# 82

Flow of Non-Newtonian Fluid Through Circular Tubes
By A. GI-IOSHhL 1)

Summary - According to Newton's law of viscosity Zuz = dvz/dy. But experiments have shown that Vu~ is indeed proportional to --dv~/dy for all gases and for homogeneous nonpolymeric liquids. There are however, a few industrially important materials, e.g. plastics, asphalts, crystalline materials that are not described by the equation given by Newton's law of viscosity and they are referred to as non-Newtonian fluids. The steady state rheological behaviour of most fluids can he expressed by the generalised form, zyx = -- ~l(dvx/dy) where r/may be expressed as a function of either dvx/dy or zux (where t/ is independent of the rate of shear, the behaviour is Newtonian with t/=/~). Numerous empirical equations or 'models' have been proposed to express the steady-state relation between ruz and dvz/dy. The flow of Newtonian fluids through circular tubes have been discussed before by many. Here we shall discuss the case of two such models of non-Newtonian fluids through circular tubes. The flow of fluids in circular tubes is encountered frequently in Physics, Chemistry, Biology and Engineering. 1. Introduction
In this present p r o b l e m , we shall discuss the cases o f the EYRING a n d the REINER PHILIPOFF models o f n o n - N e w t o n i a n - f l u i d (molten sulfur, cholesterol b u t y r a t e ) flowing t h r o u g h circular tube. Let us consider the steady l a m i n a r flow o f the fluid o f c o n s t a n t density ~ in a long tube o f length L a n d radius R the pressures at the two ends o f the tube being Po a n d PL. T a k i n g Z - d i r e c t i o n along the tube a n d r along the r a d i u s o f the tube in cylindrical c o - o r d i n a t e s the m o m e n t u m e q u a t i o n gives,

d
d?(rz~z)=\

(Po--PL)
L jr.

(1)

.'. r z r z = 2 r 2 + C 1
or, Zrz=2r+--

cl
r

where

2 - - - 2L

Po -V~

T h e c o n s t a n t Ci m u s t be zero if the m o m e n t u m flux is n o t to be infinite at r = 0.

1) Department of Mathematics, University of Toronto, Toronto-181, Canada.

kAY 2r (4) c o s h . (5) Maximum velocity Maximum velocity occurs at r = 0 Vm=~- cosh -1 . . A Boundary conditions: at r = R. ..+ constant. (6) Average velocity The average velocity over a cross-section is 2r~ R ff. . D 9 Vz . It predicts pseudoplastic behaviour at finite values of Zrz but reduces asymptotically to Newton's law of viscosity with #=A/B as Zrz approaches to zero. r O 0 UZ = 0 2z~ R (7) 0 0 _ A B [(cosh~) . Vz = 0 . vz = ~ cosh -cosh . (1 + 22 RiJ 2A2"] - 2 A {sinh2AR + A R } ] ~ " . 83 %z \ 2 L J " Case L" EYRINO model (2) The EYRING model of non-Newtonian fluid gives the relation between %z and dvz/dras' Z~z = A sinh-1 ( _ _dvz) B dr J 1 (3) where A and B are two parameters.. dvz _ dr AB 2 B sinh(2 r~.Flow of Non-Newtonian Fluid through Circular Tubes Hence the momentum flux distribution is.t.

(9) ~Z= k." Z. Volumerateofflow Volume rate of flow = Q = Area • Average velocity.z..z~0) R 2 2[ . =rcR 2 /5 z X - 2ABR2I( 2- cosh 2_ff~)( 2A2"~ 2A~sinh2R A}] 1+22R2 j .] ]" Neglecting higher powers of 2('.Ghoshal (Pageoph.~ ( A +-~ ' cosh~]/(cosh~-1) (8) 9 2R "" Vz= Vm[COsh A cos ] where.z~Oand #~A/B the results becomes Vz=~ - AB[ 1 (2AR)e 1(2r't21 1+ 5 -1-5\~-.P~ #~O+(l+__Z.~z "Cs / where/~o.mI(cosh 2~) (1 + 22 R2J 2A2~-2Afslnh2Rq-~--~} 1 ~(" ~- (10) In the limiting case where "C. #| and r~ are three adjustible parameters.84 A. Since Newtonian behaviour has . vz_-ST r 2] which is identical with the result obtained in the case of Newtonian fluid9 REINERPHILIVOFFmodel REINERPHILIPOFFmodel of non-Newtonian fluid gives the relation as dr = /~o -.

1970/VI) Flow of Non-Newtonian Fluid through Circular Tubes 85 often been observed both at very low and very high shearing rates equation (11) has been set up to reduce to Newton's law of viscosity with/~ =/~o and p =/Zoo respectively in these two limiting cases.. we have.. .~2 r 2 dr . 2 2--~2 \ + (13) 2 #o%2 -c~R 2 ~oo Tmax 2 /~oo>/~o " 0<a<l].Vol.t . Z~z = 2 r equation (11) gives." where b _ a2po_R A2 [-lo ['Cm~=2R. //~.. vz=O a2 1. b+Ra log b + r 2 Vz= 2 2 1- + 2#~o 2 a 2/2 0 (12) where b2 z #~ " Maximum Velocity Maximum velocity occurs at r = 0 -vm = 2 p~. .5] _2 +/~o ] a Fj. From (2). log/r + 22#~ \ ~22]J where A is the constant of integration to be found out by applying the boundary condition. r2 _ 2r where a=%. Vz = A a2(1 --/'t~ ~ / "./ 9 1 2 I-to a 2 ) l L 2/~| + . Boundary condition at r=R.225r. 83.'.

(15) J 4/~o 2 #~ 2 /&o) ~ In the limiting case where/t =/~o =/z~ the resuks (13). (14) and (15) become. for his kind help and guidance.. Acknowledgement I am indebted to Prof. Ghoshal Averagevelocity 2~ R 0 0 2~ R (14) 0 0 - 2R2 4 /.~ + ~ aZ ( 1 - #o~s l-clog Rate of discharge Q = Area x average velocity ] ~z2R4 rcRaa2{ .86 A.~log ~-} .+ 1 -g~ ~I 1 . (Received 18th February 1970) .of University of Toronto. S. GHOSHAL. V z = ~ 1--~ 2tR2 4# Q = 7r-2 R* 41~ )~R2{ r2} which are identical with the results deduced in the case of Newtonian fluids.