open t o the possibility that although women might have shared with men the experience of going t h r o u g h various stages o f the judicial p r o c e s s . But Wright h e r s e l f h a d g i v e n b i r t h t o an i l l e g i t i m a t e Moth[er] the child just after T h e w i l l i n g n e s s o f o t h e r w o m e n t o a c t a g a i n s t a l l e g e d w i t c h e s is a l s o a c o n s t a n t t h e m e . aspects o f the prosecution o f felony which w e r e either s p e c i f i c t o o r m o r e m a r k e d in t r i a l s o f w i t c h c r a f t . of r e f e r e n c e s t o h o s t i l e m o b s is s t r i k i n g . but rather w e r e f r e q u e n t l y g e n e r a t e d f r o m t e n s i o n s b e t w e e n w o m e n . 'She replyed forgive thee? that who A p o x o n t h e e . S u s p e c t e d w i t c h e s m i g h t b e s u b j e c t e d to s w i m m i n g . the allegation o f w i t c h c r a f t . F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i n t o this issue m i g h t lead to s o m e useful insights into attitudes t o g e n d e r . as w a s t h e c u s t o m . T h e r e w e r e . s o r c e r y and charming might b e p r e s e n t e d b e f o r e these c o u r t s . T h e h i g h l e v e l o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f w o m e n w i t n e s s e s in w i t c h c r a f t c a s e s . c o n c l u d e d the account o f her trial. like women convicted of witchcraft. the p h e n o m e n o n o f c r o w d action or popular attitudes towards criminals o r at e x e c u t i o n s w a s n o t l i m i t e d t o w i t c h c r a f t c a s e s . a l r e a d y b e e n l o c k e d i n t o a d i s p u t e o v e r a h o u s e in w h i c h W r i g h t h a d d w e l t . and was i m p o r t u n a t e to g o e up the ladder. a n d f e m a l e c o n c e r n o v e r reputation. d e m o n s t r a t e s h o w t h e e c c l e s i a s t i c a l l a w h e l p e d w o m e n to b e c o m e a g e n t s in l e g a l m a t t e r s . deposed that W r i g h t claimed Briscoe h a d b e w i t c h e d h e r at t h e t i m e o f t h e c h i l d ' s c o n c e p t i o n . W r i g h t ' s daughter. b u t r a t h e r t w o w o m e n w h o w e r e willing to use t h e law to pursue their own ends. She then tried to turn herself off on the gallows. Less serious f o r m s o f witchcraft. was the use o f groups o f w o m e n to search suspected witches for the m a r k .298 JIM SHARPE WOMEN. as I have stressed. h o w e v e r . a n d t o l d h e r ' h e w a s m u c h t r o u b l e d at it b u t h e c o u l d n o t r u l e h e r . A n o t h e r r e c u r r i n g t h e m e in a c c o u n t s o f w i t c h c r a i t c a s e s w a s t h e frequent o c c u r r e n c e o f s o m e t h i n g a m o u n t i n g t o m o b a c t i o n . I n d e e d . but was restrained by the e x e c u t i o n e r . T h i s d i s p u t e h a d a l r e a d y p r o v o k e d a suit w h i c h h a d b e e n a r b i t r a t e d b y a j u s t i c e o f t h e p e a c e . h a v e t w o r a t h e r c o n t e n t i o u s w o m e n . given that m o s t o f the p e o p l e t o w a r d s w h o m such v i o l e n c e was d i r e c t e d w e r e women. ' w h i c h t h e said M a r y h a d a g r e a t m i n d o f . c o r r e c t l y . T h o s e l e a s t t a k e c o n s o l a t i o n in B o d e n h a m ' s c a s e as o n e o f h e g e m o n y ' s failures. M a n y w i t c h c r a f t a c c u s a t i o n s . O f course. T h u s w e h a v e a c a s e w h i c h r e s e m b l e s so m a n y o t h e r s : t h e s t r a n g e d e a t h o f a child. w h i c h e n d e d in W r i g h t p e r f o r m i n g p u b l i c p e n a n c e in h e r p a r i s h c h u r c h . m a t e r i a l s f r o m Y o r k s h i r e d e m o n s t r a t e t h a t witchcraft accusations w e r e not simply foisted onto w o m e n by m e n . w h e t h e r as a c c u s e d . a n d h e w a s v e r y m u c h a f r a i d t h a t s h e w o u l d c o m e t o t h e s a m e e n d as h e r did'. ' T h u s ' . reveal a social arena w h e r e channels o f f e m a l e f o r c e . W i t h W r i g h t and B r i s c o e w e obviously This creates problems for those investigating constraints on female b e h a v i o u r in e a r l v m o d e r n E n g l a n d . B r i s c o e w a s d e s c r i b e d as a ' v e r y t r o u b l e s o m e a n d w r a n g l i n g w o m a n a m o n g h e r n e i g h b o u r s ' . aged O n e s u c h c a s e w a s t r i e d b e f o r e t h e C h e s t e r C o n s i s t o r v C o u r t in 1 6 6 2 . has b e e n r e g a r d e d as h a v i n g a p e c u l i a r c o n n e c t i o n with h a v e a r g u e d t h a t w i t c h c r a f t a c c u s a t i o n s w e r e a m e a n s o f c o n t r o l l i n g w o m e n c a n at 4 3 T h i s c h a p t e r has c o n c e n t r a t e d o n w i t c h c r a f t a n d t h e s e c u l a r c r i m i n a l l a w c o u r t s . speaking t r e a s o n against the k i n g ' . were witnesses 'worked g i v i n g e v i d e n c e in c o u r t . It a r o s e f r o m p r o b l e m s b e t w e e n M a r y Briscoe and A n n W r i g h t . o f t e n arising f r o m such t r a d i t i o n a l f e m a l e c o n c e r n s as c h i l d r e a r i n g . w o r r i e d about t h e s u s p i c i o n o f w i t c h c r a i t a g a i n s t his w i f e . T h e m o s t o b v i o u s o f t h e s e . a c r i m e w h i c h . the focusing o f suspicion. w e should r e m i n d ourselves that there w e r e other tribunals involved with witchcraft cases. h a d r e i u s e d t o i d e n t i f y its f a t h e r t o t h e m i d w i f e a n d h a d r e f u s e d t o do p e n a n c e for it. O n e witness. the defamation suit in d e f e n c e of good name. 'you have her wicked life. but cursed those that detained her f r o m h e r death. interestingly. a n d w e r e o f t e n f o r m u l a t e d a n d r e f i n e d in t h e w o r l d o f f e m a l e s o c i a b i l i t y . by fitts'. e s p e c i a l l y s i n c e t h e y w e r e o n t h e f r i n g e s o f scratching o r o t h e r f o r m s o f popularly licensed v i o l e n c e . f e m a l e p o w e r . defamation suits involving allegations of witchcraft might be pursued t h e r e . w h i l e . A n o t h e r w o m e n . B u t m u c h o f w h a t s e e m s t o h a v e h a p p e n e d t o w o m e n i n v o l v e d in w i t c h c r a f t c a s e s . in f a c t . and m a l e men convicted of felony. H o w e v e r . T h o s e f o r s a k e G o d in t h e i r l i v e s . N e i t h e r w o m a n h a d an u n b l e m i s h e d r e p u t a t i o n . and f e m a l e a c t i o n c o u l d r u n . a n d o n ' b y c l e r g y m e n b e f o r e t h e i r e x e c u t i o n in h o p e s t h a t t h e y m i g h t p r o d u c e a m o d e l speech f r o m the gallows. a n d s h e did s w e l l m u c h in t h e b o d y a n d s o e d y e d ' . In c o n s e q u e n c e . t u r n m e o f f . . T h i s c a s e . o r as a ' v e r y wilfull high spirited w o m a n a m o n g s t h e r n e i g h b o u r s ' . shall b e f o r s a k e n o f h i m in t h e i r d e a t h s ' . w h o h a d . WITCHCRAFT AND THE LEGAL PROCESS 299 to have. 4 4 R e s t o r a t i o n . s e e m s v e r y s i m i l a r t o w h a t happened to their m a l e c o u n t e r p a r t s : m e n accused o f felony. Unusually. w h o a s k e d h e r f o r g i v e n e s s . m i g h t b e h e c t o r e d o r p r e s s u r e d b y a g g r e s s i v e j u d g e s . a c c u s e r s o r w i t n e s s e s . a b o u t t w e l v e . g o s s i p a m o n g w o m e n . Ecclesiastical law gave w o m e n greater o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r l i t i g a t i n g t h a n did t h e c o m m o n l a w . however. As I h a v e s u g g e s t e d e l s e w h e r e . the quality o f that e x p e r i e n c e a n d t h e r e a c t i o n s a n d e m o t i o n s it m i g h t p r o v o k e c o u l d h a v e b e e n v e r y for them. B u t b e f o r e m o v i n g t o a n y c o n c l u s i o n s o n t h e e v i d e n c e p r e s e n t e d b y this c o n n e c tion.

A m u s s e n ' s An Ordered 3 4 resolution Trials: Circuit 5 6 7 8 F o r a c o n t e m p o r a r y i n t r o d u c t i o n t o w o m e n and t h e c o m m o n l a w . (London 1 9 7 0 ) . witches treated of certain v o l . in Order and Disorder 2 at York.c e n t u r y E n g l a n d ' . part 2 . g i v i n g e v i d e n c e a g a i n s t s u s p e c t e d w o m e n w i t c h e s . s h o w s that o f 5 1 3 p e r s o n s a c c u s e d o f executed. C . they nonetheless establish w o m e n as a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t s in t h e l e g a l s y s t e m . Hertfordshire indictments James I. in Tudor and Stuart England A . ch. Baron Guildford. examination whereof some and confession were executed of all the and others iM. lawes Witch Home 28 Witchcraft 29 27 1 5 6 0 — 1 7 2 5 ' . U n d e r d o w n . J . R . t h e s e women f o u n d t h e m s e l v e s in a r e a l w o r l d t h a t i m p o s e d c o n s t r a i n t s u p o n t h e m . o f c o u r s e . Witchcraft J . eds F . C o c k b u r n ( L o n d o n 1 9 8 5 ) .300 JIM SHARPE 9 10 11 12 WOMEN. and Demonianism Ibid. Women. 3 vols ( L o n d o n 1 8 9 0 ) . H u l l . Journal of Social History. Circuit of assize 22 T h e s e figures are based o n an analysis o f abstracts o f assize cases given in E w e n . H e a r n s h a w . I ( S o u t h a m p t o n 1 9 0 6 ) . Witchcraft 1969). M a c f a r l a n e . w h o had n e i t h e r d e x t e r i t y n o r spirit t o o p p o s e a p o p u l a r r a g e ' . sig of Elizabeth w r i t i n g s o n t h e s u b j e c t f r o m t h e 1 9 7 0 s . late A true and exact relation witches arraigned of the severall informations. Landish was s e n t e n c e d t o d e a t h . see C . M . F o r a slightly d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e . Y e t in t h e p r e c e d i n g p a g e s w e h a v e s e e n w o m e n a c t i n g s t r o n g l y : d e f y i n g j u d g e s a n d e x e c u t i o n e r s . see The of womens rights for (London 1 6 5 2 ) . T h i s w o u l d t o b e a line o f investigation w e l l w o r t h pursuing. and Demonianism. S. w i t c h c r a f t at t h e H o m e C i r c u i t assizes. ' T h e and Sexual Slander in Early Modern and New England: c r i m i n a l i t y o f w o m e n in e i g h t e e n t h . S. 1 7 9 — 9 9 . H e a r n s h a w and D . ( L o n d o n 1 9 3 3 ) . f o r d e f a m a t i o n l i t i g a t i o n . some Give ' W i t c h c r a f t and w o m e n in s e v e n t e e n t h . H e l m h o l z . Marriage (Cambridge 1 9 7 4 ) . 8 0 — 1 1 6 . J . v o l .. A fall a n d impartial account Hathaway and of the discovery of sorcery and witchcraft practisd by Jane Wenhant (London 1 7 1 2 ) . see t h e original v e r s i o n in J e n n y K e r m o d e and G a r t h i n e W a l k e r . introduction. 1. Z . D . B o v s . 187. a c c u s i n g o t h e r w o m e n as w i t c h e s . A true and just recorde taken 13 14 15 16 17 18 according H. suffered lesser p e n a l t i e s . W e i n e r .c e n t u r y E n g l a n d : and Change. Continuity Holmes. and Demonianism. Cockburn (London 1975). 1—64. G e n d e r as a social c o n s t r u c t has so far r e c e i v e d little a t t e n t i o n f r o m historians o f early Amussen. W . 117-18. see C h a p t e r 1 4 bv G a r v K . L i k e all o f u s . e v e n i f w e e s c h e w s o m e o f t h e w o m e n ' s consider seem E w e n . B2v. and Demonianism. H a i r . 8 ( 1 9 7 5 ) . F l e t c h e r and J . London 1 9 9 4 ) . Stevenson ( C a m b r i d g e 1 9 8 5 ) . 1 8 7 — 2 6 4 . witches (London 1 6 8 2 ) . A . in F l e t c h e r and S t e v e n s o n ( 1 9 8 5 ) 1 9 6 — 2 1 8 . B3v. 1 16—36. C . T h i s p r a c t i c e is discussed in A Calendar a h i s t o r y o f t h e j u r y o f m a t r o n s ' .9 3 . 18—37. J . 63. S e e also J . e d s . see C h a p t e r s 3 and 6 in this b o o k . ' T h e taming of in Early Modern England. Y e t w i t h i n t h o s e c o n s t r a i n t s a n d l i m i t a t i o n s . of Essex. A. 5. The lives of the right hon Francis and the hon and rev Dr John d e s c r i b e s this c a s e . an o f f e n c e w h i c h . P. N o r t h . (London 1 9 0 9 ) . L ' E s t r a n g e E w e n . 89. for scolding. E. 24. of the information. 30 T h e c o n t e m p o r a r y a c c o u n t o f this case is p r i n t e d in B . n o r t h e r n e v i d e n c e ' . (London Witch The tryal of Richard E w e n . Witch 23 Hunting and Witch Trials. E . For an i m p o r t a n t preliminary discussion. F o r a s o m e w h a t dif- f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e o n t h e s e issues. is s o m e h o w c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h e m a l e d o m i n a t i o n o f w o m e n . and confession maiesties judges. O l d h a m . . p e r h a p s w i t h i n p a r a m e t e r s d i c t a t e d a n d m a i n t a i n e d b y m e n . see S. ( N e w Y o r k 1 9 8 1 ) . Witch Hunting C f . R o s e n . e d . T h i s l e a d s us t o a final p o i n t . T h e s e figures are d e r i v e d f r o m abstracts o f i n d i c t m e n t s given in A calendar records: 70-223. 31 32 33 163-7. 24 25 26 Calendar of State Papers. wytches at Chensford anno 1566 in the countie (London of Essex the xxvi day of July 1566). P. Trapnel's report and plea (London 1 6 5 4 ) . Witchcraft The examination before the queens Court leet records. 28. B e a t t i e . a n d suing e a c h o t h e r f o r d e f a m a t i o n a r i s i n g f r o m allegations o f witchcraft. England the w a s a p a t r i a r c h a l s o c i e t y in w h i c h i s s u e s o f g e n d e r . Anna E w e n . the records of 1373 assizes held for F o r a list o f t h e s e i n d i c t m e n t s see C . Trials. ' O n pleading t h e b e l l y : 6 ( 1 9 8 5 ) . Murdering t h e s c o l d ' . WITCHCRAFT AND THE LEGAL PROCESS 301 a n d in w h i c h w o m e n . . 6 ( 1 9 9 1 ) . The case of witchcraft 21-2" at Coggeshall. Witchcraft The trval. ' W i t c h c r a f t and w o m e n ' . ed. in t h e l e g a l p r o c e s s a n d b e f o r e t h e c o u r t s as e l s e w h e r e . Witch Hunting the indictments AD 1559-1736 117-265. ' S e x r o l e s and c r i m e in late E l i z a b e t h a n H e r t f o r d s h i r e ' . T h e t h e m e s raised h e r e are discussed f u r t h e r in S. Before the Bawdy Court ( L o n d o n 1 9 7 2 ) . North. and execution T r a p n e l . at S. 1 2 1 — 3 . family and t h e social o r d e r . J . Oses in the countie to the determination The wonderfull movement of the law ( L o n d o n 1 5 8 2 ) . Mothers: infanticide in England England 19 20 21 F o r a case o f this t y p e see R . in Early Modern England ( U C L Press. they w e r e historical actors. 1 1 2 ( o r 2 2 p e r c e n t ) w e r e M a n v o t h e r s . and the witchcraft from (London 1 9 2 9 ) . the hon Sir Dudley 130—1 North. 79. 125. of Assize Justice 189. sig D 4 . E w e n . w e r e v i e w e d n o t l e a s t in t h e i r s t a t u s b e f o r e c o m m o n l a w . Daemonologia: Goodcole. H o f f e r and N . B o r t h w i c k P a p e r s . Essex. It is a c o m m o n p l a c e t h a t e a r l y m o d e r n in h i e r a r c h i c a l t e r m s . w e r e d i s a d v a n t a g e d . S o u t h a m p t o n R e c o r d S o c i e t y . Defamation the church 1558-1803 courts C . see S h a r p e . Even though c o n t e m p o r a r y attitudes to gender probably m a d e those experiences different for the w o m e n involved. 3 . G r a n g e . in the year F o r t h e a b s e n c e o f m i d w i v e s a m o n g w i t c h c r a f t s u s p e c t s . c o u l d c a r v e o u t s o m e r o l e f o r t h e m s e l v e s in t h e p u b l i c s p h e r e . Domestic 1634— J . H . (London 1 7 0 2 ) . a p p e n d i x L. modern England. Society (Oxford 1988). L ' E s t r a n g e E w e n . F o r analysis o f t h e N o r t h e r n D e p o s i t i o n s . Criminal Records: History. 5 8 ( Y o r k 1 9 8 0 ) . Witchcraft North. Sawyer (London 1621). 2 7 8 . f o r i n f a n t i c i d e . 20. 7 8 . W a i t e . see C h a p t e r 2 3 in this c o l l e c t i o n bv 2 5 6 . eds A . S h a r p e . 2 6 . F o r full citations o f t h e archival s o u r c e s u s e d in this c h a p t e r . m a t e r i a l s f o r t h e W e s t e r n C i r c u i t p r i n t e d in C . S h a r p e . 9 9 . A D 1 5 7 8 — 1 6 0 2 . ' G e n d e r . T h i s is e s p e c i a l l y r e l e v a n t w h e n w e w i t c h c r a f t . w h e r e t h e j u d g e w a s 'a m i l d . Litigation in Medieval England Crime and the Courts Notes 1 F o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s . of three condemnation . a n d in w h i c h w o m e n . I b i d . examinations and confessions 1699 of the and executed in the county of Essex ( L o n d o n 1 6 4 5 ) . passive m a n . J . ed. 4 . and J . 4 3 9 — 4 6 . a discourse discoverie on witchcraft (Harrogate 1 8 8 2 ) . l i k e e v e r y t h i n g e l s e .

Carol Karlsen a n d . 276. Yet K a r l s e n ' s a c k n o w l e d g e m e n t t h a t t h e r o l e o f w o m e n as a c c u s e r s r e m a i n s o n e of t h e m o s t baffling q u e s t i o n s a b o u t w i t c h c r a f t d o e s suggest t h e n e e d for further discussion. in 1 6 9 2 . c o n t r o l o f t h e i r m i n d s a n d b o d i e s h a d b e e n s e i z e d b y t h e D e v i l at t h e i n s t i g a t i o n o f t h e w i t c h . h u n t i n g ? ' K e i t h T h o m a s has a r g u e d t h a t ' T h e i d e a t h a t w i t c h . Clive Holmes a modern enquiry T h i s p h e n o m e n o n is p e r h a p s m o s t familiar in t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e trials at S a l e m . as I shall a r g u e . E . the misogvnous d e p r a v i t y . displays s o m e o f t h e p o t e n t i a l o f t h e s u b j e c t . 15-16. WOMEN: WITCHES AND WITNESSES 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 F o r t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n possession and g e n d e r . a n d an essay b y J . T h i s argument is m i r r o r e d b y t h a t o f A l a n M a c f a r l a n e . which emphasize female weakness greater susceptibility of women to satanic temptation. s e e M . n o t least. B e f o r e d i s c u s s i n g t h e s e i n s t a n c e s . women might r e p o r t the results o f physical searches that they had b e e n instructed t o c o n d u c t upon the w i t c h ' s b o d y . Marianne 1 Feminist scholars. In b o t h instances the sensual t h e f e m a l e d e p o n e n t s a p p e a r t o a c q u i e s c e in a n d r e i n f o r c e t h e o r i e s o f w i t c h c r a f t . 1 9 7 . it w i l l b e n e c e s s a r y t o e x a m i n e a t h i r d . t h e d y n a m i c i n t e r w e a v i n g dimension of witchcraft. M a c D o n a l d . by J o h n D e m o s . The Devil in Massachusetts: into the Salem witch trials (New York 1950). 4 . their greater elite theology and the c o n c e r n s o f the populace and. designed to discover the incriminating physical characteristics t h a t i n d i c a t e d h e r c o m p l i c i t y w i t h S a t a n a n d his m i n i o n s . and tragical! history of the try all. n o t least b e c a u s e t h e victims and witnesses were themselves as l i k e l y t o b e w o m e n as m e n ' . Dr Lamb revived S h a r p e . confession and condemnation of six witches C h a p t e r 23 in Kent ( L o n d o n 1 6 5 2 ) . a n d has b e e n f o l l o w e d . d o e s f o c u s o n this issue. examining the involvement of women 3 in Y o r k s h i r e p r o s e c u t i o n s .166—7. in r e l a t i o n t o t h e N e w England trials. Sharpe. w o m e n m i g h t t e s t i f y as ' p o s s e s s e d ' v i c t i m s o f t h e w i t c h ' s m a l i c e . passim. o f c o n s i d e r a b l e w i l l i l l u m i n a t e a n u m b e r o f issues r a i s e d b y t h e w i t c h c r a f t oi p r o s e c u t i o n s : t h e s h a p i n g r o l e o f t h e legal s y s t e m . W e m a y d i s t i n g u i s h t h r e e w a y s in w h i c h w o m e n m i g h t p a r t i c i p a t e in t h e t r i a l p r o c e d u r e s against w i t c h e s . Daemonologia. L. B o w e r . or witchcraft 192—5. M . have found such reasoning 'simplistic'. M a s s a c h u s e t t s . developed by theologians and lawyers. First. ' W i t c h c r a f t and w o m e n ' . most recently. 123—4. in Elizabethan London: Edward E w e n . Witchcraft and the Mary Glover case ( L o n d o n 36 37 F a i r f a x . T w o o f these are very distinctive. Sawyer. (London 1 6 5 0 ) . ' W a s witch-hunting women- as a c c u s e r s o r w i t n e s s e s . s e e C h a p t e r 1 9 in this c o l l e c tion by M o s h e Sluhovsky. and Demonianism. M o o r e . T HE ROLE PLAYED BY WOMEN in t h e l e g a l p r o c e s s a g a i n s t w i t c h e s . S t a r k e y . F o r a w o r k w h i c h . like L a r n e r . Wonderfull Ewen. about the question. has b e e n f r e q u e n t l y c i t e d in t h e c o u r s e o f s k i r m i s h e s as p o s e d b y C h r i s t i n a L a r n e r . 2 Hester. although n o w s o m e w h a t d a t e d . Witchcraft Jordan t o g e t h e r in M . Witchcraft news from discoverie and Witch the North of Elizabeth Trials. condemn'd (London 1 6 5 3 ) . Wonderfull G o o d c o l e . Witch Hunting R o s e n . cultural complexity An exami- n a t i o n o f t h e p r o c e s s o f w i t n e s s i n g — a p r o c e s s . .302 JIM SHARPE 34 35 A prodigious at Maidstone.p r o s e c u t i o n s r e f l e c t e d a w a r b e t w e e n the sexes m u s t b e d i s c o u n t e d . sig D 2 v . A . M a t e r i a l s r e l a t i n g t o this case are b r o u g h t and Hysteria 1990). Secondly.

t h o u g h tangentially. W o m e n w e r e simply b e t t e r placed than m e n to describe the incidents and activities that c o n f o r m e d t o t h e a l t e r e d p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e n a t u r e o f w i t c h c r a f t as a c r i m i n a l o f f e n c e . in p u b l i s h e d w o r k s — a c a d e m i c t r e a t i s e s a n d p o p u l a r b r o a d s i d e s . 2 p e r c e n t o f witnesses against w i t c h e s n a m e s w e r e e n d o r s e d o n t h e i n d i c t m e n t s w e r e w o m e n . m o r e r a r e l y . 4 3 . at l e a s t f o r t h e H o m e C i r c u i t . an e s s e n t i a l g r o u n d b a s e t o a d i s c u s s i o n o f w i t c h c r a f t t e s t i m o n y .1 6 0 2 ) 3 8 . P r o p e r t y c r i m e s — l a r c e n y . 9 p e r c e n t a f t e r t h e R e s t o r a t i o n . i n v a r i a b l y a n n o t a t e t h e d o c u m e n t w i t h t h e n a m e s o f all t h o s e w e r e e x p e c t e d t o t e s t i f y at t h e a s s i z e s . As t h e c r i m e o f w i t c h c r a f t w a s i n c r e a s i n g l y p e r c e i v e d as i n v o l v i n g m y s t e r i o u s h u m a n a i l m e n t s a n d d e a t h . In t h e last v e a r s o f Elizabeth's reign ( 1 5 9 6 . b u t s i m p l y t h e fall in t h e n u m b e r o f p r o p e r t y o f f e n c e s c o m i n g t o the a t t e n t i o n o f the assizes. u n l i k e its E l i z a b e t h a n p r e d e c e s s o r s . t h o u g h n o t in N o r f o l k C i r c u i t c a s e s ( 4 3 cent). Indictments of stock- d a m a g e .w i t c h c r a f t c a s e s in a s a m p l e o f s e s s i o n s o f t h e E s s e x assizes b e t w e e n 1 5 9 6 a n d 1 6 2 5 . e v e n plays a n d b a l l a d s . 6 8 per c e n t ) w e r e w o m e n . m a l e interl o c u t o r s . b o t h i n v o l v i n g t h e g r e a t e s t n u m b e r o f d e p o n e n t s . This k i n d o f t e s t i m o n y is m o r e i n c h o a t e t h a n t h e o t h e r t w o c a t e g o r i e s .b e d o f t h e v i c t i m . W o m e n f o r m e d o n l y 1 0 p e r c e n t o f t h e w i t n e s s e s in n o n . l i k e t h a t a g a i n s t M a r g e r y S t a n t o n o f W i m b i s h in 1 5 7 9 . A n d in i n d i c t m e n t s c o n c e r n i n g m a l e f i c d a m a g e t o s t o c k .304 CLIVE HOLMES WOMEN: WITCHES AND WITNESSES 305 g r o u p o f w o m e n i n v o l v e d in c r i m i n a l p r o s e c u t i o n : t h o s e w h o t e s t i f i e d s i m p l v t o t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e w i t c h ' s maleficium — to children lamed or killed. 9 p e r c e n t ) in t h e c o u n t i e s t h a t f o r m e d t h e H o m e C i r c u i t . proportionally formally more whose t e s t i f y i n g in w i t c h c r a f t c a s e s i n t h e c o u r s e o f t h e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y . 8 p e r c e n t o f witnesses t o these charges. r o o t e d in p o p u l a r r a t h e r t h a n e l i t e b e l i e f s . a f t e r t h e R e s t o r a t i o n t h e p r o p o r t i o n had m o r e than doubled ( 2 2 p e r c e n t ) . the proportion o f male a n d f e m a l e d e p o n e n t s in w i t c h c r a f t c a s e s . has t o u n d e r t a k e n f r o m t h e s e c o n d o f t h e a v a i l a b l e s o u r c e s : t h e assize i n d i c t m e n t s . d o have the virtue o f surviving in a s u f f i c i e n t c h r o n o l o g i c a l s e r i e s . disapmental l a t t e r . . t h o u g h h i g h l y f o r m u l a i c a n d c o n s e q u e n t l y o p a q u e in t e r m s o f a n y s u b s t a n tive detail c o n c e r n i n g the cases that they r e c o r d . t h e r e d o e s n o t a p p e a r t o b e a n y g e n d e r bias in t h e d e t e r m i nation o f n a m e s for e n d o r s e m e n t on the earlier i n d i c t m e n t s . 3 cent of incidents. t h e n . T h i s r e s t r u c turing o f the o f f e n c e by magistrates and lawyers certainly does n o t indicate l a r y m a t e r i a l p r o d u c e d in t h e official i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e l a t e t h e i r p o w e r s in t h e d e s t r u c t i o n o f s t o c k o r t h e i n t e r r u p t i o n any f u n d a m e n t a l c h a n g e in t h e n a t u r e o f p o p u l a r b e l i e f c o n c e r n i n g w i t c h c r a f t . e i t h e r a l o n e o r in c o n j u n c t i o n w ith o t h e r a c t s o f maleficium. w o u l d b e m i s l e a d i n g . a l l e g i n g t h e d e s t r u c t i o n o f 'unum spandonem ( g e l d i n g ) colons white'. In t h e o f the f o l l o w i n g c e n t u r y s o m e nine h u n d r e d and seventy witnesses w e r e endorsements also suggest that women were becoming some of the course The 8 p e a r f r o m t h e r e c o r d . b e c a u s e it is t h e b a s i c f o r m o f f e m a l e e n g a g e m e n t in t h e c o u r t s . a n d this w a s u n i f o r m l y p r a c t i s e d a f t e r 1 6 0 0 . as in all p r o p e r t y c r i m e s . in 1 4 . T h e shift in t h e c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n o f t h e o f f e n c e w a s i n s t i g a t e d b y t h e l e g a l e l i t e . though these are. 7 gories. in l a t e r r e c o r d s s u c h o m i s s i o n s s e e m who less d o m e s t i c p r o c e d u r e s . be The A n d in these p r o s e c u so tions the bulk o f the t e s t i m o n y was p r o v i d e d by m e n . to stock or crops blighted. stock-damage formed r the sole charge. refracted through the pens and the assumptions o f their elite. as i n d i c t m e n t s . t h e y d e c l i n e d m a r k e d l y a f t e r 1 6 6 0 . T h e r i s i n g p e r c e n t a g e o f w o m e n w i t n e s s e s in w i t c h c r a f t c a s e s is a l s o r e l a t e d . s u c h t e s t i m o n i e s c e r t a i n l y d i s p l a y t h e i n v o l v e m e n t o f w o m e n in t h e p r o c e s s o f a c c u s a t i o n . i t l a c k s t h e i r c o n c e p t u a l c l a r i t y a n d s o p h i s t i c a t i o n . B u t t h e s u r v i v a l o f t h e s e v a r i o u s s o u r c e s is s o r a n d o m t h a t a n y a t t e m p t to undertake a quantitative study. a n d o f t h e f u n c t i o n a r i e s o f t h e e c c l e s i a s t i c a l c o u r t s . R i c h in d e t a i l . 3 per T h e a p p a r e n t r i s e in t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f f e m a l e w i t n e s s e s is n o t m e r e l v t h e p r o d u c t o f a c h a n g e in t h e r e c o r d i n g p r a c t i c e s o f t h e c l e r k s o f a s s i z e . H o w e v e r . Y e t . 8 p e r c e n t o f all w i t c h c r a f t c a s e s c o m i n g t o t h e a t t e n t i o n o f t h e assizes i n v o l v e d an i n d i c t m e n t a l l e g i n g t h a t t h e a c c u s e d h a d d a m a g e d s t o c k . transcriptions o f the testimony proffered to the examining magistrates o r in c o u r t . and f r e q u e n t . T h e y w e r e a l s o in a m a j o r i t y in this l a t t e r p e r i o d in i n d i c t m e n t s e m a n a t i n g f r o m t h e assize c o u r t s o f t h e N o r t h e r n C i r c u i t ( 5 6 p e r c e n t ) . w e r e w e l l p l a c e d t o d e s c r i b e t h e recorded 4 on witchcraft i n d i c t m e n t s : almost half o f these ( 4 7 . n o t a n y c h a n g e in t h e c o u r t s ' r e a d i n e s s t o a c c e p t f e m a l e t e s t i m o n y . wdiere t h e a c c u s e d w a s d i r e c t l y a l l e g e d t o b e i n v o l v e d in d i a b o l i c p r a c t i c e s . 8 p e r c e n t in C h a r l e s I ' s r e i g n . r o s e s l i g h t l y t o 2 5 p e r c e n t in t h e I n t e r r e g n u m . t h e n p l u m m e t e d t o a m e r e 2 . In t h e 1 5 9 0 s t h e c l e r k o f assize f o r t h e H o m e C i r c u i t b e g a n t o e n d o r s e o f the indictments upon which the accused w e r e tried with the names w i t n e s s e s in t h e c a s e . First. t o o f f e n c e s against p r o p e r t y . t o p e r m i t a p r e l i m inary analysis. anguish and m o r t a l physical t o r m e n t s inflicted by the w i t c h . B u t t h e legal e l i t e . so t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f f e m a l e w i t n e s s e s i n c r e a s e d . In t h e r e i g n s o f E l i z a b e t h and per J a m e s 3 6 . H o w e v e r . t h e t e s t i m o n y of m e n p r e d o m i n a t e d : m e n f o r m e d 8 0 . burglary. T h e a n c i l seventeenth-century exercise and now o f agricultural c a s e s d e m o n s t r a t e s t h a t at t h e l o c a l l e v e l w i t c h e s w e r e still b e l i e v e d t o i n v o l v e d in w i t c h c r a f t a c c u s a t i o n in t h e c o u r s e o f t h e p e r i o d . t o o did t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f m a l e w i t n e s s e s a t t e n d i n g at C h e l m s f o r d . is t h e e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h e g r o w i n g p r o p o r t i o n o f w o m e n Women. it m u s t b e e x a m i n e d first. to calculate. H e r e . W h y did t h i s s i g n i f i c a n t shift in t h e p r o p o r t i o n s o f m a l e a n d f e m a l e d e p o n e n t s o c c u r in t h e c e n t u r y a f t e r 1 5 9 0 ? T h e p h e n o m e n o n is p a r a l l e l e d b y an i n c r e a s e in t h e i n v o l v e m e n t o f f e m a l e d e p o n e n t s in all c a s e s b e f o r e t h e a s s i z e s . to the interruption o f agricultural or domestic procedures. S u c h e v i d e n c e s u r v i v e s in a m u l t i p l i c i t y o f f o r m s : in t h e p r i v a t e p a p e r s o f J P s a n d m i n i s t e r s . As the n u m b e r s o f p r o p e r t y o f f e n c e s b r o u g h t b e f o r e t h e assize c o u r t s w a n e d in t h e c o u r s e o f t h e c e n t u r y . housebreaking — had d o m i n a t e d p r o c e e d i n g s f r o m the 1 5 9 0 s until the end o f t h e r e i g n o f J a m e s I. o f c o u r s e . dropped to 1 5 . T h e rising p r o p o r t i o n o f f e m a l e d e p o n e n t s i n w i t c h c r a f t c a s e s in t h e c o u r s e o f t h e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y is n o t an o p t i c a l i l l u s i o n i n d u c e d b y c h a n g i n g c l e r i c a l p r a c t i c e . in a n y o f t h e i n d i c t m e n t s f o r m a j o r c r i m inal o f f e n c e s . 6 I T h e sources available for the study o f witnessing can b e divided into t w o cate- B u t this shift r e f l e c t s . 4 p e r c e n t in t h e r e i g n o f J a m e s I. E a r l y in t h e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y t h e c l e r k s did n o t . a t t e n d a n t at t h e s i c k . a f t e r t h e R e s t o r a t i o n f e m a l e w i t n e s s e s w e r e in t h e m a j o r i t y ( 5 2 . A f t e r 1660 the local justices and the courts w e r e reluctant t o admit charges o f witchcraft e x c e p t in c a s e s o f m y s t e r i o u s a n d t e r r i f y i n g i l l n e s s l e a d i n g t o d e a t h o r . And they indicate the c o n c e r n s that exercised female witnesses. for instance. A n y s t a t i s t i c a l e x e r c i s e . in t h e o f f i c i a l files o f t h e c l e r k s o f assize a n d o f t h e p e a c e .

t h r e e f o r k i l l i n g b v w i t c h c r a f t a n d o n e f o r e n t e r t a i n i n g evil s p i r i t s . revealed longstanding popular suspicions o f a traditional kind that had little to do with the elite c o n c e r n s that i n f o r m e d the language o f the i n d i c t m e n t . S u s p i c i o n a g a i n s t W e n h a m h a d f e s t e r e d f o r y e a r s . C o n f r o n t e d b v p o w e r . occasioned by abuse or r u m o u r s that suggested that they w e r e n a m e m e n a n d w o m e n in a l m o s t e q u a l n u m b e r s as t h e i r s l a n d e r e r s . b e v o n d t h e s e .f a m i l i e s . 1 3 indictment bringing t h e o f f e n c e w i t h i n t h e c o m p a s s o f t h e c l a u s e o f t h e s t a t u t e t h a t m a d e it f e l o n y ' t o e l e m e n t s o f the elite. 7 p e r c e n t ) . F r o m a sample o f the cases c o m i n g t o the attention o f Richard 1601 1 6 2 7 . 1 0 obliged to explain the substantial plurality o f w o m e n In s o f a r as any a t t e n t i o n w a s p a i d at t h e . only marginal participants. . W e m u s t c o n s i d e r : h o w local fears and suspicions w e r e drawn t o the attention o f the magistracy. H e l e n . t h e figure f o r f e m a l e p a t i e n t s is 5 8 . t h e o d d . b u t it w a s o n e t h a t h a d b e g u n t o b e f a v o u r e d b y t h e j u d g e s in t h e 1 6 3 0 s . and w h i c h was revived after the peculiar c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f the Civil W a r and I n t e r r e g n u m H e n c e . in s o m e m e a s u r e .o p e r a t e d . b o t h the T o r y divines crusading against infidelity and t h e c y n i c s o f t h e legal e s t a b l i s h m e n t w h o d e r i d e d a n d s o u g h t t o f r u s t r a t e t h e i r e f f o r t s . a fear o f w i t c h e s . it a p p e a r s t h a t it w a s t h o u g h t t o i n h e r e in m a t r i l i n e a l 'by discent m o t h e r . w e r e p r e f e r r e d a g a i n s t P h i l i p p a M u n n i n g s of Hartest but. m i n i s t e r o f G r e a t Linford and astrological physician. A l l t h e s o u r c e s a r e . b u t e m p l o y e d t h e m r o u t i n e l y b o t h in d o m e s t i c i n d u s t r y a n d as h e a l e r s . b e t w e e n shared and T h e W e n h a m c a s e d e s e r v e s f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n . v i l l a g e r s at first i n s t a n c e m i g h t s e e k t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e y w e r e n o t t h e v i c t i m s o f s u c h p o w e r . In t h e Wenham case the manipulation of popular concerns and belief by cases. 5 per cent o f Napier's male patients w e r e ready to n a m e t h e w i t c h p e r s e c u t i n g t h e m . in measure. 1 5 6 3 s u s p i c i o n s r o o t e d in f o l k l o r e had t o b e o r c h e s t r a t e d t o to the machinery accommodate point and the values o f the elite. w h o e v e n t u a l l y a t t r i b u t e d h e r c o n d i t i o n t o t h e i r m a l e f i c e n c e . B u t w h e n t h e d i v i n e s s o u g h t t o i n d i c t W e n h a m f o r ' w a s t i n g a n d c o n s u m i n g ' h e r v i c t i m . O n e W a l k e r n y e o m a n b e l i e v e d that he had lost s t o c k t o the value o f £ 2 0 0 t h r o u g h h e r malefic e n c e o v e r the years. B u t s u c h t r a n s m u t a t i o n w a s n o t p e c u l i a r t o t h e p o s t . T h e latter n o t only tolerated the petty thefts.1 6 6 0 c a s e s in w h i c h it e m e r g e s m o s t c l e a r l y . f o r t h e m . a n d w a s r e i n f o r c e d in 1 7 1 1 b y t h e m y s t e r i o u s b e h a v i o u r a n d i l l n e s s o f a p o s s e s s e d m a i d s e r v a n t . F i r s t . T h i s raises a critical fire. R o n a l d S a w y e r has n o t i c e d t h e p l u r a l i t y o f w o m e n b o t h a m o n g t h o s e n a m e d as w i t c h e s ( 9 4 . Fairfax's e n g a g e m e n t in t h e p r o s e c u t i o n o f t h e K n a r e s b o r o u g h w i t c h e s s t e m m e d f r o m the m v s t e r i o u s i l l n e s s o f his d a u g h t e r . In L a n c a s h i r e t h e z e a l o u s m a g i s t r a t e . p e r h a p s t o c o n t r o l a n d d e p l o y it f o r t h e i r o w n p u r p o s e s . a n d t h a t t h e h e a d o f o n e o f t h e l a t t e r ' h a d so p o w e r f u l h a n d o v e r t h e w e a l t h i e s t n e i g h b o u r s a b o u t h e r . her neighbours 9 also of b e l i e v e d h e r t o b e guilty o f d e s t r o y i n g s t o c k and spoiling b r e w i n g . w h o believed themselves the victims o f witchcraft ( 5 9 . p a i n e i u l l in t h e s e r v i c e o i his C o u n t r e v ' . d i s t o r t e d b y r e f r a c tion through the conceptual f r a m e w o r k o f the elite. a n o t h e r local f a r m e r ' s sheep had died m y s t e r i o u s l y after he t h r e a t e n e d W e n h a m f o r s t e a l i n g his t u r n i p s . T h e case J a n e W e n h a m . . a p o w e r f u l b r e w o f biblical and Aristotelian emphases on female inferiority. So.306 CLIVE HOLMES WOMEN: WITCHES AND WITNESSES 307 r e f u s e d t o e n t e r t a i n f o r m a l a c c u s a t i o n s b a s e d o n this k i n d o f e v i d e n c e . t h e m y s t e r i o u s p o w e r s t h a t c o n s t i t u t e d w i t c h c r a f t w o u l d n o r m a l l y b e p o s s e s s e d b y w o m e n . from the grandmother to the p o p u l a r l e v e l t o q u e s t i o n s o f t h e o r i g i n o f this p o w e r . T h e w i t c h . From them first. m a l e a n d f e m a l e . s a r d o n i c f o r m t a k e n b y t h e ' c o n v e r s i n g f a m i l i a r l y w i t h t h e D e v i l in t h e s h a p e o f a c a t ' — o s t e n s i b l y e n t e r t a i n e e m p l o y f e e d e o r r e w a r d e a n y evill a n d w i c k e d s p i r i t ' . t o the political and theological c o n c e r n s o f the elite which i n f o r m e d and shaped the juridical forms. vea. begging and e x t o r t i o n o f the suspected w i t c h e s . 2 p e r c e n t . lay it s o ' . and the villagers. w a s m o v e d b y . some s e c o n d l y . Y e t w e m a y suggest a couple o f its f e a t u r e s s a l i e n t t o this e n q u i r y . T h e c a s e . I u n b e s o u g h t thev p r o v i d e d h e r w i t h and m e a t f r o m their o w n t a b l e s ' . f o u n d g u i l t y a t t h e H e r t f o r d assizes in 1 7 1 2 f o r d i a b o l i c d e a l i n g s . eager to use the opportunity to assert the reality o f witchcraft in t h e f a c e o f g r o w i n g i n t e l l e c t u a l s c e p t i c i s m . t h a t n o n e o f t h e m refused t o d o anything she r e q u i r e d . in c o n s e q u e n c e . a n d a m o n g N a p i e r ' s p a t i e n t s . 1 4 c o n c e r n i n g t h e analysis o f t h e r o l e o f w i t n e s s e s . an o d d r e a d i n g o f t h e J a c o b e a n l e g i s l a t i o n . h o w far the authorities tailored the e v i d e n c e t o the constraints i m p o s e d b y t h e c h a n g i n g a s s u m p t i o n s o f a s y s t e m in w h i c h t h e w i t n e s s e s w e r e . developed by elite c o m m e n t a t o r s in p r o s e c u t i o n . 'a v e r y r e l i g i o u s h o n e s t g e n t l e m a n . m i g h t b e t r e a t e d w i t h an e l a b o r a t e i f c a u t i o u s d e f e r e n c e . T h e r e is l i t t l e o f t h e s o p h i s t i cated misogyny. Edward Fairfax noted that the inhabitants o f K n a r e s b o r o u g h Forest c o e x i s t e d w i t h t h e w i t c h . h e a d e d bv their r e s p e c t i v e m a t r i a r c h s . w a s a s k i r m i s h in t h e w i d e r b a t t l e a g a i n s t d e i s m a n d a g n o s t i c i s m . S e c o n d l y . T h e y sought p r o t e c t i o n f r o m the w i t c h e s ' p o w e r b o t h bv paying blackmail and bv recourse to counter-magic. an i n d i c t m e n t f o r w i t c h c r a f t r e q u i r e d e i t h e r t h e d e a t h o i t h e v i c t i m o r p r o o f o f d i a b o l i c p r a c t i c e s . Sawyer's figures further suggest that w o m e n w e r e quicker to n o m i n a t e those thev held responsible for their sufferings: 4 5 . 1 2 Women witches. in t h e W e n h a m c a s e . n o r w o u l d . T h e g i r l ' s affliction was studied and the charge o f w i t c h c r a f t against W e n h a m e n g i n e e r e d by local Anglican c l e r g y m e n . lineage: 1 1 e x a m p l e .c l a n s in t h e i r m i d s t . w i t h the s u s p e c t e d w i t c h c o m e t o t e s t i f y a g a i n s t h e r ? In b o t h K n a r e s b o r o u g h a n d P e n d l e t h a t t r a n s f o r mation was accomplished bv the direct intervention o f m e m b e r s o f the elite. seeking t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f the ecclesiastical c o u r t s against the d a m a g e t o t h e i r r e p u - But a general fear o f a local w o m a n possessing the formidable p o w e r s attributed t o w i t c h e s does n o t automatically t r a n s m u t e i n t o legal p r o s e c u t i o n . and f r o m the m o t h e r t o the c h i l d r e n ' . for II It is d i f f i c u l t t o m a k e c o n f i d e n t a s s e r t i o n s a b o u t t h e n a t u r e a n d p a t t e r n s o f p o p u l a r b e l i e f s a b o u t w i t c h c r a f t . is v e r y a p p a r e n t . T h i s w a s . It w a s a p e r m a n e n t f e a t u r e o f t h e f o r m a l p r o s e c u t i o n o f w i t c h c r a f t . O l d C h a t t o x and O l d D e m d y k e .w i e l d i n g w o m e n . R o g e r N o w e l l . m e n and w o m e n Napier. if uneasily. a t t h e S u f f o l k assizes in 1 6 9 4 f o u r i n d i c t m e n t s . t h e c l e r k o f assize i n s i s t e d t h a t ' h e n e i t h e r c o u l d . A similarly dense and long-standing n e t w o r k o f s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s is a p p a r e n t in P e n d l e F o r e s t b e t w e e n t h e r i v a l w i t c h . H o w did villagers w h o m a y have c o . It c l e a r l y d i s p l a y s t h e c o m p l e x p r o c e s s w h i c h a t t e n d e d t h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f l o c a l c o n c e r n s i n t o f o r m a l legal p r o c e d u r e . though no charges w e r e formally levelled. 7 per c e n t ) . L o c a l s u s p i c i o n s a n d c o n c e r n s h a d t o b e m o u l d e d t o t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f legal categorization and p r o c e d u r e and. a g r o u p o f 1 0 9 p e r s o n s . tations. as t h e c l e r i c a l p r o s e c u t o r s c o m p l a i n e d .

. as in K n a r e s b o r o u g h and P e n d l e . N o w e l l ' s i n t e r v e n t i o n . is o p a q u e . D a r c y . w a s w e l l v e r s e d in t h e c o n t i nental theories c o n c e r n i n g the satanic dimension o f witchcraft. u n d e r D a r c y ' s r e l e n t l e s s q u e s t i o n i n g .e a s t e r n E s s e x in 1 5 8 2 p e r m i t s s o m e d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e l o c a l i n s t i g a t i o n o f p r o s e c u t i o n . b u t f e m a l e i n t e r r u p t i o n o f d o m e s t i c r o u t i n e s . h a d r e c o u r s e t o c o u n t e r . swiftly t r a n s f o r m e d t h e m . Y e t the energetic p r o s e c u t o r w o u l d n o t s t a n d a l o n e . s o m e alleging malefic e n t a c t s u n d e r t a k e n y e a r s b e f o r e . T h r e e testified c o n c e r n i n g the ailments o f their children. she r e a d i l y c o n f i r m e d U p c h e r ' s s u s p i c i o n . A g n e s F r a n c v s K e m p . B r i a n D a r c y ' s s e l f . Men the The a n d w o m e n c o n c u r r e d in s u s p e c t i n g H e a r d a n d R o b i n s o n o f w i t c h c r a f t . m a y have b e e n typical o f that o i m a n y w o m e n . using a r e d . his i m m e d i a t e c o m p l a i n t a g a i n s t t h e w i t c h w o u l d b e b a c k e d b y c o r r o b o r a t i v e t e s t i m o n y f r o m his n e i g h b o u r s . ' t h a t h a t h b e e n as g o o d f o r t h e b r i n g i n g f o o r t h o f h e r b r o o d e as a n y g o o s e in W a l t o n ' . B u t t h e e f f e c t i v e d e c i s i o n t o t r a n s m u t e village s u s p i c i o n i n t o o f f i c i a l t e s t i m o n y . had afflicted their enemies. and t h e p r o c e s s o f t r a n s m u t a t i o n . i f t h e y d i d fall f o u l o f H e a r d o r R o b i n s o n . Agricultural and d o m e s t i c r o u t i n e s had failed. d e d i c a t i n g his e n e r g i e s t o t h e p u r s u i t o f t h e S t O s y t h ' s c o v e n . a n d t o o r g a n i z e n e i g h b o u r s f o r t h i s . T h o m a s Eastchurch. 1 7 With Robert Webb. t h e b u l k o f the t e s t i m o n y was p r o v i d e d b y w o m e n w h o had a t t e n d e d the girl during h e r long sickness. d r a w n i n t o the c o u r t to s u p p l e m e n t a case o r c h e s t r a t e d by o t h e r s .h o t i r o n t o g e t m i l k t o c h u r n and w o r t t o b r e w . In 1682 Temperance Lloyd was convicted for afflicting G r a c e T h o m a s o f B i d e f o r d . t h e n . .m a g i c h e a t i n g a b e w i t c h e d s p i n d l e t o g e t i t t o w o r k a g a i n . w e have another W a d d e and E a s t c h u r c h : a m a n w i t h w e a l t h . i m m e d i a t e l y ? ' H e r a r t l e s s r e p l y was a p o o r w o m a n . Yet. as in t h e 1 5 8 2 O s k l e v a n d W a l t o n d e n u n c i a t i o n s . R e l e n t l e s s i n t e r r o g a t i o n o f eventually elicited the required confession o f diabolic activities. s t o c k had sicke n e d . in c a s e s f r o m S t O s y t h . c o u n t e r . initially t o the ecclesiastical c o u r t . l o c a l b e l i e f s h i n t e d at in t h e e a r l i e s t d e p o s i t i o n s w e r e H o w e v e r . t w o m e n and a w o m a n . a wealthy m e m b e r o f the M a l m e s b u r y elite. to concentrate on m e r e l y to a c k n o w l e d g e their use of. social relations w e r e m a i n t a i n e d w i t h the w i t c h e s .l a w . Samuel Pacy. ' t h e O p p o r t u n i t y p r e s e n t i n g i t s e l f . It is s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t t h e w o m e n w h o b e c a m e i n v o l v e d in t h e p r o c e s s o f t e n r e t a i l e d older grievances and suspicions that had festered b u t previously g o n e u n r e m a r k e d to the authorities. in 1 6 5 7 . t o the authorities. w h e r e w e c a n r e c o n s t r u c t a narrative with s o m e confidence. In O a k l e y . T h e s e characteristics w e r e essential. w e r e o b v i o u s l y o f long duration. inquisitorial long-held to t e c h n i q u e s o r r e f r a c t e d t h r o u g h his r i c h i m a g i n a t i o n . the t o r m e n t s o f the Pacy girls. was the first f o r m a l l y t o d e n o u n c e H e a r d . Illness. and he p r o v e d a v i g o r o u s a n d i n v e n t i v e i n q u i s i t o r . but mirroring. s e e m s have m a d e little a t t e m p t t o shape p r i m a r y t e s t i m o n y f r o m these peripheral c o m m u n i t i e s . a n d had n o t d o n e so b e f o r e b e c a u s e ' s h e d r e w f r o m the judge a stinging a n d i n s e n s i t i v e r e t o r t : ' w a s [she] g r o w n r i c h s i n c e ? " Y e t h e r e x p e r i e n c e . D a r c y ' s h o m e . w h e r e b y s u s p i c i o n b e c a m e p r o s e c u t i o n . l i k e R o g e r N o w e l l . In s e v e r a l c a s e s in t h e H o m e C i r c u i t in t h e E l i z a b e t h a n and J a c o b e a n period a witch w o u l d b e charged on a n u m b e r o f i n d i c t m e n t s . o r perhaps suspicions against H e a r d and R o b i n s o n . b u r n i n g t h e e a r s o f an a f f l i c t e d pig t o c u r e it. Edward U p c h e r had long R o b i n s o n f o r t h e d e a t h o f his w i f e . tw'o p o o r w o m e n j o i n e d h i m in t h e p r o s e c u t i o n . Annis H e a r d and J o a n R o b i n s o n . the j u d g e a s k e d ' w h y she d i d n o t p r o s e c u t e . t h a t o f h e r d a u g h t e r five v e a r s b e f o r e .c o n g r a t u l a t o r y a c c o u n t o f his s h o r t b u t s p e c t a c u l a r c a r e e r as a w i t c h . T h r e e . J o h n W a d d e .308 CLIVE HOLMES WOMEN: WITCHES AND WITNESSES 309 l o c a l r u m o u r s t o l a u n c h an i n v e s t i g a t i o n . c o m p l a i n i n g o f m y s t e r i o u s d e a t h s in t h e i r f a m i l i e s eighteen m o n t h s b e f o r e . w h o . H e v i s i t e d t h e g a o l e d S t O s y t h w o m a n . t o B r i a n . r a r e . figure like U p c h e r . standing and c o n f i d e n c e . H e had sought t h e advice o f a n u m b e r o f e m i n e n t physicians on G r a c e ' s with equal v i g o u r . O n c e the w i t c h c r a f t diagnosis had b e e n suggested. W o m e n also s e e m r e a d i e r t o d e p l o y . H i s a c t i v i t i e s a c t e d as a c a t a their suspicions o f their n e i g h b o u r s . a n d its i m m e d i a t e v i c i n i t y . t o r e f u s e t o l e n d o r sell t h e m i m p l e m e n t s or goods. John Swettson. A l l w i t n e s s e s c o n c u r r e d t h a t t o c r o s s t h e s e w o m e n . not surprisingly. e x c e p t s u c h a p e r s o n as this M r W e b b ' . T h e y w e r e joined by eight additional witnesses. . 1 8 In s o m e c a s e s t h e a n c i l l a r y t e s t i m o n v o f i e r e d b y w o m e n d e a l s w i t h i n c i d e n t s so r e m o t e as t o r o u s e t h e c o u r t ' s s u s p i c i o n s c o n c e r n i n g t h e w i t n e s s ' s m o t i v e s in c o m i n g f o r w a r d . g e n e r a l l y h e l d . o r a c t e d u n n a t u r a l l y ( T h o m a s R i c e ' s g o o s e . Such e x a m p l e s o f direct elite orchestration are. n o t all t h e 1 5 8 2 c a s e s w e r e g e n e r a t e d d i r e c t l y b y D a r c y ' s lvst. yet ' n o b o d y will e y t h e r b e at the c h a r g e to p r o s e c u t e h e r .m a n .h u n t e r in n o r t h . e n c o u r Darcy. a local J P had r e p o r t e d that W i d o w P e a c o c k o f M a l m e s b u r y was ' o f very bad fame and very terrible to the p e o p l e ' . e x p e r i e n c e o f their maleficence tended. h o w e v e r . a n d h e l e d t h e W a l t o n p r o s e c u t i o n . behalf. subsequent t o . o n l y D o r o t h y D u r e n t b l a m e d t h e w i t c h e s f o r a d e a t h . D a r c y .m a g i c to frustrate the w i t c h . b o t h m e n a n d w o m e n . o r r u n t h e hazard o f h e r r e v e n g e if she b e a c q u i t t e d . encouraging the villagers of Oakley and W a l t o n to voice quickly s w a m p e d by a plethora o f importations f r o m the current theology o f witchcraft. indicted Margaret C o t t o n f o r t h e d e a t h o f his i n f a n t d a u g h t e r in t h e s u m m e r o f 1 6 0 8 . c o n f e s s i n g s a t a n i c p r a c t i c e s a n d n a m i n g a w i d e c o v e n o f a c c o m p l i c e s . a n d h e a n d o t h e r m e m b e r s o f his f a m i l y t e s t i f i e d t o t h e i r a f f l i c t i o n s at t h e a s s i z e s .i n . h e pursued L l o y d ' s d e s t r u c t i o n 1 6 local suspicions and t e n s i o n s . occasionally mortal. a d m i t t e d l y f e w . held A m v D u n y and R o s e C u l l e n d e r r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e m y s t e r i o u s i l l n e s s o f his t w o d a u g h t e r s . a L o w e s t o f t m e r c h a n t . a v e o m a n w h o had suffered heavy stock losses for several years. W h e n E l i z a b e t h F i e l d t e s t i f i e d that her child had died m a n y years ago upon J a n e W e n h a m ' s t o u c h i n g it. and the child had n o friends' 9 a n d e d u c a t e d b v D a r c y ' s c r u s a d e at n e i g h b o u r i n g St O s y t h . 1 5 a g e d b y t h e St O s v t h ' s i n v e s t i g a t i o n . d i e d . In t h e b u l k o f c a s e s t h e d e c i s i o n t o b r i n g a w i t c h t o t h e a t t e n t i o n o f t h e authorities appears t o have b e e n u n d e r t a k e n entirely within the n e i g h b o u r h o o d . h a d r e f u s e d t o h a t c h her eggs). to demand the return o f b o r r o w e d articles or p a y m e n t .c o n s u m i n g and expensive a n d its f a i l u r e m i g h t l e a v e a c c u s e r s h o s t a g e t o t h e m a l i c e o f t h e w i t c h . f o r w h i c h she h a d s o u g h t h e l p f r o m a c u n n i n g . is a p p a r e n t in o t h e r c a s e s . a n d she a l s o t e s t i f i e d c o n c e r n i n g h e r i n f a n t s o n ' s i l l n e s s . h a d b e c o m e his s t a r w i t n e s s . given that p r o s e c u t i o n was t i m e . Y e t a f e w cases provide significant indicators c o n c e r n i n g that p r o c e s s . their Ursley suspected she a p p e a r e d n o w . a respected local m e r c h a n t . c o u l d b e d a n g e r o u s . while the m e n referred to occasions 'not long s i n c e ' . w a s t a k e n bv l o c a l men. i f a c o m p l a i n t was to b e b r o u g h t t o the attention o f the authorities. O f the witnesses. a Cambridge apothecary. b u t the accusation was driven on by her b r o t h e r . w h i l e s p u r r e d one o f the accused the b o y a t t e m p t e d suicide - by T h e r o l e o f l o c a l m e n in o r g a n i z i n g t h e p r o c e s s w h e r e b y s u s p i c i o n a n d g o s s i p w e r e t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o f o r m a l a c c u s a t i o n . deposed c o n c e r n i n g the interruption o f agricultural routines that t h e y a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e w i t c h e s . T h e v i l l a g e r s . . s o . in 1 5 7 2 at C h e l m s f o r d a s s i z e s . thev c a m e t o the attention o f the authorities b e c a u s e the villagers w ere inspired r T e n years b e f o r e . A n n e S a n d e s w e l l r e c a l l e d an i n c i d e n t s e v e n o r e i g h t years b e f o r e .

H o w e v e r . deserves discussion. as e x a m i n e r s f o r t h e p h y s i c a l m a r k s w h i c h w e r e i n c r e a s i n g l y s e e n as k e y e v i d e n c e in p r o s e c u t i o n . generally W e c o u l d s i m p l v a r g u e t h a t t h e t e s t i m o n y o f w o m e n in p o s s e s s i o n c a s e s o r as s e a r c h e r s . Nine w o m e n were c o n v i c t e d at L e i c e s t e r assizes in 1 6 1 6 u p o n t h e t e s t i m o n y o f t h e t h i r t e e n . T h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f this l a t t e r e m p h a s i s in t h e c o u r s e o f t h e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y e x p l a i n s t h e p r e p o n d e r a n c e o f f e m a l e w i t n e s s e s in l a t e r c a s e s . This strategy. w a s p r o v i d e d b y t h o s e w h o . a p p a r e n t in t h e i n t e r r o gation o f M a r y S m i t h and the t r i u m p h a n t publication o f h e r eventual confession o f d i a b o l i s m . in this c a s e t w o m e n t e s t i f i e d t o t h e i r l o s s e s . as v i c t i m s o f d i a b o l i c p o s s e s s i o n t h r o u g h t h e i n s t i g a t i o n o f a w i t c h . and charitably t o e v e r y p o i n t ' . in w h i c h t h e y r e p e a t e d a n d c o n f i r m e d e l i t e t h e o r i e s . 2 3 e m e r g e d in t h e w i t c h c r a f t t r i a l s .m a g i c . particularly adolescents. in c o n s e q u e n c e . but complayned of the hardnes of the t i m e s . often explicitly designed for 'the capacity o f the simpler sort'. a n o t h e r r e s p o n s e had b e e n m a d e available by the legislation of 1563. his skill as an i n q u i s i t o r . his fits d u r i n g t h e t r i a l . prosecution. A l i c e C r u t c h w a s a r r a i g n e d u p o n t w o i n d i c t m e n t s for the r e c e n t d e s t r u c t i o n o f t h e s t o c k .310 CLIVE HOLMES WOMEN: WITCHES AND WITNESSES 311 was arraigned on four i n d i c t m e n t s . was usually pursued by s u b s t a n t i a l m e n in t h e c o m m u n i t y w h o w o u l d lay t h e c h a r g e . s u g g e s t far m o r e e n g a g e m e n t in t h e c o n c e r n s ot t h e distinctive. 7 p e r c e n t o f t h e w i t c h craft accusations b e t w e e n 1 5 9 6 a n d 1 6 4 2 m e n a l o n e a c t e d as w i t n e s s e s . w e r e possessed by the Devil through the agency o f a witch. guarding themselves by seeking to avoid conflict.v e a r . 2 2 t h e f o r m a l legal p r o c e s s a g a i n s t w i t c h e s in t h e b u l k o f t h e c a s e s t h a t c a m e t o t h e a t t e n t i o n o f t h e j u d i c i a r v . c o n t r a c t s d i r e c t l y w i t h his a c o l y t e . ' c a m e t o his 'most periect terrible to be tolld'. s e c o n d l y . often w o m e n . listed: w o m e n f o r m e d a higher proportion o f the witnesses to the charges o f earlier malef2 0 t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l e f f o r t s a p p e a r t o h a v e b o r n e f r u i t . w e r e l a r g e l y p a s s i v e a c t o r s in whose Ill T h e m o s t s p e c t a c u l a r t e s t i m o n y in w i t c h . T h e i r treatises. D o e s this a r g u m e n t a l s o h o l d f o r t h o s e w o m e n elite? W o m e n contexts: first. p r o c e s s e s . Christianly. the o t h e r t w o dealt with m u r d e r s respectively t h r e e and six y e a r s e a r l i e r . cultural and a d e t a i l e d analysis s u g g e s t s t h a t a m o r e in w h i c h m i n i s t e r s a n d l a w y e r s p l a y e d a d i r e c t immediate role. In c o n f e s s i o n s f r o m E n g l a n d in 1645—7 the Devil figures prominently: h e a p p e a r s in h u m a n eastern guise. l a r g e l y a b s e n t in e a r l y d e p o s i t i o n s . met the divell midsomer r a r t l e s s a c c o u n t s o f t h e i r d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h S a t a n : so E l i z a b e t h S o u t h e r n e . B u t m a n y o f t h e c o n f e s s i o n s are far f r o m s t e r e o t y p e d . with the trivia o f stock-loss or the interruptions of domestic and not agricultural w h i t e t h o r n e as s h e w e n t t o W e s t l e t o n a n d t h e r e h e p r o m i s e d h e r 2s 6 d a n d h e h a d i t n o t t h e n b u t said s h e s h o l d h a v e i t t h e n e x t t i m e she c a m e that way but he favled of his promise. it s e e m s . and . Women. w e r e r e i n f o r c e d by w o r k s that w e r e m o r e obviously popular chapbooks. d e s p i t e t h e i r n u m e r i c a l i n v o l v e m e n t . Y e t the elite w h o controlled the judicial m a c h i n e r y had their o w n agenda. understanding. w h e n necessary. o n l y in 4 . b u t (as in t h e c a s e o f S m i t h ) w i t h d i a b o l i s m . a n d his o w n p r u r i e n t f a n t a s i e s . if r a r e r . M e n and w o m e n b e l i e v e d that their f e m a l e n e i g h b o u r s c o u l d deploy malefic e n t p o w e r s . k n e e l e d a n d a s k e d h e r f a t h e r ' s b l e s s i n g . and cases emanating f r o m local tensions and suspicions w o u l d have t o b e adjusted. T h e i d e a t h a t a d i r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e D e v i l is t h e f o u n d a t i o n o f t h e w i t c h ' s p o w e r . o f popular belief engineered by the complex process of divines. 6 p e r c e n t o f t h e c a s e s did w o m e n t e s t i f y a g a i n s t an a c c u s e d w i t c h a l o n e . s e e m s t o h a v e b e c o m e m o r e understood by the mid-seventeenth century. bv elaborate d e f e r e n c e . o f t h e i n f e r i o r i t y o f w o m e n as i n d i c a t e d by their g r e a t e r susceptibility t o satanic t e m p t a t i o n — c o n s t r u c t e d by the elite. a l s o w i t n e s s e d a g a i n s t w i t c h e s in t w o m o r e d e p o s i t i o n s . w h e n b r o u g h t t o the attention o f magistrates and ministers. a n d s o l i c i t t h e c o n f i r m a t o r y testimony o f their neighbours. T h e i r m i s s i o n a r y e f f o r t s . w h i l e a w o m a n d e p o s e d c o n c e r n i n g t h e e a r l i e r d e a t h . it w a s c l a i m e d . . a D u n w i c h O n e further pattern that e m e r g e s last like a black boy 10 years old by a f r o m the H o m e Circuit indictments m a y reinforce the suggestion that w o m e n w e r e being mobilized by m e n . t h a t s a t a n i c c o v e n a n t was the e s s e n c e o f the o f f e n c e . and u p o n a third i n d i c t m e n t for m u r d e r by w i t c h c r a f t f o u r y e a r s p r e v i o u s l y . w h o w e r e the driving force behind the decision t o bring l o c a l s u s p i c i o n s a n d f e a r s t o t h e a t t e n t i o n o f t h e c o u r t s . H o r r o r might be punctuated by m o m e n t s o f didactic piety. Protestant divines sought t o t r a n s f o r m the gross popular superstitions that Cases o f diabolic possession through t h e a g e n c y o f a w i t c h p r e s e n t e d t h e m a x i m u m o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r an e d i f y i n g a n d c a t h a r t i c d r a m a in t h e c o u r t T h e y a l s o e m p h a s i z e d t h e d i a b o l i c o r i g i n s o f t h e w i t c h ' s power upon w h i c h t h e d i v i n e s so p e r t i n a c i o u s l y insisted. T h i s e x t e n sive g r o u p o f d e p o s i t i o n s is a t r i b u t e . spoke very discreetly. preponderate among 'possessed' a c c u s e r s . In 1 5 9 6 at H e r t f o r d . is o v e r r e p r e s e n t e d in t h e p u b l i s h e d a c c o u n t s . The comprehensively M o s t o f the published accounts o f possession cases provide a narrative w h i c h d e s c r i b e s t h e v i c t i m ' s c o n f r o n t a t i o n w i t h t h e w i t c h as t h e first act o f the subse- . is a n o t h e r i n d i c a tion o f the general transformation However. construction was involved. e m e r g e d from h e r fit. t o M a t t h e w H o p k i n s ' s acquaintance accused's w i t h c o n t i n e n t a l t h e o r i e s . T h e y treated such witches warily. in p a r t . w e r e W i l l i a m A v e r y . by erecting a p r o t e c tive shield o f c o u n t e r . w h i c h . as d y v e r s k n y g h t s a n d l a d i e s a n d m a n n y o t h a r s o i t h e b e t t a r s o r t ' . 2 1 he met her indeed. particularly the pedlar. 7 p e r c e n t o f t h e m m e n a n d w o m e n t e s t i f i e d t o g e t h e r . o r w i t h m y s t e r i o u s a i l m e n t s a n d d e a t h . w e r e d e s i g n e d t o insist o n t h e i r t h e o l o g i c a l c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n . and m i g h t b e t r a n s f o r m e d . upon the witch's c o u r t r o o m confession. o n t h e f a c e o f i t . w h i l e in 6 7 . a n d has c a r n a l r e l a t i o n s w i t h h e r . S u c h t e s t i m o n y . a f t e r r a v i n g in t h e p r e s e n c e o f t h e j u d g e s . T h i s l a t t e r c a s e is n o t u n t y p i c a l o f t h o s e i n v o l v i n g s e v e r a l i n d i c t m e n t s in w h i c h t h e n a m e s o f w i t n e s s e s a r e i c e n c e than t o those o f m o r e r e c e n t p r o v e n a n c e . ' i n t h e s v g h t o i all t h e g r e a t e s t p a r s o n s h e r e . and. T h e s e groups w e r e c o n c e r n e d . As in N e w England. t w o alleged r e c e n t incidents o f m u r d e r and the destruction o f stock. d e g r e e o f i n v o l v e m e n t o f t h e s e g i r l s w h o in t h e i r t e s t i m o n y so reinforced academic theory. broadsides War and ballads — and by the t h e a t r e o f the c o u r t and the g a l l o w s . In 2 7 .o l d E d w a r d S m i t h .t r i a l s . Jane T h r o c k m o r t o n . . r e f l e c t e d a n d c o n f i r m e d i n t e l l e c t u a l e d i f i c e s — o f w i t c h c r a f t as d i a b o l i s m . s e r m o n s and editions o f confessions. By the Civil w o m e n .

' a f f r o n t e d t h e h a g ' : all w e r e s u b s e q u e n t l y s u b j e c t e d t o f e a r f u l p h y s i c a l a n d mental t o r m e n t s . A c c o r d i n g t o a p a m p h l e t o f 1 6 1 2 M r s E l i z a b e t h B e l c h e r . And equally it is t h e e l e m e n t o f e l i t e c o n s t r u c t i o n a n d m a n i p u l a t i o n o f t h e i r t e s t i m o n y t h a t is most apparent. their dramatic performances f r a i l t y o f t h e ' w e a k e r s e x e ' in t h e f a c e o f s a t a n i c t e m p t a t i o n . M e r c v S h o r t . when the that E l i z a b e t h w a s in h e r fit. while c o n f o r m i n g t o a basic p a t t e r n . c o m p l a i n e d that the actions and accusations o f the possessed involved 'the abusive impression o f s o m e indiscreete whispering about the p o s s e s s i o n n a r r a t i v e s .c o v e n a n t t h e o l o g y . T h e 1 6 3 4 c o n v i c t i o n s t r o u b l e d s o m e o f t h e a u t h o r i t i e s a n d undertaken: re-examHarvey. as w i t h [Catherine W r i g h t a n d A n n e G u n t e r . M a r g a r e t B y r o m . T e n L o n d o n m i d w i v e s ' m a d e diligent search and inspeccion o f those w o m e n ' T h e y r e p o r t e d t h a t o n e o f t h e w o m e n had u n u s u a l b u t e x p l i c a b l e m a r k s . T h e o r t h o d o x b e g i n n i n g o f t h e a c c o u n t of t h e p o s s e s s i o n o f t h e d a u g h t e r o f L a d v J e n n i n g s — h e r f e a r o f an o l d w o m a n s u d d a i n l y a p p e a r e d t o h e r att t h e d o r e a n d d e m a n d e d a pin o f h e r ' — s e e m s q u i t e i r r e l e v a n t t o t h e s u b s e q u e n t s t o r y . L a n c a s t e r s h o u l d a l s o h a v e b e e n t h e last i n s t a n c e o f t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n they sought a respite of execution while further investigations w e r e of s u c h e v i d e n c e in c o u r t . M i c h a e l M a c D o n a l d . i n v o l v e d far m o r e c o m p l e x t r a n s a c t i o n s . F o u r m e n and sixteen w o m e n w e r e accused. was firmly r o o t e d in l o n g . 'Did she?'. shows h o w h e r s y m p t o m s . E l i z a b e t h h a d b e e n s i c k f o r fifteen m o n t h s . w h e n an a c c u s e d w i t c h h e l d in B o s t o n g a o l b e g g e d h e r f o r a l i t t l e t o b a c c o . n o r a n y t h i n g e l y k e a t e a t e o r m a r k e . b u t she r e f u s e d t o e n t e r t a i n this s u g g e s t i o n . so t o o w a s t h e s u b s e q u e n t b e h a v i o u r o f t h e v i c t i m s . those w h o testified t o the physical m a r k s that w e r e to characterize a witch. t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l f o r m a t o f t h e n a r r a t i v e 'who b a r e l y c o n c e a l s t h e m o r e d i f f u s e r e a l i t y . including the assertion o f the responsibility o f a witch for the victim's e x p e r i e n c e . the structure to which m o s t accusations c o n f o r m e d . ' n i c k n a m e d and t a u n t e d ' h e r b e n e f a c t o r s . p h y s i c w a s u n a v a i l i n g . levelled by a ten-year-old boy. and. A f e w documents e n a b l e us t o s e e this p r o c e s s d i r e c t l v . if m o r e tangentially. i n c l u d e d an e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e p h y s i o l o g i c a l e v i d e n c e . 'a v e r t u o u s a n d g o d l y g e n t l e . b u t also medical professionals and divines. T h e witchcraft-possession .w o m a n ' . T h e L a n c a s t e r c a s e p r o v i d e s t h e first i n s t a n c e o f t h e fullv d e v e l o p e d . as w e r e t h e e f f o r t s o f the local practitioner o f astrological m e d i c i n e . in t h e f o r m o f e a r l i e r 2 7 T h e b e h a v i o u r and testiother of o f the possessed w e r e thus entangled with the interests o f various chieflv f r o m t h e i r o w n familv n e t w o r k s . Y e t d e s p i t e this c r i t i q u e . o f t e n . demonstrably absent from their previous affective relations. themselves. T h e girl n o m i n a t e d w i t c h e s o n l y a f t e r a s e v e r e i l l n e s s o f f o u r m o n t h s d u r i n g wdiich d e s p e r a t e m e d i c a l r e m e d i e s h a d b e e n u n s u c cessfullv a t t e m p t e d . and from But while the possessed w e r e and a p p r o p r i a t i n g l a n g u a g e a n d b e h a v i o u r in w a y s t h a t w e r e i n t e n s e l y p e r s o n a l liberating. Then. If the possession-through-witchcraft and diag- IV A s i m i l a r analysis is a l s o a p p r o p r i a t e in d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e e v i d e n c e o f t h e t h i r d g r o u p o f f e m a l e w i t n e s s e s . mony p a r t i c i p a n t s in t h e d r a m a . 2 8 B u t . w h i l e in s e v e r a l c a s e s p a r a d i g m s o f a p p r o p r i a t e b e h a v i o u r . Nicholas S t a r k e y ' s c h i l d r e n . Richard Napier. reinforced t h e w i t c h c r a i t . crucially. thirteen o f the w o m e n w e r e t o h a v e m a r k s o r p a p s . awav with J o a n e Vaughan'. o f f i c i a l l y s a n c t i o n e d . T h e accusation. s e a r c h f o r t h e w i t c h ' s m a r k in E n g l a n d . a n d t h e s e w e r e l o c a t e d in t h e g e n i t a l a r e a o f e l e v e n o f t h e m .i n t e r m e d i a r v n o m i n a t e d . t e s t i f y i n g a t N o r t h a m p t o n assizes w h e r e t h e witch was c o n d e m n e d . T h e p o s s e s s e d adolescents w e r e the tools o f the divines. T h e y t o o confirmed. c r y i n g o u t in h e r fits. 1619. a n d t h e w i t c h . their families and neighbours. 2 4 identification might prove seductive to those w h o s e s y m p t o m s bewildered medical experts. F o u r o f the c o n v i c t e d w o m e n w e r e b r o u g h t to L o n d o n and in t h e p r e s e n c e o f a p a n e l o f d i s t i n g u i s h e d p h y s i c i a n s h e a d e d b y W i l l i a m ined. other t h e s e . s t r u c k J o a n V a u g h a n .a s . n o r any s i g n e t h a t a n y s u c h e t h i n g e h a i t h e v e r b e e n e ' . a n d t h e i r u s u a l d i s c o v e r y in t h e p u d e n d a . t h o s e a t t e n d i n g h e r b e g a n t o n o m i n a t e s u s p e c t s . and t h e r e had b e e n m u c h discussion a m o n g the family visitors o f the possibilitv o f w i t c h c r a i t .m a r k s o n t h e a c c u s e d . thought suppositions c o n c e r n i n g b o t h the diabolic nature o f witchcraft and female inferiority. b i b l e b a b l e ' . A b a s i c p a t t e r n o f l a n g u a g e a n d g e s t u r e . so that thev c o n f i r m e d with increasing 2 6 D r J o h n C o t t a . 2 5 In o t h e r c a s e s . could b e individually s h a p e d t o p r o v i d e an o u t l e t f o r p e r s o n a l f e e l i n g s t h a t w o u l d n o t o t h e r w i s e a c h i e v e s a n c t i o n e d e x p r e s s i o n — s e x u a l f a n t a s i e s . A manuscript offers a very different account. t h e b o y b i t his m o t h e r a n d c a l l e d h e r ' w h o r e ' . this w a s simply the f o r m u l a i c c o n v e n t i o n o f a substantial literary g e n r e . r e l i g i o u s d o u b t s . A t L a n c a s t e r assizes in 1 6 3 4 s o m e t w e n t y p e o p l e w e r e c o n v i c t e d as w i t c h e s . a p o o r k i n s w o m a n w h o lived on the Starkey family's charity. bystanders named Joan again: ' H a t h she d o n e i t ? ' . w e r e a v a i l a b l e in t h e s i c k r o o m .312 CLIVE HOLMES WOMEN: WITCHES AND WITNESSES 313 q u e n t d r a m a . l a r g e l v in r e s p o n s e t o t h e e x p e c t a t i o n s o f t h o s e w h o g a t h e r e d a b o u t t h e m t o o f f e r c o n s o l a t i o n and t o p a r t i c i p a t e v i c a r i o u s l y in t h e c o n f l i c t with Satan. d e l i g h t e d in ' f i l t h i e a n d u n s a v o u r y s p e e c h e s ' . initiallv clarity' a diagnosis o f possession through w i t c h c r a f t . T h e possessed themselves w e r e not simply malleable puppets articulating the c o n c e r n s o f o t h e r s in a p r o c e s s o f s o c i a l v e n t r i l o q u i s m . c u l m i n a t i n g in t h e i r c o u r t r o o m p e r f o r m a n c e s .d i a b o l i c . r a g e at p a r e n t s . B e l c h e r ' s friends suspected witchcraft. w r i t i n g in 'ordinarily' sick'. was the p r o d u c t o f a s o c i a l p r o c e s s in w h i c h k e y r o l e s w e r e p l a y e d b y a d u l t s a n d m a l e s . was l e a r n e d b v t h e p o s s e s s e d . a g e d n i n e a n d t e n . W i l l i a m P e r r v failed t o salute J o a n C o c k e with sufficient c o u r t e s y w h e n they m e t . all w e r e r e j e c t e d until they n a m e d J o a n . b y t h e t i m e it w a s e m p l o v e d b y C o t t o n M a t h e r in his a c c o u n t s o f t h e p o s s e s s i o n o f t h e G o o d w i n c h i l d r e n a n d o f M e r c y S h o r t . they s c o f f e d at S c r i p t u r e as ' b i b l e b a b l e . T h e ioural traits o f possession. s a n c t i o n e d b y t h e P r i v y C o u n c i l . t h e s i c k w o m a n a s k e d . ' s t r e n g t h e n e d and changed o v e r t i m e . t h e d a u g h t e r o f a n o t o r i o u s l o c a l w i t c h . Elizabeth responded. g a i n i n g d e f i n i t i o n in t h e c e n t u r y a f t e r 1 5 9 0 . T h o m a s D a r l i n g i n a d v e r t e n t l y f a r t e d as h e p a s s e d A l i c e G o o d e r i d g e . a n d f u r t h e r q u e s t i o n s n o s i s is t h e p r o d u c t o f a d i a l o g u e i n v o l v i n g m a n v a c t o r s . T h e actual process w h e r e b v t h e s u f f e r e r ' s a f f l i c t i o n w a s r e c o g n i z e d as p o s s e s s i o n . The victim behavb e c a m e t h e f o c u s o f an i n t e n s e a t t e n t i o n . w i t h its a n c i l l a r y e m p h a s i s u p o n t h e m o m e n t n e v e r c e a s e d t o a c c u s e J o a n . 'Heere comes Joane Vaughan. a f t e r J o a n had m a d e an o b s c e n e g e s t u r e at h e r : a fewdays l a t e r E l i z a b e t h w a s p o s s e s s e d . f r u s t r a tion with the constrictions i m p o s e d by social and g e n d e r r o l e s . o n t h e o t h e r t h r e e t h e v f o u n d ' n o t h i n g u n n a t u r a l l n e y t h e r in t h e s e c r e t s o r a n y p a r t e s o f t h e i r e b o d y e s .s t a n d i n g found l o c a l s u s p i c i o n : it w a s c o r r o b o r a t e d b y e v i d e n c e o f t h e w i t c h . (1603) 'undistinc- t i v e ' . analysing D r S t e p h e n B r a d w e l l ' s a c c o u n t o f the possession o f M a r y G l o v e r .

w i t h its e m p h a s i s u p o n t h e f e m a l e g e n i t a l s . and t h e m a g i s t r a c y . A n d .o r d e a l . l e a v i n g an i n s e n s i b l e s c a r . S a t a n a n d his m i n i o n s w e r e d e s c r i b e d in S c r i p t u r e m a s q u e r a d i n g as ' s u c h p a l t r i e v e r m i n . 3 0 T h i s e a r l y a n s w e r is f l e s h e d o u t b y l a t e r w r i t e r s i n t o a Glanvill ingenuously described them. T h e i r theories w e r e to b e r e i n f o r c e d . it r e i n f o r c e s t h e g e n d e r . In c o n s e q u e n c e t h e y w e r e o f t e n t h e b u t t o f t h e j i b e s o f s c e p t i c s . b u t it w a s o c c a s i o n a l l y s u p p l e Mother W a t e r h o u s e ' s fell p u r p o s e s . 'the m o r e to aggravate the w i t c h ' s T h e w o r k o f the academics had b e e n to i n c o r p o r a t e local ' e x p e r i e n c e ' e m e r g i n g f r o m t h e s u b s t r a t e o f p o p u l a r b e l i e f i n t o a g e n e r a l t h e o r y . a n d 'the suspition that was b e f o r e n o t well g r o u n d e d . it w a s an i m p o r t a t i o n f r o m c o n t i n e n t a l p r a c t i c e . p r o p e r physical e x a m i n a t i o n could reveal such satanic stigmata and. B r i a n D a r c v h a d s u s p e c t s s e a r c h e d 3 5 But the . A f e w E n g l i s h t h e o r i s t s f o l l o w t h e i r c o n t i n e n t a l c o u n t e r p a r t s in d e s c r i b i n g t h e a n a e s thetic mark. T h e discovery o f the physical peculiarities thought to m a r k a w i t c h p r o v i d e d . d r a w i n g b l o o d w i t h w h i c h t o sign t h e c o m p a c t a n d l e a v i n g an i n s e n s i b l e s c a r as its t a n g i b l e s y m b o l . A c a d e m i c writers w e r e frequently embarrassed by aspects o f the popular beliefs a b o u t w i t c h c r a f t t h a t e m e r g e d in a c c u s a t i o n s . G i f f o r d set o u t t h e d i f f i c u l t y : S a t a n was the efficient cause 'to o f t h e w i t c h ' s m a l e f i c e n c e . ' w h i c h is a c o m o n t o k e n t o k n o w all w i t c h e s b y ' . w e r e a l m o s t u n i q u e t o E n g l i s h f o l k l o r e . w h i l e still m a i n t a i n i n g the c o h e r e n c e o f the latter. t h e d e s i r e d p o s i t i v i s t i c t e s t o f g u i l t . T h e w i t c h e n t e r s a c o v e n a n t with Satan w h o m a r k s h e r and draws b l o o d . t h e t h r e e a c c u s e d w i t c h e s all f l o a t e d .g i f t b o r e s o m e affinities t o the idea o f P r o t e s t a n t continental theorists. E u r o p e a n c o m m e n t a t o r s a s s e r t e d t h a t at t h e m a k i n g o f t h e c o v e n a n t t h e D e v i l c l a w e d o r b r a n d e d his n e o p h y t e . that Satan. Yet 'that which by e x p e r i e n c e is found t o b e t r u e ' could n o t simply b e dismissed. 3 4 So effec- tive a litmus test p r o v e d attractive t o o t h e r magistrates b e f o r e the Civil W a r . as c a t s . a full u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e c o n t e x t i n w h i c h t h e i r r o l e as w i t n e s s e s d e v e l o p e d a l l o w s us t o s e e t h e m a t r o n s a n d m i d w i v e s as m a r g i n a l p a r t i c i p a n t s in p r o c e d u r e s o r i g i n a t i n g in t h e c o n c e r n s o f e x c l u s i v e l y m a l e g r o u p s : t h e c l e r g y .m a g i c . a l t h o u g h it s u r v i v e d as a v i g o r o u s e l e m e n t in t h e p o p u l a r r e s p o n s e t o w i t c h c r a f t . A c c o r d i n g l y . t h e n .o r i e n t e d d i m e n s i o n o f the a c a d e m i c t h e o r y o f w i t c h c r a f t . In 1 6 1 2 t h e N o r t h a m p t o n s h i r e J P s . 3 2 l e e t j u r y in 1 5 7 9 t h a t W i d o w W a l k e r s h o u l d b e s e a r c h e d f o r a n y b l o o d y D e c o n t e x t u a l i z e d a n d a n a l y s e d in i s o l a t i o n . T h e mented with the witch's blood. t o a d s and w e a s i l s ' ? b e m i g h t i e t e r r i b l e s p i r i t s . before 1634: e q u i v a l e n t t o t h e s e a r c h f o r t h e i n s e n s i b l e b r a n d in S c o t l a n d the earliest surviving instance is t h e demand of a or G e n e v a .h u n t in e a s t e r n E n g l a n d . i n c r e a s i n g l y s e e m e d i n s u b s t a n t i a l . as did t h e D e r b y s h i r e J P s in 1 5 9 7 . w e r e t h e v Having p o s e d t h e p r o b l e m . after m a k i n g the c o v e n a n t . 2 9 c l a w e d his n e w d i s c i p l e . t h i s b l o o d . its lavish e m p l o y m e n t b y H o p k i n s a n d S t e a r n e h a r d e n e d o b j e c t i o n s t h a t had already b e e n e x p r e s s e d by a n u m b e r o f clerics. d u p l i c a t i n g t h e E n g l i s h a c c o u n t o f t h e c o v e n a n t b y an e m p h a s i s o n t h e f a m i l i a r . M o r e o v e r . this she g a v e h i m b y p r i c k i n g h e r h a n d o r f a c e a n d p u t t i n g t h e b l o u d t o his m o u t h w h y c h e h e s u c k e d . B y t h e e a r l y s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y s o m e l o c a l officials w e r e c l e a r l y t r o u b l e d b y the evidential p r o b l e m s p o s e d b y the usual f o r m o f w i t c h c r a f t a c c u s a t i o n . a l a m b a n d a t o a d in a l a r g e w o o l lined p o t . their d i s c o v e r y b y q u a l i f i e d e x p e r t s w a s e s s e n t i a l f o r c o n v i c t i o n in s o m e j u r i s d i c t i o n s . T h e i r q u e s t t o o k a n u n i b e r o f d i r e c t i o n s . w h o d e n o u n c e d t h e p r a c t i c e as u n w a r r a n t e d b y S c r i p t u r e . i f e x t r a v a g a n t . from the m o r e detailed narrative o f the w i t c h ' s transaction with Satan that assimilates further as J o s e p h 3 1 popular belief system.t r i a l e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e a c c u s e d b y ' a n c i e n t skilfull m a t r o n s a n d m i d w i v e s ' c o n t i n u e d as a f e a t u r e o f t h e w i t c h a c c u s a t i o n s in E n g l a n d and the A m e r i c a n colonies into the eighteenth century. So. h e r i a m i l i a r . r a g e a n d c r u e l t i e s ' . its official e m p l o y m e n t c e a s e d save in v e r y r e m o t e jurisdictions. o f the w i t c h ' s pact with Satan. and d e v e l o p e d . In E n g l a n d . in t h e 1 5 8 2 S t O s y t h i n v e s t i g a t i o n . cake and w h i t e b r e a d . was n o w c o n f i r m e d ' . As w i t h t h e p o s s e s s e d a d o l e s c e n t s . but in other writings and in local police practice the test was t r a n s i o r m e d . 'it is e v e n o f s u b t i l t i e ' . T h e search was e m p l o y e d intermittently Southampton marks popular b e l i e f w e r e k e p t by t h e w i t c h and e m p l o y e d t o e x e c u t e h e r designs. magistrates sought tangible p r o o f o f the w i t c h ' s status. 'odd performances'. 3 3 T h e t e s t i m o n y o f t h e s e ' k n o w i n g w o m e n ' r e s u l t e d in t h e c o n d e m n a t i o n o f a n u m b e r o f i n d i v i d u a l s . T h e d e v i l s a d o p t t h e s e b a s e g u i s e s s o as n o t t o t e r r i f y t h e i r d u p e s b y r e v e a l i n g t h e i r h o r r e n dous f o r m s and p o w e r . experimented with the water-ordeal as p r a c t i s e d on the C o n t i n e n t a n d a p p r o v e d b y K i n g J a m e s . a g a i n . as did t h e w a t e r . In 1 6 4 6 J u d g e G o d b o l t h a l t e d t h e u s e o f t h e w a t e r o r d e a l b y H o p k i n s a n d his e n t o u r a g e a n d . r e i n f o r c e d by various dubious bits o f c o n f i r m a t o r y c o u n t e r . m i s e . It a p p e a r s in t h e e a r l i e s t t r i a l s t h a t it w a s c o m m o n l y t h o u g h t that the w i t c h h o u s e d and fed h e r familiars: U r s l e v K e m p l o d g e d h e r t w o c a t s .m a g i c . by 1 6 0 0 . by a n o t h e r g r o u p : lawyers and magistrates. and the resultant problem synthesis uneasy. is v e r y apparent in t h e divines' wrestling with the to posed by the witches' familiars. a n d t h u s m e r e l y a f o r m o f i l l i c i t c o u n t e r . G i f f o r d s k e t c h e s an a n s w e r . notably the influential W i l l i a m P e r k i n s . after accomplishing diet s e e m s o r d i n a r y e n o u g h . and c o n s e q u e n t l y had t o b e read o r s h a p e d in a w a y t h a t p e r m i t t e d its i n c o r p o r a t i o n i n t o t h e i r t h e o r e t i c a l c o n s t r u c t s — h e n c e the misogynous explanations developed by the divines to a c c o u n t for the plurality o f female witches that e m e r g e d f r o m popular accusation. full o f p o w e r . a c a t . the conEnglish c o m m e n t a t o r s d e v e l o p e d a syncretist t h e o r y . which according professional the original transaction. w a s r e w a r d e d w i t h a c h i c k e n and a d r o p o f h e r b l o o d . maintaining t h e m on b e e r . W h y . From this s t r u c t u r a l r e s e m b l a n c e . and r e s o n a t e s w i t h t h e m o r e o v e r t c o n t i n e n t a l d i s c u s s i o n s o f w o m e n ' s i n s a t i a b l e l u s t as a m a j o r e l e m e n t in t h e i r c o m p a c t a n d r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h S a t a n . p r e . this i n v e r t e d E u c h a r i s t is d e s i g n e d t o ' p u t h e r in m i n d o f damnation'. a n d d i v i n e s w e r e t a x e d t o e x p l a i n t h e i r p r e s e n c e in t e r m s o f t h e i r t h e o l o g y o f w i t c h c r a f t . d r a w i n g it i n t o a t e a t . H o w e v e r . in the absence o f a confession. A c c o u n t s o f the v i c t i m ' s sufferings that f o l l o w e d a c u r s e . t h e d i s c o v e r y o f t h e s u c k e d t e a t b e c o m e s an a p p r o p r i a t e demonstration. f a c e d with a difficult case. t h o u g h r e w o r k e d t o accommod a t e p a r o c h i a l e x p e r i e n c e . the D e v i l t h e n provides a familiar w h o regularly sucks b l o o d f r o m t h e r e s u l t i n g w o u n d . These creatures.314 CLIVE HOLMES WOMEN: WITCHES AND WITNESSES 315 c o n c e r n i n g the reliability o f the search p r o c e d u r e during the wave o f prosecutions in E a s t A n g l i a in 1 6 4 5 — 6 . l i k e t h e o r d e a l . T h a t the a c c o m m o d a t i o n o f p o p u l a r b e l i e f and intellectual t h e o r y o f t e n p r o v e d a w k w a r d . c o m b i n i n g continental cepts and insular f o l k l o r e . and t h e t e c h n i q u e w a s u s e d e x t e n s i v e l y in t h e 1 6 4 5 — 6 w i t c h . h o w e v e r .

M r s Odill o f Fairfield. in a m a c a b r e s c e n e b e n e a t h t h e g a l l o w s . were prepared to exculpate individuals. e v e n i n t h o s e c a s e s C o c k b u r n . t h a t t h e m a r k m a y b e a n y w h e r e . the intellectual regarding the b o t h the efficacy o f the test and. T h e r o l e and s e l f .m e c u m f o r l o c a l m a g i s t r a t e s in t h e l i g h t o f t h e 1 6 2 7 Guide to Grand-Jury Men b y t h e d i v i n e . In p a r t i c u l a r . h a d e x a m i n e d t h e c o r p s e o f an e x e c u t e d w i t c h a n d a r g u e d t h a t t h e g e n i t a l m a r k s w e r e ' s u c h as o t h e r women by in m i g h t h a v e ' . is a Certainly s o m e midwives w e r e prepared to assert categorically that physr The searchers arguments essential p r e m i s e . T h o s e w o m e n . Y e t D a l t o n a l s o t r a n s f o r m s his s o u r c e in a k e v r e s p e c t . magistrates after 1 6 3 0 . 3 9 o b v i o u s l y t o o k t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s s e r i o u s l y . g e n e r ally s u p p o s e d t o b e a w i t c h . h e r e x e c u t i o n . a n d this m i g h t l e a d t o in g e n e r a l . 'these the Devil's marks . t h o u g h s u c h o c c a s i o n s m a y have b e e n f r e q u e n t . t h o s e s e a r c h e s in w h i c h n o i n c r i m i n a t i n g m a r k s w e r e f o u n d . the search must be diligent. t h e l o c a l m i d w i f e w a s f a r m o r e c i r c u m s p e c t in h e r t e s t i m o n y . in t h e s e e a r l y e x a m p l e s . they w e r e most execuJ.p e r c e p t i o n of the w o m e n w h o p a r t i c i p a t e d in t h e search colonial search f o c u s e d u p o n t h e g e n i t a l a r e a . in t h e i r s e c r e t e s t p a r t s . d i a g n o s e d t h e i r m a r k s as s u s p i c i o u s . t h u s e x c u l p a t i n g an a c c u s e d w i t c h . c o n s i d e r i n g t h e f r e q u e n c y w i t h w h i c h s u c h ' m i s t a k e s ' w e r e m a d e . p a s s i n g there bv c h a n c e ' . in his s u m m a r y . g i v e n an official d i s t r u s t o f t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a n d t h e s u s p i c i o n s o f w i t c h c r a f t t h a t f o c u s e d o n t h e i r presidency belief. D a l t o n cites B e r n a r d with enthusiastic approval a n d e m p h a s i z e s t h e u t i l i t y o f t h e d i s c o v e r y o f t h e m a r k s as i n c o n t r o v e r t i b l e proof — ' m a i n e points t o d i s c o v e r and c o n v i c t . has argued that the j u r y o f w o m e n e m b o d i e d the s e n t i m e n t o f the c o u r t and the w i d e r c o m m u n i t y in f a v o u r o f m e r c y in a p a r t i c u l a r c a s e . w i t h c o p i o u s citation o f t h e available English c a s e s . In 1 6 4 5 B r i d g e t R e y n o l d s o f R a m s e y s e a r c h e d t h r e e l o c a l w o m e n . Y e t l o n g s t a n d i n g p o p u l a r s u s p i c i o n s did n o t i n v a r i a b l y l e a d t o t h e d i s c o v e r y o f t h e conclusive physical e v i d e n c e . in this c a s e t w o o f t h e t h r e e w o m e n w h o e x a m i n e d E l i z a b e t h S a w y e r w e r e ' b r o u g h t in b y t h e O f f i c e r s o u t o f t h e s t r e e t e . a m o n g t h e m r e s u l t i n g f r o m t h e i r d o u b t s in i n d i v i d u a l c a s e s o r a b o u t t h e p r o c e d u r e i c a l m a r k s w e r e u n n a t u r a l . a n d t e s t i f i e d a g a i n s t t h e m a t t h e a s s i z e s . r e p o r t e d t h e d o u b t s o f 'a skilful m i d w i f e ' c o n c e r n i n g t h e w i t c h ' s colonial j u r i e s . lawyer T h e l a c o n i c r e f e r e n c e s in t h e E n g l i s h r e c o r d s . b u t t h a t . It has b e e n s u g g e s t e d . R i c h a r d B e r n a r d . C o n n e c t i c u t . Searchers w e r e often p r e p a r e d t o testify n o t only t o the a c c u s e d ' s physical m a r k s . o r t o t h e i r o w n e x p e r i e n c e o f h e r m a l e f i c e n c e . W h i l e w o m e n w e r e a p p o i n t e d t o c o n d u c t physical e x a m i n a t i o n s in civil a n d c r i m i n a l cases turning on virginity or p r e g n a n c y . a n d in 1 6 2 1 a J P h a d t o p r e s s his c o l l e a g u e s o n t h e M i d d l e s e x B e n c h t o i n s t i t u t e t h e s e a r c h o f a s u s p e c t . for t h e y p r o v e fully that t h o s e w i t c h e s h a v e a f a m i l i a r a n d m a d e a l e a g u e w i t h t h e D e v i l ' . 1 6 4 7 . . 3 6 N o r . t i o n w a s d e l a y e d .316 CLIVE HOLMES W0MEN: WITCHES AND WITNESSES 317 p r a c t i c e w a s n o t u n i v e r s a l : in 1 5 9 3 M o t h e r S a m u e l ' s m a r k w a s d i s c o v e r e d after c r a f t sayd t h a t s o m e o f t h e d e v i l e s i m p e s h a d s u c k e d h e r ' . f o u n d n o d i s c o v e r y o f t h a t n a t u r e . validity o f the e n t i r e p r o c e d u r e . language o f Bernard's argument: the teats. confronted by the e v i d e n t i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s t h a t t y p i f i e d all w i t c h c r a f t a c c u s a t i o n s . 3 7 'very the shifts be often Fortified bv Dalton's confident p r o n o u n c e m e n t s . in 1 6 3 0 . a n d e v e n t h e f u l l e r v e r d i c t s o f the 'Ansient and K n o w i n g W o m e n ' p e r c e i v e d t h e i r m a r g i n a l r o l e as s e a r c h e r s . b u t t o h e r r e p u t a t i o n as a w i t c h . authoritatively silenced those w o m e n w h o . S. D a l t o n r e v i s e d his i n f l u e n t i a l v a d e . W h e n Ellen Garrison o f U p w e l l was searched ambiguous. were protecting their o w n precarious positions by associating themselves with o r t h o d o x 3 8 B u t this h y p o t h e s i s c a n n o t s u r v i v e D a v i d H a r l e y ' s d e m o n s t r a t i o n t h a t its the vulnerability of midwives to witchcraft prosecution. midwives and o t h e r s . in t h e c o n t e x t . But a r g u m e n t s a m o n g the searchers and the ambiguous language with which they often hedged their findings m a y equally have led t o elite c o n c e r n that. w h i c h sets o u t t h e full-fledged t h e o r y e x p r e s s i n g t h e r o l e o f the familiar in t e r m s o f the diabolic c o m p a c t . J o h n H a l e . aryi t h e r e s p i t e u s u a l l y b e c a m e a r e p r i e v e . using a n e u t r a l . It is t e m p t i n g t o fill t h e l a c u n a e b y i n t r o d u c i n g a c o m p a r a t i v e d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e o t h e r r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s w h e r e w o m e n p l a y e d a r o l e in t h e p e n u m b r a o f the legal s y s t e m . with three other w o m e n nominated by the constable o f Heath. A n d t h e authoritative. ministerial theories c o n c e r n i n g the satanic d i m e n s i o n o f w i t c h c r a f t and the inferiority o f w o m e n . o t h e r s w e r e m o r e w a r y . while s o m e midwives affirmed and r e i n f o r c e d the search p r o c e d u r e s t h a t h a d b e e n s h a p e d in t h e i n t e r s e c t i o n o f t h e o l o g y a n d j u r i s p r u d e n c e divines and l a w y e r s . S o m e . a n d t h e r e f o r e r e q u i r e d i l i g e n t a n d c a r e f u l s e a r c h ' . and the f r e q u e n t appearance o f similar t i o n o f t h e f o u r t h e d i t i o n o f The Countrey Justice by Michael Dalton. b e y o n d viability o f d e m o n o l o g i c a l s p e c u l a t i o n u p o n w h i c h i t r e s t e d so u n e a s i l y . T h e s e a r c h e s w e r e an u n s t a b l e c r e a t i o n t h a t j u x t a p o s e d t h e c o n c e p t u a l s c h e m e s o f the theologians with a pragmatic response by the magistracy to increasingly troubling evidential p r o b l e m s . hardly p e r m i t any exhaustive analysis o f h o w London the or to question mark. w a s t h e s e a r c h s o c o n c e n t r a t e d 1 6 3 4 Lancaster proceedings with 'paps and Massachusetts. Y e t W a r d was hardly a neutral o b s e r v e r : she a t t r i b u t e d t h e d e a t h s o f t w o o f h e r c h i l d r e n t o M o r t o n . 4 2 p r o c e d u r e s d o n o t a d m i t o f e a s y a n a l y s i s . e v e n l a n g u a g e in t h e i r d e p o s i t i o n s . over the enclosed process of birth and their use of charms. t h e n t o u r i n g t h e Isle o f E l y . w h o affirmed that their searches had revealed the D e v i l ' s m a r k r e i n f o r c e d . Dalton. l i k e t h e m i d w i v e s in 1634. d e s p i t e t h i s w e i g h t y p r o f e s s i o n a l o p i n i o n f r o m S t e a r n e a n d his c i r c u s . s i n c e it is l i k e l y t o b e in hidden places'. a n d t o d e n o u n c e t h o s e t h e y s e a r c h e d as g u i l t y o f d i a b o l i c r e l a t i o n s . h e r m o t h e r a n d h e r s i s t e r w e r e 'all a l o n g t i m e s u s p e c t e d ' o f w i t c h c r a f t . Y e t . found incriminating marks on M a r g a r e t M o r t o n . 4 0 on the genital area. B e r n a r d insists. e m p l o y e d t h e r e c o m m e n d e d b o d v s e a r c h as a r o u t i n e a s p e c t o f p r e . myth. often unwittingly.t r i a l p r o c e d u r e . b u t . 4 1 o f t h e s e a r c h e r s t h e r e a f t e r . . . a n d r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e a c c u s e d . m i n i s t e r o f B e v e r l e y . frequently employed on juries empanelled to test the claim that a w o m a n convicted o f a c a p i t a l f e l o n y w a s p r e g n a n t . In 1653 another m i d w i f e . l e a v e f e w t r a c e s in t h e E n g l i s h r e c o r d s . T h e key event behind the o r m a r k s in h e r s e c r e t s ' in t h e findings their emphasis on female sexuality. t h a t a p a r t i c u l a r l y a c t i v e p a r t w a s p l a y e d b y m i d w i v e s w h o . the search o f the W i d o w C o m a n o f Coggeshall. . is t h e p u b l i c a - C a m b r i d g e s h i r e J P . ' s o m e t h a t w e r e t h e r e t h a t p r e t e n d e d t o h a v e skill in t h e d i s c o v e r y o f w i t c h - . as D a l t o n ' s m i s r e a d i n g o f his s o u r c e p r o v e d e q u a l l y A similar a r g u m e n t may explain simply s o m e o f t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n s in s e a r c h e s f o r t h e w i t c h ' s m a r k s . Frances W a r d . In t h e e v e n t o f a p o s i t i v e d e t e r m i n a t i o n where the jury's 'pregnant' verdict was subsequently proved incorrect. t h e y w e r e expressions o f local s e n t i m e n t c o n c e r n i n g the i n n o c e n c e o r guilt o f the accused.

a n d in t h e d e p l o y m e n t o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l p r o t e c t i v e t h e r a p i e s a n d t e c h n i q u e s t h a t r a t i f i e d a c c u s a t i o n . T h e y c e r t a i n l y d o n o t e l i m i n a t e ' g e n d e r ' o r ' m i s o g y n y ' as k e y c a t e - Notes 1 K e i t h T h o m a s .m a g i c a g a i n s t a s s a u l t s . 140 (1993). e x p e r i m e n t e d with a n u m b e r o f p r o c e d u r e s that might provide tangible p r o o f o f guilt or innoc e n c e . . s e e J . S h a r p e . In 1 5 6 3 t h e e l i t e . fearful m o r t a l illness o r m e n t a l anguish a l o n e w o u l d sustain a p r o s e c u t i o n and w o m e n . F o r t h e local conflicts s u r r o u n d i n g this p r o s e c u t i o n . 5 6 8 . Its j u s t i f i c a t i o n lay in t h e d e v e l o p i n g t h e o r i e s o f t h e o t h e r m a j o r p r o f e s s i o n a l g r o u p i n v o l v e d in w i t c h c r a f t p r o s e c u t i o n . ' W i t c h c r a f t and W o m e n in S e v e n t e e n t h . Y e t in t h i s p r o c e s s a s p e c t s o f p o p u l a r b e l i e f w e r e i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t h e t h e o r i e s o f t h e d i v i n e s . proportionately. T h e c o n s t r u c t i o n section of divergent and shifting systems o f ideas. Century Studies. was essentially instrumental: t o placate o r 'curry favour' with the witch. In c o n s e q u e n c e . t r o u b l e d by the absence o f evidence that m e t increasingly strict n o r m s for conviction. in a q u a n d a r y . is a p r o c e s s o f c o n s i d e r a b l e c u l t u r a l c o m p l e x i t y . T h e changing c o n c e r n s o f t h e latter g r o u p s explain g r o w i n g p r o p o r t i o n o f f e m a l e w i t n e s s e s in w i t c h c r a f t t r i a l s . F o r f u r t h e r discussion o f this issue. a p p a r e n t in t h e by the sessions presuppositions. T h o s e w h o c h o s e t o e m p l o y t h e official m a c h i n e r y a g a i n s t w i t c h e s w e r e o b l i g e d t o shape the local fears and r u m o u r s f r o m which the p r o s e c u t i o n e m a n a t e d t o the f o r m a l i t i e s o f t h e l a w as d e f i n e d b y t h e s t a t u t e s a n d t o t h e r e a d i n g o f t h e s e magistrates and j u d g e s . g r o w i n g in t h e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y .C e n t u r y E n g l a n d : N o r t h e r n E v i d e n c e ' Continuity C h a p t e r 2 2 in this c o l l e c t i o n . 145-79. Witchcraft (London 1720). S e e also Alan Stuart England (London 1970). 1 7 9 — 9 9 . f o l l o w i n g t h e e x a m p l e o f t h e i r c o n t i n e n t a l c o u n t e r p a r t s . W i t c h c r a f t p r o s e c u t i o n s a f t e r 1 5 6 3 p l a c e d t h e c l e r g y .. p r o v i d e s syn- F o r full citations o f t h e archival s o u r c e s used in this c h a p t e r . F r o m this t h e o l o g i c a l r e a d i n g o f f o l k l o r e e m e r g e d t h e t e s t o f t h e w i t c h ' s m a r k in its i n s u l a r E n g l i s h f o r m . see Phyllis G u s k i n . b u t m e n . involving m a n y actors. harmful p o w e r that c o n s t i t u t e d w i t c h c r a f t w o u l d i n h e r e in c e r t a i n w o m e n . We can show that figures of a p r o s e c u t i o n was a c o m p l e x . Witches and after 1 6 6 0 . K a r l s e n . 94—5. a n d u l t i m a t e l y d i s c a r d e d b y t h e m a g i s t e r i a l a n d c l e r i c a l e l i t e . w e r e b e t t e r p l a c e d t o give e v i d e n c e . ratified the misogynous rationalizations p r o f f e r e d bv the divines t o explain the p r e p o n d e r a n t n u m b e r s o f w o m e n accused o f witchcraft. to secure an e f f e c t i v e c o u n t e r . Witch Hunting Francis Hutchinson. S h a r p e . Witch Hunting o p s e s o f all t h e assize i n d i c t m e n t s . A . Eighteenth (London 1 9 8 4 ) . a n d w i t h it t h e c o m m i t t e e s o f w o m e n w h o s e a r c h e d t h e a c c u s e d . c o n s t r u c t e d a m a c h i n e r y o f p r o s e c u t i o n a n d so a d d e d a n e w w e a p o n in t h e a r m o u r y a g a i n s t w i t c h c r a f t . proved the m o s t enduring o f these o f f i c i a l c o n f i r m a t o r y t e s t s . t h o u g h a c t i v e in t h e c r e a t i o n o f l o c a l s u s p i c i o n s t h r o u g h g o s s i p . 4 8 . T h e r e s p o n s e t o this p o w e r . Lewd Women (London 1 9 9 2 ) . e n g a g e d d i v i n e s u s e d e v e r y o p p o r tunity to educate the populace concerning their witchcraft-as-heresy formulation. M u c h o f t h e p o p u l a r b e l i e f t h a t e m e r g e d in t h e c o u r t s s e e m e d t o t r i v i a l i z e w i t c h c r a f t a n d t o g i v e a m m u n i t i o n t o s c e p t i c s . 58—60. P R O . T h e opportunity created by the legislation was e m p l o y e d by b o t h m e n and w o m e n . Essay Concerning property o f f e n c e s ' . a n d h a d t o b e a c c o m m o d a t e d t o theological 10 4 5 6 7 8 9 J .6 0 . An Historical 5 9 . It w a s t h e y w h o b r o u g h t c h a r g e s a n d w h o o r c h e s t r a t e d t h e p r o s e c u tion. 2 2 6 . b u t particularly those girls w h o d e s c r i b e d their possession and the m a t r o n s w h o discovered the genital m a r k s . W o m e n . organizing their neighbours t o testify t o earlier e x p e r i e n c e s o f the accused's m a l i c e . John Devil and Satan (New York 1982). approved bv the leading practical manual for local magistrates. L. shared by m e n and w o m e n . 'The 15 and Witch Trials. a n d t h u s t h e r o l e o f w o m e n as w i t n e s s e s . and Change. Kaplan ed. 2 Witchcraft D e m o s . 1630s S e e C h a p t e r 2 0 in this b o o k by C h r i s t i n a L a r n e r .318 CLIVE HOLMES WOMEN: WITCHES AND WITNESSES 319 V T h e p r o s e c u t i o n o f w i t c h e s in e a r l y m o d e r n E n g l a n d . Magistrates Understanding and Divines in Early Modern England'. o f t e n at t h e i n s t i g a t i o n o f m e n . B u t t h e s o c i a l m e a n i n g o f t h e s e gories for any discussion o f witchcraft beliefs and p r o s e c u t i o n s . six b e t w e e n 1 6 6 0 and 1 6 7 5 . T h e f e a t u r e s o f w i t c h c r a f t t h a t e m e r g e d r e g u l a r l y in t h e t r i a l s c o u l d n o t easily b e d i s m i s s e d . a t t e n d a n t at t h e s i c k b e d o f t h e v i c t i m . t w e n t y c o u r t s b e t w e e n 1 6 0 0 and 1 6 2 4 . t o t h e t h r e a t s t h a t it p o s e d t o l i f e . S e e also S h a r p e ' s and Witch Trials ( L o n d o n 1 9 2 9 ) . dialogic p r o c e s s . s o easily r e a d . see C l i v e H o l m e s . Entertaining in the Shape Wicked 3 and the Decline in Tudor and of Magic ( L o n d o n 1 9 7 1 ) . L a w y e r s . w e r e t h e m o r e e n g a g e d p a r t i c i p a n t s . Religion Macfarlane. in S. t h e d i v i n e s . also C a r o l F . All w i t n e s s e s . ASSI 3 5 / 1 3 5 / 1 4 . P o p u l a r belief. C o n t e x t o f W i t c h c r a f t : T h e C a s e o f J a n e W e n h a m ' . L ' E s t r a n g e E w e n . A. m o r e easily s e d u c e d b y s a t a n i c t e m p t a t i o n . see t h e original v e r sion in Past and Present. V i c t i m s c o u l d n o w c h o o s e t o d e s t r o y t h e i r assailants t h r o u g h t h e f o r m a l l y s a n c t i o n e d p r o c e d u r e s o f t h e c o u r t s . t o h e a l t h . to judge by the mid-seventeenth-century evidence. t o p r o p e r t y . (1982). c o n t r o l l e d . 64. T h e s a m p l e consists o f t h o s e assizes at w h i c h E s s e x w i t c h c r a f t cases w e r e d e t e r m i n e d .7 1 . So the animals w h o frequently attended the witch w e r e diabolized as f a m i l i a r s p i r i t s o r e m a n a t i o n s o f S a t a n h i m s e l f . t o w h i c h m e n had testified. It i n v o l v e d a c o n t i n uous b u t shifting dialogue a m o n g a variety o f social and professional g r o u p s . T h e i r testimony apparently confirmed that w o m e n w e r e the w e a k e r s e x . M a r i a n n e H e s t e r . s o m e s u c c e s s . w e r e a n c i l l a r i e s in t h e f o r m a l p r o c e d u r e s o f q u a r t e r and assizes. w a s c r e a t e d . Popular Culture (Berlin 1 9 8 4 ) . T h e c o n c e r n s o f t h e legal elite also e x p l a i n t h e i n v o l v e m e n t o f w o m e n in t h e s e a r c h e s f o r t h o s e p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s tics w h i c h indicated c o n j u n c t i o n with diabolic familiars. B u t t h e m a c h i n e r y in w h i c h t h e v b e c a m e i n v o l v e d . T h e search for the w i t c h ' s m a r k by c o m m i t t e e s o f w o m e n . 11 to transform popular belief with. The of a Woman ( N e w Y o r k 1 9 8 7 ) . 2 0 1 . ' P o p u l a r C u l t u r e ? W i t c h e s . Crime in Early Modern T r a n s c r i b e d in E w e n .d a m a g e . was that the m y s t e r i o u s . and the interfemale is n o t p a r t i c i p a t i o n as w i t n e s s in t h e E n g l i s h t r i a l s w a s e x t e n s i v e a n d . u s u a l l y t h o s e o f s o m e s t a t u s in t h e i r c o m m u n i t i e s . Some 6 ( 1 9 9 1 ) . T h e judiciary w e r e n o l o n g e r p r e p a r e d to entertain indictments for s t o c k . C . w e l l r e a d in t h e c o n t i n e n t a l t h e o r y o f t h e e s s e n t i a l l y d i a b o l i c o r i g i n s o f t h e o f f e n c e . 160. A n d it w a s t h e y w h o r e a d l o c a l e x p e r i e n c e in t e r m s o f a p a r t i c u l a r i n t e l l e c t u a l s c h e m e . a n d t o d o m e s t i c r o u t i n e s . F o r a g e n e r a l discussion o f t h e 'fall in t h e levels o f i n d i c t m e n t f o r England 81.

( L o n d o n 1 6 2 1 ) . The Countrey Justice. T h o m a s P o t t s . ' A B r a n d P l u c k ' d o u t o f t h e B u r n i n g ' . T h i s last t e x t is r e p r o d u c e d in R o s e n . Somers: of Possession Dispossession and of Somers ( L o n d o n 1 6 0 0 ) . 2 n d edn ( L o n d o n 1 6 8 2 . 103—57. 1 7 0 2 ) . Daemonologia. 40 of the County and Demonianism. 1648-1706. 6 (1985). D a v i d H a r l e y . Mass. E w e n . A True Narration Persons in Lancashire of Demoniah. Witchcraft. and Religion F r a n c i s B r a g g e . Oses in Essex ( L o n d o n 1 5 8 2 ) . W . D 3 . 185. Witchcraft J o h n C o t t a . Trial (Oxford 1986). (London 1622). 29 30 Dispossession is Applyed of the Strange Wherein Vexation by the Devil. S e e M i c h a e l M a c D o n a l d . W . 32—5. T h e t e x t is r e p r o d u c e d in B a r b a r a in England Relation (University of Massachusetts 1 9 9 1 ) . Witchcraft Recorde. Medicine. of the Three Witches of Warboys ( L o n d o n 1 5 9 3 ) . Witchcraft v e r y useful discussion o f t h e various c o u r t . 4 9 2 . A True Discourse of 7 Persons in One Familie T h e s e a r c h was e m p l o y e d in a V i r g i n i a case o f 1 7 0 6 and in t h e a c c u s a t i o n against J a n e W e n h a m o f W a l k e r n in 1 7 1 2 . 24 I[ohn] D j e n i s o n ] . 3 . 4 5 . Sorts of Ignorant 6 9 . O v . 9 . 319. 8 8 . 4 6 . The Most Wonderfull Goodenige Witchcraft and True Storie.6 0 . of Sorcery and Witchcraft 39 and Witch Trials. sigs C 3 . 4 vols ( L o n d o n Strange 41 2 0 9 — 1 2 . of a Certaine Witch Named of Alse the ( L o n d o n 1 5 9 7 ) . in Tudor and Stuart England. sigs C . J o h n H a l e . to the Assize Calendars ( L o n d o n 1 9 8 5 ) . [ 2 7 3 ] : s e c o n d pagiWitchcraft Magic Trials ( B a l t i m o r e . E d w a r d F a i r f a x . of the Information. 2 5 9 .es ination.2 3 . M a t t h e w H o p k i n s . 101-3. S a n f o r d F o x . Healing 26 27 in Seventeenth-Century ( L o n d o n 1 6 1 2 ) . Criminal Justice Hist. . x x x i i i — x x x i x . 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 A True and Impartial esp. Witchcraft 31 32 33 34 J o s e p h G l a n v i l l . .W i t c h ' . Three Witches ( E x e t e r 1 6 8 2 ) . 239—97. see R o b e r t B a r t l e t t . 28. Examination 278—301. A True and Just the Witches. J o h n N i c h o l s . 1 2 2 . Witchcraft Most Strange Discoverie 37 and Demonianism. after 2 7 6 . A Modest Enquiry S. G i l b e r t . C o c k b u r n . 0 4 . True and Just Recorde. A Tryal of Witches. . ii pt 2 . was m a d e available t o t h e d e m o n i a c W i l l i a m S o m m e r s at N o t t i n g h a m in 1 5 9 7 — 8 . ' H i s t o r i a n s as D e m o n o l o g i s t s : T h e M y t h o f t h e M i d w i f e . 2 1 2 .320 CLIVE HOLMES WOMEN: WITCHES AND WITNESSES 321 12 13 14 15 B a s e d on an analysis o f t h e E s s e x d e f a m a t i o n cases listed in M a c f a r l a n e . R i c h a r d B a d d e l e y . 22—3. at S. Darrell Concerning the Pretended and Grevous the Doctrine Concerning Possession of W. Triumphatus. 1 7 . at the Assizes Held at Bury St Edmonds and Admirable Discoverie. Introduction into the Nature of Witchcraft (Boston.. Gentleman's 38 (London 1682).. A Short Discoverie x x x v i . in g e n e r a l . 1-26. Science Massachusetts Social and Justice: The Massachusetts Witchcraft. (London 1619).a p p o i n t e d b o d i e s m a d e up o f w o m e n in J a m e s C . Rosen. s e e . in Elizabethan London Practisers (London 1 9 9 1 ) . S a m u e l H a r s n e t . Richard Weisman. Saducismus 1. L e t t e r o f an a n o n y m o u s Magazine. 4 t h edn ( L o n d o n 1 6 3 0 ) . 3 (1990). Bedlam: Madness. 42 of Leicester. p u b l i s h e d in 1 5 9 3 . nation. and Antiquities 127. Water: sig. W . L. 2 . Discovery Witches of Northamptonshire. F o r m o r e g e n e r a l discussion o f t h e w a t e r by Fire and The Medieval Judicial Ordeal and Confession o r d e a l . sigs B 2 — B 3 . G . in Narratives ed. j u s t o v e r 8 0 p e r c e n t o f v i c t i m s w e r e f e m a l e . A 3 . In N e w E n g l a n d t h e figure is 8 6 p e r c e n t . ' W i t c h c r a f t in E s s e x ' . Witch Hunting Ibid. W . W . 83—90. 1 0 . 3. This of the Informations Wiltshire JP of against 1672. G e o r g e M o r e . 3 4 4 — 5 6 . sig. and s e c o n d pagthe Certaine Possession in Lancashire (Middleburg). 1 9 8 4 ) . p u b l i s h e d in t h e 1 0 2 pt T ( l 8 3 2 ) . 2 1 5 . Mystical and Hysteria of Severall M i c h a e l M a c D o n a l d . ed. Dialogue Concerning Witches and Witchcraftes. S e e C h a p t e r 1 9 in this b o o k f o r t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n p o s s e s s i o n and g e n d e r in F r a n c e . Henry Goodcole. 23 T h e a u t h o r c a l c u l a t e s that in English cases that w e r e b e l i e v e d t o i n v o l v e p o s s e s sion t h r o u g h t h e a g e n c y o f a w i t c h . Mass. The Most Account of the Discovery 7 5 . M d in llth-Century M i c h a e l D a l t o n .2 3 . 25 The Witches of Northamptonshire Witchcraft. 7 2 . 3 . (London 1 5 9 9 ) . sig. sigs B 2 — C I . 35 36 E w e n . E l v . T h i s t e x t is in R o s e n . and of 7 and W. . The History and Admirable Discoverie (Amherst. C 2 . E w e n . and t o Ann G u n t e r in B e r k s h i r e in 1 6 0 4 . Discoverie of Witches in the Countie of Lancaster (London of All sig. 2 1 1 . The Boy of Bilson Cases. The Wonderfull 1 6 1 3 ) . W . T h e r e is a 1 7 9 5 — 1 8 1 1 ) . ' O n Pleading t h e B e l l y : A H i s t o r y o f t h e J u r y o f M a t r o n s ' . E w e n . Witch Hunting of Witches ( 1 6 4 7 ) . The Wonderfull ' a n o n y m o u s ' t r a c t is o b v i o u s l y D a r c y ' s o w n w o r k . Hist. William Grainge (Harrogate 1 8 8 2 ) . W i n g G 8 2 3 ) pt and Witch Trials. A Full and Impartial (London 1 7 1 2 ) . 2 9 9 . C o t t o n M a t h e r . 1 9 6 8 ) . T h e a c c o u n t o f t h e possession o f t h e T h r o c k m o r t o n c h i l d r e n . O l d h a m . J o h n D a r r e l l . E 2 v . Anxiety and England (Cambridge 1 9 8 1 ) . 9 3 . True and Just Recorde. A Discovery the Fraudulent 28 Practices of J. G i f f o r d . first p a g i n a t i o n . 1-64. Burr ( N e w Y o r k 1 9 1 4 ) . 1 7 .

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