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Measurement System

Experiment - 1

The dead weight free piston gauge has been used for precise determination of
steady pressures for nearly eighty years. The gauge (Fig 1.1) consists of accurately
machined piston of known weight, which is inserted in to close fitting cylinder, both
of known cross sectional area. A number of masses of known weight are first
loaded on one end of free piston and fluid pressure is then applied to the other end
until enough force is developed to lift the piston - weight combination. When the
piston is floating fully within the cylinder the piston is in equilibrium with the
system pressure.
Therefore P(dead weight pressure) = Fc\Ac.
Where Fe - is the equivalent force of the piston -
Weight combination and Ac is the equivalent area of the piston cylinder

Chamber filled with oil.

Fig 1.1
Observation Table -
Equivalent Reading of pressure
pressure of weight gauge Test
1kgf/cm2 1kg/cm2
2kgf/cm2 2kg/cm2
3kgf/cm2 3kg/cm2
5kgf/cm2 5kg/cm2
10kgf/cm2 10 kg/cm2

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Measurement System

Experiment No.2

A capacitance transducer can be used to measure the level of liquid in

a tank. Fig.(2.1) shows a schematic arrangement of a suitable system. A metal
electrode is placed inside the tank and insulated from it. The tank itself is earthed
and forms one of the plates. The transducer therefore consist of two concentric
metal cylinders and a change in liquid level alters the dielectric constant and hence
capacitance. The capacitance transducer is connected to electronic evaluator.
Capacitance transducer can be used to measure levels from a few millimeters to
hundreds of meters. The method may be used for corrosive liquids provided a
suitable metal electrode is used i.e. stainless steel.

Cast aluminium housing

1 1/2 BSP

Full insulation
(b) (a)

Electronic insert Digital converter Digital output

Probe supply


Fig 2.1

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Measurement System

The meter is set at 0 to 100% of level for certain level of water.

Observation: -
Level in cm Meter Reading %
1. 80cm 79.9
2. 75cm 74.5
3. 70 cm 68.5
4. 65 cm 66
5. 60 cm 58.5
6. 50 cm 48.5

Salient points:-
1. Remote sensing is possible
2. 0 & 100 % of level can be adjusted for particular water level in the tank.
3. 0-5V output corresponding to 0 - 100 % level change is available for connecting
to Blind limit controller (electronic) to obtain alarm/control function.
4. Can be used for corrosive liquids as probe is fully sealed.

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Measurement System

Experiment No.3
Resistance wien strain gauges (two) of 120Ω are used on the overhang
beam as shown in fig 3.1.
17 cm
b=3cm S 41
t = 0.5cm
cross section S 42 3 wiens ( one common)
x-x X
123 junction box

Load ( p)

Fig. 3.1
wien strain gauge 120Ω
gauge F=2
Front Panel controls

R Output B 0

5 5
Fine Bal. Course Bal.
R 1
B 4 B 2 R meter B
R 3 Input

Connect to Junction Box Strain Gauge bridge output connected to meter input
Fig. 3.2

Input - Terminals 1,2,3 to be connected to terminals 1,2,3 on strain gauge

transducer, Bridge is completed by internally connected resistance across terminals
1 and 4, 4 and 3 Fig 3.2
Front panel is shown in the figure 3.2, which shows various
connections and meter.
A wheat stone bridge and block diagram of electronic circuit is shown
is fig 33.

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Measurement System

1 Potentiometer for
Bridge Balance
120 Ω SG 2.2k
stable D.C.
excitation 4 2 Ampl. R
120Ω 1k Output to
SG 2.2k meter

3 B
3 2 1

Fig 3.3
Operating instructions:
1. Ensure all connections and turn on
2. Balance instruments
3. Select position (3 - lowest, 2 - medium, 1 - high) for sensitivity of meter.
4. Now apply a gentle pressure to the cantilever beam. The meter pointer will
deflect right or left according to direction of pressure.
5. Take readings
Observation: -
Sr. Applied load Meter Reading Calculated Strain =
No. P G = p x17
Kg Cm 1/6x3x0.52 2x106
1 1 1 kg 3 6.8x10-5
2 1.5 1.5 kg 0.5 6x10-6
3 2 2 0.6 2.12x10-6
4 2.5 2.5 0.9 1.7x10-4
5 3 3 1.1 2.04x10-4
Plot two graphs one for (p) load - kg reading and another for strain (G)-Cm readings
Remarks - Meter reading in kg should be corrected as shown in graph for load -
Kg scale reading. Another graph is also plotted for Strain - cm readings.
For measurement of strain
Load Vs Kg reading

Applied Load



1 2 Kg 3 4 5

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Measurement System

Experiment No - 4

Ferrous -ve +ve

Rod 54321012345

secondary coil primary coil scale

(Fig 4.1)
L.V.D.T. transducer is as shown in fig 4.1
Block diagram of electronic circuit used for display of output of L V
D T is as shown in fig 4.2



ferrous rod
- ve X +ve X

phase R
AMP detector AMP output to
_ B meter
3 2 1
( Fig. 4.2) range selector

Front panel of instrument is as shown in fig 4.3

Output of LVDT
R B 0

Bal. 5 5
R Primary B
R Secondary B Meter input
Connection for Connected to meter
LVDT Fig 4.3

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Measurement System

Circuit Operation - The primary winding of L V D T is excited by means of 0.3

KHz power source. The Wien Bridge Oscillator circuit generates a suitable a.c.
excitation at fixed frequency. The output of this signal generator amplified and fed
to primary coil of L V D T.
The output from secondaries is amplified and converted in to perfect
square wave form. Input and output signals are compared for their phase
difference. This difference signal obtained from phase detector is rectified and
amplified and fed to meter to obtain deflection. (Readings).
It is possible to display the core displacements in the range of 0±5
mm, 0to 10 mm and 0 to ±20 mm.
Operating Instructions:
1. Ensure connections
2. Keep range selector switch 3 (lowest sensitivity) and then select proper position
of selector
3. Turn on and obtain readings

Sr.No. Input +x Meter Input displacement Meter

displacement reading -vc x Reading
1. 5 4.5 -5.9 -4.9
2. 5.5 5.6 -5.5 -5.9
3. 10 10.2 -10 -9.8
4. 13 13.1 -13 12.8
5. 15 18.2 -15 14.9
6. 17 17.1 -17 16.8
7. 20 26.2 -20 19.3
Plot a graph +x & -ve x Vs deflection of meter Remark : - Study the graph.

Angular Displacement Vs Meter reading


Meter reading


-25 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20 25



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Measurement System

Experiment No.5

The capacitive transducer is based on the principle of variation of

effective area of the conductors, other parameter i.e. separation distance and
dielectric strength being kept constant. A two ganged condenser normally used in
radio receivers is used for creation of variable capacitance.
Electronic block diagram for capacitive transducer set up is as shown
in fig 5.1
Two Wien Amplifier Schmidt Mono Meter
ganged bridge Trigger Stable
Condenser Bucking voltage

Meter movable plates


Fixed plates


Ganged condenser
Input (b) (c)
Fig. 5.1

Circuit operation :- The basis of the angular displacement measurement with the
help of capacitive transducer is frequency modulation system. The two sets of
identical condensers of the ganged condenser form a part of wien bridge oscillator
for which frequency f = 1 So as C is varied typically between (550 PR to 50 pF)
2 πRC
a frequency variation in the range 1:10 is obtained.
The block diagram for electronic circuit is as shown in fig 5.1.
The meter circuit is connected to special bucking circuit so that for
zero angular displacement meter circuit can be adjusted to zero

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Measurement System

Operating instructions
1. Ensure connections Turn on
2. Obtain readings

Sr.No Angular Meter Reading Volt(v)
1. 90 0 0
2. 100 6 0.3
3. 110 11 0.6
4. 120 17 0.9
5. 130 24 1.3
6. 140 29 1.6
7. 150 36 2.0
8. 160 44 2.4
9. 170 51 2.8

Plot a graph Inputs displacement in degrees to output in degrees on meter

Angular Displacement Vs meter reading

Angular displacement

0 10 20 30 40 50 60
Meter reading

Remark - Study graph.

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Measurement System

Experiment No.6

The inductance is determined by number of turns, geometrical con

figuration and effective permeability and variation in any one of there usually
caused by displacement, alters the inductance L by ∆L.
Circuit operation - The inductive pick has three distinct stations as shown in fig 6.1
1) bridge
2) Excitation Source
3) Bridge output amplifier and indication

Input displacement

Stable Induction A.C. D.C.

A.C. Bridge amplifier & amp. output to meter
Excitation Rectifier
oscillation) Balance

Fig 6.1 Block diagram of Inductive pickup.

A sinusoidal excitation of 1 Kh3 is obtained in wien bridge oscillator.
The output of excitation is impressed cuross the transformer primary and secondary
of transformer excites inductive pick. Two arm of bridge are inductive and two
arms are resistive as shown in fig 6.2

O/P of active
Wien bridge L1 to Amp. rectifier &
L2 meter

Fig 6.2

From panel for connection is as shown in fig 6.3.

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Measurement System





Meter input


Fig 6.3

Input - connect single way threaded socket with cable from inductive pick

Operation instructions:
i) Ensure connections and turn on
ii) Obtain reading

Sr.No. Input Meter Reading

1 5 4.5 Increasing
2 10 9.8 Increasing
3 15 15 Increasing
4 -5 -5.1 Decreasing
5 -10 -10.2 Decreasing
6 -15 -15.9 Decreasing

Plot a graph displacement Vs meter reading

Remark - Study graph

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Measurement System

Experiment No.7
The basis for variable reluctance transducer is an electromagnetic
circuit whose reluctance varies as the shaft rotates - because of periodic changes in
air gap. Variation in reluctance causes variation in flux, which in turn causes
induced emf. In the output coil. The output voltage is fairly sinusoidal and peak to
peak value is proportional to shaft speed ( n rev/min ).

Gear teeth=20

Photo source
Piezoelectric pickup
Magnetic Pick up

To front panel control

Fig. 7.1
In this set up, a toothed gear wheel is mounted on the motor shaft.
The no. of teeth of the gear is 20. The gear wheel is of ferromagnetic material. The
pick up consists of a coil wound around - a permanent magnet. The magnetic field
surrounding the coil is distorted by the passing of a tooth causing a pulse of out put
voltage in the coil. The r.m.s. Value of output voltage increases with reduction in
clearance between rotor and pick up, with an increase in tooth size, with an increase
in rotor speed. The frequency of the output pulses is dependent on no. of teeth and
the rotor speed. For this set up when motor runs at 1500 rpm or 25 rps are produced
and hence number of pulses is 500 per second. Thus pick up works as a self-
generating and variable frequency generator transducer
Circuit Description - The circuit includes 2 stages of A.C. amplification 1 giving a
very high overall gain. The resultant output is fed to Schmitt trigger circuit. The
Schmitt trigger in turn trigger circuit of the monostable which generator instant
width, constant height pulses. There variable frequency pulses are given to the
meter for final indication.
When the motor is running at 1500 rpm. The pick up produces 500
pulses/s. A separate signal generator with a stable frequency of 500 H3 is provided,
Called a calibration source. When the output of this calibration is connected to

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Measurement System

input of the amplifier stage, and by using the potentiometer marked Max, when
F.S.D. of meter is adjusted then the set up is said to be calibrated for 1500 rpm.
Now meter directly reads rpm of the motor. Electronic circuit is shown in fig 7.2
1.magnetic 2. Calibration Source 3. Photo electric picks up.

Output 1520 rpm





magnetic pickup meter input

A.C. Schmidt mono O/P to
2 amp. trigger stable meter circuit

1) Magnetic 2) Calibration Source 3) Photoelectric Pickup

Fig 7.2
Operating instruction
1) Ensure connections and turn on
2) Connect magnetic pick up and Adjust
3) Take readings
Sr.No. True reading Meter reading
1 80 150
2 190 300
3 250 450
4 840 600
5 870 900
Plot a graph of actual rpm Vs meter reading.
Remark - Study graph

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Measurement System

Experiment No.8
The principle of measurement is based on photoelectric effect. The
set up is designed to produce pulses proportional to rpm of shaft using
phototransistor as a sensing element. A disc with 20 holes is mounted on the motor
shaft and when photo - transistor and light source are properly fitted every passage
of a hole across them produces a voltage pulse of high amplitude.
Circuit description - The circuit includes 2 stages of A.C. amplification : giving
very high overall gain. The resultant output is fed to schemitt trigger circuit - The
Schmitt trigger in turn trigger circuit of the monostable, which generates constant
width constant height pulses. These variable frequency pulses are given to the
meter for final incation as shown in fig 8.1

R Output B


Photoelectric pickup


Magnetic pickup

Switch - To change from Magnetic to photoelectric and vise versa
Max - Pot to adjust up to 1500 rpm
A.C. Schmidt mono O/P to
2 amp. trigger stable meter circuit

1) Magnetic 2) Calibration Source 3) Photoelectric Pickup
Fig 8.1 (b)
When the motor is running at 1500 rpm, the pick-ups produce 500
pulses per second.

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Measurement System

No 2 in fig 8.1 is a Calibration source of constant frequency 500H2

and FSD adjusted according to this source and then meter is said to be Calibration
for 1500 rpm.
Operating Instructions - (1) Ensure connection and put on
(ii) Take readings
Sr.No Meter Meter Reading of rpm
1 80 100
2 190 200
3 250 260
4 850 700
5 870 900

Plot a graph

Meter Vs Meter reading of rpm

Meter reading of rpm

0 200 400 600 800 1000
Remark - Discuss graph

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Measurement System

Experiment No.9

Thermocouple, transducer based on See back effect, is the most

commonly and widely used single device for temperature measurement in industrial
applications, for the range 00 - 40000F. (0-22000C.). Thermocouple is a self-
generating transducer and basically is a pair of dissimilar metallic conductor joined
so as to produce an emf. When three junctions are at different temperature.
Magnitude of emf depends upon magnitude of temperature difference and materials
of conductors. Combinations used for base metal thermocouple are copper
constant. (-1500C - 3150C), Iron constant (-1500C - 8.600C), Chromal - Alumal etc.
Thermocouples are low in cost, reliable in service, are easily used cover wide range
of temperature measurement and have very good time response
Characteristics (because of low thermal mass). But they care not perfectly linear
over entire range, require cold junction compensation if ice-bath is to be avoided.

Circuit description - Thermocouple output is connected to the non -inverting

terminal of the operation amplifier and gain of the amplifier is seen to be 10. To the
inverting terminal of operational amplifier output from a wheat stone bridge is
supplied (Fig 9-1). This bridge is excited from highly stabilised D.C. supply. As
the combient temperature goes changing the changing the R.T.D`s resistance also
changes and small output is fed to the inverting input to the amplifier, with higher
ambient temperature, thermocouples transducer tends to produce lower output
voltage. The R.T.D. Bridge thus compensates for ambient temperature and
climinates requirement of cold junction. The output of bridge is connected to the

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Measurement System

R Output B 0 Min.-- to adjust

Ice bath temp
Max S S Max -- is used to
Adjust boiling
Min. water temp.
Input meter input

(a) Control panel front

RTP + ve max.
O.P to meter
Compensation bridge B
- ve


Input (b)

Fig.. 9.1

Operating Instruction - (1) Ensure connection and start (2) Take readings
Sr.No. Actual Temp. Meter reading
Plot a graph
Remark - Discuss the graph

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Measurement System

Experiment No.10
Measurement of Temperature
Measurement of the temperature of a body depends upon the
establishment of thermodynamic equilibrium between the body and the device used
to sense temperature.
This condition is rarely achieved as establishment of instanteneous
equilibrium depends on the sensors, its size and shape, it`s thermal capacitance and
variation in parameters of recording instruments and compensation provided.
Mechanism Of Heat Transfer
Conduction :- Some substances are good conductors, Like metals; others are bad
conductors like glass, plastics, oxide. Conductivities of metals is approximately of
the order of one thousand times those of other solids or liquids. Mercury is
exception as it is a liquid metal. Conductivities of liquids are times those of gases.
It is desirable that heat be conducted as rapidly as possible to the
temperature sensor which should be directly immersed in the heated medium or if it
is not possible; a protective pocket should be provided and the sensor immersed in a
good conductor such as mercury or aluminium powder.
Convection :-Liquid and gasses transfer heat by convection. Convection is either
natural (like boiling water) or forced (directing air over hot element by fan, blower
Radiation :- Radiant heat (Intra - red radiation), like light is considered to take the
form of electromagnetic wave (speed - 3,00,000 km/s in vacuum and air). It can be
focused, reflected, transmitted, absorbed and radiated by materials. It`s essential
differences from light are
a) It is not visible.
b) It has a longer wave length ranging from 0.75µm to about 100µm.
c) When it falls on skin it produces the sensation of warmth.
All substances radiate heat at all temperatures above absolute zero;
thus if an attempt is made to measure the temperature of a hot gas surrounded by

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Measurement System

cooler walls using a thermocouple it is found that the temperature recorded is lower
than that of the gas due to exchange of heat between couple and cool walls by
Absolute thermodynamic scale :-
The absolute thermodynamic scale was originally established in 1854.
The term thermodynamic means that temperature scale conforms to the laws of
thermodynamics and is independent of any thermometric substance. Widely used
method to establish this scale is constant volume gas thermometer obeying gas law
pv = RT. The unit degree on the scale was originally defined as one hundredth part
of the temperature interval between the freezing and boiling point of pure water.
The present thermodynamic scale is called Kelvin scale and its sole defining point
is tripple point of water 273.160 K (0.010C) as shown in fig.10.1. This scales
matches with earlier 0C scale.

Establishment of the thermodynamic scale by gas thermometer is a

difficult technique requiring great skill, and in view of this International practical
temperature scale was established which confirms closely to the absolute scale
using instruments for fixed point determination which conveniently and accurately
reproduce temperature within the scale range.

(IPTS) International Practical Temperature Scale 1968

The primary fixed points on the IPTS are shown in Table 10.1. These
are determined at one standard atmosphere (101 325 N/m2).
The methods used to establish the scale are show in Table 10.2. A
good number of secondary points are also given in Table 10.3 for establishing fixed
points for instruments.

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Measurement System

Table - 10.1 Defining fixed points of I.P.T.S.

0 0
Equilibrium state K C
Equilibrium between solid, 13.81 -259.34
liquid and vapour phases of
equilibrium hydrogen (Tripple
point of equilibrium hydrogen)
Equilibrium between the liquid 17.042 -256.108
and vapour phases of
equilibrium hydrogen at a
pressure of 33.330.6 N/m2
(25/76 of standard atmospheric
Boiling point of equilibrium 20.28 -252.87
Boiling point of neon 27.102 -246.048
Tripple point of oxygen 54.361 -218.789
Boiling point of oxygen 90.186 -182.962
Tripple point of water 273.16 0.01
Boiling point of water 373.15 100
Freezing point of Zinc 692.73 419.58
Freezing point of silver 1235.08 961.93
Freezing point of gold 1337.58 1064.43

Fig 10.2 Methods to establish IPTS

Range Method Output measured
13.8 K to the antimony Platinium resistance Electrical Resistance
point 630.740c thermometer
630.740c to the gold point Pt/Pt+10%Rh Electromotive force
1064.630c thermocouple

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Measurement System

Above (1064.430C.) 1337.580C is defined by planck`s law.

Table 10.3
IPTS Secondary points
Substance solid/liquid Tem. T 0K Temp 0C
Mercury 234.288 -38.862
Water (ice point) 273.15 0
Bismuth 544.592 271.442
Lead 600.652 327.502
Antimony 903.89 630.74
Nickel 1728 1455
Platinum 2045 1772
Rhodium 2236 1963
Tridium 2720 2447
Tungsten 3660 3387
There is no IPTS from absolute zero to 13.810K. But temperature
between range 00K to 200K are measured by magnetic, vapour pressure and
ultrasonic (noise) thermometers.
Temperature Measuring Instruments
Temperature measuring instruments can be divided into 'two groups'.
Non electrical methods.
1) Liquid, Vapour pressure and gas thermometer
2) Thermocouple pyrometer
3) (a) total radiation pyrometer.
(b)photoelectric pyrometer.
(c) Optical pyrometer.
Liquid in glass thermometer
Liquids like Mercury (-350c to 5100c), Alcohol (-800c to +700c);
Toluene (-800c to 1000c) Pentone (-200 to 300c) and Creosole (-5 to 2000c) are used
for these thermometers.

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Measurement System

Essential characteristics of thermometer.

(1) Inexpensive
(2) Simple
(3) Easily portable
(4) Fragile
(5) No requirement of indication instruments
(6) Stem readings should be visible
(7) High heat capacitance
(8)Slow response to dynamic temperature measurements
(9)Distant reading not possible
(10)Not suitable for surface temperature measurement
(11) Used as immersed in mercury/aluminium powder container for solids.
(12) Used by applying correction for exposed portion in liquids.
(13) Used in gas by providing bright metal shield around and forced gas flow.
Vapour condensation must be avoided.
Measurement of Temperature
Temperature measuring instruments can be divided in to two groups.

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Measurement System

Non electrical Methods.

(i) liquid, vapour pressure and gas thermometer
(ii) Bimetal strip thermometer
(iii) Refractory cones, paints and crayons
Electrical Methods
(i) Electrical Resistance pyrometer
(ii) Thermocouple pyrometer
(iii) (a) total radiation pyrometer
(b)photoelectric pyrometer
(c) Optical pyrometer
Liquid in glass thermometer
Mercury is usually used in liquid in glass thermometers although
other liquids, such as alcohol and pentane, which have lower freezing temperatures
than mercury do not cause contamination through breakage, are also used.
Mercury -35 to +510 238 to 783
Alcohol -80 to +70 193 to 343
Toluene -80 to +100 193 to 373
Pentane -200 to +30 73 to 303
Creosote -5 to +200 268 to 573

Increase in temperature causes the liquid to expand and rise up the

stem. When measuring tempertures above the boiling point of mercury (3570C at
atmospheric pressure) the spare above the liquid is filled with nitrogen under
pressure, thus raising the boiling point and allowing temperatures up to 5100C to be
Thermometers are classified as chemical or Industrial. Chemical
thermometers acts as standards for industrial thermometers and are used in
laboratories and are calibrated regularly against standard instruments when in use.
Industrial thermometers may have long stem. They may of registering
type to indicate maximum and minimum temperatures. Small range thermometer

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Measurement System

usually 50C and one degree interval 50 mm long, can give estimated values of the
order of 0.01 to 0.0020C when used in conjugation with a law temperature
telescope. Essential characteristics of liquid in glass thermometer 1) Inexpensive
2) Simple 3) Easily portable 4) Fragile 5) Additional Indication instruments are
not required. 6) Can be used only when stem readings are visible. 7) Shows
temperature lag due to relative high capacity in dynamic temperature
measurements. 8) Not suitable for remote measurements. 9) Not suitable for
surface temperate measurements.
Applications - Solids -- The thermometer may be immersed in a mercury or
aluminium powder filled hole in the solids to ensure rapid heat conduction. Steady
state condition is necessary.
Liquids - Immersed in liquid. Correction can be applied to apart of column
exposed to atmosphere.
Gases - are poor conductors of heat. Radiation losses occur. Bright metal shields
round the thermometer and forced gas flow is used to improve accuracy of reading.
Liquid in Metal thermometer
These instruments are of the bulb; capillary Bourdon tube type, filled
with liquid under pressure, measuring change of volume of the liquid. It has
temperature lag characteristic but it is quite robust.
Liq. RangeoC
Mercury -39 to + 650
Xylene -40 to + 400
Alcohol -46 to + 150
Ether + 20 to +90
The main advantages of this thermometer.
1)linear Scale 2) Wide temperature range 3) Ample power to operate pointer 4)
Liquid can be under high pressure thus reducing head error. 5) no effect of
burrometric pressure variation 6) long capillary allow large differences in bulb and
indicator levels. 7) Remote sensing. Accuracy - ï ½ % of FSD

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Measurement System

Constant volume gas expansion thermometer

The main advantages of this instrument is its rapid response to temperature
changes as gas has lower heat capacity than liquid and solids gases have much
higher coefficient of expansion e.g. N2 3.644 x 10-3 & Ne2 3.6617 x 10-3 as
compare to 0.181x10-3 that of mercury.
Accuracy - ± 1/2 % of FSD
Vapour pressure thermometers
Ether is introduced in evacuated chamber. There is in pressure change
corresponding to temperature change.
Liquid used - Methyl chloride 0 - 50
Diethyl ether 60 - 160
Ethyl alcohol 90 - 1700c
Water 120 - 2200c
Toluene 150 - 2200c
Characteristic - (1) non linear scale (2) small scale range (up to 1000c) (3) fast
response (4) Distant reading (up to 65 m ) (5) Range - 0 - 1500c
Instrument - Bourden capillary and bulb

Fig 10.4 a) Bimetal strip thermometer

b) Compensated liquid in metal thermometer

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Measurement System

Bimetallic strip thermometer

Characteristics - (1) Inexpensive 2) Compact 3) Robust 4) Linear 5) Ranges - 30
to 2000c and 0 to 5500c 6) Accuracy - 2 % of FSD
Temperature Indication by change of state of Solids
Pyrometric Cones :- Material - China, Clay tale feldspar
Range - 600 to 20000c.
A minimum of three cones mounted having various melting points are
mounted on to a refractory plate. The required temperature is indicated when the
selected cone reaches its end point i.e its tip just touches the plate.
Change of colour
Paints and Crayons :- These are useful for small scale heating of steel parts,
weldments, for stress relief and preheating. The paint or Crayon changes colour or
Appearance at fixed temperature.
Cones, bars, recorders and rings are used in heat treatment kilns for
ceramic wear grinding wheels, bricks, refractories, electrical porcelain, earthware
sanitary ware files and china. They are often used in conjunction with a pyrometer.
Accuracy - ± 10 %.
(1) Two dissimilar in contact with each other exhibit potential difference
(2) A potential gradient exists even in a single metal if there is a temperature
Secback effect - Emf generated depends on material of thermocouple as well as
temperature gradient (T1 - T2).

Cold junction Hot junction

T1 J1 T2 J2
Peltier effect - Current flowing in thermocouple heats cold (due to heat generation)
and cools hot junction (due to heat absorption). Practically this effect is negligible.

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Measurement System

Thomson effect :- Junction emf may be slightly altered if there exist temperature
gradient along thermocouple wien. This effect is also practically negligible.
Where E - emf a, b - constants T = T1 - T2
Materials - A) Base materials thermocouples- Copper -
Constant, range - 3 - 6730c Accuracy ± ½ % Sensitivity - 0.05 mv/k
Iron constantant - range - 63 - 14730c, Accuracy ± 1 % Sensitivity - 0.05 mv/0K
B) Rare - Metals - Platinum - platinum/10 % sodium range 233 - 20330c
Accuracy ± ½ %, , sensitivity 0.01 mv/0K
Application of thermocouple - Thermocouple is welded or soldered to surface for
surface temperature measurements.
Thermopiles - Series of thermocouple attached in series are called thermopiles.
Total output is the sum of emf output of all the thermocouples.
Principal :- Energy received by thermocouple
E = e σ K4
K = true temperature of the body.
Fery total radiation pyrometer - The main features of this pyrometer are as follows
(a) A blackened tube (T) open at one end to receive radiation and carrying an
adjustable eyepiece E at the other.
(b) A thermocouple C shielded from in coming radiation and carrying a blackened
copper target disc.
(c) A concave mirror M - adjustable by rack and pinion arrangement
(d) Two small flat mirror for adjustment of focus on the thermocouple.

x 10 x 9

witness End point signal

Set x-x Pyrometric Cones

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incoming radiation Major



Total radiation pyrometer
Mirror if focused properly it appears as shown at ii otherwise as
shown at I through eyepiece E
Faster pyrometer - This is a fixed focus thermocouple instrument arranged in such
a way that provided the cone of radiation fills the tube the distance of the pyrometer
from the source is unimportant.
Land surface pyrometer :- This pyrometer is specially designed for measuring the
temperature of surfaces in open. It is also used to measure total emissibilty of the
Optical pyrometers, photo electrical pyrometers are the fen other pyrometers used
for measurement of temperature. Also electrical resistance thermometer,
thermisters, glass probe and metal probe thermometers are used for temperature

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Experiment no 11
Liquid level measurement
Liquid level measurement and control is essential in modern industrial
plants which use large quantities of water, solvents, chemicals and other liquids
which are required for processing materials and products. The instruments used for
liquid level measurement in storage tanks may be broadly classified under the
following headings:
(i) Direct and indirect mechanical methods
(ii) Pneumatic methods
(iii) Electrical methods
(iv) Ultrasonic systems
(v) Nucleonic gauges.
The choice of instrument to be used in a particular application will
depend on several factors such as the liquid level range, the nature of the liquid, the
cost involved and the operating pressures.
Direct and indirect mechanical methods
The ordinary dip-stick marked in units of length is the simplest of all level
measuring devices. Common applications are the measurement of oil level in the
car engine or the height of fuel oil in a uniformly shaped storage tank. Accurate
level measurement using dip-sticks is achieved by the Customs and Excise
Department in both the brewing and the petroleum industry. A refinement of the
simple rod-type dip-stick is the bob and tape where the bob weight is lowered to the
bottom of the tank containing the liquid and the level is found by measuring the
point on the tape reached by the liquid surface. It is obviously important to keep the
tape vertical and taut when a reading is taken..
Hook gauges
Hook gauges are generally used for measurement of small changes in level in very
large diameter storage tanks. A typical schematic arrangement of such a gauge is

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shown in Fig. 10.1. In practice the gauge is fixed at a datum or reference level.
Small changes in level with respect to the datum may then be measured by
adjusting the position of the hook until the tip just
Hook gauges
Hook gauges are generally used for measurement of small changes in level in very
large diameter storage tanks. A typical schematic arrangement of such a gauge is
shown in Fig.10.1. In practice the gauge is fixed at a datum or reference level.
Small changes in level with respect to the datum may then be measured by adjusting
the position of the hook until the tip just breaks the liquid surface.

Screw knob

Vernier Scale

Liquid level Tip of Hook

Sight glasses
The sight glass is normally a graduated glass tube mounted on the side of the tank
as shown in Fig. 10.2. This method is very simple and gives direct reading of level
at the sight tube. Corrections may have to be made owing to variations in density if
the temperature in the storage tank is much higher than the temperature surrounding
the glass sight tube.
Buoyant floats
Many kinds of float-operated devices are available for continuous level
measurement. The primary element is the float which, because of its buoyancy,
will follow the changing liquid level. The movement of the float is then relayed to
a pointer or recorder by using some form of transducer or converting device. The
mechanical float operated level controller, the ordinary ball-cock, is one of the

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simplest and most elegant of all proportional control systems.

A float level gauge using a counterweight is shown in Fig.10.3. In this case the
float is coupled directly to the indicating element but other systems are available
where the float movement is used to modulate an external source of power,
hydraulic, electrical or pneumatic.

An example of a float operated method equipped for electrical transmission is

shown in Fig.10.4. In this system the movement of the float produces an angular
rotation of the take-up drum which is connected via suitable gearing to a rotary
potentiometer type displacement transducer. The output voltage from the
potentiometer is proportional to the angular movement of the drum and hence the
linear float movement.

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Indirect mechanical methods

Consider a tank of uniform cross-sectional area A which contains a liquid of density
p. the level of the liquid to be measured being indicated by the height h above the
bottom of the tank;
Absolute pressure at the bottom of the tank = pgh + atmospheric pressure
Now Gauge pressure = absolute pressure - atmospheric pressure
Or Gauge pressure = pgh
As the gauge pressure is proportional to the height h, a meter is required which will
measure gauge pressure. A typical Bourdon-type pressure gauge as described in
Chapter 9 can therefore be used to measure gauge pressure at the base of the tank.
A suitable system is shown in Fig. 10.5 where the scale of the instrument is
calibrated directly in level measurement units.
Strictly speaking the indicating gauge should be mounted at exactly the same
height as the bottom of the tank in order to indicate the level correctly. Figure 10.6
shows the gauge with the connecting pipe full of liquid. The total head of liquid
acting on the gauge is the height of liquid above the gauge and it can be seen that
the readings will be subjec to a 'zero error'. If the zero error is not too large,
however, this could possibly be calibrated out on the gauge scale.

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Pneumatic methods
The principle of a bubbler level gauge is illustrated in Fig. 10.7. The air pressure in
the bubbler tube is adjusted until bubbles can be seen slowly leaving the bottom of
the tube. The pressure gauge then measures the air pressure required to overcome
the pressure of the liquid head above the bottom of the tube. Normally the gauge is
calibrated directly in head units but, provided the cross-sectional area of the tank is
constant, volume units may be used.

Electrical methods

The variable capacitance transducer is the most widely used electrical method for
liquid level measurement. A simple capacitor consists of two electrode plates
separated by a material called the dielectric. The capacitance of a parallel plate
capacitor can be expressed in the following form
C = KA ε
where C is the capacitance, K is a constant, A is the overlapping area of the plates, e
is the dielectric constant and d is the distance between the plates
A capacitance transducer can be used to measure the level of liquid in tank
and Fig. 10.8 shows a schematic arrangement of a suitable system. A metal
electrode is placed inside the tank and insulated from it. The tank itself is earthed
and forms one of the plates. The transducer therefore consists of two concentric
metal cylinders and a change in liquid level alters the dielectric constant and hence
the capacitance. The capacitance transducer is connected to one arm of a
Wheatstone bridge circuit and changes in capacitance will alter the output voltage
from the bridge. The bridge output voltage can therefore be calibrated directly in
terms of liquid level

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Capacitance transducers can be used to measure levels from a few

millimeters to hundreds of meters. The method may be used for corrosive liquids
provided a suitable metal electrode is used, e.g. stainless steel.

Ultrasonic systems
Ultrasonic systems use an ultrasonic signal source and a matched receiver. Figure
10.9 illustrates the principle of ultrasonic level indication where the ultrasonic
transmitter and receiver are placed above the 'full' level of the tank. In this case two
echoes are received, one from the surface of the liquid and one from the bottom of
the tank. The time separation between receiving the two echoes is a measure of the
liquid level in the tank and the echoes may be displayed on a suitable analogue
device such as a cathode ray oscilloscope.
This method of level measurement is very expensive but can be used for
'difficult' liquids, i.e. corrosive or radioactive, as none of the equipment is in contact
with the liquid to be measured.

Nucleonic gauges
Owing to the ready availability of radioactive materials nuclear techniques can now
be employed for the extension of some of the more conventional methods of level
measurement. Nuclear gauges have the advantage that they can operate entirely
from outside the containing vessel. These systems may be designed to provide

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on/off control at a fixed level in the vessel, or to provide continuous indication of

level over a given range.
Nucleonic-type measuring units consist of a radioactive source, a radioactive
detector and a rate meter to detect changes in radiation intensity received by the
detector. A simple on/off level control device is shown Fig. and consists of a
radioactive source, mounted in a suitable shield to provide good collimation, and a
radiation detector. The source and detector are mounted on opposite sides of the
tank at the critical level. When the contents of the tank rise above the critical level
gamma radiation is absorbed and the detector output is reduced. This reduction in
detector output is used to operate the control relay, thus closing the valve a stopping
the flow of fluid into the tank. Similarly, when the vessel is being emptied, the
increase in signal strength as the contents fall below critical level may be used to
operate the control valve.

When continuous level measurement is required a strip gamma-ray source and a

long tubular detector can be used. The liquid, upon rising and falling inside the
tank, absorbs radiation, and the change in intensity received by the detector is a
function of liquid level. A typical level gauge installation is shown in Fig.10.11.

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Long tubular detectors are not a commercial item and if they have to be
specially manufactured, then such installations can prove expensive.
Perhaps the most popular continuous level gauge is the moving source and
detector system. This system is essentially the on/off system discussed previously
in which the collimated source and detector are arranged to traverse vertically
together. The traversing gear is normally driven by an electric motor which is
controlled by the relay current. The source and detector can therefore follow any
change in level and are always positioned in line with the liquid surface.
Solid level measurement
Many industrial processes require continuous level indication of the levels of solid
substances in storage tanks, typical examples being the measurement of the level of
flour and grain. Of the methods already described for liquid level measurement the
capacitor probe, the nucleonic gauge and the ultrasonic method can also be applied
to the measurement of solid levels.
The most popular method used for solids is the indirect method of weighing
the material in a tank or storage bin. Provided the cross-sectional area of the storage
vessel is constant then the level will be linearly related to the weight.
The storage tanks may be weighed on mechanical scales or electrically using
strain gauge load cells (Fig. 10.12). This technique of level measurement will only
be accurate provided the density and the particle size of the material are uniform.
The moisture content should also remain fairly uniform or errors can occur.

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Experiment no 12
Use of Stroboscope: When speed measurements are to made by stroboscopic methods,
we generally work with a single distinguishing mark and proceed to find the highest flash
frequency at which a true stationary image is seen. This approach stems from the fact that
if the frequency of the flashing light is twice the shaft speed, a single mark on the rotating
shaft appears to be two standing marks 180 apart. Accordingly the flash frequency is
gradually increased from a low value until the rotating member appears to be stationary.
The flash frequency is noted and then increased to twice its value. If there is still only one
apparent stationary image the flash frequency is doubled again. This procedure is
continued until two images appear 180° apart. When two images are observed for the first
time, the flash frequency is twice the speed rotation.
Consider a stroboscopic light, flashing 3600 times per minute, focused upon the
end of a rotating shaft with a single keyway in it. In case, there appear to be four keyways
90° apart, then the shift is rotating at 900 rpm. Further, if the keyways appear to be slowly
rotating under this light, then the shaft speed is either slightly more or slightly less than
900 rpm. The apparent revolutions of keyways are then counted per unit time and the
relative rotational speed, called slip, is determined. If the keyways are observed to be
revolving once in 12 seconds, then slip equals 5 rpm. The possible shaft speed is then
determined by adding or subtracting slip from the basic 900-rpm synchronous frequency.
If keyways appear to be rotating in a direction opposite to the direction of shaft rotation,
then slip is negative and it must be subtracted from the synchronous 900 rpm.
For exact speed measurement, the flashing rate is adjusted and synchronism is
attained (appearance of a single line stationary image) for the higher rate of flashing.
The flashing rate is then gradually reduced and synchronism is observed at reduced flash
rate. If synchronism occurs at n different flashing rates f1, f2,……….fn then the actual
Shaft speed in calculated from the relation:
f 1 f n (n − 1)
f1 − f n

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Where f1 is the lowest flashing frequency, fn is the highest flashing frequency and n is the
number of flashing frequencies. These flashing frequencies refer to the frequencies at
which single-line images are obtained.
In addition to checking and measuring speeds of rotation of shafts and other parts
of machinery, stroboscopes are also used for high speed photography and apparently
slowing down periodically repetitive motions and thus enable those to be observed more
conveniently. The device is especially valuable where it is inconvenient to make a
connection with the rotating shaft or for low-powered machinery where any load to drive
a tachometer would affect the operation of the machine. Commercial stroboscopes are
available to read angular velocities between 600 and 20,000 rpm. The device, however,
can- not be used where the ambient light is above a certain value; the stroboscope
requires a subdued surrounding light for its efficient operation.

Example The speed of a turbocharger was measured by a stroboscope and for that a
radial mark was made on the rotating shaft .The synchronism was attained for the highest
rate of flashing and subsequently the flashing rate was reduced and a single image
observed at reduced flash rates. Calculate the speed of the turbocharger if
synchronizations achieved for stroboscopic settings of 13600, 1800, 1200,900 and 720
Solution:- The actual speed is given by
f 1 f n (n − 1)
f1 − f n
Where fn=highest flashing frequency =3600 rpm
fi=lowest flashing frequency=720 rpm
n==number of flashing frequencies=5
720 × 3600 × ( 5 − 1 )
fr= = 3600 rpm
3600 − 720

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