Diploma in Electronics - CP04 Instructors’ Practical Manual V semester

Industrial Electronics-I

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS PAGE NO 1. FAMILIARISATION OF DIGITAL STORAGE OSCILLOSCOPE 2. FAMILIARISATION OF CURRENT PROBE AND AMPLIFIER 3. TRANSISTER SWITCHING CHARACTERISTICS 4. MOSFET SWITCHING CHARECTERISTICS 5. MAGNTISATION OF RL LOAD & DEMAGNETISATION USING i. DIODE ii. DIODE&RESISTER iii. DIODE&ZENER 6. MAGNETISATION OF L LOAD & DEMAGNETISATION USING a. DIODE b. DIODE & RESISTOR c. DIODE & ZENER 7. FAMILIARISATION OF PWM IC SG3524 8. INDUCTOR DESIGN 9. BUCK CONVERTER 10. FAMILIARISATION OF IC TCA785 31 35 39 43 47 53 60 19 23 27 01 05 08 13

FAMILIARIZATION OF DIGITAL STORAGE OSCILLOSCOPE
OBJECTIVES  To get familiarized with DSO and its front panel controls. EQUIPMENTS REQUIRED SlNo 01 02 Equipment DSO Probe Model Tektronix Tektronix Specification 60MHz 7A Quantity 1 1

HOW TO USE IT? Tektronix TDS 350 two channel oscilloscope are digital signal processors and are superb tools for displaying and measuring and measuring waveforms.  Two input channels, each with a record length of 1000 samples an 8-bit vertical resolution .both channels acquire wave forms simultaneously.  1 Giga samples/second maximum sample rate (TDS500):500 Mega

samples/second maximum sample rate: 200 Mega samples/second (TDS320).  200 MHz analog band width and fastest time base setting of 2.5ns/div (TDS350).  A full compliment of advanced functions including on-screen read out.

VERTICAL CONTROL . wave form enveloping and hardware peak detection A unique graphical user interface (GUI) and a logical front panel layout which combine to deliver the standard in usability pioneered by the TDS family of oscilloscopes. If the wave form indicates over or under compensation. FRONT PANEL AUTOSET Feature produces a stable triggered display of almost any signal . Check that wave form indicates correct compensation. use alignment tool provided with the probe to adjust the compensation. CLEAR MANU This button clears all menus from the screen. COMPENSATING A PROBE Use the following procedure: Attach the probe BNC connector to channel and attach the probe HP to the probe comp output signal. Press auto reset. Auto set cursors and continuously updated automatic measurements Wave form averaging. connect a signal to either ch1 or ch2.Two use auto set.

TRIGGER  The trigger level knob controls the trigger.  The vertical volts/div knob controls the vertical scale of the presently selected waveform. HORIZONTAL CONTROL  The horizontal position knob controls the horizontal position of all waveforms.  The waveform OFF button turns off the presently selected waveforms. . The vertical knob controls the vertical position of the presently selected waveforms. The button has no effect if the acquisition system is stopped.  The force trigger button forces the oscilloscope to start acquiring a waveform regardless of whether a trigger event occurs.  The set level to 50 % button sets the trigger level at the half way point between the peaks of the trigger signal.  The trigger status lights indicate the status of the triggering system.  The sec/div knob controls the horizontal scale of active waveforms.  The vertical menu button calls up the vertical operation menu.

LOGIC CONVENTIONS This refers to digital logic circuits with standard logic symbols and terms. The more positive of two logic levels is the high (1) state and more negative level is the low (0) state signal states may also be described as “true” meaning their active state or “false” meaning their non active state. Unless otherwise started all logic functions are described using the positive logic convention. .  The acquire button calls up the acquisition menu. The toggle button switches control from cursor to cursor. The specific voltages that constitute a high or low state vary among the electronic devices.  The save/recall setup button calls up the save/recall setup.  The Measure button calls up the automated measurement menu.  The rum/stop button starts and stops acquisition. MISCELLANEOUS CONTROLS  The general purpose knob controls the many side menu functions including the cursor. The ready light illuminates when the instrument can accept a valid trigger and is waiting for the event to occur.

If a probe is unlocked.FAMILIARISATION OF CURRENT PROBE AND CURRENT AMPLIFIER OBJECTIVES  To familiarize with current probe amplifier and its front panel controls. The slide must be locked to accurately measure current or degauss the probe. . the probe open indicator on the amplifier will light. EQUIPMENTS REQUIRED: Slno 01 02 03 Equipment Current probe Current probe amplifier DSO Model Tektronix Tektronix Tektronix Specification 20 A AC/ DC 50Mhz 50Mhz Quantity 1 1 1 HOW TO USE IT? The A6302 is DC to 50Mhz current probe designed for use with AM503 family of current probe amplifier .The A6302 can measure current up to 20A(DC+ peak AC) and up to 50A peak current.

NOTE: The degauss procedure will fail if the amplifier is not properly connected to a 50 ohm termination impedance. As the frequency increase maximum continuous current value or rating decreases.  Press the amplifier probe degauss auto balance button.  Lock the probe slide closed.  Maximum continuous current error refers to the maximum current that can be continuously measured at DC or at a specified AC frequency the maximum continuous current value is de rated with frequency. Failure to degauss the probe is a leading cause of measurement error.DEGAUSSING AND AUTOBALANCING OF CURRENT PROBE  Verify that current probe is connected to the amplifier. Auto balancing removes unwanted dc offset in the amplifier circuitry.  Maximum pulsed current refers to the maximum peak value of pulsed current the probe can accurately measured.  Remove the current probe from the conductor under test. MAXIMUM CURRENT LIMITS Exceeding any of these rating can saturate the probe core and cause measurement error. Why degauss the current probes: Degaussing the probe removes any residual magnetization from the probe core such residual magnetization can induce measurement error.  Ampere-second product defines the maximum width of pulsed current that you can measure when the pulse amplitude is between the maximum continuous and . regardless of how short the pulse duration is.

perform either procedure A or B. PROCEDURE B To determine the maximum allowable pulse amplitude measures the pulse width at 50% points. PROCEDURE A To determine the maximum allowable pulse width. The maximum continuous specifications it itself varies by frequency. Set the DSO volts per division to 10mV.The quotient is the maximum allowable current: the peak amplitude of the measured pulse must be less than this value. Adjust the reference of the current amplifier by keeping the coupling in reference position. The quotient is the maximum allowable pulse width. Divide the ampere-second (or ampere-microsecond) specification of your probe by the pulse width .maximum pulsed current specifications. the pulse width at the 50% point of the measured signal must be less than this value. measure the peak current of the pulse divide the ampere-second specification of your probe by the measured peak current of the pulse. . Lock the probe and change the coupling to either dc or ac depending on the current flow in the conductor. To determine if your measurement exceeds the ampere-second Product. After degaussing the probe connect the probe to current amplifier. Measure the current on the DSO. Adjust the ampere per division of current probe amplifier.

fall time.SWITCHING CHARACTERSTICS OF A TRANSISTOR OBJECTIVE  To design a switch using a transistor.  Find rise time. 50Mhz .2A 0-20A DC/AC.5A. delay time and storage time.60v 200 ohm 20 ohm Quantity 1 1 1 EQUIPMENTS REQUIRED Sl No: 1 2 3 4 Equipment DSO Pulse Generator Power Supply Current probe and amplifier Model Tektronics Scientific Measurement systems Tektronics Specification 60Mhz 20MHz 0-30v. BILL OF MATERIALS Sl no: 1 2 3 Component Transistor Resistor R1 R2 Specification BD139 ½W CFR 2W CFR Value Ic=1.

On time of the transistor= Rise time + Delay Time Off time of the transistor= Fall time + Storage time . When base drive is zero.CIRCUIT THEORY The above circuit is a base bias circuit. This is used in switching application. Even if the beta changes for a long range the circuit will remain in the hard saturation. There is no drop across collector resistor and the entire supply voltage drop across collector-emitter terminals. the switch is open. Since the beta of the transistor varies commonly to make sure that the circuit will work in the saturation it is designed in the hard saturation. which is designed to operate transistor in saturation and cut off.

Icsat =0.5A.DESIGN To design the transistor as a switch for a current of 0.5A = 20 Ohms Since the circuit should work in the hard saturation the ratio of the Rb verses Rc should be 10:1 Therefore Rb = 200 Ohms .5A Icsat = Vcc / Rc Let Vcc = 10V Then Rc = 10/0.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM .

 Observe the Current and Voltage waveforms.  Apply the signal to base of the switch.  Measure rise time. NOTE: TYPICAL RESULT FOR THE CIRCUIT USED Rise time= Fall time= Delay time= Storage time = . delay time and storage time. fall time.  Set the pulse width to 100µs with a frequency of 200 Hz.PROCEDURE  Set the circuit as per circuit diagram.

200V 50 ohm 10 ohm Quantity 1 1 1 EQUIPMENTS REQUIRED Sl No: 1 2 3 4 Equipment DSO Pulse Generator Power Supply Current probe and amplifier Model Tektronics Scientific Measurement systems Tektronics Specification 60Mhz 20MHz 0-30v. BILL OF MATERIALS Slno 01 02 03 Component MOSFET Resistor R1 R2 Specification IRF 640 ½w CFR 2w CFR Value 18 A.SWITCHING CHARACTERISTICS OF MOSFET OBJECTIVE:  To study the switching characteristics of MOSFET.2A 0-20A DC/AC. 50Mhz .  To measure On time (Ton ) and Off time (Toff ) of the MOSFET.

CIRCUIT THEORY With gate current Ig gate source capacitor is charged . Cgs is getting charged Vgs remains constant . once this capacitor is charged to some extend the mosfet will start conducting . even with Ig . The above mentioned properties can be seen in the current wave forms using CPA.  It is a voltage controlled device. They are available in two types they are enhancement mode and depletion mode. NOTE: The MOSFET can be checked using the multimeter by the following steps . because Cgd is getting discharged .  The driving circuit is easy to design. The working of the MOSFET is mainly related to the capacitors between Cgs and Cgd. Characteristics of MOSFET:  The MOSFET is preferred in most of the switching circuits because of it’s very less gate current. In this type when the switch is off there is no channel existing between drain and source. the enhancement mode is more preferred because of the very less reverse current.  Switching time is faster. after this Vgs starts increasing. Main disadvantage is  It is sensitive to the Electro static discharges and may get damaged easily  The Rds (on) (on state drain to source resistance) is high.  All these characteristics of the MOSFET make it more useful for the high frequency switching applications.

 If the channel is present the resistance will be very less and the MOSFET is OK . Short all the three pins in order to discharge both capacitors.source capacitance by connecting the probes to gate and source of the MOSFET.  Check for the channel formation between drain and the source.  Check the drain source resistance it should be infinity if the MOSFET is working.  Keep the multimeter in diode checking mode  Charge the gate .

619 Ohms CIRCUIT DIAGRAM .DESIGN: To design the switch for a current of 1A. Assume Idsat =1A Vcc =10V Calculate Rd Rd = Vdd / Id = 10V / 1A = 10 Ohms Gate current is Ig+= Qc / Ton Consider Ton= 1us Ig+= 63nC / 1 uS = 63mA Ig = 2 Ig+ = 2 * 63mA = 126mA Rg= Vg.Vgsth / Ig = 10V – 4V / 126mA = 47.

.

 Measure the on time and off time. NOTE: TYPICAL RESULT FOR THE CIRCUIT USED The On time of the MOSFET is 900ns and Off time is 700 ns.PROCEDURE  Set the circuit as per circuit diagram.  Set the pulse width to 50us with a frequency of 200 Hz. .  Apply the signal to gate of the switch.  Observe the wave form across the switch.

2A 50Mhz.MAGNETIZATION AND DEMAGNETISATION OF RL LOADS USING DIODE OBJECTIVES:  To use a diode for demagnetizing the RL loads. 200ohm 2A 1.60v Quantity` 1 1 1 1 1 EQUIPMENTS REQUIRED Sl No: 1 2 3 4 Equipment DSO Pulse Generator Power Supply Current probe and amplifier Model TEKTRONIX Scientific Measurement systems Tektronics Specification 50Mhz 20MHz 0-30v. BILL OF MATERIALS Sl No: 1 2 3 4 Component Inductor Resistor Diode Transistor Specification Ferrite core 2w CFR 1/2w KHF812 BD139 Value 540µH.  Study the property of current & voltage through & across the inductor.5A 20 ohm.0.20A CIRCUIT THEORY .5A.

This diode is commonly known as the free wheeling diode because of it’s free wheeling action in the circuit. Voltage across inductor is equal to diode voltage plus resistor drop. At 5T the inductor losses the property of opposing the changes in current and goes to saturation.In this circuit the inductor is demagnetized by a freewheeling diode. When the inductor produces the back EMF then the diode gets forward biased and the inductor will be demagnetized. When the switch is turned OFF the inductor reverses its polarity and demagnetizes through diode. the current in the circuit is limited through series resistor even if the inductor is allowed to go saturation by increasing the pulse width. In most of the commonly used circuits we can see this type of demagnetization. The inductor is magnetized with a series resistor. The current and voltage change is exponential. This diode suppresses the huge Back EMF and protects the switch from damaging. CIRCUIT DIAGRAM .

PROCEDURE  Set the circuit as per circuit diagram. .

.  Find the demagnetization time.  The nature of current waveform is Exponential.  Observe the wave form across the switch and inductor. NOTE: TYPICAL RESULT FOR THE CIRCUIT USED  The demagnetization time is 122µs.  Apply the signal to base of the switch. Set the pulse width to 135µs with a frequency of 200 Hz.  Take current probe and see the wave form (current waveform) through all the components.

200ohm 2A 1.5A 20 ohm. 50Mhz CIRCUIT THEORY In this circuit the inductor in series with the resister is demagnetized through diode and a series resistor. but due to presence of a series resistor the current is limited to the finite value. . BILL OF MATERIALS Sl No: 1 2 3 4 Component Inductor Resistor Diode Transistor Specification Ferrite core 2w CFR 1/2w KHF812 BD139 Value 540µH.2A 0-20A DC/AC.0.60v Quantity` 1 2 1 1 1 EQUIPMENTS REQUIRED Sl No: 1 2 3 4 Equipment DSO Pulse Generator Power Supply Current probe and amplifier Model Tektronics Scientific Measurement systems Tektronics Specification 60Mhz 20MHz 0-30v.MAGNETIZATION AND DEMAGNETISATION OF RL LOADS USING DIODE AND RESISTOR OBJECTIVES:  To use a diode and resistor for demagnetizing the RL loads. At 5T the inductor goes to saturation.5A.

CALCULATIONS T=L/R =540µH / 20ohm =27µs So. Thus by connecting resistor in series with the diode will reduce the demagnetization time.When the inductor produces the back EMF then the diode gets forward biased and the inductor will be demagnetized. The maximum value of the series resistor that can be connected depends on the breakdown voltage of the switch. When the inductor gets demagnetized then the voltage across the inductor will be diode voltage plus the drop across the resistor (r1) and resistor (r2). 5T=135µs Demagnetizing voltage across inductor is VL=Vd+Vr1+Vr2 = 1 + 10 + 10 = 21v CIRCUIT DIAGRAM .

 Set the pulse width to 135µs with a frequency of 200 Hz. .PROCEDURE  Set the circuit as per circuit diagram.  Apply the signal to base of the switch.

 Find the demagnetization time. Observe the wave form across the switch. DEMAGNETISATION OF RL LOADS USING DIODE AND ZENER DIODE . NOTE: TYPICAL RESULT FOR THE CIRCUIT USED  The demagnetization time is 64µs.  Take current probe and see the current waveform through all the components.

60v 15v Quantity` 1 1 1 1 1 1 EQUIPMENTS REQUIRED Sl No: 1 2 3 4 Equipment DSO Pulse Generator Power Supply Current probe and amplifier Model Tektronics Scientific Measurement systems Tektronics Specification 60Mhz 20MHz 0-30v.OBJECTIVES  To use a diode and zener diode for demagnetizing the RL loads. At 5T the inductor goes to saturation. 50Mhz CIRCUIT THEORY In this circuit the inductor in series with the resister is demagnetized by using diode and zener diode.5A 20 ohm. BILL OF MATERIALS Sl No: 1 2 3 4 5 Component Inductor Resistor Diode Transistor Zener diode Specification Ferrite core 2W.CFR KHF812 BD139 Value 540µH. .0. 1A.5A.2A 0-20A DC/AC. 200ohm 2A 1. but due to presence of a series resistor the current is limited to the finite value i.e.

When the inductor gets demagnetized then the voltage across the inductor will be diode voltage plus the drop across the resistor (r1) and break down voltage (Vz) of the zener. CALCULATIONS T=L/R =540µH/20ohm =27µs So. Thus by connecting zener diode in series with the diode will reduce the demagnetization time. 5T=135µs Demagnetizing voltage across inductor is VL=Vd+Vr1+Vz = 1 + 10 + 15 = 26v CIRCUIT DIAGRAM .

PROCEDURE  Set the circuit as per circuit diagram. .  Apply the signal to base of the switch.  Observe the wave form across the switch.  Set the pulse width to 135µs with a frequency of 200 Hz.

 Take current probe and see the current waveform through all the components.  Find the demagnetization time from the waveform. MAGNETIZATION AND DEMAGNETIZATION OF INDUCTOR USING DIODE OBJECTIVES . NOTE: TYPICAL RESULT FOR THE CIRCUIT USED  The demagnetization time is 51µs.

Here the inductor is not allowed to go to saturation since there is no resistance to limit the current.5A. 60Mhz CIRCUIT THEORY In this circuit the inductor is magnetized by turning on the switch for a short period of time.5A 200ohm 2A 1. through & across the inductor. To use a diode for demagnetizing the inductor. BILL OF MATERIALS Sl No: 1 2 3 4 Component Inductor Resistor Diode Transistor Specification Ferrite core ½ W. . The only resistance in the circuit is coil resistance which is less than 1ohm.2A 0-20A DC/AC.CFR KHF812 BD139 Value 540µH.  To study the property of current & voltage.0.60v Quantity` 1 1 1 1 EQUIPMENTS REQUIRED Sl No: 1 2 3 4 Equipment Digital Storage Oscilloscope Pulse Generator Power Supply Current probe and amplifier Model Tektronics Scientific Measurement systems Tektronics Specification 60Mhz 20MHz 0-30v.If the magnetizing time is increased the current shoots up to a very high value and burns the inductor.

5A / Ton Ton=27µs CIRCUIT DIAGRAM . When the inductor gets demagnetized then the voltage across the inductor will be 0. In this the demagnetizing time of the inductor will be more.When the inductor produces the back EMF then the diode gets forward biased and the inductor will be demagnetized. CALCULATION E= L I / Ton 10v = 540µh X 0. Since the pulse width is less the voltage across the inductor will be constant. This diode suppresses the huge Back EMF and protects the switch from damaging.7V which makes the demagnetizing time more. The magnetizing and demagnetizing current is linear.

 Apply the signal to base of the switch.PROCEDURE  Set the circuit as per circuit diagram.  Observe the wave form across the switch.  Set the pulse width to 27µs with a frequency of 200 Hz. .

 Take current probe and see the current waveform through all the components. NOTE: TYPICAL RESULT FOR THE CIRCUIT USED  The demagnetization time is 270µs. MAGNETIZATION AND DEMAGNETIZATION OF INDUCTOR USING DIODE AND RESISTOR OBJECTIVES .  Find the demagnetization time.  The nature of current waveform is linear.

BILL OF MATERIALS Sl No: 1 2 3 4 Component Inductor Resistor Diode Transistor Specification Ferrite core. 60Mhz CIRCUIT THEORY In this circuit the inductor is magnetized by turning on the switch for a short period of time. In this the demagnetizing time of the inductor is .5A 200ohm 20ohm 2A 1. To reduce demagnetization time by using resistor in series with diode. Here the inductor is not allowed to go to saturation since there is no resistance to limit the current. When the inductor produces the back EMF then the diode gets forward biased and the inductor will be demagnetized.2A 0-20A DC/AC.60v Quantity` 1 1 1 1 1 EQUIPMENTS REQUIRED Sl No: 1 2 3 4 Equipment Digital Storage Oscilloscope Pulse Generator Power Supply Current probe and amplifier Model Tektronics Scientific Measurement systems Tektronics Specification 60Mhz 20MHz 0-30v.CFR 1w KHF812 BD139 Value 540µH.0. ½ w.5A. This diode suppresses the huge Back EMF and protects the switch from damaging.

reduced due to the addition of series resistor. The magnetizing current is linear and the demagnetizing current is exponential decay due to the addition of resistor.5A / Ton Ton=27µs CIRCUIT DIAGRAM . When the inductor gets demagnetized then the voltage across the inductor will be equal to diode drop plus the drop across the resistor. CALCULATION E= L I / Ton 10v = 540µh X 0.

 Observe the wave form across the switch.  Set the pulse width to 27µs with a frequency of 200 Hz.  Find the demagnetization time.  Apply the signal to base of the switch.  Take current probe and see the current waveform through all the components. .PROCEDURE  Set the circuit as per circuit diagram.

. DEMAGNATISATION OF INDUCTOR USING TRANSIENT VOLTAGE SUPRESSOR AND DIODE OBJECTIVES  To reduce demagnetization time by using transient voltage suppressor.NOTE: TYPICAL RESULT FOR THE CIRCUIT USED  The demagnetization time is 20µs.

2A 0-20A DC/AC.BILL OF MATERIALS Sl No: 1 2 3 4 5 Component Inductor Resistor Diode Transistor Zener diode Specification Ferrite core ½w KHF812 BD139 Value 540µH.5A. This suppresses the transients across the inductor when it is getting demagnetized and thus protects the other components in the circuit.5A 200ohm 2A 1.60v 15v Quantity` 1 1 1 1 1 EQUIPMENTS REQUIRED Sl No: 1 2 3 4 Equipment DSO Pulse Generator Power Supply Current probe and amplifier Model Tektronics Scientific Measurement systems Tektronics Specification 60Mhz 20MHz 0-30v. 50Mhz CIRCUIT THEORY Here demagnetization time is reduced using zener diode.0. . The magnetizing and demagnetizing current is linear and voltage across the inductor is constant. This is one of the most efficient method of demagnetizing the inductor in a very less time. Here the inductor voltage will be equal to diode voltage plus the breakdown voltage of the zener.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM .

NOTE: .  Observe the wave form across the switch.  Take current probe and see the current waveform through all the components.PROCEDURE  Set the circuit as per circuit diagram.  Find the demagnetization time.  Apply the signal to base of the switch.  Set the pulse width to 27µs with a frequency of 200 Hz.

TYPICAL RESULT FOR THE CIRCUIT USED  The demagnetization time is 18µs. FAMILIARISATION OF PULSE-WIDTH MODULATOR IC SG3524 OBJECTIVES:  To familiarize with pulse width modulator IC SG3524. BILL OF MATERIALS SLNO Components Specification Value Quantity .

Rt establishes a constant current for charging of Ct. It operates at a fixed frequency that is programmed by the resistor Rt and one timing capacitor Ct .1 2 3 4 Capacitors PWM IC Resistors Trim pot Ceramic disc SG3524 Carbon film 0..1µF 40v(max) 100Ω 1K 10K 1. Frequency = 1.01µF. we can vary the frequency by varying any of these two components.3 / Rt * Ct Rt is in Kohms .2A 30MHz CIRCUIT THEORY The IC 3524 is a PWM generator which can vary the output pulse width according to the output of an error amplifier.1 1 2 1 2 EQUIMENTS REQUIRED Slno: 01 02 Equipment DC supply CRO Model Measurement systems Scientific Specification 0-30V. The output of the 3524 is given by two transistors which can be connected in any fashion.

This IC is having a pin known shut down pin in which if we give a voltage more than 0.1uF F = 1. This can be used to give a thermal or short circuit protection.30 / 520 * 0. CIRCUIT DIAGRAM .1 uF = 25 Khz The 3524 is having the feature of current limiting in the output through the pins current sense and current limit.Ct is in uF And the frequency will be in Khz Rt = 600ohm Ct = 0.8V the IC will shut down by stopping it’s output to zero.

 Vary the potential at the pin 2 and observe the variation in the pulse width.PROCEDURE  Set the circuit as per the circuit diagram.  Observe the output wave form. .  Provide required input as Vcc.  Draw the waveforms.

BILL OF MATERIALS Slno: 01 Components Ferrite Core Specification RM-8 Quantity 1 .INDUCTOR DESIGN OBJECTIVE:  To design an inductor of L= 1mH and current of 1A.  To compare the practical value & theoretical inductance value.

Winding factor ( Kw ) = 0.02 Copper wire gauge SWG-24 DESIGN:L = 1mh.1A. Ip = 1.6 Flux Density ( Bmax ) = 0. Irms = 1A.25 Current Density ( J ) = 4 X 106 Area Product AcAw = ( L X Ip X Irms ) / (Kw X Bm X J) .

=

1mh X 1.1A X 1A X 108 0.6 X 4 X 106 X 0.25

Ap

=

0.175cm4

From the core table, selected core is RM - 8 Ac = 0.630 Aw = 0.320 AP = 0.195 Number of turns N = ( L X Ip ) / ( Bm X Ac ) = 1mH X 1.1 X104 0.25 X 0.630 =70 Length of air gap lg = 4 X pi X 10 -7 X 70 X 1.1 0.25 = 0.387 mm Wire guage Area of the wire = Current / Current density a = Irms / J

= 1 / 4 X 106 = 0.25 mm2 From the wire guage table 24 SWG is selected.

DESIGN STEPS  Compute the Area product from the given input  Select the core from the core table with the required Ac and Aw.  For the selected core, find Ac and Aw.  Compute the number of turns.  Calculate area of the wire required.

 Select the wire guage from the wire table.  Finally calculate the required air gap.

DESCRIPTION: Inductor designing is a very important task in power electronics while designing the inductor the value ,max current are the important factor. Inductor is having the characteristics that it opposes the changes in the current through it. This opposing characteristic is given by the name reactance. The reactance increases with the frequency, it’s given by the formula Reactance = 2*pi* frequency * L Thus the reactance increases also with the increase in the inductor. The core of the inductor is also selected by the frequency of operation. When the operating frequency increases then the size of the inductor comes down. The SWG of the winding

 After winding measure the value. RESULT .  Collect the material.and design the inductor using given the formula.  Adjust the value of inductance by reducing or increasing or decreasing the air gap. As the number of the turns increases then the inductor value also increases. So according to the inductor value the number of turns will be designed.wire is selected by the current carrying capacity of the inductor. and start winding the inductor. PROCEDURE: Get the specification .

1µF Quantity 1 1 1 1 1 1. SLNO COMPONENTS Diode Inductor Transistor Capacitors SPECIFICATION BY 229 1mh BD140 Electrolytic Electrolytic Ceramic disc VALUE 10A 1A rms 60v 100µF 220µF 0.  To construct a buck regulator for 5V & 1A. BUCK CONVERTER OBJECTIVES:  To study about the basic DC-DC converter.The Practical value of the inductor is 1.1 . BILL OF MATERIALS 1. 3..02mH. 4.01µF. 2.

5. 7. 6.1% of the output voltage  Ripple current = 10 % of the output current  Frequency CIRCUIT THEORY Buck converter is a DC to DC converter which can step down the input voltage given and thus regulates it for the required voltage. PWM IC Resistors Trim pot SG3524 Carbon film Carbon film 40v(max) 100Ω 5Ω/5W 1K 10K 1 2 1 1 2 EQUIPMENTS REQUIRED Sl No: 1 2 3 4 Equipment DSO Pulse Generator Power Supply Current probe and amplifier Model Tektronics Scientific Measurement systems Tektronics Specification 60Mhz 20MHz 0-30v.2A 0-20A DC/AC. The inductor and the capacitor acts like the = 25Khz .capacitor and a switch as main components. It consists an inductor . 50Mhz SPECIFICATIONS:  Input voltage  Output voltage = 10v = 5v  Output current = 1A  Duty cycle  Ripple voltage = 50% = 0.

When the switch is on the inductor and the capacitor gets charged from the supply and also the load is connected to the input supply. The core of the inductor is selected according to the frequency of operation. The inductor and the capacitor of the buck converter is designed according to the specifications given. The buck converter is only used for low power applications. Here the output capacitor is not having so much of importance because no time the load is driven only by the capacitor. The output voltage of the buck converter is given by the duty cycle. The supply voltage of the 3524 is the input voltage of the buck converter itself.filtering components which stores and supplies the energy to the load. During this time the diode will be reverse biased and does not conduct any current. . The charging current and the discharging current of the inductor is the same . This is given by the equation Vout = Vin * dutycycle In the given circuit the buck converter is connected with the feedback . When the switch is off then the inductor reverses it’s polarity and starts discharging this turns the diode to forward bias. and the SWG of the winding wire is selected by the current carrying capacity of the inductor.this prevents the inductor going to saturation. The main disadvantage of the buck converter is not having isolation between the input and the output. As the load varies the feedback voltage changes and this adjusts the duty cycle and the output voltage is always constant for all the loads. For this a PWM IC3524 is used and the feedback is given through a divider network. So when the switch is on the inductor is getting charged and when it is off the inductor gets discharged. The switch is p-channel MOSFET. When switch is off then the current and the voltage required for the load will be supplied by the inductor.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM .

Irms =1A . ∆Vc =0. Vo= 5V.FORMULA’S: L = [ ( Vin -Vo)Vo *T ] / Vi ∆I Ton = (∆I *L) / (Vin-Vo) Toff = (∆I *L) / Vo ∆Vc = ∆I /8 Fc C=((Vin-Vo)Vo) / (8Vin*F^2*L*C) DESIGN: L=1mH. Vin=10V .1A . ∆I=0.1V .

T = (Vin*∆I*L) / ( (Vin-Vo)*Vo) = (10*0.1 * 1mH) / 5 =20 μ sec Toff = (∆I * L) / Vo = 20 μ sec ∆Vc = ∆I / 8*F*C 0.1*1mH) / (5*5) = 40 μ sec Ton = (∆I *L) / (Vin-Vo) = (0.1 / (8 * 25Khz *C) C = 100uF .1 = 0.

 Calculate line regulation and load regulation.PROCEDURE:  Set the circuit as per the circuit diagram.02V Output current = 1A .  Observe the waveform on the DSO and plot the waveform. RESULT Output voltage = 5.  Check the pulse width and amplitude of the pulse.  Provide required input.  Power all the circuits.  Observe the output and measure with DMM.

03.  To observe the different waveforms of voltage at various outputs of TCA 785.47nF 100K.1 1.1 EQUIPMENTS REQUIRED .10K Quantity 1 4 1. 04. BILL OF MATERIALS Slno: 01. 02.5% FAMILIARISATION OF IC TCA 785 OBJECTIVE  To understand the operation IC TCA 785 for driving SCR’s and TRAIC’s. Components TCA 785 Resistor Capacitor Variable resistor Specification Vs Carbon film Ceramic Value 8-18V 1/4W.Line Regulation = 1% Load Regulation = 0.10K 1nF.

A signal which corresponds to the NOR link of Q1 and Q2 is available at output QZ (pin 7). Dependent on the magnitude of the control voltage V11.If the ramp voltage V 10 exceeds the control voltage V11.q2. 02. For every half wave.Sl no: 01. A zero voltage detector evaluates the zero passages and transfers them to the synchronization register. 30uS duration appears at the outputs Q1 and Q2. a positive pulse of approx.The pulse duration can be prolonged up to 180 ° via a capacitor C12. Outputs Q1 and Q2 supply the inverse signals of Q1 and Q2. .Q2 and q1. The inhibit input can be used to disable outputs Q1 . Equipment Dc supply DSO Model Measurement systems Tektronix Specification 0-30v 200Ms/S DESCRIPTION The synchronization signal is obtained via a high-ohmic resistance from the line voltage. a signal is processed to the logic. the triggering angle can be shifted within a phase angle of 0° to 180°.Pin 13 can be used to extent the outputs q1 and q2 to full pulse length(180° -ǿ). the capacitor C10 of which is charged by a constant current (determined by R9). pulses with a duration between ǿ and 180° will result. This synchronization register controls a ramp generator.If pin 12 is connected to ground.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM .

 Observe the output wave form.  Provide required input as Vcc and control voltage. RESULT: Obtained the trigger pulses for triggering the triac circuitry. triggering angle varying from 0º to 180º with a pulse width of 30µsec.  Adjust the pot to get the desired output.PROCEDURE:  Set the circuit as per the circuit diagram. .

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