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 This integration allows individual processes to exchange information with each other and initiate actions. Through the integration of computers, manufacturing can be faster and less error-prone, although the main advantage is the ability to create automated manufacturing processes. Typically CIM relies on closed-loop control processes, based on real-time input from sensors. It is also known as flexible design and manufacturing.
1 Overview 2 History 3 Computer-integrated manufacturing topics o 3.1 Key challenges o 3.2 Subsystems in computer-integrated manufacturing o 3.3 CIMOSA 4 Application 5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External links
The term "computer-integrated manufacturing" is both a method of manufacturing and the name of a computer-automated system in which individual engineering, production, marketing, and support functions of a manufacturing enterprise are organized. In a CIM system functional areas such as design, analysis, planning, purchasing, cost accounting, inventory control, and distribution are linked through the computer with factory floor functions such as materials handling and management, providing direct control and monitoring of all the operations. As a method of manufacturing, three components distinguish CIM from other manufacturing methodologies:
Means for data storage, retrieval, manipulation and presentation; Mechanisms for sensing state and modifying processes;
Algorithms for uniting the data processing component with the sensor/modification component.
CIM is an example of the implementation of information and communication technologies (ICTs) in manufacturing. CIM implies that there are at least two computers exchanging information, e.g. the controller of an arm robot and a micro-controller of a CNC machine. Some factors involved when considering a CIM implementation are the production volume, the experience of the company or personnel to make the integration, the level of the integration into the product itself and the integration of the production processes. CIM is most useful where a high level of ICT is used in the company or facility, such as CAD/CAM systems, the availability of process planning and its data.
The idea of "digital manufacturing" was prominent the 1980s, when computer-integrated manufacturing was developed and promoted by machine tool manufacturers and the Computer and Automated Systems Association and Society of Manufacturing Engineers (CASA/SME). "CIM is the integration of total manufacturing enterprise by using integrated systems and data communication coupled with new managerial philosophies that improve organizational and personnel efficiency." ERHUM
 Computer-integrated manufacturing topics
CIM & production control system: Computer Integrated Manufacturing is used to describe the complete automation of a manufacturing plant, with all processes running under computer control and digital information tying them together.
 Key challenges
There are three major challenges to development of a smoothly operating computer-integrated manufacturing system:
Integration of components from different suppliers: When different machines, such as CNC, conveyors and robots, are using different communications protocols. In the case of AGVs, even differing lengths of time for charging the batteries may cause problems. Data integrity: The higher the degree of automation, the more critical is the integrity of the data used to control the machines. While the CIM system saves on labor of operating the machines, it requires extra human labor in ensuring that there are proper safeguards for the data signals that are used to control the machines. Process control: Computers may be used to assist the human operators of the manufacturing facility, but there must always be a competent engineer on hand to handle circumstances which could not be foreseen by the designers of the control software.
 Subsystems in computer-integrated manufacturing
A computer-integrated manufacturing system is not the same as a "lights-out" factory, which would run completely independent of human intervention, although it is a big step in that direction. Part of the system involves flexible manufacturing, where the factory can be quickly modified to produce different products, or where the volume of products can be changed quickly with the aid of computers. Some or all of the following subsystems may be found in a CIM operation: Computer-aided techniques:
CAD (computer-aided design) CAE (computer-aided engineering) CAM (computer-aided manufacturing) CAPP (computer-aided process planning) CAQ (computer-aided quality assurance) PPC (production planning and control) ERP (enterprise resource planning) A business system integrated by a common database.
Devices and equipment required:
CNC, Computer numerical controlled machine tools DNC, Direct numerical control machine tools PLCs, Programmable logic controllers Robotics Computers Software Controllers Networks
which provides a reference architecture for enterprise architecture CIMOSA IIS. With CIMOSA also the concept of an "Open System Architecture" (OSA) for CIM was introduced. basics for international standard development. Interfacing Monitoring equipment Technologies: FMS. and constructed with standardised CIM modules. information. resource. This should be designed with structured engineering methods and made operational in a modular and evolutionary architecture for operational use". which opposed to traditional function or activity-based approaches. Application There are multiple areas of usage: . CIMOSA according to Vernadat (1996). Inputs to standardization. is a life cycle model for CIM development and deployment. is a 1990s European proposal for an open system architecture for CIM developed by the AMICE Consortium as a series of ESPRIT projects. CIMOSA Systems Life Cycle. a standard for physical and application integration. coined the term business process and introduced the process-based approach for integrated enterprise modeling based on a cross-boundaries approach. The goal of CIMOSA was "to help companies to manage change and integrate their facilities and operations to face world wide competition. which was designed to be vendor-independent. Here to the OSA is "described in terms of their function. and organizational aspects. automated guided vehicle Robotics Automated conveyance systems Others: Lean manufacturing CIMOSA CIMOSA (Computer Integrated Manufacturing Open System Architecture). (flexible manufacturing system) ASRS. automated storage and retrieval system AGV. CIMOSA provides a solution for business integration with four types of products: The CIMOSA Enterprise Modeling Framework. It provides a consistent architectural framework for both enterprise modeling and enterprise integration as required in CIM environments".
In mechanical engineering In electronic design automation (printed circuit board (PCB) and integrated circuit design data for manufacturing) .
in particular. computer graphics (both hardware and software). The development of CADD-based software is in direct correlation with the processes it seeks to economize. the output of CAD must convey information. etc. CAD is also widely used to produce computer animation for special effects in movies. Computer Aided Drafting describes the process of drafting with a computer. documentation. surfaces. and aerospace industries. CAD is an important industrial art extensively used in many applications. Because of its enormous economic importance. advertising and technical manuals. and tolerances. also known as computer-aided design and drafting (CADD) . according to application-specific conventions. CAD environments often involve more than just shapes. industrial and architectural design. and discrete differential geometry. The design of geometric models for object shapes.Computer-aided design (CAD). is occasionally called computeraided geometric design (CAGD). processes. industry-based software (construction. and solids in three-dimensional (3D) objects. or curves. Contents [hide] 1 Overview 2 Uses 3 Types 4 Technology 5 History 6 See also 7 References  Overview . CAD may be used to design curves and figures in two-dimensional (2D) space. dimensions. The modern ubiquity and power of computers means that even perfume bottles and shampoo dispensers are designed using techniques unheard of by engineers of the 1960s. manufacturing. or environments. CADD software. CADD output is often in the form of electronic files for print or machining operations.) typically uses vector-based (linear) environments whereas graphic-based software utilizes raster-based (pixelated) environments. CAD has been a major driving force for research in computational geometry. and manufacturing processes. is the use of computer technology for the process of design and design-documentation. prosthetics. shipbuilding. including automotive. drafting. such as materials. provides the user with input-tools for the purpose of streamlining design processes. As in the manual drafting of technical and engineering drawings. and many more.
even from the inside looking out.  CAD is mainly used for detailed engineering of 3D models and/or 2D drawings of physical components. CAD is one part of the whole Digital Product Development (DPD) activity within the Product Lifecycle Management (PLM) processes.Beginning in the 1980s Computer-Aided Design programs reduced the need of draftsmen significantly. which are either integrated modules or stand-alone products. instead there are several classes that focus on the use of CAD software such as Creo. such as: Computer-aided engineering (CAE) and Finite element analysis (FEA) Computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) including instructions to Computer Numerical Control (CNC) machines Photo realistic rendering Document management and revision control using Product Data Management (PDM). students in universities do not learn drafting techniques because they are not required to do so. CAD is also used for the accurate creation of photo simulations that are often required in the preparation of Environmental Impact Reports. allowing viewing of a designed object from any desired angle. if not all. CAD is used in the design of tools and machinery and in the drafting and design of all types of buildings. through strength and dynamic analysis of assemblies to definition of manufacturing methods of components. In today's world most. but it is also used throughout the engineering process from conceptual design and layout of products.  Uses Computer-aided design is one of the many tools used by engineers and designers and is used in many ways depending on the profession of the user and the type of software in question. Their affordability and ability to run on personal computers also allowed engineers to do their own drafting work. Some CAD software is capable of dynamic mathematic modeling. with benefits such as lower product development costs and a greatly shortened design cycle. saving time on their drawings. Universities no longer require the use of protractors and compasses to create drawings. formerly Pro Engineer or IEAS-MS. from small residential types (houses) to the largest commercial and industrial structures (hospitals and factories). print it out and save it for future editing. and as such is used together with other tools. It can also be used to design objects. eliminating the need for entire departments. in which computer-aided designs of intended . CAD enables designers to lay out and develop work on screen. especially in small to mid-sized companies. The days of hand drawing for final drawings are all but over. Modern CAD packages can also frequently allow rotations in three dimensions. CAD has become an especially important technology within the scope of computer-aided technologies. in which case it may be marketed as CADD — computer-aided design and drafting. Current computer-aided design software packages range from 2D vector-based drafting systems to 3D solid and surface modellers.
since these can be adjusted as required during the creation of the final draft. 3D parametric solid modeling require the operator to use what is referred to as "design intent". set limits to their motion. If a feature was intended to be located from the center of the part. or nearly impossible.  Types There are several different types of CAD  . 3D wireframe is basically an extension of 2D drafting (not often used today). spheres. and the different modeling elements. and high level constraints (Zhang). Each line has to be manually inserted into the drawing. from a more convenient edge or an arbitrary point. CAD has also been proven to be useful to engineers as well. although many 3D systems allow using the wireframe model to make the final engineering drawing views. the operator needs to locate it from the center of the model. not.buildings are superimposed into photographs of existing environments to represent what that locale will be like were the proposed facilities allowed to be built. The operator approaches these in a similar fashion to the 2D systems. as if assembling or cutting real-world objects. difficult. yield strength. . Each of these different types of CAD systems require the operator to think differently about how to use them and design their virtual components in a different manner for each. The construction history can be used to look back into the model's personal features and work on the single area rather than the whole model (zhang). or identify interference between components. and so on) have solid volumes added or subtracted from them.. Basic three-dimensional geometric forms (prisms. Potential blockage of view corridors and shadow studies are also frequently analyzed through the use of CAD. Parameters and constraints can be used to determine the size. including a number of free and open source programs. 3D "dumb" solids are created in a way analogous to manipulations of real world objects (not often used today). perhaps. These provide an approach to the drawing process without all the fuss over scale and placement on the drawing sheet that accompanied hand drafting. The features in the CAD system can be used for the variety of tools for measurement such as tensile strength. parameterization. features. Basic 3D solids don't usually include tools to easily allow motion of components. The final product has no mass properties associated with it and cannot have features directly added to it. shape. Any future modifications will be simple. One must think of this as being a "perfect world" representation of the component. There are many producers of the lower-end 2D systems. The objects and features created are adjustable. also its stress and strain and how the element gets affected in certain temperatures. cylinders. such as holes. Two-dimensional projected views can easily be generated from the models. as he could when using "dumb" solids. Using four properties which are history. Parametric solids require the operator to consider the consequences of his actions carefully. depending on how the original part was created.
. Linux. That said. Typical modern parametric feature based modeler and freeform surface systems are built around a number of key C modules with their own APIs. Unexpected capabilities of these associative relationships have led to a new form of prototyping called digital prototyping. This ability may also include the additional ability to infer the correct relationships between selected geometry (e. Originally software for Computer-Aided Design systems was developed with computer languages such as Fortran. aesthetics and ergonomic features into designs. tangency. A geometry constraint engine may also be employed to manage the associative relationships between geometry. Depending on the nature of the business. concentricity) which makes the editing process less time and labor intensive while still freeing the engineer from the burden of understanding the model‘s. Top end systems offer the capabilities to incorporate more organic. such as wireframe geometry in a sketch or components in an assembly.g. Freeform surface modelling is often combined with solids to allow the designer to create products that fit the human form and visual requirements as well as they interface with the machine. A CAD system can be seen as built up from the interaction of a graphical user interface (GUI) with NURBS geometry and/or boundary representation (B-rep) data via a geometric modeling kernel. UNIX and Mac OS X). but with the advancement of object-oriented programming methods this has radically changed. digital or physical prototypes can be initially chosen according to specific needs. CAD models can be generated by a computer after the physical prototype has been scanned using an industrial CT scanning machine. some packages even support multiple platforms. Today. which entail manufacturing time in the design. .  Technology A CAD model of a computer mouse. In contrast to physical prototypes. These kind of non history based systems are called Explicit Modellers or Direct CAD Modelers.Some software packages provide the ability to edit parametric and non-parametric geometry without the need to understand or undo the design intent history of the geometry by use of direct modeling functionality. CAD systems exist for all the major platforms (Windows.
) in 1971 by Dr. The development of CAD software for personal desktop computers was the impetus for almost universal application in all areas of construction. It is argued that a turning point was the development of the SKETCHPAD system at MIT in 1963 by Ivan Sutherland (who later created a graphics technology company with Dr. Hanratty. no special hardware is required for most CAD software. The distinctive feature of SKETCHPAD was that it allowed the designer to interact with his computer graphically: the design can be fed into the computer by drawing on a CRT monitor with a light pen. the application areas have gradually expanded. Initial developments were carried out in the 1960s within the aircraft and automotive industries in the area of 3D surface construction and NC programming. Effectively. As computers became more affordable. However. David Evans). it was a prototype of graphical user interface. some CAD systems can do graphically and computationally intensive tasks. Patrick J. Bell GRAPHIC 1 and at Renault (Bézier) – UNISURF 1971 car body design and tooling. Birkhoff (GM) and Garibedian (GM) in the 1960s and W. an indispensable feature of modern CAD. high speed (and possibly multiple) CPUs and large amounts of RAM may be recommended. Some systems also support stereoscopic glasses for viewing the 3D model. Calma. Heinlein in his 1957 novel The Door into Summer suggested the possibility of a robotic Drafting Dan. Steven Anson Coons (MIT. J.  History     Designers have long used computers for their calculations. The human-machine interface is generally via a computer mouse but can also be via a pen and digitizing graphics tablet. so a modern graphics card. Robert A. Autotrol and Control Data. Lockheed projects. probably the most important work on polynomial curves and sculptured surface was done by Pierre Bézier (Renault).Right now. Gerber. Some of the mathematical description work on curves was developed in the early 1940s by Robert Issac Newton from Pawtucket. Gordon (GM) and R. Only large corporations could afford the computers capable of performing the calculations. James Ferguson (Boeing). Rhode Island. as well as in electronics. One of the most influential events in the development of CAD was the founding of MCS (Manufacturing and Consulting Services Inc. Riesenfeld in the 1970s. P. Carl de Boor (GM). Computervision (CADDS). most of it independent of one another and often not publicly published until much later. Ford). The first commercial applications of CAD were in large companies in the automotive and aerospace industries.Hanratty) with DAC-1 (Design Augmented by Computer) 1964. Manipulation of the view of the model on the screen is also sometimes done with the use of a Spacemouse/SpaceBall. However. who wrote the system ADAM (Automated Drafting And Machining) but more importantly supplied code to companies such as McDonnell Douglas (Unigraphics). Paul de Casteljau (Citroen). Notable company projects were at GM (Dr. .
Solid Edge (then Intergraph) in 1996 and Autodesk Inventor in 1999. Intergraph. which heralded greater usage of feature-based modeling methods and parametric linking of the parameters of features. it was typically limited to producing drawings similar to hand-drafted drawings. Intergraph IGDS in 1974 (which led to Bentley Systems MicroStation in 1984) CAD implementations have evolved dramatically since then. both inspired by the work of Ian Braid. . IBM.Other key points in the 1960s and 1970s would be the foundation of CAD systems United Computing. which led to the 2D system AutoCAD. with 3D in the 1970s. Key products for 1981 were the solid modelling packages -Romulus (ShapeData) and Uni-Solid (Unigraphics) based on PADL-2 and the release of the surface modeler CATIA (Dassault Systemes). Also of importance to the development of CAD was the development of the B-rep solid modeling kernels (engines for manipulating geometrically and topologically consistent 3D objects) Parasolid (ShapeData) and ACIS (Spatial Technology Inc. Advances in programming and computer hardware.) at the end of the 1980s and beginning of the 1990s. notably solid modeling in the 1980s. The next milestone was the release of Pro/ENGINEER in 1988. have allowed more versatile applications of computers in design activities. This led to the release of mid-range packages such as SolidWorks in 1995. Autodesk was founded 1982 by John Walker. Initially.
It was in this context that the term was coined by Jason Lemon. CAE systems are individually considered a single node on a total information network and each node may interact with other nodes on the network. Reference architecture is the basis from which information model. The term encompasses simulation. to analyze the robustness and performance of components and assemblies. especially product and manufacturing models. computer-aided manufacturing (CAM).Computer-aided engineering (CAE) is the broad usage of computer software to aid in engineering tasks. validation. This definition is however better known today by the terms CAx and PLM. founder of SDRC in the late 1970s.  CAE fields and phases CAE areas covered include: Stress analysis on components and assemblies using FEA (Finite Element Analysis). Contents [hide] 1 Overview 2 CAE fields and phases 3 CAE in the automotive industry 4 See also 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External links  Overview Software tools that have been developed to support these activities are considered CAE tools. In the future. for example. and optimization of products and manufacturing tools. computer-aided analysis (CAA). . The term CAE has also been used by some in the past to describe the use of computer technology within engineering in a broader sense than just engineering analysis. and computer-aided planning (CAP). material requirements planning (MRP). computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM). In regard to information networks. This is achieved by the use of reference architectures and their ability to place information views on the business process. CAE systems will be major providers of information to help support design teams in decision making. CAE systems can provide support to businesses. CAE tools are being used. It includes computer-aided design (CAD).
and die press forming. and durability of the vehicles they produce. often many times. Thermal and fluid flow analysis Computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The predictive capability of CAE tools has progressed to the point where much of the design verification is now done using computer simulations rather than physical prototype testing. their use has enabled the automakers to reduce product development cost and time while improving the safety. CAE dependability is based upon all proper assumptions as inputs and must identify critical inputs (BJ). (typically a finite element model. Even though there have been many advances in CAE. comfort. In fact.e. there are three phases in any computer-aided engineering task: Pre-processing – defining the model and environmental factors to be applied to it. Kinematics. either manually or with the use of commercial optimization software.  CAE in the automotive industry CAE tools are very widely used in the automotive industry. Analysis tools for process simulation for operations such as casting. Mechanical event simulation (MES). thinning). physical testing is still used as a final confirmation for subsystems due to the fact that CAE cannot predict all variables in complex assemblies (i. metal stretch. Optimization of the product or process. In general. and it is widely used in the engineering field. . molding. but facet. voxel and thin sheet methods are also used) Analysis solver (usually performed on high powered computers) Post-processing of results (using visualization tools) This cycle is iterated.
1 Overcoming historical shortcomings 3 Machining process 4 Software 5 See also 6 References 7 External links  Overview Chrome-cobalt disc with crowns for dental implants. This is not the only definition for CAM. which in some cases. uses only the required amount of raw material (thus minimizing waste). as the model generated in CAD and verified in CAE can be input into CAM software. CAM may also refer to the use of a computer to assist in all operations of a manufacturing plant. while simultaneously reducing energy consumption. CAM is a subsequent computer-aided process after computer-aided design (CAD) and sometimes computer-aided engineering (CAE). including planning. manufactured using WorkNC CAM Traditionally. but it is the most common. Simple designs such as bolt circles or basic contours do not necessitate importing a CAD file. Contents [hide] 1 Overview 2 History o 2. Its primary purpose is to create a faster production process and components and tooling with more precise dimensions and material consistency. management. CAM has been considered as a numerical control (NC) programming tool. which then controls the machine tool. wherein two-dimensional (2-D) or three-dimensional (3-D) models of components generated in CAD software are used to generate G-code to drive computer numerically controlled (CNC) machine tools.Computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) is the use of computer software to control machine tools and related machinery in the manufacturing of workpieces. . transportation and storage.
Typical areas of concern: . Fallows created the first CAM software but this had severe shortcomings and was promptly taken back into the developing stage. the skills required of a machinist or machine operator advance to approach that of a computer programmer and engineer rather than eliminating the CNC machinist from the workforce. such as IGES or STL. and highly optimized g-code that could not be produced in a CAM package. CAM packages could not. the CNC machine required manual editing before the program will run properly. CAM does not eliminate the need for skilled professionals such as manufacturing engineers. In some cases. skilled machinists entering the workforce able to perform at the extremes of manufacturing. The output from the CAM software is usually a simple text file of G-code.  History The first commercial applications of CAM were in large companies in the automotive and aerospace industries for example UNISURF in 1971 at Renault for car body design and tooling. there is a shortage of young. Integration of CAD with other components of CAD/CAM/CAE Product lifecycle management (PLM) environment requires an effective CAD data exchange. This enables hand-written. reason as a machinist can. that is then transferred to a machine tool using a direct numerical control (DNC) program. In high production or high precision shops. At least in the United States. CAM. Usually it had been necessary to force the CAD operator to export the data in one of the common data formats. simulation and optimization tools. or machinists.As with other ―Computer-Aided‖ technologies. Users would select the type of tool. and still cannot. a different set of problems were encountered where an experienced CNC machinist must both hand-code programs and run CAM software. G-Code is a simple language. Historically. As CAM software and machines become more complicated. CAM software would output code for the least capable machine. machining process and paths to be used. such as improperly set up CAM software or specific tools. While an engineer may have a working knowledge of gcode programming. CAM software was seen to have several shortcomings that necessitated an overly high level of involvement by skilled CNC machinists. as each machine tool control added on to the standard G-code set for increased flexibility. NC programmers. None of these issues were so insurmountable that a thoughtful engineer or skilled machine operator could not overcome for prototyping or small production runs. that are supported by a wide variety of software. high precision and mass production. Mass-produced items that require machining are often initially created through casting or some other nonmachine method. while building the skills of new professionals through visualization. They could not optimize toolpaths to the extent required of mass production. short. small optimization and wear issues compound over time. sometimes many thousands of commands long. leverages both the value of the most skilled manufacturing professionals through advanced productivity tools. in fact.
automated feature based machining and job function specific tailorable user interfaces build user confidence and speed the learning curve. out-of-the-box capabilities providing Process Wizards. machine tool kits. Ease of use 2. These solutions are created to meet the full needs of manufacturing personnel including part planning. Today's CAM systems support the full range of machine tools including: turning.  Machining process Most machining progresses through four stages. The stages are: . Integration with PLM and the extended enterpriseLM to integrate manufacturing with enterprise operations from concept through field support of the finished product. Today‘s CAM user can easily generate streamlined tool paths. User confidence is further built on 3D visualization through a closer integration with the 3D CAD environment. The need for CAM and PLM tools by the manufacturing engineer. 5 axis machining and wire EDM. libraries. modern CAM solutions are scalable from a stand-alone CAM system to a fully integrated multi-CAD 3D solution-set. Integration with PLM and the extended enterprise Ease in use For the user who is just getting started as a CAM user. templates. resource management and data management and exchange. optimized tool axis tilt for higher feed rates and optimized Z axis depth cuts as well as driving non-cutting operations such as the specification of probing motions. NC programmer or machinist is similar to the need for computer assistance by the pilot of modern aircraft systems. both by providers of niche solutions and by providers of high-end solutions. the historical shortcomings of CAM are being attenuated. This is occurring primarily in three arenas: 1. shop documentation. depending on the material and the software available. including error-avoiding simulations and optimizations. To ensure ease of use appropriate to user objectives. High Speed Machining. each of which is implemented by a variety of basic and sophisticated strategies. Manufacturing complexity The manufacturing environment is increasingly complex. The modern machinery cannot be properly used without this assistance. Manufacturing complexity 3. including streamlining of tool paths Multi-function Machining 5 Axis Machining Feature recognition and machining Automation of Machining processes Ease of Use  Overcoming historical shortcomings Over time.
the workpiece is rotated to make the cutting surfaces of the tool tangent to the ideal part features. Common strategies are raster passes. Finishing Finishing involves a slow pass across the material in very fine steps to produce the finished part. Semi-finishing This process begins with a roughed part that unevenly approximates the model and cuts to within a fixed offset distance from the model. a separate finishing process called contouring can be performed. plunge roughing. waterline passes. Contour milling In milling applications on hardware with five or more axes. and cuts it very roughly to shape of the final model.  Software See also: List of CAM companies and :Category:Computer-aided manufacturing software The top 20 largest CAM software products and companies. rest-roughing. sorted alphabetically: BOBCAD-CAM from BobCAD-CAM CATIA from Dassault Systèmes CAM-Tool from C & G Systems Cimatron from Cimatron group Dynavista from Nihon Unisys Edgecam from Planit Esprit from DP Technoogy GibbsCAM from Cimatron group HyperMill from Open Mind Mastercam from CNC Software NX from Siemens PLM Software PowerMILL from Delcam Pro/E from PTC SolidCAM from SolidCAM Space E from NTTD SurfCAM from Surfware TopCAM from Missler . Instead of stepping down in fine-grained increments to approximate a surface. This produces an excellent surface finish with high dimensional accuracy. offset clearing. In finishing. Common strategies are zig-zag clearing. but not so little that the tool and material deflect instead of shearing. Feed rates are low and spindle speeds are raised to produce an accurate surface. pencil milling. In milling.Roughing This process begins with raw stock. the step between one pass and another is minimal. the result often gives the appearance of terraces. constant step-over passes. known as billet. by vendor revenues in year 2009  are. The semi-finishing pass must leave a small amount of material so the tool can cut accurately while finishing. because the strategy has taken advantage of the ability to cut the model horizontally.
Tebis from Tebis AG VisiCAM from Vero Vericut from CGtech WorkNC from Sescoi .
Computer-aided process planning (CAPP) is the use of computer technology to aid in the process planning of a part or product.. operation sequences. The planning begins with engineering drawings. Process planning translates design information into the process steps and instructions to efficiently and effectively manufacture products. This routing becomes a major input to the manufacturing resource planning system to define operations for production activity control purposes and define required resources for capacity requirements planning purposes. parts or material lists and a forecast of demand. Process planning in manufacturing also refers to the planning of use of blanks. work centers. computer-aided process planning (CAPP) has evolved to simplify and improve process planning and achieve more effective use of manufacturing resources. As the design process is supported by many computer-aided tools. The resulting operation sequence is documented on a form typically referred to as a route sheet containing a listing of the production operations and associated machine tools for a workpart or assembly. standards. user instructions (manuals) etc.  Contents [hide] 1 Computer-aided process planning o 1. spare parts. packaging material. in manufacturing. The results of the planning are: Routings which specify operations. specifications. tooling and fixtures. CAPP is the link between CAD and CAM in that it provides for the planning of the process to be used in producing a designed part. to some extent CAPP overlaps with the term "PIC" (Production and Inventory Control). Process planning encompasses the activities and functions to prepare a detailed set of plans and instructions to produce a part. The term "Computer-Aided Production Planning" is used in different context on different parts of the production process. .1 Introduction 2 Future development of CAPP 3 See also 4 References  Computer-aided process planning  Introduction Process planning is concerned with determining the sequence of individual manufacturing operations needed to produce a given part or product.
Computer-aided process planning initially evolved as a means to electronically store a process plan once it was created. Lee et al. machining parameters. states that "By considering the multi-selection tasks simultaneously. For example.  Future development of CAPP Generative or dynamic CAPP is the main focus of development. the ability to automatically generate production plans for new products. retrieve it. their capabilities. set-up instructions. and tooling. Generative CAPP will probably use iterative methods. or dynamicly update production plans on the basis of resource availability. and with a more complex manufacturing process. Other capabilities were table-driven cost and standard estimating systems. step-by-step work instructions including dimensions related to individual operations. and quality assurance checkpoints. Process plans which typically provide more detailed. Fabrication and assembly drawings to support manufacture (as opposed to engineering drawings to define the part). processes. where simple production plans are applied to automatic CAD/CAM development to refine the initial production plan. Process planning is very time-consuming and the results vary based on the person doing the planning". K. According to Engelke . so new dynamic systems will explore all possible combinations of production processes. equipment.S. Traditional CAPP methods that optimise plans in a linear manner have not been able to satisfy the need for flexible planning. for sales representatives to create customer quotations and estimate delivery time. and then generate plans according to available machining resources. a specially designed genetic algorithm searches through the entire solution space to identify the optimal plan" [5 . Keneth Crow  stated that "Manual process planning is based on a manufacturing engineer's experience and knowledge of production facilities. the need for CAPP is greater with an increased number of different types of parts being manufactured. modify it for a new part and print the plan.
Computer-aided quality assurance (CAQ) is the engineering application of computers and computer controlled machines for the definition and inspection of the quality of products. This includes: Measuring equipment management Goods inward inspection Vendor rating Attribute chart Statistical process control (SPC) Documentation Additional themes: Advanced Product Quality Planning (APQP) Failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) Dimensional tolerance stack-up analysis using product and manufacturing information (PMI) on CAD models Computer aided inspection with coordinate-measuring machines (CMM) Comparison of data obtained by mean of 3D scanning technologies of physical parts against CAD models .
2 Providing information 2 Approaches to project management software o 2. communication.1 Scheduling o 1. resource allocation. entering project parameters Contents [hide] 1 Tasks or activities of project management software o 1. showing a Gantt chart SEER-SEM.2 Web-based o 2.5 Collaborative o 2. Microsoft Project 2000. cost control and budget management. collaboration software.7 Non-specialised tools 3 Criticisms of project management software 4 See also 5 Books  Tasks or activities of project management software .3 Personal o 2.Project management software is a term covering many types of software.6 Integrated o 2. scheduling.1 Desktop o 2. quality management and documentation or administration systems. including estimation and planning.4 Single user o 2. which are used to deal with the complexity of large projects.
how actual and planned performance are related. .  Providing information Project planning software can be expected to provide information to various people or stakeholders. Early warning of any risks to the project. Historical information on how projects have progressed. Optimum utilization of available resource. Even a file-based project plan can be shared between users if it's on a networked drive and only one user accesses it at a time. Information on workload.collages. What kind of buildings are made i. Typical requirements might include: Tasks lists for people. and can be used to measure and justify the level of effort required to complete the project(s). although it's unusual. Desktop applications typically store their data in a file. Cost Maintenance. Dealing with uncertainties in the estimates of the duration of each task. and allocation schedules for resources. Scheduling One of the most common purposes is to schedule a series of events or tasks and the complexity of the schedule can vary considerably depending on how the tool is used. or to store their data in a central database.e. accessed through an intranet. the various tasks.shopping mall etc. and in particular. schools. Evidence. or an extranet using a web browser. and resources required by. This typically gives the most responsive and graphically-intense style of interface. for planning holidays.  Approaches to project management software  Desktop Project management software can be implemented as a program that runs on the desktop of each user. Overview information on how long tasks will take to complete. Some common challenges include: Events which depend on one another in different ways or dependencies. although some have the ability to collaborate with other users (see below). commonly termed resource scheduling. Desktop applications can be written to run in a heterogeneous environment of multiple operating systems.home.  Web-based Project management software can be implemented as a Web application. Scheduling people to work on.
There is considerable overlap with single user systems. See also non-specialised tools below. Naturally multi-user. with many other aspects of company life. This may be used in small companies. Typically slower to respond than desktop applications. including extranets. projects can have bug tracking issues assigned to each project.  Personal A personal project management application is one used at home. Some tools allow team members to check out their schedules (and others' as read only) to work on them while not on the network.  Collaborative A collaborative system is designed to support multiple users modifying different sections of the plan at once. Some solutions allow the user to go offline with a copy of the data. generally fall into this category. all changes are synchronized with the other schedules. calendars. Ease of access-control. . Centralized data repository. but have the limitation that they can only be used when the user has live Internet access. typically to manage lifestyle or home projects. the list of project customers becomes a customer relationship management module. or ones where only a few people are involved in top-down project planning. When reconnecting to the database. and each person on the project plan has their own task lists. Desktop applications generally fall into this category. Only one software version and installation to maintain. some software tools using client–server architecture provide a rich client that runs on users' desktop computer and replicate project and task information to other project team members through a central server when users connect periodically to the network.  Single user A single-user system is programmed with the assumption that only one person will ever need to edit the project plan at once. and messaging functionality associated with their projects. For example. although personal project management software typically involves simpler interfaces. for example.  Integrated An integrated system combines project management or project planning. Web-based tools. To address this limitation. Project information not available when the user (or server) is offline.This has all the usual advantages and disadvantages of web applications: Can be accessed from any type of computer without installing software on user's computer. updating the areas they personally are responsible for such that those estimates get integrated into the overall plan.
rather than identifying objectives. Waterfall) vs. pen and paper). Focuses primarily on the planning phase and does not offer enough functionality for project tracking. The plan is dynamic. re-sequenced. Does not make a clear distinction between the planning phase and post planning phase.  Criticisms of project management software The following may apply in general. For example. which is simply a snapshot at one moment in time. Some people may achieve better results using simpler technique. or to some specific functions within products. specialised tools like SourceForge integrate project management software with source control (CVS) software and bug-tracking software. Scrum). Offer complicated features to meet the needs of project management or project scheduling professionals. so that each piece of information can be integrated into the same system. traditional (e.g. agile (e. there are a vast range of other software (and non-software) tools used to plan and schedule projects. Spreadsheets are very versatile. etc. May not suit all projects May not be derived from a sound project management method. and can be used to calculate things not anticipated by the designers. and overallocation is often more simply resolved manually.g. or to specific products. shortening the duration of a task when an additional human resource is assigned to it while the project is still being planned.  Non-specialised tools While specialised software may be common. control and in particular plan-adjustment. leading to user confusion and frustration when the software does not behave as expected. yet feel pressured into using project management software by company policy (discussion). and heavily promoted by each vendor. . (e. For example.Similarly. as the project progresses the plan must change to accommodate tasks that are completed early. but assist with impact assessment and communication of plan changes. For example. which must be understood in order to effectively use the product. There may be excessive dependency on the first paper print-out of a project plan. Complex task prioritization and resource leveling algorithms for example can produce results that make no intuitive sense. Additional features may be so complicated as to be of no use to anyone. Good management software should not only facilitate this. Calendaring software can often handle scheduling as easily as dedicated software. May be inconsistent with the type of project management method. deliverables and the imposed logical progress of events (dig the trench first to put in the drain pipe). late.g. displaying the Gantt chart view by default encourages users to focus on timed task scheduling too early.
Frequently. When there are multiple larger projects. Groupware applications now add "project management" features that directly support this type of workflow-oriented project management. the end-users of such tools will refer to it as such." However. New types of software are challenging the traditional definition of Project Management. as management software incurs a larger time-overhead than is worthwhile. and the de-facto definition of the term Project Management may change. it does not involve management of discrete resources working on something with a discrete beginning/end. . users of project management software are not actually managing a discrete project. project management software can be very useful. project management software might shield the manager from important interpersonal contact. For instance. Nevertheless. managing the ongoing marketing for an already-released product is not a "project" in the traditional sense of the term. Similar to PowerPoint. one should probably not use management software if only a single small project is involved. Classically-trained Project Managers may argue whether this is "sound project management.
Enterprise resource planning (ERP) integrates internal and external management information across an entire organization. customer relationship management. Its purpose is to facilitate the flow of information between all business functions inside the boundaries of the organization and manage the connections to outside stakeholders. etc. . embracing finance/accounting.1 Process preparation o 7. ERP systems automate this activity with an integrated software application.1 Origin of "ERP" o 2. without relying on periodic updates.2 Disadvantages 9 See also 10 References 11 Further reading  Characteristics ERP systems typically include the following characteristics: An integrated system that operates in real time (or next to real time). manufacturing.1 Advantages o 8. sales and service.3 Customization o 7. which supports all applications. typically employing a database as a repository for information.5 Data migration 8 Comparison to special–purpose applications o 8. ERP systems can run on a variety of hardware and network configurations. A common database.2 Expansion 3 Components 4 Best practices 5 Modularity 6 Connectivity to plant floor information 7 Implementation o 7.4 Extensions o 7. A consistent look and feel throughout each module. Contents [hide] 1 Characteristics 2 History o 2.2 Configuration o 7.
product configurator. This rapid growth in sales was followed by a slump in 1999 after these issues had been addressed. maintenance and human resources. ERP systems initially focused on automating back office functions that did not directly affect customers and the general public. recruiting. suppliers and/or employees Access control Management of user privileges for various processes  History  Origin of "ERP" In 1990 Gartner Group first employed the acronym ERP as an extension of material requirements planning (MRP). performance units. customer contact. capacity. quality control. time and expense. Front office functions such as customer relationship . inspection of goods. ERP came to represent a larger whole. product lifecycle management Supply chain management Order to cash. budgeting. manufacturing flow. cost management. Finance/Accounting General ledger. commissions. activity management Customer relationship management Sales and marketing. manufacturing process. diversity management Manufacturing Engineering. claim processing. governments and non–profit organizations also began to employ ERP systems.  Expansion ERP systems experienced rapid growth in the 1990s because of the year 2000 problem and introduction of the Euro disrupted legacy systems. Installation of the system without elaborate application/data integration by the Information Technology (IT) department. later manufacturing resource planning and computerintegrated manufacturing. inventory. scheduling. 401K. work orders. bill of materials. training. service. benefits. Not all ERP packages were developed from a manufacturing core. payables. Beyond corporations. Without supplanting these terms. cash management. receivables. order entry. call center support Data services Various "self–service" interfaces for customers. commissions Project management Costing. workflow management. Vendors variously began with accounting. billing. fixed assets. reflecting the evolution of application integration beyond manufacturing. purchasing. consolidation Human resources payroll. supply chain planning. activity based costing. By the mid–1990s ERP systems addressed all core functions of an enterprise. supplier scheduling. Many companies took this opportunity to replace such systems with ERP. manufacturing projects.
are adopted by nearly all users. or Basel II. In addition. such as finance and accounting. . This is because the procedure can be readily codified within the ERP software and replicated with confidence across multiple businesses who share that business requirement. the greater the number of modules selected. documentation. best practices reduced risk by 71% when compared to other software implementations. such as electronic funds transfer. testing and training. or supplier relationship management (SRM) became integrated later. Companies that implemented industry best practices reduced time–consuming project tasks such as configuration. Generally speaking. when the Internet simplified communicating with external parties. and e–finance. Sarbanes-Oxley. This means that the software reflects the vendor's interpretation of the most effective way to perform each business process.  Modularity Most systems are modular to permit automating some functions but not others. e–government. e–telecom. a service company probably has no need for a manufacturing module. "ERP II" was coined in the early 2000s. Systems vary in the convenience with which the customer can modify these practices.  Components Transactional database Management portal/dashboard Business intelligence system Customizable reporting External access via technology such as web services Search Document management Messaging/chat/wiki Workflow management  Best practices Best practices are incorporated into most ERP systems. the greater the integration benefits. "Enterprise application suite" is an alternate name for such systems. risks and changes involved. Other companies already have a system that they believe to be adequate. It describes web–based software that allows both employees and partners (such as suppliers and customers) real–time access to the systems. They can also help comply with de facto industry standards. For example.management (CRM) dealt directly with customers. others such as human resource management are not. Some common modules. or e–business systems such as e–commerce. but also the greater the costs. The use of best practices eases compliance with requirements such as IFRS.
multinational and other large implementations can take years. EATM can employ a staging table. who bring unique knowledge on process. ERP vendors must be expert in their own products. These systems tend to have the highest level of initial integration cost. Database integration—ERP systems connect to plant floor data sources through staging tables in a database. customization. Standard protocols—Communications drivers are available for plant floor equipment and separate products have the ability to log data to staging tables.  Process preparation . Web Services. Plant floor systems deposit the necessary information into the database. Connectivity becomes the responsibility of the systems integrator. including competitors. These systems are typically configured by systems integrators. The typical project for a large enterprise consumes about 14 months and requires around 150 consultants. Implementation time depends on business size. the scope of process changes. or system–specific program interfaces (APIs). number of modules. the most widely known being OPC  Implementation ERP's scope usually implies significant changes to staff work processes and practices. Direct integration—ERP systems connectivity (communications to plant floor equipment) as part of their product offering. This requires the vendors to offer specific support for the plant floor equipment that their customers operate. Standards exist within the industry to support interoperability between software products. customization. Custom–integrated solutions typically run on workstation or server class computers. Enterprise appliance transaction modules (EATM)—These devices communicate directly with plant floor equipment and with the ERP system via methods supported by the ERP system. The ERP system reads the information in the table. and can have a higher long term maintenance and reliability costs. The benefit of staging is that ERP vendors do not need to master the complexities of equipment integration. equipment. and the readiness of the customer to take ownership for the project. Small projects can require months. Custom–integration solutions—Many system integrators offer custom solutions. three types of services are available to help implement such changes—consulting. Long term costs can be minimized through careful system testing and thorough documentation. and support. and connectivity to other vendor products. Customization can substantially increase implementation times. The benefit of an EATM is that it offers an off–the–shelf solution. Modular ERP systems can be implemented in stages. and vendor solutions. Connectivity to plant floor information ERP systems connect to real–time data and transaction data in a variety of ways. Generally.
 A potential disadvantage is that adopting "standard" processes can lead to a loss of competitive advantage. ERP implementation is considerably more difficult (and politically charged) in decentralized organizations.  Customization ERP systems are theoretically based on industry best practices and are intended to be deployed "as is". losses in one area often offset by gains in other areas. Alternatively. there are nontechnical options such as changing business practices and/or organizational policies to better match the delivered ERP functionality. analyzing the effectiveness of each process. This may require migrating some business units before others. Technical solutions include rewriting part of the delivered functionality.  Configuration Configuring an ERP system is largely a matter of balancing the way the customer wants the system to work with the way it was designed to work. It also enables an assessment of the alignment of current processes with those provided by the ERP system. writing a homegrown bolt-on/add-on module within the ERP system. All three of these options are varying degrees of system customization. possibly reducing integration (e. ERP vendors do offer customers configuration options that allow organizations to incorporate their own business rules but there are often functionality gaps remaining even after the configuration is complete. Research indicates that the risk of business process mismatch is decreased by: linking current processes to the organization's strategy. product line. linking via Master data management) or customizing the system to meet specific needs. an organization can select the type of inventory accounting—FIFO or LIFO—to employ. For example. business rules. This analysis can identify opportunities for process modernization.Implementing ERP typically requires changes in existing business processes. It is therefore crucial that organizations thoroughly analyze business processes before implementation. ERP customers have several options to reconcile functionality gaps. with the first being the most invasive and costly to maintain. Poor understanding of needed process changes prior to starting implementation is a main reason for project failure. whether to recognize revenue by geographical unit. delaying implementation to work through the necessary changes for each unit. Key differences between customization and configuration include: . increasing overall competitive advantage. understanding existing automated solutions. each with their own pros/cons. authorization hierarchies and decision centers.g. or distribution channel and whether to pay for shipping costs when a customer returns a purchase. because they often have different processes. data semantics. ERP systems typically build many changeable parameters that modify system operation. While this has happened. or interfacing to an external system.
reporting and republishing. and behaves predictably in any allowed configuration. though they require retesting. Some customizations (e. Inhibits seamless communication between suppliers and customers who use the same ERP system uncustomized. e. capturing transactional data. those involving changes to fundamental data structures) are overwritten during upgrades and must be reimplemented. code that uses pre–defined "hooks" that are called before/after displaying data screens) survive upgrades. using scanners. etc. Customization Disadvantages: Increases time and resources required to both implement and maintain. The effect of configuration changes on system behavior and performance is predictable and is the responsibility of the ERP vendor. Unfortunately.  Data migration Data migration is the process of moving/copying and restructuring data from an existing system to the ERP system. since migration is one of the final activities before the production phase. such as syndicated marketing data and associated trend analytics.g. purchase approval rules. Other customizations (e. ERP vendors typically provide access to data and functionality through published interfaces. Customization Advantages: Improves user acceptance Offers the potential to obtain competitive advantage vis-à-vis companies using only standard features. Migration is critical to implementation success and requires significant planning. tills or RFID access to specialized data/capabilities. The following steps can structure migration planning: Identify the data to be migrated Determine migration timing . organisational trees. whereas the software must always be configured before use (e. is the customer's responsibility and increases testing activities..g.g. The effect of customization is less predictable. Extensions offer features such as: archiving. Customization is always optional.g.  Extensions ERP systems can be extended with third–party software. Configuration changes survive upgrades to new software versions. it often receives insufficient attention.) The software was designed to handle various configurations. setting up cost/profit center structures.
Extensive training requirements take resources from daily operations. creating a more flexible . The limitations of ERP have been recognized sparking new trends in ERP application development.  Comparison to special–purpose applications  Advantages The fundamental advantage of ERP is that integrating the myriad processes by which businesses operate saves time and expense. Generate the data templates Freeze the toolset Decide on migration-related setups Define data archiving policies and procedures. the four significant developments being made in ERP are. maintenance and upgrade expenses. from acceptance through fulfillment Revenue tracking. They provide a comprehensive enterprise view (no "islands of information"). inventory receipts (what arrived). Tasks that benefit from this integration include: Sales forecasting. and costing (what the vendor invoiced) ERP systems centralize business data. any time to make proper decisions. They make real–time information available to management anywhere.  Disadvantages Customization is problematic. Integration of truly independent businesses can create unnecessary dependencies. Overcoming resistance to sharing sensitive information between departments can divert management attention. They protect sensitive data by consolidating multiple security systems into a single structure. marketing and sales. bringing the following benefits: They eliminate the need to synchronize changes between multiple systems— consolidation of finance. Re–engineering business processes to fit the ERP system may damage competitiveness and/or divert focus from other critical activities ERP can cost more than less integrated and/or less comprehensive solutions. Decisions can be made more quickly and with fewer errors. and manufacturing applications They enable standard product naming/coding. High switching costs increase vendor negotiating power vis a vis support. human resource. which allows inventory optimization Order tracking. Data becomes visible across the organization. from invoice through cash receipt Matching purchase orders (what was ordered).
ERP. . Interenterprise ERP and e-Business Suites. each of which will potential address the fallbacks of the current ERP. Web-Enable ERP.
the free encyclopedia (Redirected from CNC) Jump to: navigation. search "CNC" redirects here.DEVICES AND EQUIPMENTS Numerical control From Wikipedia. Please improve this article and discuss the issue on the talk page. The examples and perspective in this article may not represent a worldwide view of the subject. see CNC (disambiguation). (May 2011) A CNC Turning Center. . For other uses.
Siemens CNC panel. end-to-end component design is highly automated using computeraided design (CAD) and computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) programs.10 DIY. as opposed to manually controlled via handwheels or levers. a number of different machines are used with an external controller and human or robotic operators that move the component from machine to machine. In other cases. creating the modern computer numerical control (CNC) machine tools that have revolutionized the machining processes. Numerical control (NC) refers to the automation of machine tools that are operated by abstractly programmed commands encoded on a storage medium. etc.3 Parsons and the invention of NC o 1. based on existing tools that were modified with motors that moved the controls to follow points fed into the system on punched tape. The first NC machines were built in the 1940s and 1950s..8 CAD meets CNC o 1. Since any particular component might require the use of a number of different tools-drills.7 CNC arrives o 1. the complex series of steps needed to produce any part is highly automated and produces a part that closely matches the original CAD design. modern machines often combine multiple tools into a single "cell". and personal CNC o 1. These early servomechanisms were rapidly augmented with analog and digital computers.2 Servos and selsyns o 1.1 Earlier forms of automation 1.1 Cams 1.9 Proliferation of CNC o 1.4 Enter MIT o 1. or mechanically automated via cams alone.1.11 Today 2 Description o 2. saws. In either case. hobby. The programs produce a computer file that is interpreted to extract the commands needed to operate a particular machine via a postprocessor.5 MIT's machine o 1.1. Contents [hide] 1 History o 1.6 Proliferation of NC o 1. In modern CNC systems.2 Tracer control o 1. and then loaded into the CNC machines for production.1 Tools with CNC variants 3 Tool / machine crashing 4 Numerical accuracy vs Equipment backlash .
and then play them back on demand. because the "programming" was physical rather than numerical. 5 See also 6 Notes 7 References 8 Further reading 9 External links  History  Earlier forms of automation  Cams The automation of machine tool control began in the 19th century with cams that "played" a machine tool in the way that cams had long been playing musical boxes or operating elaborate cuckoo clocks. and required a master machinist at some point in the process. Cams can encode information. Various forms of abstractly programmable control had existed during the 19th century: those of the Jacquard loom. These developments had the potential for convergence with the automation of machine tool control starting in that century. however. but the convergence did not happen until many decades later. which could copy templates several feet across. and the work of people such as Christopher Miner Spencer developed the turret lathe into the screw machine (1870s). notably the "teaching lathe" which gives new machinists a hands-on feel for the process. such as the enormous Pratt & Whitney "Keller Machine". but getting the information from the abstract level of an engineering drawing into the cam is a manual process that requires sculpting and/or machining and filing. Analogous systems are common even today. However. Thomas Blanchard built his gun-stock-copying lathes (1820s–30s). which are routinely on the order of thousandths of an inch. player pianos.  Tracer control The application of hydraulics to cam-based automation resulted in tracing machines that used a stylus to trace a template. which used a storage system to record the movements of a human machinist. pioneered at General Motors (GM) in the 1950s. automation via cams is fundamentally different from numerical control because it cannot be abstractly programmed. and mechanical computers pioneered by Charles Babbage and others. Cam-based automation had already reached a highly advanced state by World War I (1910s). Another approach was "record and playback".  Servos and selsyns One barrier to complete automation was the required tolerances of the machining process. Although connecting some sort of control to . None of these were numerically programmable.
 a machinist and salesman at his father's machining company. which produced highly accurate measurement information. After setting up production at a disused furniture factory and ramping up production. The stringers for the rotors were built from a design provided by Sikorsky. The movement of the tool resulted in varying forces on the controls that would mean a linear input would not result in linear tool motion. In November 1931 Alexanderson suggested to the Industrial Engineering Department that the same systems could be used to drive the inputs of machine tools. He called Sikorsky Aircraft to inquire about possible work. Bill Stout. gun laying requires very high accuracies. The key development in this area was the introduction of the servomechanism. Alexanderson. However. where a remote servo's motions were accurately matched by another. Stulen concluded that Parsons didn't really know what he was talking about. Attaching two servos together produced a selsyn. He stated that it was a "matter of straight engineering development". working at General Electric (GE). In 1942 he was told that helicopters were going to be the "next big thing" by the former head of Ford Trimotor production. Making a metal cutting tool able to cut that particular shape proved to be difficult. Parsons went to Wright Field to see Frank Stulen. Parsons realized this. During their conversation. Parsons. Using a variety of mechanical or electrical systems. Like machining. which would be much stronger and easier to make. the head of the Propeller Lab Rotary Ring Branch. and the forces during the motion of the gun turrets was non-linear. when others had pioneered the field.S. a Swedish immigrant to the U. never before tried on an aircraft design. Parsons Corp. W. the output of the selsyns could be read to ensure proper movement had occurred (in other words. much less than a degree. As at least some of the problem appeared to stem from spot welding a metal collar on the stringer to the metal spar. Stulen started work on 1 April 1946 and hired three new engineers to join him. which was sent to Parsons as a series of 17 points defining the outline. Alexanderson had worked on the problem of torque amplification that allowed the small output of a mechanical computer to drive very large motors. the concept was ahead of its time from a business development perspective. forming a closed-loop control system). ensuring that the controls were moved to the correct position with the required accuracy was another issue. That development led Parsons to consider the possibility of using stamped metal stringers instead of wood.  Parsons and the invention of NC The birth of NC is generally credited to John T. and GE did not take the matter seriously until years later. and soon got a contract to build the wooden stringers in the rotor blades. The first serious suggestion that selsyns could be used for machining control was made by Ernst F. and hired Stulen on the spot. which GE used as part of a larger gun laying system for US Navy ships. Parsons then had to "fill in" the dots with a French curve to generate an outline they could use as a template to build the jigs for the wooden stringers. .a storage device like punched cards was easy. one of the blades failed and it was traced to the spar. Parsons suggested a new method of attaching the stringers to the spar using adhesives. allowing it to follow the outline of a template without the strong physical contact needed by existing tools like the Keller Machine.
 Parson's worries soon came true. He asked if Parsons had anything to help them. Nobody was using my method of making templates. because the differing forces meant the same amount of power would not always produce the same amount of motion in the controls. If the machine's inputs were attached directly to the card reader. and had already ordered the expensive cutting machine. he was told of the problems the newly formed US Air Force was having with new jet designs. Since the mechanical controls did not respond in a linear fashion. cutting from a metal template. No matter how many points you included. this delay. would be removed and the number of points could be dramatically increased. At that point Parsons conceived of a fully automated tool. Faced with the . but with manual operation. But at the time Parsons had no funds to develop his ideas. In 1949 the Air Force arranged funding for Parsons to build his machines on his own. to directly measure how far the controls had actually turned. like a selsyn. but they were uninterested. and they would move the cutting head to that point and make a cut. one on each of the X. Early work with Snyder Machine & Tool Corp proved the system of directly driving the controls from motors failed to give the accuracy needed to set the machine for a perfectly smooth cut.Stulen's brother worked at Curtis Wright Propeller. The resulting tool would be useful as a template for stamping metal stringers. This was called the "by-the-numbers method". When Parsons saw what Stulen was doing with the punched card machines. and mentioned that they were using punched card calculators for engineering calculations. so just imagine what chance they were going to have of making an accurate airfoil shape with inaccurate templates. They decided to use 5-axis template copiers to produce the stringers. and offset each point by the radius of a mill cutting tool. and Lockheed's protests that they could fix the problem eventually rang hollow. but would require some sort of feedback system. Stullen had no problem making such a program. the time saved by having the part more closely match the outline was offset by the time needed to move the controls. he asked Stulen if they could be used to generate an outline with 200 points instead of the 17 they were given. and any associated manual errors. and used it to produce large tables of numbers that would be taken onto the machine floor.axes. If you cut at each of those points. When one of Parsons's salesmen was on a visit to Wright Field. This machine had five axes of cutter movement. no manual working would be needed. But as Parsons noted: Now just picture the situation for a minute. the outline would still be rough. one operator read the numbers off the charts to two other operators. the first detailed automated calculations on helicopter rotors. it would produce a relatively accurate cutout of the stringer even in hard steel. Such a machine could repeatedly punch out perfectly accurate templates on command. you couldn't simply drive it with a given amount of power. Parsons showed Lockheed their idea of an automated mill.  Enter MIT This was not an impossible problem to solve. and each of these was tracer controlled using a template. and it could easily be filed down to a smooth shape. Lockheed had contracted to design a machine to make these wings. Here. With enough points on the outline.and Y. Stulen decided to adopt the idea to run stress calculations on the rotors.
if the machine did not simply cut at points A and B. Y.820. one for each of the machine's three axes (X. in the spring of 1949 Parsons turned to Gordon S. the MIT design used standard 7-track punch tape for input. in 1950 MIT bought a surplus Cincinnati Milling Machine Company "Hydro-Tel" mill of their own and arranged a new contract directly with the Air Force that froze Parsons out of further development. sparking a filing by MIT for a "Numerical Control Servo-System" on 14 August 1952. which was a world leader in mechanical computing and feedback systems. Parsons would later comment that he "never dreamed that anybody as reputable as MIT would deliberately go ahead and take over my project. two for each axis. MIT. then not only would it make a perfectly smooth cut. but could do so with many fewer points . if the points were far apart the output would have pulses with every clock cycle. The tape was read in a cabinet that also housed six relay-based hardware registers. Unlike Parsons's original punched card design. together. They were naturally suited to technological transfer into a prototype of Parsons's automated "by-the-numbers" machine. The associated controller consisted of five refrigerator-sized cabinets that. while the other four encoded various control information. and the project officially ran from July 1949 to June 1950. Instead. and Z). The MIT team was led by William Pease assisted by James McDonough. With every read operation the previously read point was copied into the "starting point" register. and the Air Force.  MIT's machine MIT fit gears to the various handwheel inputs and drove them with roller chains connected to motors. The tape was read continually and the number in the register increased until a "stop" instruction was encountered. Parsons filed for a patent on "Motor Controlled Apparatus for Positioning Machine Tool" on 5 May 1952.the mill could cut lines directly instead of having to define a large number of cutting points to "simulate" it. They quickly concluded that Parsons's design could be greatly improved. compared them. During the war the Lab had built a number of complex motor-driven devices like the motorized gun turret systems for the Boeing B-29 Superfortress and the automatic tracking system for the SCR-584 radar. Three of the cabinets contained the motor controllers. were almost as large as the mill they were connected to.187 on 14 January 1958. four holes in a line. one controller for each motor. The contract called for the construction of two "Card-a-matic Milling Machines". Parsons received US Patent 2. whereas closely spaced points would . For instance. Brown's Servomechanisms Laboratory at MIT. a prototype and a production system. but instead moved smoothly between the points. IBM.daunting task of building such a system. Three of the tracks were used to control the different axes of the machine." In spite of the development being handed to MIT. A three-way agreement was arranged between Parsons. and the newly read one into the "ending point". the other two the digital reading system. Both to be handed to Parsons for attachment to one of their mills in order to develop a deliverable system for cutting stringers. and generated output pulses that interpolated between the points. Fujitsu and General Electric all took sub-licenses after having already started development of their own devices. The final cabinet held a clock that sent pulses through the registers. and the company sold an exclusive license to Bendix.
 a common feature on modern machines. However. reducing its reliability in a production environment.63 in 2005 dollars. starting in 1952. $2. including 250 vacuum tubes. a commercial NC company with Giddings' backing. where the controllers were greatly reduced in complexity. Between 1952 and 1956 the system was used to mill a number of one-off designs for various aviation firms. producing the Numericord controller. which would reduce the count by one for every one degree of rotation. the system was terribly complex. and the motors would eventually drive the mill to the encoded position. The registers were decremented by encoders attached to the motors and the mill itself. The system was publicly demonstrated in September 1952.000. Developed to produce highly accurate dies for an aircraft skinning press. In 1955 many of the MIT team left to form Concord Controls. These included Kearney & Trecker‘s Milwaukee-Matic II that could change its cutting tool under numerical control. The summing registers were connected to a digital to analog converter that increased power to the motors as the count in the registers increased. which directly encoded the angle of the various controls. but development was picked up by the Giddings and Lewis Machine Tool Co. quickly making any complex cut with extremely high accuracy that could not easily be duplicated by hand. The tape contained a number of signals of different phases. in order to study their potential economic impact.only generate pulses after multiple clock cycles. Numericord was similar to the MIT design. but the tapes were transferred to a reader/writer that converted them into magnetic form. Monarch Machine Tool also developed an numerical controlled lathe. which set its half of the selsyn to the encoded angles while the remote side was attached to the machine controls.727. The tape was played at a constant speed in the controller.0005 inch movement of the cutting head. 175 relays and numerous moving parts. They demonstrated their machine at the 1955 Chicago Machine Tool Show (predecessor of today's IMTS). appearing in that month's Scientific American. WI in 1955. The pulses are sent into a summing register in the motor controllers. The magtapes could then be used on any of the machines on the floor. counting up by the number of pulses every time they were received. MIT's system was an outstanding success by any technical measure. The programmer could control the speed of the cut by selecting points that were closer together for slow movements.  Proliferation of NC The Air Force funding for the project ran out in 1953. It was also very expensive. Each 1 degree rotation of the controls produced a 0. the total bill presented to the Air Force was $360. along with a number of other vendors with punched card or paper tape machines that were either fully developed or in prototype form.14. Designs were still encoded on paper tape.641. or further apart for rapid ones. Once the second point was reached the pulses from the clock would stop. but replaced the punch tape with a magnetic tape reader that General Electric was working on. . the Numericord "NC5" went into operation at G&L's plant at Fond du Lac.
The cultural context of the early 1950s. APT development was picked up with the AIA in San Diego. Users could enter a list of points and speeds. In 1957 the Aircraft Industries Association (AIA) and Air Material Command at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base joined with MIT to standardize this work and produce a fully computer-controlled NC system.4. Ross and Pople outlined a language for machine control that was based on points and lines. this process reduced the time required to produce the instruction list and mill the part from 8 hours to 15 minutes. In Forces of Production. and that syndicalist power was a path toward losing. MIT reduced its focus on CNC as it moved into CAD experiments.  CNC arrives Many of the commands for the experimental parts were programmed "by hand" to produce the punch tapes that were used as input. It was strongly feared that the West would lose the defense production race to the Communists. and in 1962. sheds light on this interpretation. moving the process off of the highly unionized factory floor and into the un-unionized white collar design office. APT was soon extended to include "real" curves in 2D-APT-II. beat APT into commercial use when it was released in 1958. before moving to General Motors to work on the groundbreaking DAC-1 CAD system. Starting in September.A Boeing report noted that "numerical control has proved it can reduce costs. and glowing reviews from the few users. a second Red Scare with a widespread fear of a bomber gap and of domestic subversion. and so slow to catch on. Patrick Hanratty was making similar developments at GE as part of their partnership with G&L on the Numericord. As Parsons later noted: The NC concept was so strange to manufacturers. They concluded that the tools were competitive with human operators. During the development of Whirlwind. Noble claims that this was the whole point as far as the Air Force was concerned. either by "getting too soft" (less output. In one instance. reduce lead times. On 25 February 1959 the combined team held a press conference showing the results. His language. but simply moved the time from the machining to the creation of the tapes. and the program would generate the punch tape. Hanratty then went on to develop MICR magnetic ink characters that were used in cheque processing. by Illinois Institute of Technology Research.7. developing this over several years into the APT programming language. Meanwhile. PRONTO. which was accepted in June 1956. uptake of NC was relatively slow. Work on making APT an international standard started in 1963 under USASI X3. that the US Army itself finally had to build 120 NC machines and lease them to various manufacturers to begin popularizing its use. MIT's real-time computer.‖ In spite of these developments. reduce tooling and increase productivity. including a 3D machined aluminum ash tray that was handed out in the press kit. With its release. but many manufacturers of . greater unit expense) or even by Communist sympathy and subversion within unions (arising from their common theme of empowering the working class). John Runyon coded a number of subroutines to produce these tapes under computer control. This led to a proposal to the Air Force to produce a generalized "programming" language for numerical control. In 1958 MIT published its report on the economics of NC. improve quality.
when there were 25 optional add-ins to the basic system. where an informal discussion of computerized design started. General Motors started an experimental project to digitize. which resulted in the "Computer-Aided Design Project". they started the DAC-1 project with IBM to develop a production version. including $20. This reduced the cost of implementing a NC system and by the mid 1960s. One part of the DAC project was the direct conversion of paper diagrams into 3D models. The ultimate goal was essentially a transistorized Whirlwind known as TX-2. . This proved to be far too little for the ambitious program they had in mind. the first example of an end-to-end CAD/CNC production system. In 1959. store and print the many design sketches being generated in the various GM design departments. In November 1963 a trunk lid design moved from 2D paper sketch to 3D clay prototype for the first time. had been discussing whether or not design would ever start with paper diagrams in the future. Further development of these concepts led to Ivan Sutherland's groundbreaking Sketchpad program on the TX-2. so standardization was not completed until 1968. was released in March 1965. Sutherland moved to the University of Utah after his Sketchpad work. sold to Control Data and known as "Digigraphics". the newly rechristened Servomechanisms Laboratory. MIT's offsite Lincoln Labs was building computers to test new transistorized designs.  CAD meets CNC While the Servomechanisms Lab was in the process of developing their first mill. although their engineering calculation system. the Air Force issued a one year contract to ESL for $223. With the exception of the initial sketch. APT runs accounted for a third of all computer time at large aviation firms. Just as APT was being released in the early 1960s. Formal meetings followed in April and May. When the basic concept demonstrated that it could work. time in TX-0 freed up and this led to a number of experiments involving interactive input and use of the machine's CRT display for graphics. in 1953. that Lockheed used to build production parts for the C-5 Galaxy.000 to fund the project. When construction of TX-2 started. the design-to-production loop had been closed. but it inspired other MIT graduates to attempt the first true CAD system. In January 1959. but in order to test various circuit designs a smaller version known as TX-0 was built first. It was Electronic Drafting Machine (EDM). AED. The instructors formerly teaching these programs were merged into the Design Division. In December 1959. a second generation of lower-cost transistorized computers was hitting the market that were able to process much larger volumes of information in production settings. Meanwhile.800 earmarked for 104 hours of computer time at $200 per hour. which were then converted into APT commands and cut on milling machines. Meanwhile the Electronic Systems Laboratory. an informal meeting was held involving individuals from both the Electronic Systems Laboratory and the Mechanical Engineering Department's Design Division. MIT's Mechanical Engineering Department dropped the requirement that undergraduates take courses in drawing.CNC machines had their own one-off additions (like PRONTO).
hobby. companies in 1971. CNC automation reduced the frequency of errors and provided CNC operators with time to perform additional tasks. as well as large vendors like CDC and IBM. and NC machines started to become more attractive. As computing and networking evolved. Computervision. With the increased automation of manufacturing processes with CNC machining.S. UGS Corp. sales of German machines surpassed the U. and their time and money for trying out alternatives is limited. This explains why machine tool models and tape storage media persist in grandfathered fashion even as the state of the art advances. and into this void stepped the Germans. This cycle quickly repeated itself. and personal CNC . In 1979.  DIY.S. Small computers were dedicated to a single mill. vendors were slow to respond to the demand for machines suitable for lower-cost NC systems. During the early 1970s the Western economies were mired in slow economic growth and rising employment costs. The introduction of lower-cost CNC machines radically changed the manufacturing industry.  Proliferation of CNC The price of computer cycles fell drastically during the 1960s with the widespread introduction of useful minicomputers. focus on high-end applications left them in an uncompetitive situation when the economic downturn in the early 1970s led to greatly increased demand for low-cost NC systems.S. considerable improvements in consistency and quality have been achieved with no strain on the operator. designs for the first time. PDP-8's and Data General Nova computers were common in these roles. U. Curves are as easy to cut as straight lines. placing the entire process in a small box. companies. Many researchers have commented that the U. and the number of machining steps that required human action have been dramatically reduced. so did direct numerical control (DNC).S. complex 3-D structures are relatively easy to produce. and others. Its long-term coexistence with less networked variants of NC and CNC is explained by the fact that individual firms tend to stick with whatever is profitable.S. Eventually it became less expensive to handle the motor control and feedback with a computer program than it was with dedicated servo systems. Unlike the U. The major U.S. German and Japanese manufacturers targeted lower-profit segments from the start and were able to enter the low-cost markets much more easily. by 1987 Cincinnati Milacron was in 8th place on a chart heavily dominated by Japanese firms. Auto-trol Technology. and today almost all CNC machines use some form of microprocessor to handle all operations. who had focused on the highly profitable aerospace market. and by 1980 Japan had taken a leadership position. Applicon. The introduction of the microprocessor in the 1970s further reduced the cost of implementation.By 1970 there were a wide variety of CAD firms including Intergraph. CNC automation also allows for more flexibility in the way parts are held in the manufacturing process and the time required to change the machine to produce different components. Once sitting in the #1 position in terms of sales on a top-ten chart consisting entirely of U. sales dropping all the time.
EMC is a public domain program operating under the Linux operating system and working on PC based hardware. often without professional training in CNC technology. Another is the principle. The proliferation of CNC led to the need for new CNC standards that were not encumbered by licensing or particular design concepts. After the NIST project ended. Eventually. Personal CNC is characterized by equipment whose size. mentioned earlier. allowing hobbyists to build their own  using open source hardware designs. Several reasons explain this. and Mach3. Companies were spared the trouble of re-writing existing tapes into a new format. an agency of the US Government's Department of Commerce. Fenerty is considered a principal founder of Windows-based PC CNC machining. Parallel to the evolution of personal computers. development continued. as some amount of innovation and continuous improvement eventually becomes necessary. tapes are still relatively common in CNC systems. Floppy disks. One change that was implemented fairly widely was the switch from paper to mylar tapes. written by Art Fenerty." Competition places natural limits on that approach. leading to EMC2 which is licensed under the GNU General Public License and Lesser GNU General Public License (GPL and LGPL). by the Enhanced Machine Controller project from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). lest competitors be the ones who find the way to the "better mousetrap". especially in larger environments that are highly integrated. like APT. lets anyone with some time and technical expertise make complex parts for home and prototype use. the homebrew architecture was fully commercialized and used to create larger machinery suitable for commercial and industrial applications.Recent developments in small scale CNC have been enabled. USB flash drives and local area networking have replaced the tapes to some degree. A small firm that has found a profitable niche may keep older equipment in service for years because "if it ain't broke [profitability-wise]. to produce turnkey lightweight desktop milling machines for hobbyists. One is easy backward compatibility of existing programs. but has evolved to the point where it can replace larger conventional equipment in many instances.  Today Although modern data storage techniques have moved on from punch tape in almost every other role. The availability of these PC based control programs has led to the development of DIY CNC. as well as embedded systems based on proprietary hardware. As with the Personal Computer. and their time and money for trying out alternatives is limited. Personal CNC has its roots in EMC and PC based control. and which is intended to be operated directly by an end user. that individual firms tend to stick with whatever is profitable. which are much more mechanically robust. and original sales price make it useful for individuals. This class of equipment has been referred to as Personal CNC. The easy availability of PC based software and support information of Mach3. capabilities. in large part. Derivations of the original EMC software have also led to several proprietary PC based programs notably TurboCNC. The same basic architecture has allowed manufacturers. A number of different "standards" proliferated . don't fix it. such as Sherline and Taig.
Parametric programs include both device commands as well as a control language similar to BASIC. While G-code is the most common method of programming. perform various arithmetic. rather than grown from an existing plotter standard. while G-code is the predominant language used by CNC machines today. greater and more automated data exchange (via building new. One such standard has since become very common. open industrystandard XML schemas). One change has been to enclose the entire mechanism in a large box as a safety measure. A more recent advancement in CNC interpreters is support of logical commands. often based around vector graphics markup languages supported by plotters. One of these trends is the combination of greater data collection (more sensors). MTConnect is a leading effort to bring these ideas into successful implementation. loops. and a tool spindle that moves in the Z (depth). and manipulate variables to create a large degree of freedom within one program.  Description Modern CNC mills differ little in concept from the original model built at MIT in 1952. some machine-tool/control manufacturers also have invented their own proprietary "conversational" methods of programming. and data mining to yield a new level of business intelligence and workflow automation in manufacturing. the mills themselves also evolved. known as parametric programming (also known as macro programming). the "G-code" that was originally used on Gerber Scientific plotters and then adapted for CNC use. These have met with varying success. The file format became so widely used that it has been embodied in an EIA standard. Mills typically consist of a table that moves in the X and Y axes. Another of these trends is the emergence of widely published APIs together with the aforementioned open data standards to encourage an ecosystem of user-generated apps and mashups. taking the new IT culture of app marketplaces that began in web development and smartphone app development and spreading it to CNC. a system that was deliberately designed for CNC. and the other factory automation systems that are networked with the CNC/DNC. there is a push to supplant it with STEP-NC. As the controller hardware evolved. The programmer can make if/then/else statements. as open-loop control works as long as the forces are kept small enough. The position of the tool is driven by motors through a series of step-down gears in order to provide highly accurate movements. direct-drive stepper motors. which can be both open and commercial—in other words. DNC. subprogram calls. Since about 2006. the idea has been suggested and pursued to foster the convergence with CNC and DNC of several trends elsewhere in the world of information technology that have not yet much affected CNC and DNC. An entire product line of different sizes can be programmed using logic and simple math to create and scale an entire range of parts. or create a stock part that can be scaled to any size a customer demands. or in modern designs. often with additional safety . trying to make it easier to program simple parts and make set-up and modifications at the machine easier (such as Mazak's Mazatrol and Hurco). In turn. Closed-loop control is not mandatory today.for a time.
pinning. and fixtures. a "crash" occurs when the machine moves in such a way that is harmful to the machine. welding.  Tools with CNC variants CNC Plasma Cutting Drills EDMs Lathes Milling machines Wood routers Sheet metal works (Turret Punch) Wire bending machines Hot-wire foam cutters Plasma cutters Water jet cutters Laser cutting Oxy-fuel Surface grinders Cylindrical grinders 3D Printing Induction hardening machines  Tool / machine crashing In CNC. sewing. or causing damage to the machine itself by bending guide . sometimes resulting in bending or breakage of cutting tools. vises. friction stir welding. tools. accessory clamps. spinning. These include laser cutting. tape and fiber placement. Most new CNC systems built today are completely electronically controlled. and sawing. routing. gluing. flame and plasma cutting. or parts being machined. fabric cutting. picking and placing (PnP). ultrasonic welding. CNC-like systems are now used for any process that can be described as a series of movements and operations. bending.interlocks to ensure the operator is far enough from the working piece for safe operation.
rails, breaking drive screws, or causing structural components to crack or deform under strain. A mild crash may not damage the machine or tools, but may damage the part being machined so that it must be scrapped. Many CNC tools have no inherent sense of the absolute position of the table or tools when turned on. They must be manually "homed" or "zeroed" to have any reference to work from, and these limits are just for figuring out the location of the part to work with it, and aren't really any sort of hard motion limit on the mechanism. It is often possible to drive the machine outside the physical bounds of its drive mechanism, resulting in a collision with itself or damage to the drive mechanism. Many CNC tools also don't know anything about their working environment. They often lack any form of sensory capability to detect problems with the machining process, and will not abort if something goes wrong. They blindly follow the machining code provided and it is up to an operator to detect if a crash is either occurring or about to occur, and for the operator to manually abort the cutting process. If the drive system is weaker than the machine structural integrity, then the drive system simply pushes against the obstruction and the drive motors "slip in place". The machine tool may not detect the collision or the slipping, so for example the tool should now be at 210mm on the X axis but is in fact at 32mm where it hit the obstruction and kept slipping. All of the next tool motions will be off by -178mm on the X axis, and all future motions are now invalid, which may result in further collisions with clamps, vises, or the machine itself. Collision detection and avoidance is possible, through the use of absolute position sensors (optical encoder strips or disks) to verify that motion occurred, or torque sensors or power-draw sensors on the drive system to detect abnormal strain when the machine should just be moving and not cutting, but these are not a common component of most CNC tools. Instead, most CNC tools simply rely on the assumed accuracy of stepper motors that rotate a specific number of degrees in response to magnetic field changes. It is often assumed the stepper is perfectly accurate and never mis-steps, so tool position monitoring simply involves counting the number of pulses sent to the stepper over time. An alternate means of stepper position monitoring is usually not available, so crash or slip detection is not possible.
 Numerical accuracy vs Equipment backlash
Within the numerical systems of CNC programming it is possible for the code generator to assume that the controlled mechanism is always perfectly accurate, or that accuracy tolerances are identical for all cutting or movement directions. This is not always a true condition of CNC tools. CNC tools with a large amount of mechanical backlash can still be highly accurate if the drive or cutting mechanism is only driven so as to apply cutting force from one direction, and all driving systems are pressed tight together in that one cutting direction. However a CNC device with high backlash and a dull cutting tool can lead to cutter chatter and possible workpiece gouging.
Backlash also affects accuracy of some operations involving axis movement reversals during cutting, such as the milling of a circle, where axis motion is sinusoidal. However, this can be compensated for if the amount of backlash is precisely known by linear encoders or manual measurement. The high backlash mechanism itself is not necessarily relied on to be repeatably accurate for the cutting process, but some other reference object or precision surface may be used to zero the mechanism, by tightly applying pressure against the reference and setting that as the zero reference for all following CNC-encoded motions. This is similar to the manual machine tool method of clamping a micrometer onto a reference beam and adjusting the Vernier dial to zero using that object as the reference.
DEC or IBM type computers running a variety of CAD/CAM software. Prime. If the computer is connected to a number of machines it can distribute programs to different machines as required. HP. one block at a time. the manufacturer of the control provides suitable DNC software.Direct numerical control From Wikipedia. the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation. so in this case the program is stored in a separate computer and sent directly to the machine. some software companies provide DNC applications that fulfill the purpose. more than twenty-five years after its elimination in the computer industry. No . NC controls had paper tape readers precisely for this purpose. The Host computers would frequently be Sun Microsystems. On some CNC machine controllers. and NCPC had one based on the 6809. is a common manufacturing term for networking CNC machine tools. DLog offered an x86 based terminal. Contents [hide] 1 1950s-1970s 2 1980s 3 1990s and beyond 4 Special protocols 5 Machine monitoring 6 Alternatives 7 Footnotes  1950s-1970s Programs had to be walked to NC controls. if this provision is not possible. Depending on program size. search Direct numerical control (DNC). The host software would be responsible for tracking and authorising NC program modifications. For example. the available memory is too small to contain the machining program (for example machining complex surfaces). DNC networking or DNC communication is always required when CAM programs are to run on some CNC machine control. for the first time operators had the opportunity to modify programs at the DNC terminal. Many companies were still punching programs on paper tape well into the 1980s. However. DNC companies offered machine tool links using rugged proprietary terminals and networks.  1980s The focus in the 1980s was mainly on reliably transferring NC programs between a host computer and the control. also known as distributed numerical control (also DNC). Usually. generally on paper tape.
parameters and NC program format. tool life information and machine status as well as automated transfer without operator intervention. Manufacturing Execution Systems or MES. Users began to demand more from their DNC systems than secure upload/download and editing. a device known as a Behind The Reader or BTR card was used. However.  Machine monitoring .  Special protocols A challenge when interfacing into machine tools is that in some cases special protocols are used. but which had a serial port connected to the DNC system. The connection between the control's tape reader and the internal processor was interrupted by a microprocessor based device which emulated the paper tape reader's signals. in fact it was the BTR or Reader Emulation card which was transmitting. Shop Floor Control or SFC. Two well-known examples are Mazatrol and Heidenhain. Traveler Management and Scheduling. In some cases. an operator running incorrect or out of date programs became a thing of the past. and could do it themselves. users no longer needed a DNC "expert" to implement shop floor networking. A switch was frequently added to permit the paper tape reader to be used as a backup. DNC2 allows advanced interchange of data with the control. To remain competitive. These terms encompass concepts such as real-time Machine Monitoring. Many DNC systems offer support for these protocols. As far as the control was concerned. ERP and Computer-aided Process Planning CAPP systems. Graphics. Instead of merely acting as a repository for programs. In these cases. Customers began migrating away from expensive minicomputer and workstation based CAD/CAM toward more cost-effective PC-based solutions. therefore. DNC systems aim to give operators at the machine an integrated view of all the information (both textual and graphical) they require in order to carry out a manufacturing operation. Windows or OS/2 which could be linked in to existing networks using standard protocols.  1990s and beyond The PC explosion in the late 1980s and early 1990s signalled the end of the road for proprietary DNC terminals. CNC manufacturers began migrating to PC-based controls running DOS. Older controls frequently had no port capable of receiving programs such as an RS232 or RS422 connector. DNC systems are frequently directly integrated with corporate CAD/CAM. it was receiving from the paper tape unit as it always had. Tool Management. such as tooling offsets.time was lost due to broken tapes. and if the software was correctly used. and give management timely information as to the progress of each step. the task can still be a challenge based on the CNC Control wiring requirements. With some exceptions. Another protocol is DNC2 or LSV2 which is found on Fanuc controls. DNC companies moved their offerings upmarket into DNC Networking. PC-based systems which could accomplish these tasks based on standard networks began to be available at minimal or no cost.
There have been advances in passive monitoring systems where the machine condition can be determined by hardware attached in such a way as not to interfere with machine operations (and potentially void warranties). Many modern controls allow external applications to query their status using a special protocol. In the 1980s monitoring was typically done by having a menu on the DNC terminal where the operator had to manually indicate what was being done by selecting from a menu.  Alternatives Smaller facilities will typically use a portable PC. MTConnect is one prominent attempt to augment the existing world of proprietary systems with some open-source. In the past Facit Walk Disk and a similar device from Mazak were very popular. industry-standard protocols and XML schemas and an ecosystem of massively multiplayer app development and mashups (analogous to that with smartphones) so that these long-sought higher levels of manufacturing business intelligence and workflow automation can be realized. which has obvious drawbacks. palmtop or laptop to avoid the expense of a fully networked DNC system.One of the issues involved in machine monitoring is whether or not it can be accomplished automatically in a practical way. .
such as control of machinery on factory assembly lines.1 Example 7 See also 8 References 9 Further reading 10 External links  History The PLC was invented in response to the needs of the American automotive manufacturing industry. Programmable logic controllers were initially adopted by the automotive industry where software revision replaced the re-wiring of hard-wired control panels when production models changed.2 Scan time o 4. or light fixtures. sequencing. cam timers.3 System scale o 4. A PLC is an example of a hard real time system since output results must be produced in response to input conditions within a bounded time. Before the PLC. the PLC is designed for multiple inputs and output arrangements.6 Programming 5 PLC compared with other control systems 6 Digital and analog signals o 6. Contents [hide] 1 History 2 Development o 2.5 Communications o 4.4 User interface o 4. PLCs are used in many industries and machines.A programmable logic controller (PLC) or programmable controller is a digital computer used for automation of electromechanical processes. Programs to control machine operation are typically stored in batterybacked-up or non-volatile memory. and safety interlock logic for manufacturing automobiles was accomplished using hundreds or thousands of relays. extended temperature ranges. otherwise unintended operation will result. immunity to electrical noise. Unlike general-purpose computers. The process for updating such facilities for the yearly model . and resistance to vibration and impact. and drum sequencers and dedicated closed-loop controllers. control. amusement rides.1 Features o 4.1 Programming 3 Functionality 4 PLC topics o 4.
manufacturing. who is considered to be the "father" of the PLC. The first PLC. Early computers required specialist programmers. The automotive industry is still one of the largest users of PLCs. and so the logic was instead represented as a series of logic expressions in some version of Boolean format. Massachusetts. An industrial control computer would have several attributes: it would tolerate the shop-floor environment. it would not require years of training to use. Massachusetts. These PLCs were programmed in "ladder logic". and stringent operating environmental control for temperature. for the aforementioned reasons and because it was a familiar format used for electromechanical control panels. Modern PLCs can be programmed in a variety of ways.  Bedford Associates started a new company dedicated to developing. the required speed varying according to the nature of the process. designated the 084 because it was Bedford Associates' eighty-fourth project. it would support discrete (bit-form) input and output in an easily extensible manner. Using a general-purpose computer for process control required protecting the computer from the plant floor conditions. being general-purpose programmable devices. when the unit was retired after nearly twenty years of uninterrupted service. Another method is State Logic. cleanliness. The winning proposal came from Bedford Associates of Bedford. Digital computers. was the result. selling.change-over was very time consuming and expensive. from ladder logic to more traditional programming languages such as BASIC and C. Other early PLCs used a form of instruction list programming. Modicon used the 84 moniker at the end of its product range until the 984 made its appearance. which strongly resembles a schematic diagram of relay logic. As programming terminals evolved. similar to Boolean algebra. and it would permit its operation to be monitored.  Development Early PLCs were designed to replace relay logic systems. a very high-level programming language designed to program PLCs based on state transition diagrams. One of the very first 084 models built is now on display at Modicon's headquarters in North Andover. The Modicon brand was sold in 1977 to Gould Electronics. it became more common for ladder logic to be used. It was presented to Modicon by GM. and power quality. which stood for MOdular DIgital CONtroller. and servicing this new product: Modicon. One of the people who worked on that project was Dick Morley. Newer . the current owner. Many early PLCs did not have accompanying programming terminals that were capable of graphical representation of the logic. The response time of any computer system must be fast enough to be useful for control. and later acquired by German Company AEG and then by French Schneider Electric. This program notation was chosen to reduce training demands for the existing technicians. were soon applied to control of industrial processes. based on a stack-based logic solver.  In 1968 GM Hydramatic (the automatic transmission division of General Motors) issued a request for proposal for an electronic replacement for hard-wired relay systems. as electricians needed to individually rewire each and every relay.
processing power and communication capabilities of some modern PLCs are approximately equivalent to desktop computers. In more recent years. The computer is connected to the PLC through Ethernet. operating systems such as Windows do not lend themselves to deterministic logic execution. Still. The programming software allows entry and editing of the ladder-style logic. distributed control systems and networking. because they are generally much less expensive than PLCs. and longevity as the processors used in PLCs. Regarding the practicality of these desktop computer based logic controllers.  Functionality The functionality of the PLC has evolved over the years to include sequential relay control. process control. storage. motion control. for example. More recently.e. In addition to the hardware limitations of desktop based logic. RS-485 or RS-422 cabling. which often had dedicated function keys representing the various logical elements of PLC programs. but they are still not as popular as ladder logic. and because the desktop computer hardware is typically not designed to the same levels of tolerance to temperature. humidity. small products called PLRs (programmable logic relays). such desktop logic applications find use in less critical situations. RS-232. with the result that the logic may not always respond to changes in logic state or input status with the extreme consistency in timing as is expected from PLCs. The very oldest PLCs used non-volatile magnetic core memory. and are used in light industry where only a few points of I/O (i. In some models of programmable controller. Generally the software provides functions for debugging and troubleshooting the PLC software. A primary reason for this is that PLCs solve the logic in a predictable and repeating sequence. vibration. allow a general-purpose desktop computer to overlap some PLCs in certain applications. such as laboratory automation and use in small facilities where the application is less demanding and critical. PLC-like programming combined with remote I/O hardware. have become more common and accepted. it is important to note that they have not been generally accepted in heavy industry because the desktop computers run on less stable operating systems than do PLCs.  Programs were stored on cassette tape cartridges. were programmed using proprietary programming panels or special-purpose programming terminals. by highlighting portions of the logic to show current status during operation or via simulation. for backup and restoration purposes. The data handling. Facilities for printing and documentation were very minimal due to lack of memory capacity.formats such as State Logic and Function Block (which is similar to the way logic is depicted when using digital integrated logic circuits) exist. a few signals coming in from the . and ladder logic allows the programmer (the person writing the logic) to see any issues with the timing of the logic sequence more easily than would be possible in other formats. the program is transferred from a personal computer to the PLC though a programming board which writes the program into a removable chip such as an EEPROM or EPROM. These are very much like PLCs. The software will upload and download the PLC program. and also by similar names. PLCs are programmed using application software on personal computers.  Programming Early PLCs. up to the mid-1980s.
controller. and branded by the makers of larger PLCs to fill out their low end product range. heat. Size is usually about 4" wide. and other names implying very small controllers. but their price can be two orders of magnitude less than a PLC and they still offer robust design and deterministic execution of the logic. NANO PLC. the PLRs are usually not modular or expandable. These connect the PLC to sensors and actuators. and low cost is desired. 4 and 8 digital outputs. The unit consists of separate elements. 3" high.and output The main difference from other computers is that PLCs are armored for severe conditions (such as dust. and up to 2 analog inputs. similar to the key buttons on a VCR remote control. from left to right. power supply. Popular names include PICO Controller. Unlike regular PLCs that are usually modular and greatly expandable. Most have a small plug for connecting via RS-232 or RS-485 to a personal computer so that programmers can use simple Windows applications for programming instead of being forced to use the tiny LCD and push-button set for this purpose. Most of these have between 8 and 12 digital inputs. PLCs read limit switches.real world and a few going out) are involved. analog process .  PLC topics  Features Control panel with PLC (grey elements in the center). relay units for in. and used to navigate and edit the logic. and 3" deep. These small devices are typically made in a common physical size and shape by several manufacturers. and typically these screens are accompanied by a 4-way rocker push-button plus four more separate push-buttons. Most such devices include a tiny postage stamp sized LCD screen for viewing simplified ladder logic (only a very small portion of the program being visible at a given time) and status of I/O points. cold) and have the facility for extensive input/output (I/O) arrangements. moisture.
for example.variables (such as temperature and pressure). A simple . PLCs operate electric motors. HMIs are also referred to as man-machine interfaces (MMIs) and graphical user interface (GUIs). Special-purpose I/O modules. A human-machine interface (HMI) is employed for this purpose. This scan time may be a few milliseconds for a small program or on a fast processor. Typically. or the PLC may have external I/O modules attached to a computer network that plugs into the PLC. A special high speed serial I/O link is used so that racks can be distributed away from the processor. up to 100 ms) to execute the program. As PLCs became more advanced. expansions are available if the base model has insufficient I/O. magnetic relays. parts of the program used only for setting up the machine could be segregated from those parts required to operate at higher speed. The program is then run from its first instruction rung down to the last rung. the response of the PLC to process conditions would be too slow to be useful. methods were developed to change the sequence of ladder execution. On the actuator side. and subroutines were implemented. and may have thousands of inputs and outputs. Several racks can be administered by a single processor. could be used where the scan time of the processor was too long to reliably pick up. The processor and selection of I/O modules is customised for the particular application. counting pulses from a shaft encoder. reducing the wiring costs for large plants. The input/output arrangements may be built into a simple PLC.  System scale A small PLC will have a fixed number of connections built in for inputs and outputs. but older PLCs running very large programs could take much longer (say. This simplified programming and could also be used to save scan time for high-speed processes. alarm reporting or everyday control. solenoids. The relatively slow PLC could still interpret the counted values to control a machine. but the accumulation of pulses was done by a dedicated module that was unaffected by the speed of the program execution. for example. Some use machine vision. Modular PLCs have a chassis (also called a rack) into which are placed modules with different functions. pneumatic or hydraulic cylinders.  User interface See also: User interface and List of human-computer interaction topics PLCs may need to interact with people for the purpose of configuration.  Scan time A PLC program is generally executed repeatedly as long as the controlled system is running. such as timer modules or counter modules. or analog outputs. and the positions of complex positioning systems. The status of physical input points is copied to an area of memory accessible to the processor. If the scan time was too long. It takes some time for the processor of the PLC to evaluate all the rungs and update the I/O image table with the status of outputs. sometimes called the "I/O Image Table".
Other options include various fieldbuses such as DeviceNet or Profibus.  PLC compared with other control systems . While the fundamental concepts of PLC programming are common to all manufacturers. a model which emulated electromechanical control panel devices (such as the contact and coils of relays) which PLCs replaced. structured text (ST. Other communications protocols that may be used are listed in the List of automation protocols. These techniques emphasize logical organization of operations.  Programming PLC programs are typically written in a special application on a personal computer. such as a computer running a SCADA (Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition) system or web browser. memory organization and instruction sets mean that PLC programs are never perfectly interchangeable between different makers. Under the IEC 61131-3 standard. Most modern PLCs can communicate over a network to some other system. These communication links are also often used for HMI devices such as keypads or PC-type workstations. A graphical programming notation called Sequential Function Charts is available on certain programmable controllers. usually 9-pin RS-232.system may use buttons and lights to interact with the user. different models may not be directly compatible. ladder diagram (LD). with the PLC connected via a communication interface. similar to the Pascal programming language). BACnet or DF1 is usually included as one of the communications protocols. This model remains common today. Even within the same product line of a single manufacturer. This allows separate parts of a complex process to have individual control while allowing the subsystems to co-ordinate over the communication link. Often. The program is stored in the PLC either in battery-backed-up RAM or some other non-volatile flash memory.  Communications PLCs have built in communications ports. similar to assembly language) and sequential function chart (SFC). Text displays are available as well as graphical touch screens. instruction list (IL. Modbus. PLCs can be programmed using standards-based programming languages. but optionally EIA-485 or Ethernet. then downloaded by a direct-connection cable or over a network to the PLC. Initially most PLCs utilized Ladder Logic Diagram Programming. More complex systems use programming and monitoring software installed on a computer. IEC 61131-3 currently defines five programming languages for programmable control systems: function block diagram (FBD). PLCs used in larger I/O systems may have peer-to-peer (P2P) communication between processors. a single PLC can be programmed to replace thousands of relays. differences in I/O addressing.
little electrical design is required. For example. because the volumes are low and the development cost would be uneconomic. Very high-speed or precision controls may also require customized solutions. These are typically industrial processes in manufacturing where the cost of developing and maintaining the automation system is high relative to the total cost of the automation. A microcontroller-based design would be appropriate where hundreds or thousands of units will be produced and so the development cost (design of power supplies. Some manufacturers produce motion control units to be integrated with PLC so that Gcode (involving a CNC machine) can be used to instruct machine movements.  Very complex process control. different techniques are used. PLC applications are typically highly customized systems so the cost of a packaged PLC is low compared to the cost of a specific custom-built controller design.Allen-Bradley PLC installed in a control panel PLCs are well-adapted to a range of automation tasks. a consumer dishwasher would be controlled by an electromechanical cam timer costing only a few dollars in production quantities. For high volume or very simple fixed automation tasks. and the design problem centers on expressing the desired sequence of operations. which can be optimally chosen instead of a "generic" solution. in the case of mass-produced goods. millions of units are built each year. may require algorithms and performance beyond the capability of even high-performance PLCs. positioning control and torque control. Single-board computers using semi-customized or fully proprietary hardware may be chosen for very demanding control applications where the high development and maintenance cost can be supported.  Programmable controllers are widely used in motion control. Automotive applications are an example. However. . such as used in the chemical industry. and where changes to the system would be expected during its operational life. PLCs contain input and output devices compatible with industrial pilot devices and controls. "Soft PLCs" running on desktop-type computers can interface with industrial I/O hardware while executing programs within a version of commercial operating systems adapted for process control needs. On the other hand. and where the non-recurring engineering charges are spread over thousands or millions of units. customized control systems are economic due to the lower cost of the components. some specialty vehicles such as transit buses economically use PLCs instead of custom-designed controls. aircraft flight controls. and very few end-users alter the programming of these controllers. and where the end-user would not need to alter the control. for example. input/output hardware and necessary testing and certification) can be spread over many sales.
with a range of values between zero and full-scale.32767. a PLC might use 24 V DC I/O. temperature. limit switches. an analog 0 . and photoelectric sensors are examples of devices providing a discrete signal. Pressure. where a specific range is designated as On and another as Off. RTUs. These are typically interpreted as integer values (counts) by the PLC. Siemens F-series etc.768 and +32. derivative" or "PID controller". although nearly all vendors also offer proprietary alternatives and associated development environments. PLCs have similar functionality as Remote Terminal Units. for example. usually does not support control algorithms or control loops. a distributed control system (DCS) would instead be used. The flexibility that such systems offer has resulted in rapid growth of demand for these controllers.) or as functionality and safety-rated hardware added to existing controller architectures (Allen Bradley Guardlogix. Analog signals can use voltage or current with a magnitude proportional to the value of the process signal. with values above 22 V DC representing On. PLCs had only discrete I/O. Sick etc. For example. . from welders or electric motor starts) than voltage inputs. As PLCs typically use 16-bit signed binary processors. Such PLCs typically have a restricted regular instruction set augmented with safety-specific instructions designed to interface with emergency stops. the boundary between DCS and PLC applications has become less distinct. values below 2VDC representing Off. For example. Push buttons. where processes required hundreds or thousands of loops. Initially. however. As PLCs have become more powerful. yielding simply an On or Off signal (1 or 0. light screens and so forth.e. Current inputs are less sensitive to electrical noise (i. Analog signals are like volume controls. and intermediate values undefined.PLCs may include logic for single-variable feedback analog control loop. and many vendors sell RTUs with PLC-like features and vice versa. a Safety PLC might be used to control access to a robot cell with trapped-key access.  Digital and analog signals Digital or discrete signals behave as binary switches. These differ from conventional PLC types as being suitable for use in safety-critical applications for which PLCs have traditionally been supplemented with hard-wired safety relays. integral. with various ranges of accuracy depending on the device and the number of bits available to store the data. PLCs and DCSs are increasingly beginning to overlap in responsibilities. the integer values are limited between -32. either as standalone models (Pilz PNOZ Multi. For example. Discrete signals are sent using either voltage or current. In recent years "Safety" PLCs have started to become popular. and weight are often represented by analog signals. The industry has standardized on the IEC 61131-3 functional block language for creating programs to run on RTUs and PLCs. An RTU. respectively). Historically PLCs were usually configured with only a few analog control loops. As hardware rapidly becomes more powerful and cheaper.). A PID loop could be used to control the temperature of a manufacturing process.767. or perhaps to manage the shutdown response to an emergency stop on a conveyor production line. flow. a "proportional.10 V input or 4-20 mA would be converted into an integer value of 0 . True or False.
Backup and maintenance methods can make a real system very complicated. and our example system must manage the water level in the tank. the PLC will open the valve to let more water in. When the water level is above the switch it closes a contact and passes a signal to an input. as needed. | | | Low Level High Level Fill Valve | |------[/]------|------[/]----------------------(OUT)---------| | | | | | | | | | | Fill Valve | | |------[ ]------| | | | | | An analog system might use a water pressure sensor or a load cell. by a valve) of the fill of the tank. Using only digital signals. This will in turn minimize the motion of the valve. and reduce its wear. This rung is an example of seal-in (latching) logic. many PLCs incorporate "hysteresis" which essentially creates a "deadband" of activity. The PLC uses a digital output to open and close the inlet valve into the tank. In this system.g. . A real system might combine both approaches. to avoid 'flutter' adjustments that can wear out the valve. The output is sealed in until some condition breaks the circuit. and an adjustable (throttled) control (e. Example As an example. using float switches and simple valves to prevent spills. say a facility needs to store water in a tank. Once the water level rises enough so that the High Level switch is on (up). and a rate sensor and rate valve to optimize refill rates and prevent water hammer. When the water level drops enough so that the Low Level float switch is off (down). the PLC has two digital inputs from float switches (Low Level and High Level). The water is drawn from the tank by another system. the PLC will shut the inlet to stop the water from overflowing. A technician adjusts this deadband so the valve moves only for a significant change in rate.
For software agents. played ping pong at Tokyo International Robot Exhibition (IREX) 2009. (September 2011) This article is about mechanical robots. . For other uses of the term. see Bot.Robotics From Wikipedia. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. search This article needs additional citations for verification. TOPIO. a humanoid robot. see robot (disambiguation). Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation.
Fear of robot behaviour. In practice a robot is usually an electro-mechanical machine that is guided by computer and electronic programming. Robots can be autonomous. Man has developed an awareness of the problems associated with autonomous robots and how they may act in society. mobile and servicing robots. We also find a more android development as designers tried to mimic more human-like features including designs such as those of biologist Makoto Nishimura in 1929 and his creation Gakutensoku. Men such as Leonardo Da Vinci in 1495 through to Jacques de Vaucanson in 1739. Swarm robots. semi-autonomous or remotely controlled. or even those such as in outer space or at the bottom of the sea where humans could not survive the extreme environments. Since then we have seen robots finally reach a more true assimilation of all technologies to produce robots such as ASIMO which can walk and move like a human. such as the Automata of AlJazari in the 12th century AD (in medieval Iraq). and the more crude Elektro from Westinghouse Electric Corporation in 1938. as well as with the aid of semi. and John Hammond Jr. was still inexpensive compared to the capital-intensive machines. The first digital and programmable robot was invented by George Devol in 1954 and was ultimately called the Unimate. When societies first began developing. such as those based around Asimov's three laws. who designed a radio-controlled boat. a humanoid robot A robot is a mechanical or virtual intelligent agent that can perform tasks automatically or with guidance. Machinery was initially used for repetitive functions. have made plans for and built automata and robots leading to books of designs such as the Japanese Karakuri zui (Illustrated Machinery) in 1796. and mechanics and complex mechanisms were developed. which cried and changed its facial expressions. a robot may convey a sense that it has intent or agency of its own. or are unable to do due to size limitations. By mimicking a lifelike appearance or automating movements. England. Electronics then became the driving force of development instead of mechanics. With technological advances more complex machines were slowly developed. They were not widely adopted as human labour. New Jersey. Industrial robots. . Robots have replaced slaves in the assistance of performing those repetitive and dangerous tasks which humans prefer not to do. with the advent of the first electronic autonomous robots created by William Grey Walter in Bristol. Thinking has developed through discussion of robot control and artificial intelligence (AI) and how its application should benefit society. and the first half of the second millennium AD.. As mechanical techniques developed through the Industrial age we find more practical applications such as Nikola Tesla in 1898. particularly slave labour. and Benjamin Miessner who in 1912 created the Electric Dog as a precursor to their self directing torpedo of 1915. Devol sold the first Unimate to General Motors in 1960 where it was used to lift pieces of hot metal from die casting machines in a plant in Trenton. drive current practice in establishing what autonomy a robot should and should not be capable of. Robots range from humanoids such as ASIMO and TOPIO to Nano robots. such as those invented by Hero of Alexandria (in Egypt) in the 1st century AD. nearly all production and effort was the result of human labour. such as lifting water and grinding grain. as well as rediscovering the Greek engineering methods.and fully domesticated animals. in 1948. As mechanical means of performing functions were discovered. such as Shelley's Frankenstein and the EATR.ASIMO (2000) at the Expo 2005. the need for human labour was reduced. typically by remote control.
6 Healthcare o 6.3 Modern developments 2 Etymology 3 Definitions o 3.1 Regional perspectives o 5.1 Literature o 9.1 General-purpose autonomous robots o 6.5 Schools o 6.2 Factory robots o 6.2 Problems depicted in popular culture 10 See also 11 References 12 Further reading . dangerous.1 Mobile robot o 4.4 Military robots o 6.4 Modular robot 5 Robots in society o 5.7 Research robots 7 Future development o 7. Contents [hide] 1 History o 1. in entertainment and in warfare.1 Dangers and human harm o 8.1 Defining characteristics 4 Modern robots o 4.1 Ancient beginnings o 1.3 Dirty. building cars.2 Industrial robots (manipulating) o 4.2 Autonomy and ethical questions o 5.3 Reading robot 8 Problems with implementing robots in society o 8.3 Relationship to unemployment 9 Robots in popular culture o 9. mowing lawns.2 Technological development o 7. cleaning drains.2 Robotic devices o 8.3 Service robot o 4.Practicality still drives development forwards and robots are used in an increasingly wide variety of tasks such as vacuuming floors. dull or inaccessible tasks o 6.2 Early modern developments o 1. investigating other planets.3 Military robots 6 Contemporary uses o 6.1 Technological trends o 7.
Richards 1928 Humanoid robot. coinAD and operated machine. Heron. in earlier Pneumatica and Automata by Heron 1206 c. and excrete Japanese mechanical toys that served tea. and others Al-Jazari Leonardo da Vinci Jacques de Vaucanson Hisashige Tanaka 1738 19th century Karakuri toys 1898 radio controlled robot boats. fired arrows. and a human automaton described in the Lie Zi. including Ancient China. based on a suit of armor with Eric electrical actuators. the artificial birds of Mozi and Lu Ban.R. wind organ. flap its wings. and Ptolemaic Egypt. Philo.U. 1495 Early programmable automata Designs for a humanoid robot Mechanical duck that was able to eat. including a fire engine. a "speaking" automaton by Hero of Alexandria. Early descriptions of automata include the artificial doves of Archytas. Ancient Greece. a washstand automaton by Philo of Byzantium. Nikola Tesla 1921 Rossum's Karel Čapek Universal Robots W. First fictional automata called "robots" appear in the play R. 13 External links  History Main article: History of robots The idea of automata originates in the mythologies of many cultures around the world. and painted Robot band Mechanical knight Digesting Duck Ctesibius. and steam-powered aeliopile. exhibited at the annual exhibition . Timeline of robot and automata development [show] Date Significance Robot name Inventor Descriptions of over a hundred machines and 1st century automata. some resembling animals and humans. attempted to build self-operating machines. H. Tesla demonstrated the vessels to a crowd in an indoor pool at Madison Telautomatons Square Garden in New York City. Engineers and inventors from ancient civilizations.
 There are also accounts of flying automata in the Han Fei Zi and other texts. In ancient China. Unimate  based on Devol's patents First installed industrial robot First palletizing robot Unimate Palletizer George Devol 1961 1963 1973 1975 George Devol Fuji Yusoki Kogyo KUKA Robotics Victor Scheinman First robot with six electromechanically driven axes Famulus Programmable universal manipulation arm. Hero of Alexandria (10–70 AD). the mythical statue of Pygmalion that came to life. wood. and Galatea. The latter proudly presented the king with a life-size." In the 4th century BC. human-shaped figure of his mechanical 'handiwork' made of leather. a Unimation product PUMA  Ancient beginnings Many ancient mythologies include artificial people. Since cerca 400 BCE.of the Model Engineers Society in London Humanoid robot exhibited at the 1939 and 1940 World's Fairs Westinghouse Electric Corporation William Grey Walter 1930s Elektro 1948 Simple robots exhibiting biological behaviors Elsie and Elmer 1956 First commercial robot. a Greek mathematician and inventor. the clay golems of Jewish legend and clay giants of Norse legend. In ancient Greece. a man of bronze who guarded the Cretian island of Europa from pirates. the 3rd century BC text of the Lie Zi describes an account of humanoid automata. the Greek mathematician Archytas of Tarentum postulated a mechanical steamoperated bird he called "The Pigeon". which attributes the 5th century BC Mohist philosopher Mozi and his . the Greek engineer Ctesibius (c. and described machines powered by air pressure. and artificial organs. steam and water. such as the mechanical servants built by the Greek god Hephaestus (Vulcan to the Romans). from the Unimation company founded by George Devol and Joseph Engelberger. 270 BC) "applied a knowledge of pneumatics and hydraulics to produce the first organ and water clocks with moving figures. an 'artificer'. involving a much earlier encounter between King Mu of Zhou (Chinese emperor 10th century BC) and a mechanical engineer known as Yan Shi. myths of Crete that were incorporated into Greek mythology include Talos. created numerous user-configurable automated devices.
contemporary Lu Ban with the invention of artificial wooden birds (ma yuan) that could successfully fly. Al-Jazari's programmable automata Tea-serving karakuri with mechanism. a Muslim inventor during the Artuqid dynasty. 3rd century BC). and programmable automata. designed and constructed a number of automated machines. (Tokyo National Science Museum). His mechanism had a programmable drum machine with pegs (cams) that bumped into little levers that operated percussion instruments. Al-Jazari (1136–1206). The drummer could be made to play different rhythms and different drum patterns by moving the pegs to different locations. as described by Philo of Byzantium (Greece. Washstand automaton reconstruction. . In 1066. In the medieval Islamic world. the Chinese inventor Su Song built a water clock in the form of a tower which featured mechanical figurines which chimed the hours. The robots appeared as four musicians on a boat in a lake. musical automata powered by water. entertaining guests at royal drinking parties. The beginning of automata is associated with the invention of early Su Song's astronomical clock tower featured mechanical figurines that chimed the hours. including kitchen appliances.
the first robot put to useful work. In France. contain detailed drawings of a mechanical knight now known as Leonardo's robot. Tesla hoped to develop it into a weapon system for the US Navy. Jacques de Vaucanson exhibited several life-sized automatons: a flute player. Based on patents for "teleautomation". created an array of extremely complex mechanical toys. Gakutensoku. which were small and used in homes. The design was probably based on anatomical research recorded in his Vitruvian Man. a pipe player and a duck. Su Song's astronomical clock tower showing the mechanical figurines which chimed the hours. a mechanized puppet. Japan's first robot. and it gave the illusion of digesting its food by excreting matter stored in a hidden compartment.  Modern developments The Japanese craftsman Hisashige Tanaka (1799–1881). they created a humanoid robot known as Elektro for exhibition purposes. and the Dashi karakuri which were used in religious festivals. between 1738 and 1739. known as "Japan's Edison" or "Karakuri Giemon". 1796). wave its arms and move its head and jaw. some of which served tea. In Japan. In 1898 Nikola Tesla publicly demonstrated a radio-controlled torpedo. In 1926. In 1928. able to sit up. The first electronic autonomous robots with complex behaviour were created by William Grey Walter of the Burden Neurological Institute at Bristol. rediscovered in the 1950s. where the puppets were used to perform reenactments of traditional myths and legends. Leonardo da Vinci (1452–1519) sketched plans for a humanoid robot around 1495. They were . It is not known whether he attempted to build it. They followed Televox with a number of other simple robots.  Early modern developments In Renaissance Italy. the Zashiki karakuri. which were used in theatre. and swallow food from the exhibitor's hand. fired arrows drawn from a quiver. including the 1939 and 1940 World's Fairs. Westinghouse Electric Corporation created Televox. Da Vinci's notebooks. crane its neck. Different variations of the karakuri existed: the Butai karakuri. England in 1948 and 1949. One such automaton was the karakuri ningyō. complex animal and human automata were built between the 17th to 19th centuries. The mechanical duck could flap its wings. In the 1930s. made in the crude image of a black man. including one called Rastus. was designed and constructed by biologist Makoto Nishimura. and even painted a Japanese kanji character. with many described in the 18th century Karakuri zui (Illustrated Machinery.
he explained that he had originally wanted to call the creatures laboři ("workers". Devol‘s patent for the first digitally operated programmable robotic arm represents the foundation of the modern robotics industry. The word robota means literally "corvée". The play begins in a factory that makes artificial people called robots. assembly and packing. surgery. who suggested "roboti". Robots are widely used in manufacturing. Karel Čapek himself did not coin the word. Commercial and industrial robots are now in widespread use performing jobs more cheaply or with greater accuracy and reliability than humans. from Latin labor) or dělňasi (from Czech dělníci "workers"). However. and use these stimuli to navigate.U. (Rossum's Universal Robots).named Elmer and Elsie. "serf labor". published in 1920. was invented by George Devol in 1954 and was ultimately called the Unimate.U. These robots could sense light and contact with external objects. and mass production of consumer and industrial goods. They can plainly think for themselves.R. (Rossum's Universal Robots). showing three robots The word robot was introduced to the public by the Czech interwar writer Karel Čapek in his play R. though they are closer to the modern ideas of androids. the painter and writer Josef Čapek. as its actual originator. laboratory research. earth and space exploration. The first truly modern robot. Devol sold the first Unimate to General Motors in 1960. and figuratively .R. New Jersey to lift hot pieces of metal from a die casting machine and stack them. weaponry. and it was installed in 1961 in a plant in Trenton. digitally operated and programmable. He wrote a short letter in reference to an etymology in the Oxford English Dictionary in which he named his brother. and sought advice from his brother Josef. dangerous or dull to be suitable for humans. he did not like the word. creatures who can be mistaken for humans. At issue is whether the robots are being exploited and the consequences of their treatment. In an article in the Czech journal Lidové noviny in 1933.  Etymology See also: Glossary of robotics A scene from Karel Čapek's 1920 play R. transport. They are also employed for jobs which are too dirty. though they seem happy to serve.
A robot must obey any orders given to it by human beings. Russian or Slovak (Karel Čapek and his brother were frequent visitors of Slovakia which in this time was a part of Czechoslovakia. typically 6 months of the year. It is not clear from which language Čapek took the radix "robot(a)". Campbell created the "Three Laws of Robotics" which are a recurring theme in his books. Traditionally the robota was the work period a serf (corvée) had to give for his lord. Serfdom was outlawed in 1848 in Bohemia. These have since been used by many others to define laws used in fact and fiction. but I know one when I see one. usage of the term robota had broadened to include various types of work.). because its answer could help to reveal an original Čapek´s conception of robots. If from the modern Czech language. "labor" in many Slavic languages (e. was coined by the science fiction writer Isaac Asimov. For example Joseph Engelberger.. A robot must protect its own existence as long as such protection does not conflict with the First or Second Law. The aspect of pronunciation probably also played a role in Čapek's final decision: In non-Slavic languages it is more easily to pronounce a word robot than dělňas or laboř. and exhibit intelligent behavior — especially behavior which mimics humans or other animals. There is no consensus on which machines qualify as robots but there is general agreement among experts. allow a human being to come to harm. through inaction. archaic Czech).g. except where such orders would conflict with the First Law."drudgery" or "hard work" in Czech and also (more general) "work". once remarked: "I can't define a robot. the notion of robot should be understood as an „automatic serf― (it means a subordinated creature without own will). because their father MUDr.U. used to describe this field of study. The origin of the word is the Old Church Slavonic rabota "servitude" ("work" in contemporary Bulgarian and Russian). the word robot would simply mean a „worker― which is a more universal and neutral notion. sense and manipulate their environment. Asimov and John W. that robots tend to do some or all of the following: move around. operate a mechanical limb. This question is not irrelevant. There is no one definition of robot which satisfies everyone and many people have their own. so at the time Čapek wrote R. Introduced in his 1942 short story "Runaround" the Laws state the following: “ 1. Polish. 2. If from Polish. a pioneer in industrial robotics. and the public. though it may not resemble human beings in appearance or perform functions in a humanlike manner".: Slovak. Merriam-Webster describes a robot as a "machine that looks like a human being and performs various complex acts . ”  Definitions The word robot can refer to both physical robots and virtual software agents. but the latter are usually referred to as bots. Antonín Čapek from 1916 worked as a physician in Trenčianske Teplice.R. The word robotics. A robot may not injure a human being or." According to the Encyclopaedia Britannica a robot is "any automatically operated machine that replaces human effort. but the obsolete sense of "serfdom" would still have been known. which in turn comes from the Indo-European root *orbh-. 3.
This is in contrast to a simple mechanical device such as a gear or a hydraulic press or any other item which has no processing ability and which does tasks through purely mechanical processes and motion. or a "mechanism guided by automatic controls". or a "device that automatically performs complicated often repetitive tasks". It is an electric machine which has some ability to interact with physical objects and to be given electronic programming to do a specific task or to do a whole range of tasks or actions. or possibly all. Mental agency .(as walking or talking) of a human being"." a typical robot will have several. of the following characteristics. It may also have some ability to perceive and absorb data on physical objects. or on its local physical environment. or to process data. The various types of robots KITT (a fictitious robot) is mentally anthropomorphic ASIMO is physically anthropomorphic  Defining characteristics While there is no single correct definition of "robot. or to respond to various stimuli.
like the fictional KITT. which can make decisions. though. is usually considered a robot. usually as a service robot. it would be called a robot. The more the control system seems to have agency of its own. A player piano is rarely characterized as a robot. A zoomorphic mechanical toy. if a machine appears able to control its arms or limbs. simply being anthropomorphic is not a sufficient criterion for something to be called a robot. Having eyes can also make a difference in whether a machine is called a robot. A clockwork car is never considered a robot.For robotic engineers. navigate freely and converse fluently with a human. A mechanical humanoid. such as a self-guided rover or self-guided vehicle. the physical appearance of a machine is less important than the way its actions are controlled. which could drive in a programmable sequence. might be called a robot. Physical agency However. Even for a 3-axis CNC milling machine using the same control system as a robot arm. A robot must do something.g. is almost always characterized as a robot. would quite likely be called a robot. as shown by ant robots. A CNC milling machine is very occasionally characterized as a robot. for many laymen. while the CNC machine is usually just a machine. such as the 1990s driverless cars of Ernst Dickmanns or the entries in the DARPA Grand Challenge. like ASIMO. ASIMO or Aibo). A mechanical device able to perform some preset motions but with no ability to adapt (an automaton) is rarely considered a robot. are not necessary. Higher-level cognitive functions. since humans instinctively connect eyes with sentience. An important feature of agency is the ability to make choices. A car with an onboard computer. is usually characterized as a robot. like Roboraptor. it is the arm which is almost always called a robot. However. A sentient car. A self-controlled car which could sense its environment and make driving decisions based on this information. an inanimate object shaped like ASIMO would not be considered a robot. An autonomous wheeled or tracked device. is almost always characterized as a mobile robot or service robot.  Modern robots . the more likely the machine is to be called a robot. like Bigtrak. A factory automation arm is almost always characterized as an industrial robot. and especially if it appears anthropomorphic or zoomorphic (e. A remotely operated vehicle is sometimes considered a robot (or telerobot).
 Modern robots are usually used in tightly controlled environments such as on assembly lines because they have difficulty responding to unexpected interference. An example of a mobile robot that is in common use today is the automated guided vehicle or automatic guided vehicle (AGV).A laparoscopic robotic surgery machine  Mobile robot Main articles: Mobile robot and Automated guided vehicle Mobile robots have the capability to move around in their environment and are not fixed to one physical location. The International Organization for Standardization gives a definition of a manipulating industrial robot in ISO 8373: . Because of this most humans rarely encounter robots.  Industrial robots (manipulating) Main articles: Industrial robot and Manipulator Industrial robots usually consist of a jointed arm (multi-linked manipulator) and an end effector that is attached to a fixed surface. However domestic robots for cleaning and maintenance are increasingly common in and around homes in developed countries. AGVs are discussed later in this article. An AGV is a mobile robot that follows markers or wires in the floor. They also appear as consumer products. for entertainment or to perform certain tasks like vacuum cleaning. One of the most common type of end effector is a gripper assembly. or uses vision or lasers. Mobile robots are also found in industry. Robots can also be found in military applications. Mobile robots are the focus of a great deal of current research and almost every major university has one or more labs that focus on mobile robot research. military and security environments.
"an automatically controlled, reprogrammable, multipurpose, manipulator programmable in three or more axes, which may be either fixed in place or mobile for use in industrial automation applications." This definition is used by the International Federation of Robotics, the European Robotics Research Network (EURON) and many national standards committees.
A Pick and Place robot in a factory
 Service robot
Main article: Service robot
Most commonly industrial robots are fixed robotic arms and manipulators used primarily for production and distribution of goods. The term "service robot" is less well-defined. IFR has proposed a tentative definition, "A service robot is a robot which operates semi- or fully autonomously to perform services useful to the well-being of humans and equipment, excluding manufacturing operations."
 Modular robot
Main article: Self-reconfiguring_modular_robot
Modular robots is a new breed of robots that are designed to increase the utilization of the robots by modularizing the robots. The functionality and effectiveness of a modular robot is easier to increase compared to conventional robots.
 Robots in society
Roughly half of all the robots in the world are in Asia, 32% in Europe, and 16% in North America, 1% in Australasia and 1% in Africa. 30% of all the robots in the world are in Japan, making Japan the country with the highest number of robots.
 Regional perspectives
In Japan and South Korea, ideas of future robots have been mainly positive, and the start of the pro-robotic society there is thought to be possibly due to the famous 'Astro Boy'. Asian societies such as Japan, South Korea, and more recently, China, believe robots to be more equal to humans, having them care for old people, play with or teach children, or replace pets etc. The general view in Asian cultures is that the more robots advance, the better. "This is the opening of an era in which human beings and robots can co-exist," says Japanese firm Mitsubishi about one of the many humanistic robots in Japan. South Korea aims to put a robot in every house there by 2015-2020 in order to help catch up technologically with Japan. Western societies are more likely to be against, or even fear the development of robotics, through much media output in movies and literature that they will replace humans. Some believe that the West regards robots as a 'threat' to the future of humans, partly due to religious beliefs about the role of humans and society. Obviously, these boundaries are not clear, but there is a significant difference between the two cultural viewpoints.
 Autonomy and ethical questions
Main articles: Roboethics and Ethics of artificial intelligence
A gynoid, or robot designed to resemble a woman, can appear comforting to some people and disturbing to others
As robots have become more advanced and sophisticated, experts and academics have increasingly explored the questions of what ethics might govern robots' behavior, and whether robots might be able to claim any kind of social, cultural, ethical or legal rights. One scientific team has said that it is possible that a robot brain will exist by 2019. Others predict robot
intelligence breakthroughs by 2050. Recent advances have made robotic behavior more sophisticated. The social impact of intelligent robots is subject of a 2010 documentary film called Plug & Pray. Vernor Vinge has suggested that a moment may come when computers and robots are smarter than humans. He calls this "the Singularity". He suggests that it may be somewhat or possibly very dangerous for humans. This is discussed by a philosophy called Singularitarianism. In 2009, experts attended a conference hosted by the Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence (AAAI) to discuss whether computers and robots might be able to acquire any autonomy, and how much these abilities might pose a threat or hazard. They noted that some robots have acquired various forms of semi-autonomy, including being able to find power sources on their own and being able to independently choose targets to attack with weapons. They also noted that some computer viruses can evade elimination and have achieved "cockroach intelligence." They noted that self-awareness as depicted in science-fiction is probably unlikely, but that there were other potential hazards and pitfalls. Various media sources and scientific groups have noted separate trends in differing areas which might together result in greater robotic functionalities and autonomy, and which pose some inherent concerns.
 Military robots
Some experts and academics have questioned the use of robots for military combat, especially when such robots are given some degree of autonomous functions. There are also concerns about technology which might allow some armed robots to be controlled mainly by other robots. The US Navy has funded a report which indicates that as military robots become more complex, there should be greater attention to implications of their ability to make autonomous decisions. One researcher states that autonomous robots might be more humane, as they could make decisions more effectively. However, other experts question this. Some public concerns about autonomous robots have received media attention. One robot in particular, the EATR, has generated concerns over its fuel source as it can continually refuel itself using organic substances. Although the engine for the EATR is designed to run on biomass and vegetation specifically selected by its sensors which can find on battlefields or other local environments the project has stated that chicken fat can also be used.
 Contemporary uses
See also: List of Robots
At present there are two main types of robots, based on their use: general-purpose autonomous robots and dedicated robots. Robots can be classified by their specificity of purpose. A robot might be designed to perform one particular task extremely well, or a range of tasks less well. Of course, all robots by their nature can be re-programmed to behave differently, but some are limited by their physical form.
For example. respond to alarms. or acting as a fairground ride. welding. software and accessories that increase their usefulness. A general-purpose robot acts as a guide during the day and a security guard at night  Factory robots Car production . interface with electronic doors and elevators and perform other basic tasks. Humanoid robots are still in a very limited stage. this type of robot is called a humanoid robot. Some such robots try to mimic human beings and may even resemble people in appearance. a factory robot arm can perform jobs such as cutting. They may recognize people or objects. as no humanoid robot. as of yet. can. monitor environmental quality. Generalpurpose autonomous robots typically can navigate independently in known spaces. pick up supplies and perform other useful tasks. despite their intelligent behaviors in their well-known environments. Like computers.  General-purpose autonomous robots Main article: Autonomous robot General-purpose autonomous robots can perform a variety of functions independently. Thus humanoid robots are really quite limited. general-purpose robots can link with networks. talk. provide companionship. actually navigate around a room that it has never been in. while a pick-and-place robot can only populate printed circuit boards. General-purpose robots may perform a variety of functions simultaneously or they may take on different roles at different times of day. handle their own re-charging needs. gluing.
typically with SCARA manipulators. accuracy. and place them on to PCBs with great accuracy. with one robot for every ten human workers. or hospitals. and the robots needed only the most . A typical factory contains hundreds of industrial robots working on fully automated production lines. On an automated production line. for example for rapidly taking drink cartons from the end of a conveyor belt and placing them into boxes. are used to transport goods around large facilities. which remove tiny electronic components from strips or trays. such as warehouses.Over the last three decades automobile factories have become dominated by robots. glued. An intelligent AGV drops-off goods without needing lines or beacons in the workspace Packaging Industrial robots are also used extensively for palletizing and packaging of manufactured goods. or for loading and unloading machining centers. following markers or wires in the floor. container ports. Early AGV-Style Robots Limited to tasks that could be accurately defined and had to be performed the same way every time. or using vision or lasers. far out-performing a human in speed. Automated guided vehicles (AGVs) Mobile robots. Very little feedback or intelligence was required. painted and finally assembled at a sequence of robot stations. and reliability. Electronics Mass-produced printed circuit boards (PCBs) are almost exclusively manufactured by pick-andplace robots. Such robots can place hundreds of thousands of components per hour. a vehicle chassis on a conveyor is welded.
basic exteroceptors (sensors). dangerous. dull or inaccessible tasks There are many jobs which humans would rather leave to robots. ADAM. Intelligent AGVs (i-AGVs) A U. AGVs may become lost. The job may be boring. Some AGVs can create maps of their environment using scanning lasers with simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) and use those maps to navigate in real time with other path planning and obstacle avoidance algorithms. Often such AGVs are designed to be used in human-free environments. 3D scanners or other means of sensing the environment in two or three dimensions help to eliminate cumulative errors in dead-reckoning calculations of the AGV's current position. They navigate by recognizing natural features. triangulation systems tend to require moderate to high maintenance. Marine Corps technician prepares to use a telerobot to detonate a buried improvised explosive device near Camp Fallujah. AGVs require additional strategies using three-dimensional sensors such as timeof-flight or stereovision cameras. Also. such as domestic cleaning. They are able to operate in complex environments and perform non-repetitive and non-sequential tasks such as transporting photomasks in a semiconductor lab. Tug and MT 400 with Motivity are designed for people-friendly workspaces. such as exploring inside a volcano. For dynamic areas. it may stop the entire operation. such as daily cleaning of all beacons or bar codes.  Dirty.S. such as warehouses full of pallets. SpeciMinder. Other jobs are physically . Interim AGV-Technologies Developed to deploy triangulation from beacons or bar code grids for scanning on the floor or ceiling. In most factories. or dangerous. Iraq Such as SmartLoader. specimens in hospitals and goods in warehouses. if a tall pallet or large vehicle blocks beacons or a bar code is marred. The limitations of these AGVs are that their paths are not easily altered and they cannot alter their paths if obstacles block them. If one AGV breaks down.
far away. Automated fruit harvesting machines The Roomba domestic vacuum cleaner robot does a single. and others. Several authors have been using a device called the Longpen to sign books remotely. cleaning the inside of a long pipe. teleoperated robots. or performing laparoscopic surgery. a telerobot is controlled from a distance by a human operator. When disabling a bomb. but their ability to fly and land (in the case of Luna 9) is an indication of their status as a robot. Telerobots When a human cannot be present on site to perform a job because it is dangerous. The robot may be in another room or another country. Rather than following a predetermined sequence of movements. menial job Used to pick fruit on orchards at a cost lower than that of human pickers. or telerobots are used. like the Predator Unmanned Aerial Vehicle. significantly shortening recovery time. Some were launched in the 1960s with very limited abilities. .S. military to defuse roadside bombs or improvised explosive devices (IEDs) in an activity known as explosive ordnance disposal (EOD). These pilotless drones can search terrain and fire on targets. or may be on a very different scale to the operator. This includes the Voyager probes and the Galileo probes. For instance.inaccessible. a laparoscopic surgery robot allows the surgeon to work inside a human patient on a relatively small scale compared to open surgery. or inaccessible. Teleoperated robot aircraft. are increasingly being used by the military. Hundreds of robots such as iRobot's Packbot and the Foster-Miller TALON are being used in Iraq and Afghanistan by the U. such as exploring another planet. Space probes Almost every unmanned space probe ever launched was a robot. the operator sends a small robot to disable it.
many hours can be spent cleaning relatively small areas if a manual brush is used. duct cleaning robots are vital. UCAVs are being designed such as the Mantis UCAV which would have the ability to fly themselves. Unmanned combat air vehicles (UCAVs). without exposing workers to the harmful enzymes released by dust mites. Hospitals and other government buildings with hazardous and cancerogenic environments such as nuclear reactors legally must be cleaned using duct cleaning robots. They are taking on simple but unwanted jobs. to pick their own course and target. which is one reason that they can sell very well.  Military robots Main article: Military robots Military robots include the SWORDS robot which is currently used in ground-based combat. can do a wide variety of missions. including combat. Robots have been used by many duct cleaners primarily in the industrial and institutional cleaning markets. . in an effort to improve workplace safety in duct cleaning. Some find these robots to be cute and entertaining. Duct cleaning The ANATROLLER ARI-100 is a modular mobile robot used for cleaning hazardous environments In the hazardous and tight spaces of a building's duct work. as they allow the job to be done faster. such as vacuum cleaning and floor washing.In the home As prices fall and robots become smarter and more autonomous. and lawn mowing. simple robots dedicated to a single task work in over a million homes. which are an upgraded form of UAVs. For cleaning high-security institutions such as embassies and prisons. as they allow the job to be completed without compromising the security of the institution. It can use a variety of weapons and there is some discussion of giving it some degree of autonomy in battleground situations. The BAE Taranis is a UCAV built by Great Britain which can fly across continents without a pilot and has new means to avoid detection. and to make most decisions on their own. Flight trials are expected to begin in 2011. in countries such as Canada.
programing and electronics. The organization is the foundation for the FIRST Robotics Competition.  Schools Robotics at school has three main applications.  Healthcare Robots in healthcare have two main functions. for example. . Teacher assistants Robots as teacher assistants let children to be more assertive during the class and get more motivated. FIRST LEGO League. Several such measures reportedly already exist. Virtual tutors. and those which aid in the overall systems such as pharmacies and hospitals. and possibly sets of 'laws' akin to Asimov's Three Laws of Robotics. meaning that the advances which are already occurring with AI should also include an effort to make AI intrinsically friendly and humane. Those which assist an individual. and teacher's assistants. Robotic kits Robotic kits. Some have suggested a need to build "Friendly AI". such as a sufferer of a disease like Multiple Sclerosis. Robotic kits. with robot-heavy countries such as Japan and South Korea having begun to pass regulations requiring robots to be equipped with safety systems. and FIRST Tech Challenge competitions. Chinese officials and researchers have issued a report suggesting a set of ethical rules. and a set of new legal guidelines referred to as "Robot Legal Studies. Virtual tutors Virtual tutors are some kind of embodied agent that helps children to do their homework. Further information: FIRST Robotics Competition Robotics have also been introduced into the lives of elementary and high school students with the company FIRST (For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology). physics. on peer to peer basis. as Lego Mindstorms. help children to learn about mathematichs. South Korea is the first country deploying a program to have a robot in each school. Junior FIRST LEGO League. An official report was issued in 2009 by the Japanese government's Robot Industry Policy Committee.The AAAI has studied this topic in depth and its president has commissioned a study to look at this issue." Some concern has been expressed over a possible occurrence of robots telling apparent falsehoods.
Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. through to semi-autonomous robots.). to perform tasks without help from other people like therapists or nursing staff. Pharmacies Main article: Pharmacy automation This section does not cite any references or sources. The population is aging in many countries. but where they are unavailable. robots are gradually being introduced.Home automation for the elderly and disabled Further information: Disability robot The Care-Providing Robot FRIEND. (Photo: IAT) Robots have developed over time from simple basic robotic assistants. such as the Handy 1. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. such as FRIEND which can assist the elderly and disabled with common tasks. The pharmacist or pharmacy technician enters the prescription . have muscle diseases or serious paralysis (due to strokes etc. FRIEND make it possible for patients who are paraplegic. (July 2009) Script Pro manufactures a robot designed to help pharmacies fill prescriptions that consist of oral solids or medications in pill form. like preparing and serving a meal. but relatively fewer young people to care for them. FRIEND is a semi-autonomous robot designed to support disabled and elderly people in their daily life activities. especially Japan. Humans make the best carers. meaning that there are increasing numbers of elderly people to care for.
The robot is a very time efficient device that the pharmacy depends on to fill prescriptions. Afterwards it is set on another conveyor that delivers the patient‘s medication vial to a slot labeled with the patient's name on an LED read out. The pharmacist or technician then checks the contents of the vial to ensure it‘s the correct drug for the correct patient and then seals the vials and sends it out front to be picked up. many new types of robot are being developed in laboratories around the world. The system. but on investigations into new types of robot. The robot can be ten feet wide and thirty feet long and can hold hundreds of different kinds of medications and thousands of doses. Once the bin is filled with all of the drugs that a particular patient needs and that the robot stocks. or pharmacist determines the needed size of the vial based on the tablet when the robot is stocked. the bin is then released and returned out on the conveyor belt to a technician waiting to load it into a cart for delivery to the floor. The head moves along a single axis while it rotates 180 degrees to pull the medications. Nanorobots Further information: Nanorobotics . alternative ways to think about or design robots.information into its information system. The pharmacy saves many resources like staff members that are otherwise unavailable in a resource scarce industry. upon determining whether or not the drug is in the robot. Once the vial is filled it is brought up to a conveyor belt that delivers it to a holder that spins the vial and attaches the patient label. will send the information to the robot for filling. The robot has 3 different size vials to fill determined by the size of the pill. The robot technician. It is expected that these new types of robot will be able to solve real world problems when they are finally realized. and new ways to manufacture them. It uses an electromechanical head coupled with a pneumatic system to capture each dose and deliver it to its either stocked or dispensed location. user. performing labour or life saving jobs. Much of the research in robotics focuses not on specific industrial tasks. McKesson‘s Robot RX is another healthcare robotics product that helps pharmacies dispense thousands of medications daily with little or no errors. It then delivers the drug to a patient specific bin on a conveyor belt. During this process it uses barcode technology to verify its pulling the correct drug.  Research robots See also: Robotics — Robot Research While most robots today are installed in factories or homes.
Also known as "nanobots" or "nanites". which can move relative to their neighbours. and synthetic molecular motors. electroactive polymers. but functioning robots have also been made such as the entrants to the Nanobot Robocup contest. Nanorobotics is the emerging technology field of creating machines or robots whose components are at or close to the microscopic scale of a nanometer (10−9 meters). Algorithms have been designed in case any such robots become a reality. the earth would turn into "grey goo". and ferrofluids). sensors. Researchers also hope to be able to create entire robots as small as viruses or bacteria.A microfabricated electrostatic gripper holding some silicon nanowires. Real robots are nowhere near that sophisticated however. and mostly consist of a small number of cube shaped units. which could perform tasks on a tiny scale. Possible applications include micro surgery (on the level of individual cells). look and feel different from robots with rigid skeletons. manufacturing. So far. Swarm robots Main article: Swarm robotics A swarm of robots from the open-source micro-robotic project . controlled using fuzzy logic and neural networks. utility fog. while others argue that this hypothetical outcome is nonsense. they would be constructed from molecular machines. and can have different behaviors. Some people have suggested that if there were nanobots which could reproduce. Reconfigurable Robots Main article: Self-reconfiguring modular robot A few researchers have investigated the possibility of creating robots which can alter their physical form to suit a particular task. researchers have mostly produced only parts of these complex systems. such as bearings. weaponry and cleaning. like the fictional T-1000. Soft Robots Robots with silicone bodies and flexible actuators (air muscles.
Each robot is quite simple. which users can experience through their sense of touch. Robotic forces allow simulating the mechanical properties of "virtual" objects. Germany. Those which perform best are used as a model to create a subsequent "generation" of robots. the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the Technical University of Munich. Another method is developmental robotics. Much technological research in Japan is led by Japanese government agencies. called "haptic interfaces. the SRI/MobileRobots CentiBots project and the Open-source Micro-robotic Project swarm. Robot Operating System is an open-source set of programs being developed at Stanford University. These robots. where failure is normally extremely costly. in the same way an ant colony can be considered a superorganism. which tracks changes and development within a single in the areas of problem-solving and other functions. exhibiting swarm intelligence. The largest swarms so far created include the iRobot swarm.  Future development Further information: Future of robotics  Technological trends Various techniques have emerged to develop the science of robotics and robots. ROS provides ways to program a .Inspired by colonies of insects such as ants and bees. particularly the Trade Ministry. Swarms are also more resistant to failure.  Technological development Overall trends Japan hopes to have full-scale commercialization of service robots by 2025. but the emergent behavior of the swarm is more complex. This could make them attractive for space exploration missions. One method is evolutionary robotics. a swarm can continue even if several robots fail. or spying. Specialized robots are in widespread use in the haptic research community. researchers are modeling the behavior of swarms of thousands of tiny robots which together perform a useful task. in which a number of differing robots are submitted to tests. which are being used to research collective behaviors. among others. As robots become more advanced. The whole set of robots can be considered as one single distributed system. such as finding something hidden." allow touch-enabled user interaction with real and virtual environments. Haptic interface robots Further information: Haptic technology Robotics also has application in the design of virtual reality interfaces. eventually there may be a standard computer operating system designed mainly for robots. cleaning. Whereas one large robot may fail and ruin a mission.
Generally such predictions are overly optimistic in timescale. Urada was performing routine maintenance on the robot. but not all. load trucks with boxes—a packing problem 6. cook fast food and work in other service industries 10. Wayne Lucio. Robert Williams was struck by a robotic arm at a casting plant in Flat Rock. 1979. for instance by stepping on a human's foot or falling on a human. It also provides highlevel commands for items like image recognition and even opening doors. As early as 1982 people were confident that someday robots would: 1. but unsafe use of robots constitutes an actual danger. was killed in 1981. Four robot-caused deaths are those of Robert Williams. She can read newspapers. Many future applications of robotics seem obvious to people. Microsoft is also developing a "Windows for robots" system with its Robotics Developer Studio. Michigan on January 25. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Kenji Urada. household robot. even though they are well beyond the capabilities of robots available at the time of the prediction. When ROS boots up on a robot's computer. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. A heavy industrial robot with powerful actuators and unpredictably complex behavior can cause harm. it would obtain data on attributes such as the length and movement of robots' limbs.  Reading robot A literate or 'reading robot' named Marge has intelligence that comes from software. orient and nest chocolate candies in candy boxes 4. (August 2011)  Dangers and human harm Marauding robots may have entertainment value. make electrical cable harness 5.robot's navigation and limbs regardless of the specific hardware involved. learn about banks like Barclays. New functions and abilities The Caterpillar Company is making a dump truck which can drive itself without any human operator. clean parts by removing molding flash 2. and understand that some restaurants are better places to eat than others. Most industrial robots operate inside a security fence which separates them from human workers. handle soft goods. find and correct misspelled words. such as garments and shoes 7. Kenji Urada. a 37-year-old Japanese factory worker. but neglected to shut it . prosthesis 9. and an unnamed worker. It would relay this data to higher-level algorithms.  Problems with implementing robots in society This section needs additional citations for verification. which has been available since 2007. pack things in boxes—for example. shear sheep 8. spray paint automobiles with absolutely no human presence 3.
down properly, and was accidentally pushed into a grinding machine. Wayne Lucio, a 31year-old Frito-Lay worker, died when he tried to adjust a pallet when an Automatic Guided Vehicle that did not sense a forklift, pinned Lucio between the two. An unnamed contractor died when his car was crushed by debris when an Automated Storage and Retrieval System (AS/RS) collapse ignited a fire that burned for three weeks and destroyed the building in which an estimated 108 million pounds of paper were stored.
 Robotic devices
Manuel De Landa has noted that "smart missiles" and autonomous bombs equipped with artificial perception can be considered robots, and they make some of their decisions autonomously. He believes this represents an important and dangerous trend in which humans are handing over important decisions to machines.
 Relationship to unemployment
Further information: Structural unemployment
Some analysts, such as Martin Ford, argue that robots and other forms of automation will ultimately result in significant unemployment as machines begin to match and exceed the capability of workers to perform most jobs. At present the negative impact is only on menial and repetitive jobs, and there is actually a positive impact on the number of jobs for highly skilled technicians, engineers, and specialists. However, these highly skilled jobs are not sufficient in number to offset the greater decrease in employment among the general population, causing structural unemployment in which overall (net) unemployment rises. A recent example of human replacement involves Taiwanese technology company Foxconn who, in July 2011, announced a three year plan to replace workers with more robots. At present the company uses ten-thousand robots but will increase them to a million robots over a three year period. Service robots of different varieties including medical robots, underwater robots, surveillance robots, demolition robots and other types of robots that carry out a multitude of jobs are gaining in numbers. Service robots are everyday tools for mankind. They can clean floors, mow lawns and guard homes and will also assist old and handicapped people, do some surgeries, inspect pipes and sites that are hazardous to people, fight fires and defuse bombs. Past responses to train humans for higher levels of technological work may have increased human labor jobs for unskilled workers in general and skilled workers also but that method does not seem to be viable now in industrial societies. Humans collecting on a toll road for instance in some countries are replaced by robots doing that job and though it may be an idea for a trained worker, say perhaps the former human toll taker doing the job to fix and program the new tollcollecting robots, it never really works out that way since not as many people are needed to make or program the robots as the robots replace.
 Robots in popular culture
Main article: Robots in literature See also: List of fictional robots and androids
Robotic characters, androids (artificial men/women) or gynoids (artificial women), and cyborgs (also "bionic men/women", or humans with significant mechanical enhancements) have become a staple of science fiction. The first reference in Western literature to mechanical servants appears in Homer's Iliad. In Book XVIII, Hephaestus, god of fire, creates new armor for the hero Achilles, assisted by robots. According to the Rieu translation, "Golden maidservants hastened to help their master. They looked like real women and could not only speak and use their limbs but were endowed with intelligence and trained in handwork by the immortal gods." Of course, the words "robot" or "android" are not used to describe them, but they are nevertheless mechanical devices human in appearance. "The first use of the word Robot was in Karel Čapek's play R.U.R. (Rossum's Universal Robots) (written in 1920)" Robots in literature. Possibly the most prolific authors of the twentieth century was Isaac Asimov (1920–1992) who published over five-hundred books. Asimov is probably best remembered for his science-fiction stories and especially those about robots, where he placed robots and their interaction with society at the center of many of his works. Asimov carefully considered the problem of the ideal set of instructions robots might be given in order to lower the risk to humans, and arrived at his Three Laws of Robotics: a robot may not injure a human being or, through inaction, allow a human being to come to harm; a robot must obey orders given to it by human beings, except where such orders would conflict with the First Law; and a robot must protect its own existence as long as such protection does not conflict with the First or Second Law. These were introduced in his 1942 short story "Runaround", although foreshadowed in a few earlier stories. Later, Asimov added the Zeroth Law: "A robot may not harm humanity, or, by inaction, allow humanity to come to harm"; the rest of the laws are modified sequentially to acknowledge this. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the first passage in Asimov's short story "Liar!" (1941) that mentions the First Law is the earliest recorded use of the word robotics. Asimov was not initially aware of this; he assumed the word already existed by analogy with mechanics, hydraulics, and other similar terms denoting branches of applied knowledge.
 Problems depicted in popular culture
Fears and concerns about robots have been repeatedly expressed in a wide range of books and films. A common theme is the development of a master race of conscious and highly intelligent robots, motivated to take over or destroy the human race. (See The Terminator, Runaway, Blade Runner, RoboCop, the Replicators in Stargate, the Cylons in Battlestar Galactica, The Matrix,
and I, Robot.) Some fictional robots are programmed to kill and destroy; others gain superhuman intelligence and abilities by upgrading their own software and hardware. Examples of popular media where the robot becomes evil are 2001: A Space Odyssey, Red Planet and Enthiran. Another common theme is the reaction, sometimes called the "uncanny valley", of unease and even revulsion at the sight of robots that mimic humans too closely. Frankenstein (1818), often called the first science fiction novel, has become synonymous with the theme of a robot or monster advancing beyond its creator. In the TV show, Futurama, the robots are portrayed as humanoid figures that live alongside humans, not as robotic butlers. They still work in industry, but these robots carry out daily lives.
Greater labor productivity. which consists of the ability to use multiple machines to perform the same operation on a part. The first category. machine flexibility.TECHNOLOGIES A flexible manufacturing system (FMS) is a manufacturing system in which there is some amount of flexibility that allows the system to react in the case of changes. covers the system's ability to be changed to produce new product types. The work machines which are often automated CNC machines are connected by a material handling system to optimize parts flow and the central control computer which controls material movements and machine flow. The main advantages of an FMS is its high flexibility in managing manufacturing resources like time and effort in order to manufacture a new product. Lower. Most FMS systems consist of three main systems. Reduced parts inventories. Contents [hide] 1 Advantages 2 Disadvantages 3 Industrial FMS Communication 4 Flexibility 5 Further reading 6 References  Advantages Faster. whether predicted or unpredicted. This flexibility is generally considered to fall into two categories. or capability. such as in volume. Greater machine efficiency. capacity. as well as the system's ability to absorb large-scale changes.cost/unit. and ability to change the order of operations executed on a part. Shorter lead times . The best application of an FMS is found in the production of small sets of products like those from a mass production. The second category is called routing flexibility. Adaptability to CAD/CAM operations. Increased system reliability. Improved quality. which both contain numerous subcategories.
Each Robotic cell or node will be located along a material handling system such as a conveyor or automatic guided vehicle. and other stand alone systems such as inspection machines. the finished parts will be routed to an automatic inspection node. The production of each part or work-piece will require a different combination of manufacturing nodes. Disadvantages Cost to implement. Executive software and other data. while messages . Numerical controlled machines (CNC). workbench CNC Mill and CNC Lathe An Industrial Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS) consists of robots. and mostly come from nodes. computers. and subsequently unloaded from the Flexible Manufacturing System.  Industrial FMS Communication Training FMS with learning robot SCORBOT-ER 4u. Computer-controlled Machines. The movement of parts from one node to another is done through the material handling system. The use of robots in the production segment of manufacturing industries promises a variety of benefits ranging from high utilization to high volume of productivity. At the end of part processing. instrumentation devices. sensors. CNC machine The FMS data traffic consists of large files and short messages. for example. The message size ranges between a few bytes to several hundreds of bytes. are files with a large size. devices and instruments.
The demands for reliable FMS protocol that support all the FMS data characteristics are now urgent. to allow variation in parts assembly and variations in process sequence. In addition.for machining data. a prioritized mechanism and immediate transmission of emergency messages are needed so that a suitable recovery procedure can be applied. A design of FMS communication protocol that supports a real time communication with bounded message delay and reacts promptly to any emergency signal is needed. instrument to instrument communications.  Flexibility Flexibility in manufacturing means the ability to deal with slightly or greatly mixed parts. The delay of CSMA/CD is unbounded as the number of nodes increases due to the message collisions. Messages for instrument data need to be sent in a periodic time with deterministic time delay. dust. and data reporting are transmitted in small size. and electromagnetic interference is common. A modification of standard Token Bus to implement a prioritized access scheme was proposed to allow transmission of short and periodic messages with a low delay compared to the one for long messages. but it does not support prioritized access scheme which is needed in FMS communications. its data transmission is unreliable. There is also some variation on response time. Other type of messages used for emergency reporting is quite short in size and must be transmitted and received with almost instantaneous response. Token Ring provides prioritized access and has a low message delay. change the production volume and change the design of certain product being manufactured. status monitoring. The existing IEEE standard protocols do not fully satisfy the real time communication requirements in this environment. however. the topology of Token Ring results in high wiring installation and cost. Large program files from a main computer usually take about 60 seconds to be down loaded into each instrument or node at the beginning of FMS operation. Token Bus has a deterministic message delay. . Because of machine failure and malfunction due to heat. A single node failure which may occur quite often in FMS causes transmission errors of passing message in that node.
sustainability. retail. Kanban. The trend towards just in time production often requires sub-pallet level availability of production inputs.  The traditional vending machine is the most common and familiar AS/RS system but because the application is to do with retail sales. or SRM. storage density is important because of space constraints. Space savings. The equipment required for an AS/RS include a Storage & Retrieval Machine. distribution. JIT and other value added methodologies and processes. six sigma. no value adding content is present in this process. Contents [hide] 1 Overview 2 Man-aboard AS/RS 3 Vertical Lift Module 4 Horizontal Carousels o 4.1 Installed Applications 5 See also 6 References 7 External links  Overview AS/RS systems are devices designed for automated storage and retrieval of parts and items in manufacturing. and AS/RS is a much faster way of organizing the storage of smaller items next to production lines. SRM are used to move loads vertically or horizontally. accuracy is critical because of potential expensive damages to the load. wholesale and institutions. the logistic concept of a vending machine is missed. They focus on bringing "goods to the man" rather than manual walking and searching. Traditional high bay warehouses are designed with pallet storage in mind. increased accuracy and reduced inventory levels are some of the primary benefits. SRM can also move laterally to place objects in correct storage location. Automated Storage and Retrieval Systems (AS/RS) are typically used in applications where: there is a very high volume of loads being moved into and out of storage. increased productivity/reduced labor.Automated storage and retrieval system An automated storage and retrieval system (ASRS or AS/RS) consists of a variety of computer-controlled methods for automatically placing and retrieving loads from specific storage locations. high bay warehouses are problematic. and if goods are being delivered in sub pallet quantities. Ideal for lean manufacturing. AS/RS can be used with standard loads as well as nonstandard loads. that is used for rapid storage and retrieval of material. .
and can store or retrieve loads that are several positions deep in the shelving. accuracy to 99. but use different technologies. the shuttles are able to telescope up to the necessary height to reach the load. Each technology has its unique set of benefits and disadvantages (like everything in the world).Material Handling Institute of America (MHIA). and/or ceiling heights will permit.9%+ levels and throughput up to 750 lines per hour/per operator. Fixed Aisle systems are characteristically larger systems where as carousels and Vertical Lift Modules are used individually or grouped. but in small to medium-sized applications. These units usually are integrated with various types of pick to light systems and use either a microprocessor controller for basic usage or inventory management software. The 'shuttles' that make up the system travel between fixed storage shelves to deposit or retrieve a requested load (ranging from a single book in a library system to a several ton pallet of goods in a warehouse system).000. Also. Man-aboard systems are typically appropriate for slow-moving items where space is fairly expensive. A semi-automated system can be achieved by utilizing only specialized shuttles within an existing rack system. . These systems are used either as stand-alone units or in integrated workstations called pods. throughput requirements. the non-profit trade association for the material handling world. To provide a method for accomplishing throughput to and from the AS/RS and the supporting transportation system. As well as moving along the ground.  Man-aboard AS/RS A man-aboard AS/RS offers significant floorspace savings. The range is large because there is a wide variety of operating schemes for man-aboard systems. weight capacity. because vertical travel is slow compared to horizontal travel. and its members have broken AS/RS into two primary segments: Fixed Aisle and Carousels/Vertical Lift Modules (VLMs). Horizontal Carousels and Vertical Carousels. typical picking rates in man-aboard operations range between 40 and 250 lines per person-hour. These systems are ideal for increasing space utilization up to 85%. Aisle-captive storage/retrieval machines reaching heights up to 40 feet cost around $125. Fixed-aisle AS/RS is categorized into three main types: single-masted. Shelves or storage cabinets can be stacked as high as floor loading. Both sets of technologies provide automated storage and retrieval for parts and items. and manaboard. In addition. Most are supported on a track and ceiling guided at the top by guide rails or channels to ensure accurate vertical alignment. stations are provided to precisely position inbound and outbound loads for pickup and delivery by the crane. there must be enough storage density and/or productivity improvement over cart and tote picking to justify the investment. double masted. there are five types of AS/RS devices called Unit-load AS/RS. Hence. Man-aboard automated storage and retrieval systems are far and away the most expensive picker-to-stock equipment alternative. productivity levels by 2/3. This is due to the fact that the storage system heights are no longer limited by the reach height of the order picker. Vertical Lift Modules (VLMs). although some are suspended from the ceiling. Mini-load AS/RS.
Most common applications include: MRO. storage and retrieval system. parts handling. which could be applied in different industries. which can be easily integrated into the existing system. With the capability of multiple access openings on different floors. stock within the VLM remains stationary on front and rear tray locations. buffering. On request a movable extractor unit travels vertically between the two columns of trays and pulls the requested tray from its location and brings it to an access point. operators do not have to move from their position to prepare the order. which require a complete overhaul of the warehouse or production line. accuracy levels to 99. By applying the "product to picker" principle. Functionally. Each carousel pre-positions and rotates when picked. Horizontal carousels can save up to 75% of floorspace. . even through multiple floors. the Vertical Lift Module are modularized. The VLM systems could be customized to fully utilize the height of the facility. A group of orders are selected to create a batch. The rapid movement of the extractor as well as the integrated inventory management software can dramatically increase the efficiency of the picking process. Every bin has shelves which are adjustable to . order picking. consolidation. logistic. inventory storage. When the batch is complete. An operator simply inputs a bin number. WIP. as well as office settings. A wave of orders are sent to the pod. Vertical Lift Module The VLM is a computer controlled automated vertical lift module. The operator then picks or replenishes stock and the tray is returned to its home. The operator simply follows the lights and pick round robin from the carousels and place items in a batch station behind them. The labor (up to 2/3) and space saving benefits (up to 85%) are primary needs. tilt tray delivery for increased ergonomic accessibility. part number or cell location and the carousel will rotate via the shortest path. and many more. a new batch is inducted and the process repeated until the wave is complete. Multiple horizontal carousels integrated with pick to light technology and inventory management software (a pod of carousels) are used for order fulfillment. and laser pointers which indicate the exact item to be picked on each tray. VLM system offers variable tray sizes and loads.75" and can be configured for a myriad of standard and special applications. This is the first model of the same. increase productivity by 2/3. the VLM system is able to provide an innovative storage and retrieval solution.  Horizontal Carousels A horizontal carousel is a series of bins which rotate on an oval track. Most VLMs offer dynamic space storage which measures the tray every time it's returned to the unit to optimize space. buffer storage. kitting. Unlike large AS/RS systems.9%+ levels and throughput up to 750 lines per hour/operator. or to be rolled out in gradually over different phases.
such a system is employed to retrieve books. In some libraries.  Heavy-duty AGV . Automated guided vehicle or automatic guided vehicle An automated guided vehicle or automatic guided vehicle (AGV) is a mobile robot that follows markers or wires in the floor.Horizontal carousel systems generally outperform robotic systems for a fraction of the cost. They are most often used in industrial applications to move materials around a manufacturing facility or a warehouse. On a simplistic level.  Installed Applications Installed applications of this technology can be wide ranging. as in the case of systems in Japan." 'With simple "fetch" command items are brought to the operator and otherwise wasted space is eliminated. Still others in use involve retrieval of bicycles from a bicycle tree. Horizontal carousels are the most cost effective AS/RS system available. such as at UNR library. Application of the automatic guided vehicle has broadened during the late 20th century and they are no longer restricted to industrial environments. or uses vision or lasers. horizontal carousels are also often used as "rotating shelving.
 Tow Type AGV  Light-duty assembly AGV  Inertial-guided automatic trailer loading vehicle Laser Guided Unitload AGV .
2 Guide Tape o 3.1 Pharmaceutical o 9.1 Zone control o 5.2 Forward sensing control o 5.3 Magnetic Tape mode 5 Traffic Control o 5.2 Chemical o 9.6 Steering control 4 Path Decision o 4.4 Accidents .6 Roll Handling o 8.3 Laser Target Navigation o 3.6 Food and Beverage o 9.2 Automatic / Opportunity Charging o 10.1 Wired o 3.4 Gyroscopic Navigation o 3.3 Manufacturing o 9.Contents [hide] 1 Introduction 2 Flexible manufacturing system 3 Navigation o 3.3 Combination control 6 System Management 7 Vehicle Types 8 Common AGV Applications o 8.5 Paper and Print o 9.3 Automatic Battery Swap o 10.4 Automotive o 9.7 Container Handling 9 Primary Application Industries o 9.4 Finished Product Handling o 8.2 Path select mode o 4.1 Frequency select mode o 4.5 Natural Features Navigation o 3.5 Trailer Loading o 8.7 Hospital o 9.1 Battery Swap o 10.3 Pallet Handling o 8.1 Raw Material Handling o 8.2 Work-in-Process Movement o 8.8 Warehousing 10 Battery Charging o 10.
and general manufacturing. the AGV plays an important role in the design of new factories and warehouses. LGVs are programmed to communicate (via an offboard server) with other robots to ensure product is moved smoothly through the warehouse. AGVs are employed in nearly every industry.g. safely moving goods to their rightful destinations. AGCs are available in a variety of models and can be used to move products on an assembly line. Lower cost versions of AGVs are often called Automated Guided Carts (AGCs) and are usually guided by magnetic tape. The AGV can also store objects on a bed. In the late 20th century AGVs took on new roles as ports began turning to this technology to move ISO shipping containers. 11 References  Introduction Automated guided vehicles (AGVs) increase efficiency and reduce costs by helping to automate a manufacturing facility or warehouse. The trailers can be used to move raw materials or finished product. transport goods throughout a plant or warehouse. metals. FMS is more of a philosophy rather than a tangible item. Transporting materials such as food. In Germany the technology is also called Fahrerlose Transportsysteme (FTS) and in Sweden förarlösa truckar. FMS is the idea that faster is better and uses machines to produce their products. paper. LGV (Laser Guided Vehicle). Each cell performs a specific task to assist in the manufacturing of a product. FMS uses computer numerical controlled machines (CNC) to form a work cell. The objects can be placed on a set of motorized rollers (conveyor) and then pushed off by reversing them. and deliver loads to and from stretch wrappers and roller conveyors. linen or medicine in hospitals is also done. Today. Although FMS is fast and efficient it is not cheap as it requires a lot . including.  Flexible manufacturing system To begin to understand AGV it is necessary to understand the fundamentals of flexible manufacturing systems (FMS). AGV applications are seemingly endless as capacities can range from just a few pounds to MILLIONS of tons. Some AGVs use fork lifts to lift objects for storage. pulp. FMS is a means by which to manufacture a product. newspaper. An AGV can also be called a laser guided vehicle (LGV) or self-guided vehicle (SGV). whether it is being stored for future use or sent directly to shipping areas. Rather than using humans to perform repetitive tasks a machine is used to perform that task 24 hours a day. The Port of Rotterdam employs well over 100 AGVs. The first AGV was brought to market in the 1950s. by Barrett Electronics of Northbrook. Over the years the technology has become more sophisticated and today automated vehicles are mainly Laser navigated e. and at the time it was simply a tow truck that followed a wire in the floor instead of a rail. Illinois. The first AGV was invented by Berrett Electronics in 1953 The AGV can tow objects behind them in trailers to which they can autonomously attach. In an automated process.
it costs millions of dollars to introduce an FMS into a factory. It also does not involve the expense of cutting the factory or warehouse floor for the entire travel route. The AGV carrys a laser transmitter and receiver on a rotating turret. A flexible magnetic bar can also be embedded in the floor like wire but works under the same provision as magnetic tape and so remains unpowered or passive. Modulated Lasers The use of modulated laser light gives greater range and accuracy over pulsed laser systems.1 mrad (0. Typically. Additionally. It can then navigate to a destination target using the constantly updating position. it is considered a "passive" system since it does not require the guide medium to be energized as wire does. This is used to produce part of a product by machine and maybe part by other methods. The AGV has reflector map stored in memory and can correct its position based on errors between the expected and received measurements. most companies use part of an FMS called a flexible manufacturing cell.  Guide Tape Many light duty AGVs (some known as automated guided carts or AGCs) use tape for the guide path.  Laser Target Navigation The wireless navigation is done by mounting retroreflective tape on walls. poles or machines.  Navigation  Wired The wired sensor is placed on the bottom of the robot and is placed facing the ground. The AGC is fitted with the appropriate guide sensor to follow the path of the tape.006°) at 8 scanner revolutions per second. this system achieves an angular resolution of ~ 0. The LS9 Scanner is manufactured by Guidance Navigation Ltd and. Rather than using a complete FMS. One major advantage of tape over wired guidance is that it can be easily removed and relocated if the course needs to change. Often one or more AGV‘s are used in FMS to connect work cells together.of expensive machines in order to work. The reflection ceases at the trailing edge of the reflector which ensures an accurate and consistent measurement from every reflector on every scan. A slot is cut in the ground and a wire is placed approximately 1 inch below the ground. Colored tape is initially less expensive. The sensor detects the radio frequency being transmitted from the wire and follows it. The laser is sent off then received again the angle and (sometimes) distance are automatically calculated and stored into the AGV‘s memory. but lacks the advantage of being embedded in high traffic areas where the tape may become damaged or dirty. by using a modulated laser. . The tapes can be one of two styles: magnetic or colored. By emitting a continuous fan of modulated laser light a system can obtain an uninterrupted reflection as soon as the scanner achieves line of sight with a reflector.
The AGV uses these transponders to verify that the vehicle is on course. Pulsed Lasers A typical pulsed laser scanner emits pulsed laser light at a rate of 14.400 Hz which gives a maximum possible resolution of ~ 3. They can handle failure without bringing down the entire manufacturing operation. as well as gyroscopes and/or inertial measurement units with Monte-Carlo/Markov localization techniques to understand where it is as it dynamically plans the shortest permitted path to its goal.  Steering control .2°) at 8 scanner revolutions per second. The margin of error for the inertial method is ±1 inch. such as a laser range-finder. with less down-time for the factory. They also are quick to install. the readings must be interpolated based on the intensity of the reflected laser light. A gyroscope is able to detect the slightest change in the direction of the vehicle and corrects it in order to keep the AGV on its path. courtesy MobileRobots Inc  Natural Features Navigation Navigation without retrofitting of the workspace is called Natural Features Navigation. The advantage of such systems is that they are highly flexible for on-demand delivery to any location. Transponders are embedded in the floor of the work place.  Gyroscopic Navigation Another form of an AGV guidance is inertial navigation.  Unit-load AGV using natural-features navigation to carry steel to quality assurance lab. With inertial guidance. to identify the centre of the reflector. since AGVs can plan paths around the failed device. Inertial can operate in nearly any environment including tight aisles or extreme temperatures. To achieve a workable navigation. One method uses one or more range-finding sensors. a computer control system directs and assigns tasks to the vehicles.5 mrad (0.
Steered wheel control AGV can be used in all applications. This is done through different methods: frequency select mode (wired navigation only). Steered wheel control is used for towing and can also at times have an operator control it. When an AGV approaches a decision point it only has to decide whether to follow path 1. and path select mode (wireless navigation only) or via a magnetic tape on the floor not only to guide the AGV but also to issue steering commands and speed commands.  Path select mode An AGV using the path select mode chooses a path based on preprogrammed paths. This method can increase the cost of an AGV because it is required to have a team of programmers to program the AGV with the correct paths and change the paths when necessary. When an AGV approaches a point on the wire which splits the AGV detects the two frequencies and through a table stored in its memory decides on the best path. The differential speed control is the most common. This setup for the wheels is not used in towing applications because the AGV would cause the trailer to jackknife when it turned. The other type of steering used is steered wheel control AGV. Each set is connected to a common drive train. 2.To help an AGV navigate it can use two different steer control systems.  Magnetic Tape mode . This type of steering is similar to a cars steering. This type of AGV has smoother turning but cannot make sharp turns in tight spots. The AGV turns in a similar fashion to a tank. In this method there are two sets of wheels being driven. etc.  Path Decision AGVs have to make decisions on path selection. It is more precise in following the wire program than the differential speed controlled method. This decision is rather simple since it already knows its path from its programming. It uses the measurements taken from the sensors and compares them to values given to them by programmers. This method of steering is good in the sense that it is easy to maneuver in small spaces. The frequencies can change back to one set signal after this point. this is seen on an AGV that is used to transport and turn in tight spaces or when the AGV is working near machines. 3. This method is not easily expandable and requires extra guide cutting meaning more money. unlike the differential controlled. The different frequencies are required only at the decision point for the AGV. These drive trains are driven at different speeds in order to turn or the same speed to allow the AGV to go forwards and/or backwards. More often than not. This method is easy to change and set up.  Frequency select mode Frequency select mode bases its decision on the frequencies being emitted from the floor.
Zone control is a cost efficient way to control the AGV in an area. not only does it provide the path for the AGV to follow but also sort strips of the tape in different combos of the strip tell the AGV to change lane and also speed up slow down and stop with north and south magnetic combos. Another way to set up zone control traffic management is to equip each individual robot with its own small transmitter/receiver. Most AGVs are equipped with a bumper sensor of some sort as a fail safe. The combination of the two helps to prevent collisions in any situation. A problem with this method is if one zone goes down all the AGV‘s are at risk to collide with any other AGV. the collision avoidance system would prevent the AGV from colliding. forward sensing control. and combination control each method has its advantages and disadvantages. For normal operation the zone control is used with the collision avoidance as a fail safe.  Combination control Combination control sensing is using collision avoidance sensors as well as the zone control sensors. working on a similar concept as the sonic sensor.  Zone control Zone control is the favorite of most environments because it is simple to install and easy to expand. this is used by TOYOTA USA and TOYOTA JAPAN. The individual AGV then sends its own ―do not enter‖ message to all the AGVs getting to close to its zone in the area. They are relatively hard to install and work with as well. physical contact sensor. which uses an infrared sensor. and bumper. optical. Once the AGV in the zone has moved out beyond the zone the ―clear‖ signal is sent to one of the waiting AGVs. The optical uses an infrared transmitter/receiver and sends an infrared signal which then gets reflected back.The magnetic tape is laid on the surface of the floor or buried in a 10 mm channel. . The problems with these are they can only protect the AGV from so many sides.  Forward sensing control Forward sensing control uses collision avoidance sensors to avoid collisions with other AGV in the area. if the zone control system is down. which work like radar. Each AGV contains a sensing device to receive this signal and transmit back to the transmitter. If the area is clear the signal is set at ―clear‖ allowing any AGV to enter and pass through the area. Sonic sensors send a ―chirp‖ or high frequency signal out and then wait for a reply from the outline of the reply the AGV can determine if an object is ahead of it and take the necessary actions to avoid collision. For example. Zone control uses a wireless transmitter to transmit a signal in a fixed area. When an AGV is in the area the ―stop‖ signal is sent and all AGV attempting to enter the area stop and wait for their turn. Methods include zone control.  Traffic Control Flexible manufacturing systems containing more than one AGV may require it to have traffic control so the AGV‘s will not run into one another. These sensors include: sonic.
There are three main ways to control the AGV: locator panel. and connect smaller subsystems into one large production unit. AGVS Pallet Trucks are designed to transport palletized loads to and from floor level. System Management Industries with AGVs need to have some sort of control over the AGVs. In places such as Japan automation has increased and is now considered to be twice as efficient as factories in America. Mohanraj transport. AGVS Unit Load Vehicles are equipped with decks. unique identifier. If the AGV is in one area for too long. Central logging stores all the data and history from these vehicles which can be printed out for technical support or logged to check for up time. AGV require a lot of money to get started with. and can show blocked spots. powered or non-powered roller. The decks can either be lift and lower type. baskets. it could mean it is stuck or broken down. Towing vehicles can pull a multitude of trailer types and have capacities ranging from 8. Light Load AGVS are vehicles which have capacities in the neighborhood of 500 pounds or less and are used to transport small parts. its battery voltage. A locator panel is a simple panel used to see which area the AGV is in. CRT color graphics display. They are designed to operate in areas with limited space. CRT color graphics display shows real time where each vehicle is. but they do their jobs with high efficiency. AGVS Fork Truck has the ability to service loads both at floor level and on stands. and central logging and report. chain or belt decks or custom decks with multiple compartments. eliminating the need for fixed load stands.000 pounds.000 pounds to 60. Loading and transportation of materials from one area to another is the main task of the AGV. In some cases these vehicles can also stack loads in rack. AGVS Assembly Line Vehicles are an adaptation of the light load AGVS for applications involving serial assembly processes. AGV is a system often used in FMS to keep up. AGVs employ a lot of technology to ensure they do not hit one another and make sure they get to their destination. For a huge initial cost the total cost over time decreases  Vehicle Types AGVS Towing Vehicles were the first type introduced and are still a very popular type today. or other light loads though a light manufacturing environment.  Common AGV Applications . It also gives a status of the AGV. Central logging used to keep track of the history of all the AGVs in the system. which permit unit load transportation and often automatic load transfer.
rolls. and plastic. metal. AGVs can be used to move material from the warehouse to production/processing lines or from one process to another. Because AGVs operate with precisely controlled navigation and acceleration and deceleration this minimizes the potential for damage making them an excellent choice for this type of application. AGVs are used to transport and load pallets of finished goods directly into standard. and includes the repetitive movement of materials throughout the manufacturing process. racks.  Trailer Loading Automatic loading of trailers is a relatively new application for automated guided vehicles and becoming increasingly popular. AGVs excel in applications with the following characteristics: Repetitive movement of materials over a distance Regular delivery of stable loads Medium throughput/volume When on-time delivery is critical and late deliveries are causing inefficiency Operations with at least two shifts Processes where tracking material is important  Raw Material Handling AGVs are commonly used to transport raw materials such as paper. . These movements often require the gentlest material handling because the products are complete and subject to damage from rough handling. and delivering materials directly to production lines. This includes transporting materials from receiving to the warehouse. carts. or staging lanes and deliver them into the trailer in the specified loading pattern.  Finished Product Handling Moving finished goods from manufacturing to storage or shipping is the final movement of materials before they are delivered to customers.  Work-in-Process Movement Work-in-Process movement is one of the first applications where automated guided vehicles were used.Automated Guided Vehicles can be used in a wide variety of applications to transport many different types of material including pallets.  Pallet Handling Pallet handling is an extremely popular application for AGVs as repetitive movement of pallets is very common in manufacturing and distribution facilities. over-the-road trailers without any special dock equipment. and containers. steel. AGVs can pick up pallets from conveyors. rubber. AGVs can move pallets from the palletizer to stretch wrapping to the warehouse/storage and/or to the outbound shipping docks. racking.
AGVs are used to move sea containers in some maritime container terminals. in racking. and can even automatically load printing presses with rolls of paper. printers. Roll Handling AGVs are used to transport rolls in many types of plants including paper mills. Because automatic guided vehicles (AGVs) can delivery efficient. converters. cost effective movement of materials is an important. AGVs can be applied to various industries in standard or customized designs to best suit an industry‘s requirements. and common element in improving operations in many manufacturing plants and warehouses. AGVs can store and stack rolls on the floor. newspapers. steel producers. This use of AGVs was pioneered by ECT in The Netherlands at the Delta terminal in the Port of Rotterdam.  Primary Application Industries Efficient. Industry‘s currently utilizing AGVs include (but are not limited to):  A forktruck vehicle delivering a pallet of finished goods . cost effective movement of materials. The main benefits are reduced labour costs and a more reliable (less variable) performance. and plastics manufacturers.  Container Handling Container terminals showing a container being loaded onto an unmanned automated guided vehicle.
and specialty chemicals. transporting work-in process. moving finished goods. and provide transportation to other processing cells and stations.  Chemical AGVs deliver raw materials. AGVs are also used to supply specialized tooling which must be changed. plastics. and moving finished goods. Power Train (Engine and Transmission) Plants. removing scrap materials.  A Tugger AGV pulling wheeled carts containing automotive body panels . Common industries include rubber. Because an AGV system tracks all movement provided by the AGVs. A unitload vehicle for delivering steel plates (blanks)  Pharmaceutical AGVs are a preferred method of moving materials in the pharmaceutical industry. move materials to curing storage warehouses.  Manufacturing AGVs are often used in general manufacturing of products. it supports process validation and cGMP (current Good Manufacturing Practice). and Assembly Plants delivering raw materials. transporting work-in process. and supplying packaging materials.  Automotive AGV installations are found in Stamping Plants. AGVs can typically be found delivering raw materials.
and waste bins to provide all routine material movement in the production and warehousing (storage/retrieval) of paper. Automatic/Opportunity Charging. and plastic film. The most commonly used battery charging technologies are Battery Swap. stretch wrapper. converting. over-the-road trailers with finished goods. AGVs can also store and retrieve pallets in the warehouse. cart washers.  Food and Beverage AGVs can be applied to move materials in food processing (such as the loading of food and/or trays into sterilizers) and at the ―end of line. printing. AGVs typically move linens.  Battery Swap . elevators/lifts. AGVs can load standard. and are programmed to be fully integrated to automatically operate doors. corrugating. trash dumpers. soiled food trays.‖ linking the palletizer. newspaper. regulated medical waste. and the warehouse. and surgical case carts. pallets. and Automatic Battery Swap. patient meals. Supplying a bin of parts for assembly onto cars  Paper and Print AGVs can move paper rolls. Each option is dependent on the users preference.  Warehousing  Battery Charging AGVs utilize a number of battery charging options. and unload trailers to supply raw materials or packaging materials to the plant. etc.  Hospital AGVs are becoming increasingly popular in the healthcare industry for efficient transport. trash.
 Automatic Battery Swap ."Battery swap technology" requires an operator to manually remove the discharged battery from the AGV and place a fully charged battery in its place approximately 8 – 12 hours (about one shift) of AGVs operation. On average an AGV charges for 12 minutes every hour for automatic charging and no manual intervention is required. 5 – 10 minutes is required to perform this with each AGV in the fleet. When a battery pack gets to a predetermined level the AGV will finish the current job that it has been assigned before it goes to the charging station. If opportunity is being utilized the AGV will receive a charge whenever the opportunity arises.  Automatic / Opportunity Charging "Automatic and opportunity battery charging" allows for continuous operation.
manufacture and application of robots. AGVs will pull up to the battery swap station and have their batteries automatically replaced with fully charged batteries. While a battery swap system reduces the manpower required to swap batteries. The automatic battery changer then places the removed batteries into a charging slot for automatic recharging. engineering. TX in an accident involving an AGV forklift. recent developments in battery charging technology allow batteries to be charged more quickly and efficiently potentially eliminating the need to swap batteries. The automatic battery changer keeps track of the batteries in the system and pulls them only when they are fully charged."Automatic battery swap" is an alternative to manual battery swap. construction. It requires an additional piece of automation machinery. operation.1 Power source o 3. an automatic battery changer. structural disposition. ROBOTICS Robotics is the branch of technology that deals with the design.2 Actuation . Robotics is related to the sciences of electronics. he was pinned between his forklift and the AGV. mechanics. to the overall AGV system. Contents [hide] 1 Etymology 2 History 3 Components o 3. and software. 2008 a worker was killed at the Frito Lay plant in Rosenberg. when the AGV did not detect him and his forklift near by. 27th.  Accidents On November.
5.5.7. 3.2 Vision o 3.6 Electroactive polymers 3.1 Mechanical Grippers 3.5.4 Passive Dynamics 188.8.131.52.5.4.6 Personality 4 Control o 4.2 One-wheeled balancing robots 184.108.40.206 Swimming (like a fish) o 3.1 Electric motors 3.2 Snaking 3.5.1 ZMP Technique 3.1 Autonomy levels 5 Robotics research o 5.2 Vacuum Grippers 3.4 Manipulation 3.5 Muscle wire 3.2.1 Two-wheeled balancing robots 3.5 Tracked robots 3.3.4 Facial expression 3.4 Air muscles 3.2.1 Dynamics and kinematics 6 Education and training .8 Elastic nanotubes o 3.3 Sensing 220.127.116.11.7.3 Dynamic Balancing (controlled falling) 3.1.1 Speech recognition 18.104.22.168.2.5 Locomotion 22.214.171.124 Touch 126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52.3.2 Linear actuators 3.2 Robotic voice 3.2 Walking applied to robots 3.3 Gestures 184.108.40.206.5.1.3 Other methods of locomotion 220.127.116.11 Hopping 3.7 Human-robot interaction 3.4 Six-wheeled robots 3.3 Spherical orb robots 18.104.22.168 Rolling robots 22.214.171.124 Piezo motors 126.96.36.199 Flying 3.3 General purpose effectors o 188.8.131.52.3 Skating 3.4 Climbing 3.6 Environmental interaction and navigation o 3.3 Series elastic actuators 3.5 Artificial emotions 3.
Asimov was unaware that he was coining the term. A scene from Karel Čapek's 1920 play R. The play begins in a factory that makes . However. published in 1920. According to the Oxford English Dictionary.2 Certification 7 Employment o 7. which premiered in 1921. he assumed robotics already referred to the science and technology of robots.R.R. showing three robots The word robot was introduced to the public by the Czech writer Karel Čapek in his play R. he states that the first use of the word robotics was in his short story Runaround (Astounding Science Fiction. in his science fiction short story "Liar!". In some of Asimov's other works. March 1942). published in May 1941 in Astounding Science Fiction.1 Career training 6.U. since the science and technology of electrical devices is electronics.1 Effects on unemployment 8 See also 9 Notes 10 Bibliography 11 Further reading 12 External links o o  Etymology The word robotics was derived from the word robot.U. the word robotics appears in "Liar!"  History Main article: History of robots See also: Robot Stories of artificial helpers and companions and attempts to create them have a long history. (Rossum's Universal Robots).U. the word robotics was first used in print by Isaac Asimov. which was introduced to the public by Czech writer Karel Čapek in his play R. (Rossum's Universal Robots). 6. (Rossum's Universal Robots).R.
 Al-Jazari automated moving peacocks Leonardo da Mechanical knight Vinci Digesting Duck Jacques de 1206 1495 1738 Designs for a humanoid robot Mechanical duck that was able to eat. programmable automaton band Date Robot Name Inventor Yan Shi Ctesibius.D. or the "Maria impersonator") was the first and perhaps the most memorable depiction of a robot ever to appear on film was played by German actress Brigitte Helm) in Fritz Lang's film Metropolis. including a fire engine. the basis of practical robotics. Commercial and industrial robots are widespread today and used to perform jobs more cheaply. transport. flap its . in the process of doing so. the Unimate. He wrote a short letter in reference to an etymology in the Oxford English Dictionary in which he named his brother Josef Čapek as its actual originator. and the mass production of consumer and industrial goods. Heron of Alexandria. coined the word "robotics" (see details in "Etymology" section below). packing and packaging. a coin-operated machine. Karel Čapek himself did not coin the word. laboratory research. was installed in 1961 to lift hot pieces of metal from a die casting machine and stack them. assembly.C. or more accurately and reliably. and a steamA. an 'artificer'. on a much earlier Third encounter between King Mu of Zhou (1023century 957 BC) and a mechanical engineer known as B. earth and space exploration. They are also employed in jobs which are too dirty. The latter allegedly earlier presented the king with a life-size. In 1942 the science fiction writer Isaac Asimov formulated his Three Laws of Robotics and. and others Robot band. Significance One of the earliest descriptions of automata appears in the Lie Zi text. handwashing automaton. Fully autonomous robots only appeared in the second half of the 20th century. In 1948 Norbert Wiener formulated the principles of cybernetics. Robots are widely used in manufacturing. "Robotrix".artificial people called robots creatures who can be mistaken for humans – though they are closer to the modern ideas of androids. and Yan Shi. than humans. surgery. Philo of Byzantium. humanshaped figure of his mechanical handiwork. safety. and powered engine. weaponry. Descriptions of more than 100 machines and First automata. "Futura". a wind century organ. The first digitally operated and programmable robot. In 1927 the Maschinenmensch ("machine-human") gynoid humanoid robot (also called "Parody". dangerous. or dull to be suitable for humans. in Pneumatica and Automata earlier by Heron of Alexandria Created early humanoid automata.
to those proposed in movies such as Red Planet . radioactive source (such as with the proposed Ford car of the '50s).1898 1921 1930s 1948 wings. based on Devol's patents First installed industrial robot. First fictional automatons called "robots" appear in the play R. a PUMA Unimation product  Components  Power source Further information: Power supply and Energy storage At present.). First palletizing robot Vaucanson Teleautomaton Nikola Tesla Rossum's Universal Karel Čapek Robots Westinghouse Elektro Electric Corporation William Grey Elsie and Elmer Walter Unimate Unimate Palletizer George Devol George Devol Fuji Yusoki Kogyo KUKA Robot Group Victor Scheinman 1956 1961 1963 1973 1975 First industrial robot with six Famulus electromechanically driven axes Programmable universal manipulation arm.R. may be interesting in a military context as faeces of small combat groups may be reused for the energy requirements of the robot assistant (see DEKA's project Slingshot Stirling engine on how the system would operate) still unproven energy sources: for example Nuclear fusion. as yet not used in nuclear reactors whereas Nuclear fission is proven (although there are not many robots using it as a power source apart from the Chinese rover tests. and excrete Nikola Tesla demonstrates first radiocontrolled vessel. but potential power sources could be: pneumatic (compressed gases) hydraulics (liquids) flywheel energy storage organic garbage (through anaerobic digestion) faeces (human. mostly (lead-acid) batteries are used. animal). Humanoid robot exhibited at the 1939 and 1940 World's Fairs Simple robots exhibiting biological behaviors First commercial robot. from the Unimation company founded by George Devol and Joseph Engelberger.U.
 Linear actuators Main article: Linear actuator . By far the most popular actuators are electric motors that spin a wheel or gear. chemicals. powered by electricity. and linear actuators that control industrial robots in factories. But there are some recent advances in alternative types of actuators. the parts which convert stored energy into movement. or compressed air:  Electric motors Main article: Electric motor The vast majority of robots use electric motors. Actuation A robotic leg powered by Air Muscles Actuators are like the "muscles" of a robot. often brushed and brushless DC motors in portable robots or AC motors in industrial robots and CNC machines.
There are different mechanisms of operation. Another type uses the piezo elements to cause a nut to vibrate and drive a screw. are special tubes that contract (typically up to 40%) when air is forced inside it.  Series elastic actuators A spring can be designed as part of the motor actuator. and available force for their size. These work on a fundamentally different principle.  Air muscles Main article: Pneumatic artificial muscles Pneumatic artificial muscles. swim or walk. It has been used in various robots. speed. one type uses the vibration of the piezo elements to walk the motor in a circle or a straight line. also known as Shape Memory Alloy. and have been used in facial muscles and arms of humanoid robots. and being used on some robots.Various types of linear actuators move in and out instead of by spinning.  Elastic nanotubes . They are typically powered by compressed air (pneumatic actuator) or an oil (hydraulic actuator). vibrating many thousands of times per second. The advantages of these motors are nanometer resolution. whereby tiny piezoceramic elements. These motors are already available commercially. Nitinol or Flexinol Wire. They have been used for some robot applications. cause linear or rotary motion. particularly when very large forces are needed such as with industrial robotics. is a material that contracts slightly (typically under 5%) when electricity runs through it. They have been used for some small robot applications. particularly walking humanoid robots. and to allow new robots to float.  Electroactive polymers Main article: Electroactive polymers EAPs or EPAMs are a new plastic material that can contract substantially (up to 400%) from electricity.  Piezo motors Main article: Piezoelectric motor A recent alternative to DC motors are piezo motors or ultrasonic motors. fly. also known as air muscles.  Muscle wire Main article: Shape memory alloy Muscle wire. to allow improved force control.
Sophisticated image sensors even require quantum mechanics to provide a complete understanding of the image formation process. computer vision is concerned with the theory behind artificial systems that extract information from images. but methods based on learning are now becoming increasingly common.  Vision Main article: Computer vision Computer vision is the science and technology of machines that see. When the artificial skin touches an object the fluid path around the electrodes is deformed. The prosthesis has sensors which enable the patient to sense real feeling in its fingertips. The researchers expect that an important function of such artificial fingertips will be adjusting robotic grip on held objects. which functions like a real one—allowing patients to write with it.  Sensing  Touch Current robotic and prosthetic hands receive far less tactile information than the human hand. such as video sequences and views from cameras. with energy storage levels of perhaps 10 J/cm3 for metal nanotubes. producing impedance changes that map the forces received from the object. The sensors are designed using solid-state physics. called SmartHand.Further information: Nanotube Elastic nanotubes are a promising artificial muscle technology in early-stage experimental development. Scientists from several European countries and Israel developed a prosthetic hand in 2009. Recent research has developed a tactile sensor array that mimics the mechanical properties and touch receptors of human fingertips. Electrodes are mounted on the surface of the rigid core and are connected to an impedance-measuring device within the core. Computer vision systems rely on image sensors which detect electromagnetic radiation which is typically in the form of either visible light or infra-red light. The sensor array is constructed as a rigid core surrounded by conductive fluid contained by an elastomeric skin. type on a keyboard. the computers are pre-programmed to solve a particular task. As a scientific discipline. Such compact "muscle" might allow future robots to outrun and outjump humans. In most practical computer vision applications. The image data can take many forms. play piano and perform other fine movements. The process by which light propagates and reflects off surfaces is explained using optics. Human biceps could be replaced with an 8 mm diameter wire of this material. . The absence of defects in carbon nanotubes enables these filaments to deform elastically by several percent.
There is a subfield within computer vision where artificial systems are designed to mimic the processing and behavior of biological systems. MANUS. some of the learning-based methods developed within computer vision have their background in biology. for example a humanoid hand. Thus the "hands" of a robot are often referred to as end effectors. Pick and place robots for electronic components and for large objects like car windscreens. These highly dexterous manipulators. Also.  Mechanical Grippers One of the most common effectors is the gripper. Most robot arms have replaceable effectors. or otherwise have an effect.  Manipulation Further information: Mobile manipulator Robots needs to manipulate objects. each allowing them to perform some small range of tasks. like the Shadow Hand. modify. See Shadow Hand. their design.  General purpose effectors Some advanced robots are beginning to use fully humanoid hands. often use very simple vacuum grippers.  Locomotion Main articles: Robot locomotion and Mobile robot  Rolling robots . but can hold very large loads provided the prehension surface is smooth enough to ensure suction. and the Schunk hand. while the "arm" is referred to as a manipulator. For the definitive guide to all forms of robot end-effectors. In its simplest manifestation it consists of just two fingers which can open and close to pick up and let go of a range of small objects. destroy. Fingers can for example be made of a chain with a metal wire run through it. at different levels of complexity. while a few have one very general purpose manipulator. with as many as 20 degrees of freedom and hundreds of tactile sensors.  Vacuum Grippers Vacuum grippers are very simple astrictive devices. and usage consult the book "Robot Grippers". pick up. Some have a fixed manipulator which cannot be replaced.
Segway in the Robot museum in Nagoya. For simplicity most mobile robots have four wheels or a number of continuous tracks. Some researchers have tried to create more complex wheeled robots with only one or two wheels. These can have certain advantages such as greater efficiency and reduced parts, as well as allowing a robot to navigate in confined places that a four wheeled robot would not be able to.
 Two-wheeled balancing robots
Balancing robots generally use a gyroscope to detect how much a robot is falling and then drive the wheels proportionally in the opposite direction, to counter-balance the fall at hundreds of times per second, based on the dynamics of an inverted pendulum. Many different balancing robots have been designed. While the Segway is not commonly thought of as a robot, it can be thought of as a component of a robot, such as NASA's Robonaut that has been mounted on a Segway.
 One-wheeled balancing robots
Main article: Self-balancing unicycle A one-wheeled balancing robot is an extension of a two-wheeled balancing robot so that it can move in any 2D direction using a round ball as its only wheel. Several one-wheeled balancing robots have been designed recently, such as Carnegie Mellon University's "Ballbot" that is the approximate height and width of a person, and Tohoku Gakuin University's "BallIP". Because of the long, thin shape and ability to maneuver in tight spaces, they have the potential to function better than other robots in environments with people.
 Spherical orb robots
Several attempts have been made in robots that are completely inside a spherical ball, either by spinning a weight inside the ball, or by rotating the outer shells of the sphere. These have also been referred to as an orb bot  or a ball bot
 Six-wheeled robots
Using six wheels instead of four wheels can give better traction or grip in outdoor terrain such as on rocky dirt or grass.
 Tracked robots
Tank tracks provide even more traction than a six-wheeled robot. Tracked wheels behave as if they were made of hundreds of wheels, therefore are very common for outdoor and military robots, where the robot must drive on very rough terrain. However, they are difficult to use indoors such as on carpets and smooth floors. Examples include NASA's Urban Robot "Urbie".  Walking applied to robots
iCub robot, designed by the RobotCub Consortium Walking is a difficult and dynamic problem to solve. Several robots have been made which can walk reliably on two legs, however none have yet been made which are as robust as a human. Many other robots have been built that walk on more than two legs, due to these robots being significantly easier to construct. Hybrids too have been proposed in movies such as I, Robot, where they walk on 2 legs and switch to 4 (arms+legs) when going to a sprint. Typically, robots on 2 legs can walk well on flat floors and can occasionally walk up stairs. None can walk over rocky, uneven terrain. Some of the methods which have been tried are:
 ZMP Technique
Main article: Zero Moment Point
The Zero Moment Point (ZMP) is the algorithm used by robots such as Honda's ASIMO. The robot's onboard computer tries to keep the total inertial forces (the combination of earth's gravity and the acceleration and deceleration of walking), exactly opposed by the floor reaction force (the force of the floor pushing back on the robot's foot). In this way, the two forces cancel out, leaving no moment (force causing the robot to rotate and fall over). However, this is not exactly how a human walks, and the difference is obvious to human observers, some of whom have pointed out that ASIMO walks as if it needs the lavatory. ASIMO's walking algorithm is not static, and some dynamic balancing is used (see below). However, it still requires a smooth surface to walk on.
Several robots, built in the 1980s by Marc Raibert at the MIT Leg Laboratory, successfully demonstrated very dynamic walking. Initially, a robot with only one leg, and a very small foot, could stay upright simply by hopping. The movement is the same as that of a person on a pogo stick. As the robot falls to one side, it would jump slightly in that direction, in order to catch itself. Soon, the algorithm was generalised to two and four legs. A bipedal robot was demonstrated running and even performing somersaults. A quadruped was also demonstrated which could trot, run, pace, and bound. For a full list of these robots, see the MIT Leg Lab Robots page.
 Dynamic Balancing (controlled falling)
A more advanced way for a robot to walk is by using a dynamic balancing algorithm, which is potentially more robust than the Zero Moment Point technique, as it constantly monitors the robot's motion, and places the feet in order to maintain stability. This technique was recently demonstrated by Anybots' Dexter Robot, which is so stable, it can even jump. Another example is the TU Delft Flame.
 Passive Dynamics
Perhaps the most promising approach utilizes passive dynamics where the momentum of swinging limbs is used for greater efficiency. It has been shown that totally unpowered humanoid mechanisms can walk down a gentle slope, using only gravity to propel themselves. Using this technique, a robot need only supply a small amount of motor power to walk along a flat surface or a little more to walk up a hill. This technique promises to make walking robots at least ten times more efficient than ZMP walkers, like ASIMO.
 Other methods of locomotion
and even landing.RQ-4 Global Hawk unmanned aerial vehicle  Flying A modern passenger airliner is essentially a flying robot. UAVs are also being developed which can fire on targets automatically. and the Epson micro helicopter robot. Other flying robots include cruise missiles. Other flying robots are uninhabited. Some can even fire on targets under command. and guided by sonar. Mimicking the way real snakes move. Air Ray. these robots can navigate very confined spaces.  Skating .  Snaking Several snake robots have been successfully developed. Robots such as the Air Penguin. and Air Jelly have lighter-than-air bodies. the right one 10. They can be smaller and lighter without a human pilot onboard. without the need for a command from a human. propelled by paddles. normal flight. the Entomopter. meaning they may one day be used to search for people trapped in collapsed buildings. The Japanese ACM-R5 snake robot can even navigate both on land and in water. The autopilot can control the plane for each stage of the journey. and fly into dangerous territory for military surveillance missions. including takeoff. and are known as unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). with two humans to manage it. Two robot snakes. Left one has 64 motors (with 2 degrees of freedom per segment).
Li Hiu Yeung and his research group have recently successfully developed the bionic gecko robot "Speedy Freelander". China's "Technology Daily" November 15. this gecko robot can rapidly climbing up and down in a variety of building walls. rough or sticky dust walls as well as the various surface of metallic materials and also can automatically identify obstacles. An example of this is Capuchin. California.According to Dr. One approach mimicks the movements of a human climber on a wall with protrusions. Examples of this approach include Wallbot  and Stickybot. Therefore. copies the streamlined shape and propulsion by front "flippers" of penguins. Another robot. with unpowered wheels.  Climbing Several different approaches have been used to develop robots that have the ability to climb vertical surfaces.  Swimming (like a fish) It is calculated that when swimming some fish can achieve a propulsive efficiency greater than 90%. and produce less noise and water disturbance. built by Stanford University. It has four legs. Notable examples are the Essex University Computer Science Robotic Fish. circumvent the bypass and flexible and realistic movements. many researchers studying underwater robots would like to copy this type of locomotion. Plen. it is able to adapt on smooth glass. adjusting the center of mass and moving each limb in turn to gain leverage. can use a miniature skateboard or rollerskates.A small number of skating robots have been developed. ground and vertical wall fissure or walking upside down on the ceiling. respectively. and jellyfish. Furthermore. designed and built by Festo of Germany. Ltd.. Li introduction. which can run on smooth surfaces such as vertical glass. Festo have also built the Aqua Ray and Aqua Jelly. Another approach uses the specialised toe pad method of wall-climbing geckoes. which can either step or roll. to analyze and mathematically model thunniform motion. and the Robot Tuna built by the Institute of Field Robotics. which emulate the locomotion of manta ray. A third approach is to mimick the motion of a snake climbing a pole. they can accelerate and maneuver far better than any man-made boat or submarine. 2008 reported New Concept Aircraft (ZHUHAI) Co. Dr. Its flexibility and speed are comparable to the natural gecko. one of which is a multi-mode walking and skating device. The Aqua Penguin.  Environmental interaction and navigation . and skate across a desktop.
. and the entries in the DARPA Grand Challenge. are all combined to provide proper navigation and obstacle avoidance This section does not cite any references or sources. These robots require some combination of navigation hardware and software in order to traverse their environment. Meinü robot have particularly good robot navigation hardware and software. are capable of sensing the environment well and subsequently making navigational decisions based on this information. Some highly advanced robots as ASIMO. EveR-1.RADAR. .. In particular unforeseen events (e. GPS. LIDAR. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.  Human-robot interaction Main article: Human-robot interaction Kismet can produce a range of facial expressions. Most of these robots employ a GPS navigation device with waypoints. self-controlled cars. people and other obstacles that are not stationary) can cause problems or collisions. video cameras. Also. or operate in a static environment.g. along with radar. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. and inertial guidance systems for better navigation between waypoints. there is an increasing interest in robots that can operate autonomously in a dynamic environment. (July 2009) Though a significant percentage of robots in commission today are either human controlled.. Ernst Dickmanns' driverless car. sometimes combined with other sensory data such as LIDAR.
synthetic voice proves suboptimal as a communication medium. It is likely that gestures will make up a part of the interaction between humans and robots. it is unnatural for the robot.. making hand gestures would aid the verbal descriptions.If robots are to work effectively in homes and other non-industrial environments. with an accuracy of 95%. up to 160 words per minute. making it necessary to develop the emotional component of robotic voice through various techniques. or asking directions from a robot police officer. Currently. natural speech. Although speech would be the most natural way for the human to communicate. in the future. and Balashek designed the first "voice input system" which recognized "ten digits spoken by a single user with 100% accuracy" in 1952.   Gestures One can imagine. The same word. the way they are instructed to perform their jobs. the best systems can recognize continuous. gestures. The people who interact with them may have little or no training in robotics. and especially how they will be told to stop will be of critical importance. It becomes even harder when the speaker has a different accent. the previous word. whether or not the speaker has a cold. and soon it may be able to do the same for humans and robots. and perhaps repeating them for confirmation. volume. great strides have been made in the field since Davis. etc. In both of these cases. In the second case. is a difficult task for a computer. then turn right". the robot police officer would gesture to indicate "down the road. For social reasons. and so any interface will need to be extremely intuitive. in real time.  Robotic voice Other hurdles exist when allowing the robot to use voice for interacting with humans. allowing a great amount of facial expressions due to the elasticity of the rubber facial coating and imbedded . Science fiction authors also typically assume that robots will eventually be capable of communicating with humans through speech. Nevertheless. Robotic faces have been constructed by Hanson Robotics using their elastic polymer called Frubber. rather than a command-line interface. explaining to a robot chef how to make a pastry. spoken by the same person may sound different depending on local acoustics. It will probably be a long time before robots interact as naturally as the fictional C-3PO. Biddulph.  Speech recognition Main article: Speech recognition Interpreting the continuous flow of sounds coming from a human. A great many systems have been developed to recognize human hand gestures. and facial expressions. In the first case. mostly because of the great variability of speech.  Facial expression Further information: Facial expression Facial expressions can provide rapid feedback on the progress of a dialog between two humans. the robot would be recognizing gestures made by the human.
a toy robot dinosaur. researchers are trying to create robots which appear to have a personality: i. Whether the person is happy. the programming of these artificial emotions is complex and requires a great amount of human observation. which may be joy. robots like Kismet and the more recent addition. To simplify this programming in the movie.  Personality Many of the robots of science fiction have a personality. This decreased the amount of time needed to make the film.e. Likewise. A robot should know how to approach a human. and body language to try to convey an internal state. presets were created together with a special software program. something which may or may not be desirable in the commercial robots of the future. One commercial example is Pleo. The coating and servos are built on a metal skull. or fear. they use sounds. As can be seen from the movie Final Fantasy: The Spirits Within.  Control A robot-manipulated marionette.subsurface motors (servos) to produce the facial expressions. which can exhibit several apparent emotions. with complex control systems Further information: Control system . frightened. judging by their facial expression and body language. or crazy-looking affects the type of interaction expected of the robot. These presets could possibly be transferred for use in real-life robots. sadness. allowing it to have meaningful social exchanges with humans.  Artificial emotions Artificial emotions can also be imbedded and are composed of a sequence of facial expressions and/or gestures. Nexi can produce a range of facial expressions. Nevertheless. facial expressions.
perception. robots in assembly plants are completely autonomous.g. processing. Supervisory. . A human controls each movement. 1. falling over. The control of a robot involves three distinct phases . 2. A human specifies general moves or position changes and the machine decides specific movements of its actuators. For example. 1. Operator-assist modes have the operator commanding medium-to-high-level tasks. with the robot automatically figuring out how to achieve them. the position of the robot's gripper) from noisy sensor data.g. At longer time scales or with more sophisticated tasks. An autonomous robot may go for extended periods of time without human interaction. This information is then processed to calculate the appropriate signals to the actuators (motors) which move the mechanical. 2. The operator specifies only the task and the robot manages itself to complete it. An immediate task (such as moving the gripper in a certain direction) is inferred from these estimates.  Autonomy levels Control systems may also have varying levels of autonomy. the world. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Mapping techniques can be used to build maps of the world. (July 2009) The mechanical structure of a robot must be controlled to perform tasks. Finally. 3. etc. and how they interact. Teleoperation. but operate in a fixed pattern. Higher levels of autonomy do not necessarily require more complex cognitive capabilities. The processing phase can range in complexity. For example. Cognitive models try to represent the robot. the robot may need to build and reason with a "cognitive" model. and action (robotic paradigms). Pattern recognition and computer vision can be used to track objects. Another classification takes into account the interaction between human control and the machine motions. 3. and the human has nearly complete control over the robot's motion. At a reactive level. each machine actuator change is specified by the operator. Techniques from control theory convert the task into commands that drive the actuators. Task-level autonomy. the position of its joints or its end effector).This section does not cite any references or sources. Direct interaction is used for haptic or tele-operated devices. Sensors give information about the environment or the robot itself (e. a planner may figure out how to achieve a task without hitting obstacles. it may translate raw sensor information directly into actuator commands. Sensor fusion may first be used to estimate parameters of interest (e. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. motion planning and other artificial intelligence techniques may be used to figure out how to act.
Because the first generation robot would be incapable of learning. In a similar way to natural evolution. Principal Research Scientist at the Carnegie Mellon University Robotics Institute in describing the near future evolution of robot technology. or motion and behavior controllers. and replaced by a new set. and Robotics simulator Much of the research in robotics focuses not on specific industrial tasks. Over time the population improves. Currently. a large population of robots is allowed to compete in some way. then tested on real robots once the evolved algorithms are good enough. The second is Evolutionary Robots. Unsourced material may be challenged and . he does not predict this happening before around 2040 or 2050. with an intelligence maybe comparable to that of a mouse. professor Moravec predicts. Researchers use this method both to create better robots. Areas of robotics.  Robotics research Further information: Open-source robotics. Moravec predicts that the second generation robot would be an improvement over the first and become available by 2020. This term is coined by Professor Hans Moravec. or their ability to perform a task is measured using a fitness function. and eventually a satisfactory robot may appear. especially the body form. are almost wholly academic. This happens without any direct programming of the robots by the researchers. robots with human intelligence. To describe the level of advancement of a robot. this technique may be run entirely or mostly in simulation. Moravec predicted in 1997. The third generation robot should have an intelligence comparable to that of a monkey. This is a methodology that uses evolutionary computation to help design robots. A first particular new innovation in robot design is the opensourcing of robot-projects. however. Evolutionary robotics.4. and Japan is the top country having high density of utilizing robots in its manufacturing industry. such as MIT's cyberflora project. Those that perform worst are removed from the population. would become possible. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. and to explore the nature of evolution. alternative ways to think about or design robots. Because the process often requires many generations of robots to be simulated.  Dynamics and kinematics Further information: Kinematics and Dynamics (mechanics) This section does not cite any references or sources. The machine will create and complete all its tasks without human interaction. Though fourth generation robots. should have an intellectual capacity comparable to perhaps a lizard and should become available by 2010. there are about 1 million industrial robots toiling around the world. First generation robots. which have new behaviors based on those of the winners. Full autonomy. the term "Generation Robots" can be used. and new ways to manufacture them but other investigations. but on investigations into new types of robots.
and acceleration when the corresponding joint values are known. Direct dynamics is used in computer simulations of the robot. collision avoidance. methods from the field of dynamics are used to study the effect of forces upon these movements. In each area mentioned above. (July 2009) The study of motion can be divided into kinematics and dynamics. velocity. and control of robots must be developed and implemented. orientation. velocities. researchers strive to develop new concepts and strategies. structure.educational robot. This information can be used to improve the control algorithms of a robot. improve existing ones. criteria for "optimal" performance and ways to optimize design. and accelerations have been calculated using kinematics. Some special aspects of kinematics include handling of redundancy (different possibilities of performing the same movement). Once all relevant positions. Inverse kinematics refers to the opposite case in which required joint values are calculated for given end effector values. . Direct dynamics refers to the calculation of accelerations in the robot once the applied forces are known. as done in path planning. To do this. and improve the interaction between these areas. Inverse dynamics refers to the calculation of the actuator forces necessary to create a prescribed end effector acceleration.removed. and singularity avoidance. Direct kinematics refers to the calculation of end effector position.  Education and training The SCORBOT-ER 4u .
and Doctoral degrees in the field of robotics.  Certification The Robotics Certification Standards Alliance (RCSA) is an international robotics certification authority that confers various industry.  Career training Universities offer Bachelors.  Effects on unemployment Main article: Relationship of automation to unemployment . the number of robotics–related jobs grow and have been observed to be steadily rising. Some Private Career Colleges and vocational schools offer robotics training aimed at careers in robotics. raising interests in computing among students. First-year computer science courses at several universities now include programming of a robot in addition to traditional software engineeringbased coursework.and educational-related robotics certifications. As factories increase their use of robots.Robots have become a popular educational tool in some middle and high schools.  Employment A robot technician builds small all-terrain robots. Masters. (Courtesy: MobileRobots Inc) Robotics is an essential component in many modern manufacturing environments.
as machines begin to match and exceed the capability of workers to perform most jobs. According to conventional economic theory. resulting in higher demand for other goods. this should merely cause an increase in the productivity of the involved industries. and specialists. but may not describe future scenarios due to shifts in the parameter values that shape the context (see Automation and its effects on unemployment). argue that robots and other forms of automation will ultimately result in significant unemployment. . Conventional theory describes the past well.Some analysts. causing structural unemployment in which overall (net) unemployment rises. such as Martin Ford. some worry that even many skilled jobs may be threatened. At present the negative impact is only on menial and repetitive jobs. and hence higher labour demand in these sectors and off-setting whatever negatives are caused. However. and there is actually a positive impact on the number of jobs for highly skilled technicians. these highly skilled jobs are not sufficient in number to offset the greater decrease in employment among the general population. As robotics and artificial intelligence develop further. engineers.
lean enterprise. week after week in a manner identical to the previous time period. often simply. Contents [hide] 1 Overview o 1. "Lean. Essentially. rather than uncritically accepting pre-existing ideas.1 Origins 2 A brief history of waste reduction thinking o 2. building upon the work of earlier leaders such as Taylor or Ford. Lean manufacturing is often seen as a more refined version of earlier efficiency efforts. the modern view takes a more holistic approach where the definition of waste is far more generic. decreasing waste. The goal of Lean then becomes the creation and maintenance of a production system which runs repetitively.3 Ford starts the ball rolling o 2. or lean production. Lean manufacturing is a variation on the theme of efficiency based on optimizing flow. and using empirical methods to decide what matters.4 Toyota develops TPS 3 Types of waste 4 Lean implementation develops from TPS . but there are varying perspectives on how this is best achieved." is a production practice that considers the expenditure of resources for any goal other than the creation of value for the end customer to be wasteful. As such. However. and learning from their mistakes. it is a present-day instance of the recurring theme in human history toward increasing efficiency. Irregular production with ups and downs in production levels would be considered waste. from a small company to the world's largest automaker. "value" is defined as any action or process that a customer would be willing to pay for. and thus a target for elimination. TPS is renowned for its focus on reduction of the original Toyota seven wastes to improve overall customer value. the Efficiency Movement. Lean manufacturing is a management philosophy derived mostly from the Toyota Production System (TPS) (hence the term Toyotism is also prevalent) and identified as "Lean" only in the 1990s. day after day. and Fordism. Working from the perspective of the customer who consumes a product or service. it is a chapter in the larger narrative that also includes such ideas as the folk wisdom of thrift.2 20th century o 2. Taylorism. has focused attention on how it has achieved this.1 Pre-20th century o 2. time and motion study.Lean manufacturing Lean manufacturing. The steady growth of Toyota. lean is centered on preserving value with less work.
The term was first coined by John Krafcik in a Fall 1988 article. The implementation of smooth flow exposes quality problems that already existed.2 There is always room for improvement o 7. Daniel Jones. The advantage claimed for this approach is that it naturally takes a system-wide perspective. For many. Kanban (pull systems). in which the focus is upon improving the "flow" or smoothness of work. There is a second approach to Lean Manufacturing. but rather the prime approach to achieving it. thereby steadily eliminating mura ("unevenness") through the system and not upon 'waste reduction' per se. and poka-yoke (error-proofing). Examples of such "tools" are Value Stream Mapping. "pull" production (by means of kanban) and the Heijunka box. which produced the international bestseller book co-authored by Jim Womack. Both Lean and TPS can be seen as a loosely connected set of potentially competing principles whose goal is cost reduction by the elimination of waste. This is a fundamentally different approach from most improvement methodologies.3 Differences from TPS 5 Lean services 6 Lean goals and strategy 7 Steps to achieve lean systems o 7. "Triumph of the Lean Production System. whereas a waste focus sometimes wrongly assumes this perspective. Techniques to improve flow include production leveling. Krafcik's research was continued by the International Motor Vehicle Program (IMVP) at MIT. Krafcik had been a quality engineer in the Toyota-GM NUMMI joint venture in California before coming to MIT for MBA studies.1 Design a simple manufacturing system o 7. which may partially account for its lack of popularity.1 An example program 4. Five S. 4. and thus waste reduction naturally happens as a consequence. and Daniel Roos called The Machine That Changed the World. A complete historical account of the IMVP and how the term "lean" was coined is given by Holweg (2007).3 Continuously improve o 7. The difference between these two approaches is not the goal itself. which is promoted by Toyota.4 Measure 8 See also 9 References o o o  Overview Lean principles come from the Japanese manufacturing industry. Lean is the set of "tools" that assist in the identification and steady elimination of waste (muda). As waste is eliminated quality improves while production time and cost are reduced." published in the Sloan Management Review and based on his master's thesis at the MIT Sloan School of Management.2 Lean leadership 4. These principles include: Pull .
whereby automation is achieved with a human touch. Thus what one sees today is the result of a 'need' driven learning to improve where each step has built on previous ideas and not something based upon a theoretical framework. The disconnected nature of some of these principles perhaps springs from the fact that the TPS has grown pragmatically since 1948 as it responded to the problems it saw within its own production facilities. to give the machines enough intelligence to recognize when they are working abnormally and flag this for human attention. Waste minimization. Lean aims to make the work simple enough to understand. If production flows perfectly then there is no inventory. Toyota's view is that the main method of Lean is not the tools. all of these concepts have to be understood. and mura ("unevenness"). the TPS has two pillar concepts: Just-in-time (JIT) or "flow". Perfect first-time quality. which explains any apparent incoherence of the principles above. From this perspective. is one of the best ways to foster Lean Thinking up and down the organizational structure.(loosely called Senpai and Kohai. More importantly. in this case. Thus. and "autonomation" (smart automation). but the reduction of three types of waste: muda ("non-value-adding work"). but have their analogues in other processes such as research and development (R&D). which is Japanese for senior and junior). The "human touch" here meaning to automate so that the machines/systems are designed to aid humans in focusing on what the humans do best. or fault. and therefore often not expensive capability requirements. Continuous improvement. appreciated. to expose problems systematically and to use the tools where the ideal cannot be achieved. conditions. The flexibility and ability to change are within bounds and not open-ended. muri ("overburden"). humans would not have to monitor normal production and only have to focus on abnormal. if customer valued features are the only ones produced. Flexibility. using tools like SMED. the tools are workarounds adapted to different situations. do and manage. Load leveling and Production flow and Visual control. There are many examples of Lean tool implementation without sustained benefit. The cultural and managerial aspects of Lean are possibly more important than the actual tools or methodologies of production itself. then product design is simplified and effort is only expended on features the customer values. and embraced by the actual employees who build the products and therefore own the processes that deliver the value. The other of the two TPS pillars is the very human aspect of autonomation. These concepts of flexibility and change are principally required to allow production leveling. Autonomation. Adherents of the Toyota approach would say that the smooth flowing delivery of value achieves all the other improvements as sideeffects.  Origins Also known as the flexible mass production. Lean implementation is therefore focused on getting the right things to the right place at the right time in the right quantity to achieve perfect work flow. This aims. while minimizing waste and being flexible and able to change. This is the process undertaken by Toyota as . for example. and these are often blamed on weak understanding of Lean throughout the whole organization. To achieve these three goals at once there is a belief held by some that Toyota's mentoring process. Building and maintaining a long term relationship with suppliers.processing.
You . Lean Thinking. but. perhaps one of the most recent and spectacular of which was London Heathrow Airport's Terminal 5. into the river. The closest equivalent to Toyota's mentoring process is the concept of "Lean Sensei. organizations. loses 5s. This particular case provides a graphic example of how care should be taken in translating successful practices from one context (production) to another (services). and as such this history forms much of the basis of the philosophy now known as "Lean". and might as prudently throw 5s. "He that idly loses 5s. "You call them goods. who can provide unbiased advice and coaching. than a spectacular success. Poor Richard's Almanac says of wasted time." Again Franklin's The Way to Wealth says the following about carrying unnecessary inventory. worth of time.it helps its suppliers improve their own production." which encourages companies.  A brief history of waste reduction thinking The avoidance and then lateral removal of waste has a long history. and teams to seek outside.  Pre-20th century The printer Benjamin Franklin contributed greatly to waste reduction thinking Most of the basic goals of lean manufacturing are common sense. (see Womack et al. resulting in potentially an unfair tainting of the lean manufacturing philosophies. if you do not take care. Save and have. expecting the same results.. In fact many of the concepts now seen as key to lean have been discovered and rediscovered over the years by others in their search to reduce waste. third-party experts. 1998)." He added that avoiding unnecessary costs could be more profitable than increasing sales: "A penny saved is two pence clear. they will prove evils to some of you. There have been recent attempts to link Lean to Service Management. and documented examples can be seen as early as Benjamin Franklin. A pin a-day is a groat a-year.. In this case the public perception is more of a spectacular failure.
they may [be bought] for less than they cost. Henry Towne. cites Principles of Scientific Management as his inspiration. it should be adopted as the standard for the whole establishment. by implication. and. the best-known exponent of single minute exchange of die (SMED) and errorproofing or poka-yoke.3 kg (5 lb.  20th century Frederick Winslow Taylor." Henry Ford cited Franklin as a major influence on his own business practices. American industrialists recognized the threat of cheap offshore labor to American workers during the 1910s. And whenever the new method is found to be markedly superior to the old. In his Principles of Scientific Management."  Ford starts the ball rolling . Introduction of a non-stooping scaffold. and explicitly stated the goal of what is now called lean manufacturing as a countermeasure. but. and with less effort.' In another place he says. and ere long thou shalt sell thy necessaries." Shigeo Shingo. they must be dear to you. cutting wages or discharging workers) when efficiency improvements reduce the need for raw labor: "…after a workman has had the price per piece of the work he is doing lowered two or three times as a result of his having worked harder and increased his output. it should be the policy of the management to make a careful analysis of the new method. introduced what are now called standardization and best practice deployment. The bricklayer was therefore lowering and raising his entire upper body to pick up a 2. and if necessary conduct a series of experiments to determine accurately the relative merit of the new suggestion and of the old standard. he is likely entirely to lose sight of his employer's side of the case and become imbued with a grim determination to have no more cuts if soldiering [marking time. Remember what Poor Richard says. which included Just-in-time manufacturing. above all. allowed masons to work about three times as quickly. past President of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. to strengthen our control of home markets. who saw that masons bent over to pick up bricks from the ground. just doing what he is told] can prevent it. The concept of waste being built into jobs and then taken for granted was noticed by motion efficiency expert Frank Gilbreth. and. "We are justly proud of the high wage rates which prevail throughout our country. Taylor said: "And whenever a workman proposes an improvement. 'Many have been ruined by buying good penny worths'. (1911). and this inefficiency had been built into the job through long practice.expect they will be sold cheap.) brick. and jealous of any interference with them by the products of the cheaper labor of other countries. to broaden our opportunities in foreign markets where we must compete with the products of other industrial nations. which delivered the bricks at waist level. perhaps. the father of scientific management. 'Buy what thou hast no need of. To maintain this condition. we should welcome and encourage every influence tending to increase the efficiency of our productive processes. if you have no occasion for them." Taylor also warned explicitly against cutting piece rates (or. wrote in the Foreword to Frederick Winslow Taylor's Shop Management (1911).
' Mr. His whole idea.Henry Ford continued this focus on waste while developing his mass assembly manufacturing system. And with these appears. however. Womack and Daniel Jones pointed out in "Lean Thinking".. It exhibits in higher degree than most persons would have thought possible the seemingly contradictory requirements of true efficiency. they responded particularly badly to the need for new product innovation. great increase of pay to the workers. is to hire extra men. & I [railroad]. 'there's iron in that slag. mechanically... It is waste motion— waste effort— that makes farm prices high and profits low. rather than for the dynamic conditions firms increasingly face today. when there is extra work to do. and take it back to the plant. his approach did not respond well to uncertain.. financially. Ford saw the rust and realized that the steel plant was not recovering all of the iron.. in My Life and Work (1922). 'You know. Although his rigid. The major challenge that Ford faced was that his methods were built for a steady-state environment. . industrially. Ford's early success. This was made clear by Ford's precipitous decline when the company was forced to finally introduce a follow-on to the Model T (see Lean Dynamics). provided a single-paragraph description that encompasses the entire concept of waste: I believe that the average farmer puts to a really useful purpose only about 5%. A farmer doing his chores will walk up and down a rickety ladder a dozen times. Harry Bennett. top-down controls made it possible to hold variation in work activities down to very low levels. He will carry water for years instead of putting in a few lengths of pipe.. Poor arrangement of the workplace—a major focus of the modern kaizen—and doing a job inefficiently out of habit—are major forms of waste even in modern workplaces. dynamic business conditions. A former employee. This slag had been dumped there from our own furnaces. You make the crane crews who put it out there sort it over. which are: constant increase of quality. T. Ford said to me. repeated reduction in cost to the consumer. He thinks of putting money into improvements as an expense. as at once cause and effect. Ford and I were together he spotted some rust in the slag that ballasted the right of way of the D. and an enormous profit to the manufacturer.' In other words. was not sustainable. Not only is everything done by hand. but seldom is a thought given to a logical arrangement. almost the world. Ford also pointed out how easy it was to overlook material waste. wrote: One day when Mr. an absolutely incredible enlargement of output reaching something like one hundredfold in less than ten years. As James P. Ford. Charles Buxton Going wrote in 1915: Ford's success has startled the country. of the energy he expends. what Ford accomplished represented the "special case" rather than a robust lean solution.
Decades later. . a car's components always had to be fitted or reshaped by a skilled engineer at the point of use. Genichi Taguchi. Having visited and seen supermarkets in the USA. his processes hit new problems and he developed the "Kaizen" improvement teams. But also it is to be remembered that all the parts are designed so that they can be most easily made. Toyota's journey with JIT may have started back in 1934 when it moved from textiles to produce its first car. He showed that "loss" in capabilities did not begin only after exceeding these tolerances. Ford said in My Life and Work (the same reference describes just in time manufacturing very explicitly): . In 1936. in a textile factory with looms that stopped themselves when a thread broke. a piece of machinery. so that they would connect properly. This became an important part of W. directed the engine casting work and discovered many problems in their manufacture. reducing manufacturing effort by between 60-90%. this became the seed of autonomation and Jidoka.. . he eliminated this work almost entirely. demonstrated that this "goal post" method of measuring was inadequate. However. While Ford is renowned for his production line it is often not recognized how much effort he put into removing the fitters' work to make the production line possible.entirely useless parts [may be]—a shoe..Design for Manufacture (DFM) also is a Ford concept. and the manufacturing "tolerances". He decided he must stop the repairing of poor quality by intense study of each stage of the process. Until Ford. By enforcing very strict specification and quality criteria on component manufacture. Ford's mass production system failed to incorporate the notion of "pull production" and thus often suffered from over-production. an airplane.. As we cut out useless parts and simplify necessary ones. a house. Given the financial situation during this period. This standardization of parts was central to Ford's concept of mass production. Taiichi Ohno recognised the scheduling of work should not be driven by sales or production targets but by actual sales. founder of Toyota. or upper and lower dimensional limits that ensured interchangeability of parts became widely applied across manufacturing. a railroad. a dress.  Toyota develops TPS Toyota's development of ideas that later became Lean may have started at the turn of the 20th century with Sakichi Toyoda.. over-production had to be avoided and thus the notion of Pull (build to order rather than target driven Push) came to underpin production scheduling. but increased as described by the Taguchi Loss Function at any condition exceeding the nominal condition. a steamship. when Toyota won its first truck contract with the Japanese government. Edwards Deming's quality movement of the 1980s. the renowned Japanese quality guru. later helping to develop improved understanding of key areas of focus such as cycle time variation in improving manufacturing quality and efficiencies in aerospace and other industries. we also cut down the cost of making. Levels of demand in the Post War economy of Japan were low and the focus of mass production on lowest cost per item via economies of scale therefore had little application. Kiichiro Toyoda.
these problems become visible and must be dealt with explicitly. It is seen through variation in . Subsequently I had the opportunity to witness its actual application at Toyota on one of our numerous Japanese study missions. mura then focuses on how the work design is implemented and the elimination of fluctuation at the scheduling or operations level. Muda is then discovered after the process is in place and is dealt with reactively. There I met Mr. Next. dangerous tasks. muri focuses on the preparation and planning of the process. waste and non-value-adding work. using a variety of techniques. rationale or target and priorities for implementation. or estimate. or what work can be avoided proactively by design. to demonstrate the effect of the changes achieved and therefore the movement toward the goal. Unreasonable work is almost always a cause of multiple variations. the system's creator. and Toyota defined three broad types of waste: muda. such as quality and volume. To illustrate the state of this thinking Shigeo Shingo observed that only the last turn of a bolt tightens it—the rest is just movement. This ever finer clarification of waste is key to establishing distinctions between value-adding activity. the size of these wastes.It was with Taiichi Ohno at Toyota that these themes came together." The scale. This may simply be asking a greater level of performance from a process than it can handle without taking shortcuts and informally modifying decision criteria. but now including many other sources. Norman Bodek wrote the following in his foreword to a reprint of Ford's Today and Tomorrow: I was first introduced to the concepts of just-in-time (JIT) and the Toyota production system in 1980. by forcing smooth flow of only value-adding steps. rigor and continuous learning aspects of TPS have made it a core concept of Lean. such as carrying heavy weights. that Lean production is developing. it should be noted that for many Lean implementations this list shrinks to the first waste type only with corresponding benefits decrease. by removing the variation caused by work scheduling and thereby provide a driver. He built on the already existing internal schools of thought and spread their breadth and use into what has now become the Toyota Production System (TPS). To link these three concepts is simple in TPS and thus Lean. Muri is all the unreasonable work that management imposes on workers and machines because of poor organization. he just laughed and said he learned it all from Henry Ford's book. even working significantly faster than usual. The elimination of waste is the goal of Lean. It is principally from the TPS. This then hugely reduces the potential of such an aim. muri and mura. The effort to achieve JIT exposes many quality problems that are hidden by buffer stocks. Firstly. Non-value adding work is waste that must be done under the present work conditions. When bombarded with questions from our group on what inspired his thinking. Taiichi Ohno. moving things around. The "flow" (or smoothness) based approach aims to achieve JIT. It is pushing a person or a machine beyond its natural limits.  Types of waste While the elimination of waste may seem like a simple and clear subject it is noticeable that waste is often very conservatively identified. One key is to measure.
Implementations under the Lean label are numerous and whether they are Lean and whether any success or failure can be laid at Lean's door is often debatable. or planning. This stretch and improvisation leads to muri-style waste.  Lean implementation develops from TPS The discipline required to implement Lean and the disciplines it seems to require are so often counter-cultural that they have made successful implementation of Lean a major challenge. but were found to be useful additions in practice. and waiting. (2003). Many others have added the "waste of unused human talent" to the original seven wastes. mistakes and back flows. It is the role of management to examine the muda. Some would say that it was a major challenge in its manufacturing 'heartland' as well. but this tough definition is seen as important and they drove the success of TPS. as distinct from wasted work. It seems clear from the "successes" that no sector is immune from beneficial possibility. correction and movement. A typical example of the interplay of these wastes is the corporate behaviour of "making the numbers" as the end of a reporting period approaches. it was described as manufacturing goods or services that do not meet customer demand or specifications. Individual examples of success and failure exist in almost all spheres of business and activity and therefore cannot be taken as indications of whether Lean is particularly applicable to a specific sector of activity. These wastes were not originally a part of the seven deadly wastes defined by Taiichi Ohno in TPS. For a complete listing of the "old" and "new" wastes see Bicheno and Holweg (2009) Some of these definitions may seem rather idealistic.output. The muda and mura inconsistencies must be fed back to the muri. . Breakthroughs in SMED and other process changing techniques rely upon clear identification of where untapped opportunities may lie if the processing assumptions are challenged. which causes production to try to squeeze extra capacity from the process. is critical to identifying the assumptions behind the current work process and to challenging them in due course. The clear identification of non-value-adding work. in the processes and eliminate the deeper causes by considering the connections to the muri and mura of the system. when the "numbers" are low. thus the muda of waiting. stage for the next project. Demand is raised to 'make plan. which leads to downtime. work in process and finished product not being processed) Motion (people or equipment moving or walking more than is required to perform the processing) Waiting (waiting for the next production step) Overproduction (production ahead of demand) Over Processing (resulting from poor tool or product design creating activity) Defects (the effort involved in inspecting for and fixing defects) Later an eighth waste was defined by Womack et al.' increasing (mura). which causes routines and standards to be modified or stretched. The original seven muda are: Transport (moving products that are not actually required to perform the processing) Inventory (all components.
Often an engineer will specify familiar. Senior management to agree and discuss their lean vision Management brainstorm to identify project leader and set objectives Communicate plan and vision to the workforce Ask for volunteers to form the Lean Implementation team (5-7 works best. safe materials and processes rather than inexpensive. Requirements are assigned to the cheapest discipline. adjustments may be moved into software. Shared modules may be developed. increase delivery frequency internally and if possible externally.make a point of trying to visit other non competing businesses that have implemented lean Select a Pilot Project to implement – 5S is a good place to start Run the pilot for 2–3 months evaluate. level internal . Companies must often look beyond the shop-floor to find opportunities for improving overall company cost and performance. review and learn from your mistakes Roll out pilot to other factory areas Sort out as many of the visible quality problems as you can. while increasing financial risks. Good organizations develop and review checklists to review product designs. all from different departments) Appoint members of the Lean Manufacturing Implementation Team Train the Implementation Team in the various lean tools . that is. For example.  An example program In summary. such as multipurpose power supplies or shared mechanical components or fasteners. look at the production scheduling and move toward daily orders with kanban cards Even out the production flow by reducing batch sizes. and get the internal scrap acknowledged and its management started. and decreasing profits. One crucial insight is that most costs are assigned when a product is designed. Make the flow of parts through the system or process as continuous as possible using workcells and market locations where necessary and avoiding variations in the operators work cycle Introduce standard work and stabilize the work pace through the system Start pulling work through the system. as well as downtime and other instability problems. requirements are reviewed with marketing and customer representatives to eliminate those requirements that are costly.Lean is about more than just cutting costs in the factory. and measurements away from a mechanical solution to an electronic solution. the cost to the engineer. (see Genichi Taguchi). This reduces project risk. At the system engineering level. Another approach is to choose connection or power-transport methods that are cheap or that used standardized components that become available in a competitive market. efficient ones. an example of a lean implementation program could be: With a tools-based approach With a muri or flow based approach (as used in the TPS with suppliers).
Toyota formalized in 2001 the basis of its lean management: the key managerial values and attitudes needed to sustain continuous improvement in the long run. because they strongly feel that transferring of Toyota culture down and across Toyota can only happen when more experienced Toyota Sensei continuously coach and guide the less experienced lean champions. for example a truly Lean. This can be an issue where. Kohai. The KPIs by which a plant/facility are judged will often be driving behaviour. One of the dislocative effects of Lean is in the area of key performance indicators (KPI). for example. encourage feedback Stabilize the positive results by teaching supervisors how to train the new standards you've developed with TWI methodology (Training Within Industry) Once you are satisfied that you have a habitual program. versus the philosophy and culture of lean. often bring up the concepts of Senpai. as the assumptions on which they are based become invalid. demand Improve exposed quality issues using the tools Remove some people (or increase quotas) and go through this work again (the Oh No !! moment)  Lean leadership The role of the leaders within the organization is the fundamental element of sustaining the progress of lean thinking. and Sensei. which is made up of ex-Toyota managers. Similarly. because these KPIs will no longer reflect performance. most lean practitioners in North America focus on the tools and methodologies of lean. Unfortunately. Experienced kaizen members at Toyota. Some exceptions include Shingijitsu Consulting out of Japan. It is a key leadership challenge to manage the impact of this KPI chaos within the organization. These core management principles are articulated around the twin pillars of Continuous Improvement (relentless elimination of waste) and Respect for People (engagement in long term relationships based on continuous improvement and mutual trust). commonly used accounting systems developed to support mass production are no longer appropriate for companies pursuing Lean. Lean Accounting provides truly Lean approaches to business management and financial reporting. After formulating the guiding principles of its lean manufacturing approach in the Toyota Production System (TPS). Fixed Repeating Schedule (FRS) and JIT approach is adopted. . because the KPIs themselves assume a particular approach to the work being done. Select the one that gives you the biggest return for your business. consider introducing the next lean tool. which coaches lean through Toyota-style cultural experience. and Lean Sensei International based in North America. Evaluate results.
etc. The idea is to develop and engage people through their contribution to team performance. To do so. Challenge: Having a long term vision of the challenges one needs to face to realize one's ambition (what we need to learn rather than what we want to do and then having the spirit to face that challenge). Without the proper behavioral principles and values. and essentially involves two defining principles: 1. However. Respect For People is less known outside of Toyota. Tool orientation is a tendency in many programs to elevate mere tools (standardized work. Shop floor teams. Like any other problem. therefore. Toyota set to put the Toyota Way into writing to educate new joiners. Continuous Improvement breaks down into three basic principles: 1. Lean implementations can tend to de-emphasise this key measure and thus become fixated with the implementation of improvement concepts of "flow" or "pull". to practice systematic cost reduction (through TPS or otherwise) to realize benefit. and make sure goals are attained at the best possible speed. and team Toyota at the outset. Respect: Taking every stakeholders' problems seriously. Just as with TPS. striving for innovation and evolution. As with TPS. no process can ever be thought perfect. the whole site as team. Kaizen: Good enough never is. Teamwork: This is about developing individuals through team problem-solving. as Toyota veterans eventually wrote down the basic principles of TPS.) to an unhealthy status beyond their pragmatic intent. create consensus. we have to challenge ourselves every day to see if we are achieving our goals. Seeking profit is a relentless focus for Toyota exemplified by the profit maximization principle (Price – Cost = Profit) and the need. These countermeasures have focused on culture: how people behave. As Toyota expanded beyond its home base for the past 20 years. so operations must be improved continuously.  Differences from TPS Whilst Lean is seen by many as a generalization of the Toyota Production System into other industries and contexts there are some acknowledged differences that seem to have developed in implementation. However. TPS can be totally misapplied and fail to deliver results. it was internally argued that formalizing the values would stifle them and lead to further misunderstanding. it hit the same problems in getting TPS properly applied that other western companies have had in copying TPS. 2. and making every effort to build mutual trust. from boss to subordinate. without any written statement on the way. Genchi Genbutsu: Going to the source to see the facts for oneself and make the right decisions. it has been working on trying a series of countermeasures to solve this particular concern. visual control. Taking responsibility for other people reaching their objectives. 2. The tools are just different ways to work around certain types of problems but they do not solve . 1.20 2. which is the most difficult challenge of all. 3. the emergence of the "value curve analysis" promises to directly tie lean improvements to bottom-line performance measuments.This formalization stems from problem solving. the values had originally been passed down in a master-disciple manner. value stream mapping.
No one tool can do all of that. Internally they well know the limits of the tool and understood that it was never intended as the best way to see and analyze every waste or every problem related to quality. etc. 3. in 2005/06 found that Lean methods were applicable to the public sector. Lean principles have been successfully applied to call center services to improve live agent call handling. and they directly and dramatically affect quality. In many companies implementing Lean the reverse set of priorities is true. a company reduced handle time. topic merely because there are tens of thousands of these individuals. and morale of the team environment. Man or Method. it is these manufacturing leaders that are the main focus of training efforts in Toyota since they lead the daily work areas. reduced between agent variability. This can manifest itself as a "Push" implementation of Lean rather than "Pull" by the team itself. safety. downtime. Value Stream Mapping focuses upon material and information flow problems (a title built into the Toyota title for this activity) but is not strong on Metrics.  Lean services Main article: Lean services Lean. By combining Agent-assisted Automation and Lean's waste reduction practices. More generally. For surfacing these issues other tools are much more widely and effectively used. while the supervisor skill level is expected to somehow develop over time on its own. and attained near perfect process adherence. by Warwick University. safety. cost. The tools employed at Toyota are often used to expose particular problems that are then dealt with. but that most results had been achieved using a much more restricted range of techniques than Lean provides. if not more important. A study completed in 2010 identified that Lean was beginning to embed in Higher Education in the UK (see Lean Higher Education). productivity.them for you or always highlight the underlying cause of many types of problems. or anything to do with profits. but that of the natural operations work team leader. Lean principles have also found application in software application development and maintenance and other areas of information technology (IT). So. metrics or morale. cross training related issues. as a concept or brand. has captured the imagination of many in different spheres of activity. Emphasis is put on developing the specialist. Management technique rather than change agents has been a principle in Toyota from the early 1950s when they started emphasizing the development of the production manager's and supervisors' skills set in guiding natural work teams and did not rely upon staff-level change agents to drive improvements. as each tool's limitations or blindspots are perhaps better understood. This area of skills development is not that of the change agent specialist. capacity bottlenecks. Specifically. Although less prestigious than the TPS specialists. A study conducted on behalf of the Scottish Executive. Examples of these from many sectors are listed below. the use of Lean in IT has become known as Lean IT. reduced accent barriers.  . personnel development. for example. development of work team supervisors in Toyota is considered an equally.
See Types of waste. Overproduction increases a company’s inventory costs because of storage needs. or space but does not add any value to the product or service. others claim that improvements should be done for the sake of the customer Some commonly mentioned goals are: Improve quality: To stay competitive in today's marketplace. Reduce total costs: To minimize cost. Reduce time: Reducing the time it takes to finish an activity from start to finish is one of the most effective ways to eliminate waste and lower costs.g. resources. The upshot of this is that each implementation often 'feels its way' along as must the early industrial engineers of Toyota. The other alternative name that can used to remember is "DOT WIMP". This places huge importance upon sponsorship to encourage and protect these experimental developments. 2. the acronym "TIM WOOD" is formed. Eliminate waste: Waste is any activity that consumes time. it remains the case that the direct manufacturing examples of 'techniques' or 'tools' need to be better 'translated' into a service context to support the more prominent approaches of implementation. Lean as a fixed state or goal (Being Lean) Lean as a continuous change process (Becoming Lean) Lean as a set of tools or methods (Doing Lean/Toolbox Lean) Lean as a philosophy (Lean thinking)  Steps to achieve lean systems . a company must understand its customers' wants and needs and design processes to meet their expectations and requirements. Four different notions of Lean have been identified: 1. which has not yet received the level of work or publicity that would give starting points for implementors. above. a company must produce only to customer demand. some research does relate widely recognized examples of success in retail and even airlines to the underlying principles of lean. 3. to increase profit for the organization. 4.The challenge in moving Lean to services is the lack of widely available reference implementations to allow people to see how directly applying lean manufacturing tools and practices can work and the impact it does have. However.  Lean goals and strategy The espoused goals of Lean manufacturing systems differ between various authors. The strategic elements of Lean can be quite complex. e. While some maintain an internal focus. This makes it more difficult to build the level of belief seen as necessary for strong implementation. and comprise multiple elements. Taking the first letter of each waste. This is a common way to remember the wastes. Despite this.
given constant attention (sustained leadership). everything else is waste. or integrated" (Rizzardo. The benefits of this goal include: decreased cycle time less inventory increased productivity increased capital equipment utilization  There is always room for improvement The core of lean is founded on the concept of continuous product and process improvement and the elimination of non-value added activities.The following steps should be implemented to create the ideal lean manufacturing system:: 1. 1987). . customer service. processes. or services over time. and should be eliminated."  Measure Overall equipment effectiveness (OEE) is a set of performance metrics that fit well in a Lean environment. assured the right amounts of light (training and support) and water (measurement and data) and protected from damaging. reduced. 2003).  Continuously improve A continuous improvement mindset is essential to reach a company's goals. or product performance (Suzaki. Improving the flow of material through new ideal system layouts at the customer's required rate would reduce waste in material movement and inventory. California) states:"For improvement to flourish it must be carefully cultivated in a rich soil bed (a receptive organisation). inventory is only pulled through each production center when it is needed to meet a customer's order. with the goal of reducing waste to improve workplace functionality. In this type of production setting. The term "continuous improvement" means incremental improvement of products. Design a simple manufacturing system 2. "The Value adding activities are simply only those things the customer is willing to pay for. Stephen Shortell (Professor of Health Services Management and Organisational Behaviour – Berkeley University. Recognize that there is always room for improvement 3. Continuously improve the lean manufacturing system design  Design a simple manufacturing system A fundamental principle of lean manufacturing is demand-based flow manufacturing. simplified.
which still dominates economic analysis. Commodities The research by John Sterman finds that the so-called commodity cycles arise in many commodity markets. Some industries. as studied by scholars such as Carlsson and Eliasson   . and zinc are about 10-14 years in duration. It is the complementary study to that of an industry‘s comparative statics. which is twice as long as the investment periods. Alajoutsijärvi and colleagues report that the cycle . reveal special dynamics moving through intrinsic upturns and downturns that are not necessarily related to the wider economic fluctuations. 10-12 years and 8-10 years each in average respectively.. Below are some examples where industry cycles have been particularly examined. copper.. price and production cycles in markets of hog. through their own processes of evolution – as first analyzed by Joseph Schumpeter. Contents [hide] 1 Prevalence of industry cycles 2 Industry cycles versus business cycles 3 Identification and measurement of industry cycles 4 Drivers of industry cycles 5 Strategic implications of industry cycles 6 Notes  Prevalence of industry cycles Almost all industries exhibit cyclicality to some extent. Margret Slade estimates that cycles in prices of metals including aluminum. tin. These are known as ‗cyclical industrial dynamics‘. particularly those with rapid product turnover or high levels of capital expenditure. Industrial dynamics. silver. lead. They have recently come under investigation in the specialized literature.industrial dynamics Industrial dynamics is the study of the means and processes through which industries change over time. The study by Thomas Stanback indicates a persistent cycle of approximately two years duration in the textile industry in the 1950s and 1960s.reveal the basic underlying forces driving industry evolution. cattle and copper span 4 years. iron. For example.
 Industry cycles versus business cycles Cyclical dynamics at the level of individual industries may present rather different patterns from those of the general business cycles. Durable Goods Based on his observations of the explicit cyclical movement in the shipbuilding industry. Therefore industry cycles are more commonly identified using the ‗growth cycle‘ approach. some other industries such as the health service industry even enjoy higher growth during recessions. While this approach is consistent with the approach used by the National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER) to identify business cycles in the US.S. For example. flat panel displays. . insurance carriers and public service industries.‖ The timing. as about 8 years. He further suggests that the cycle length of the upstream industry is four times the lag. it was estimated that ―in any one recession [during the 1980s and the 1990s] only 60% of all industrial sectors were actually in a downturn.in the German paper industry has shortened in duration since 1990. and is now about two or three years in length. for example. many new industries such as semiconductors. and only absolute decline in the activities qualifies as a ‗downturn‘. Nobel Prize-winning economist Jan Tinbergen believes the so-called ‗durable goods cycle‘ is a result of the lag of the upstream industries such as shipbuilding in response to the cycles in end users markets such as that in freight rates.S. Services In the service sector. Durable goods industries in the US are approximately three times more cyclical than nondurable-goods industries. They establish the mean duration of the business cycle. The former approach uses time series in levels of economic activities to define cycles.3 years for the U. computers and telecommunications also exhibit strong cyclicality. hotel industry. measured with aggregate activities in absolute level. Besides the traditional industries. duration and amplitude of industry cycles can vary widely.  Identification and measurement of industry cycles Industry cycles have been identified using either the ‗classical cycle‘ approach or the ‗growth cycle‘ approach. educational service.. and for the U. Choi and colleagues date the industry cycles of the US hotel industry and restaurant industry. by separating the cyclical component of a time series from the underlying trend. as about 7. restaurant industry. and is about 17 years in the shipbuilding industry. while the fluctuations of many industries correlate with those in the aggregate economy. In fact. cycles at the industry level are usually concealed by strong industry trends which dominate industrial series. there were also many industries that are not sensitive to business cycles — such as the pharmaceutical.
 . price and sales. For example. For example. capacity. ‗optimal‘ strategies varied across cycle stages. industry cycles caused by mismatch and delay between different market dynamics including investment. and 1. For example. where there have been five upturns and downturns since the industry began in 1990. where not a single successful entry was engineered during an industry upturn.  Strategic implications of industry cycles Some industrial dynamics can be better understood through the lens of industry cycles. In other words. namely industry cycles caused by business cycles.03 years accordingly (reverting to the original time domain). with an average period of 4 years. the pattern where firms are found to utilize recessions as times to enhance the standing of their brand. first. Finally. capacity and investment in many industries. industry cycles of many industries in a given country are correlated with the business cycles of the country. The Bullwhip effect at firm-level  and game-like competition at industry-level  can cause the sequential boom-bust movement in price. three most powerful cycles of the global semiconductor shipment data in the frequency domain are identified. PCs and flat panel display industries in the past decades are identified. In the marketing literature. Cyclical industrial dynamics constitute a key strategic setting for firms and thus bring many important implications to strategy-making of firms. 2. Industry cycles can be further measured using techniques such as the Fourier analysis. and industry cycles caused by the dynamics of innovation.29 years. Many industries boom when the aggregate economy is prosperous and bust when the economy is in recession.  Drivers of industry cycles Three main mechanisms are suggested to be responsible for industry cycles. This phenomenon is consistent with the theory of Joseph Schumpeter which views downturns as providing a mechanism of ‗cleansing‘ which allocates the resources to stronger competitors in the industry.Combining the growth cycle approach and other econometric techniques such as the HodrickPrescott filter. companies did adjust their strategic activities such as capital expenditure and asset allocation according to the stage of the cycle. and second. For other industries. the industry cycles in the global semiconductor. In the highly cyclical flat panel display industry. uneven pace of technology change appears to be another main driver of industry cycles as sales in an industry are likely to peak after a ‗dominant design‘ has emerged. has also been noted. sales. it has been suggested that. it has been found that industries become more concentrated during the industry cycle downturns. mismatch and delay between different dynamics in markets is another important mechanism causing industry cycles. in the highly cyclical oil-well drilling industry. John Mathews demonstrated that there is a striking pattern in firms‘ entry behavior.
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