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Electrical Workshop

Module 3: Basic Electrical Components

PREPARED BY

IAT Curriculum Unit


December 2008
Institute of Applied Technology, 2008

ATE212 Electrical Workshop

Module 3: Basic Electrical Components

ATE212 Electrical Workshop

Module 3: Basic Electrical Components


Module Objectives
At the end of this module, students will be able to:
1. Identify basic electrical components such as:

Lamps, motors and buzzers.

Resistors, LDRS, capacitors and inductors.

Diodes

2. Understand the applications of each component.

Module Contents
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Basic Electrical Components
3.3 Components Coding
3.4 Class and Lab Activities

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ATE212 Electrical Workshop

Module 3: Basic Electrical Components

ATE212 Electrical Workshop

3.1 Introduction
Have you ever opened your personal computer (PC) or your radio from the inside? If
you tried so, have you seen the electrical boards with many components mounted on
them? Figure 3.1 shows an example of a PC electrical board with different
components. In this module, we will study these components and understand their
usages and applications.

Figure 3.1: PC Electrical Board

3.2 Basic Electrical Components


Component

Symbol

Function

Lamp

Light Indicator

Motor

Motion Indicator

Buzzer

Sound Indictor

Picture

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ATE212 Electrical Workshop

Compone
nt

Symbol

Function
Resistors limit the current flow

Resistor

Variable resistors control the current in


the circuit:
-

Adjust lamp brightness

Adjust motor speed

Variable
Resistor

LDRs are variable resistors where


resistance value changes with light
LDR
(Light
Dependen
t Resistor)

Module 3: Basic Electrical Components

Picture

ATE212 Electrical Workshop

Compone
nt

Symbol

Function

Picture

Capacitors store
electrical charge and
are used in:
-

Timer Circuits

Capacitor

Inductors store
magnetic field and are
used in:
-

Electric bells

Door locks

Inductor

Diodes allow current to


flow in one direction
only.
Diode has two
terminals:

Diode

1. Cathode (K)(-) :
located to the line
perpendicular to
the point of the
arrowhead
2. Anode (A) (+):
located at the
opposite end of the
cathode.
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ATE212 Electrical Workshop

3.3 Components Coding:


1. Resistance Coding: Resistors are specified by their resistance value and their
tolerance. One way to indicate the resistance value and tolerance is color
code method, which is explained in Figure 3.2.
1. Resistance is measured in ohms ()
2. Most resistors have 3 bands:

The 1st band gives the first digit.

The 2nd band gives the second digit.

The 3rd band indicates the number of zeros.

The 4th band gives the tolerance

Figure 3.2 Resistance color code

Module 3: Basic Electrical Components

ATE212 Electrical Workshop

Exercises:
State the resistors value and tolerance for the following resistors:

Yellow Violet Brown Silver

Red

Green Black

Gold

5 %

10 %

R = 25 5%

R = 470 10%

Violet

Red

Black

Gold

White Yellow Orange Silver

5 %

R = 72 5%

Red

000

10%

R = 94000 10%

Green Orange Silver

Blue

R = ---------------------------------------------

Green Orange Gold

R = -------------------------------------------

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ATE212 Electrical Workshop


2. Capacitor Coding: Capacitors are usually specified by three quantities;
capacitor value, tolerance and voltage rating. A number code is often used
on small capacitors where printing is difficult.

The 1st number is the 1st digit,

The 2nd number is the 2nd digit

The 3rd number is the number of zeros to give the capacitance in pF

Ignore any letters - they just indicate tolerance and voltage rating.

Example 1:
You have a capacitor with "104" stamped on it.
- The first two digits are: 1 0
- The third digit is: 4 so add four zeros to the 1 0 1 0, 0 0 0 0 pF

Exercises:
State the capacitance value for the following capacitors:

683

222

C = 1000 pF

C=68000 pF

C = 2200 pF

154

471

541

C = ---------

C = ---------

C = ---------

102

10

Module 3: Basic Electrical Components

ATE212 Electrical Workshop

3.4

Class and Lab Activities:

Activity 1: Identify resistors from color code

Items Required:

Resistors with various values

Steps:
1. Using the color coding method, identify the resistance value of various
resistors
2. Fill the table below:
No

st

1 band color
and value

2nd band

3rd band

color and

color and

value

value

Resistanc

Toleranc

e ()

1
2
3
4

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ATE212 Electrical Workshop

Activity 2: light intensity control using potentiometer

Items Required:
Potentiometer

9V Battery

9 V Light Bulb

Alligator Clips

Steps:
1. Connect the following circuit:

2.

Rotate the spindle of the potentiometer. What do you observe on the light
brightness?

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------3.

State an application of potentiometers?

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Module 3: Basic Electrical Components

Activity 3: Demonstrate LDR Operations

Items Required:
LDR

9V Battery

9 V Light Bulb

Alligator Clips

Steps:
1. Connect the following circuit:

2. Expose the LDR to light. What happen to the brightness of the lamp?
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------3. Put the LDR in the dark. What happen to the brightness of the lamp?
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------4. State some applications of LDRs.
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ATE212 Electrical Workshop

Activity 4: Identify capacitance for various capacitors

Items Required:
Capacitors with various values

Steps:
1. Identify the capacitance value of various capacitors.
2. Fill the table below:
No

Number displayed on the capacitor

Capacitance (F)

1
2
3
4

3. state some applications of capacitors.


------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2

Module 3: Basic Electrical Components

ATE212 Electrical Workshop

Activity 5: Draw the symbols for the following components:


Components

Symbol

LDR

Diode

Variable Resistor

Capacitor

Resistor

Inductor

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