Theodore the Syncellus, Homily on the siege of Constantinople in 626 AD (2007).

Preface to the online edition

The following sermon on the deliverance of Constantinople from the siege by the Avars, Slavs and Persians in 626 in the reign of the emperor Heraclius is generally attributed in modern times to Theodore the Syncellus. The events of the siege are also discussed in the Chronicon Pascale and George of Pisidia. It was first published by Angelo Mai in 1853 in Nova Patrum Bibliotheca vol. 6.2 pp. 423-437 with a Latin translation. However Mai only had access to a truncated form of the text contained in Codex Vaticanus Graecus 1572, on folios 41v-74v. This Vatican library manuscript was dated to the 10th century by Mai, and by 11-13th by various other scholars in the catalogue of the Vatican library Greek mss. published in 1899 by the Bollandists. Sternbach discovered the complete text in the only other manuscript known, Codex Parisinus Suppl. Graecus 241, a parchment folio-size codex of the 10th century in the Bibliotheque Nationale Français, on folios 32v-53r. This translation has been made from the French of Ferenc Makk. Such a proceeding is obviously unsatisfactory, but it has value in that it is accessible. To the best of my knowledge no English translation exists, and a remarkable number of people are unable to read French, which is in any case offline and inaccessible. It is hoped that making this version available will stimulate interest in the text. If it leads more people to take an interest in the text of Theodore, it will have been worthwhile. Bibliography Ferenc Makk, Traduction et Commentaire de l'homélie écrite probablement par Théodore le Syncelle sur le siège de Constantinople en 626. Szeged (1975). Checked. Contains French introduction, translation and brief notes, followed by Greek text reprinted from L. Sternbach, Analecta Avarica, Cracow (1900). Roger Pearse Ipswich, 27th August, 2007

This text was transcribed by Roger Pearse, Ipswich, UK, 2007. This file and all material on this page is in the public domain - copy freely. Greek text is rendered using unicode.

Early Church Fathers Additional Texts

Theodore the Syncellus, Homily on the siege of Constantinople in 626 AD (2007). English translation On the foolish attack of the Avars and godless Persians against this city, protected by God, and of their shameful retreat which the divine love brought about for mankind by the intervention of the Mother of God. I. Prophesying long ago, by the prophetic inspiration of the Holy Spirit, the benevolence of God the Father, with regard to the incarnation and the birth of the divine Word by the Mother of God, the eminent prophet Isaiah proclaimed and says: "Go up a high mountain, to announce good news in Sion: raise up your voice loudly, to announce good news in Jerusalem: 'Lift up your voice without fear!' Say to the cities of Judah: 'Here is our God! Here is the Lord God who comes with power, extending his sovereign arms.'" The prophet says this by divine inspiration; and by the mountains overhanging the naked and the ground, according to my opinion, he referred, tropologically to the high and elevated thought which does not wish anything to see things stuck to the world, except that which is absolutely necessary. Such was his thought and his word, and such of all those who, being prophets and apostles, like Isaiah merited the grace of the Holy Spirit. Since there are, here and now, such things to tell which, so to speak, by a miracle, resulted from the kindness of God towards us, amidst great suffering, exceeding even the celestial spheres, which none could show to the world and show clearly to men, except someone who had the prophetic heart, and who was worthy of the light of the Holy Spirit. II. Come then, holy Isaiah, because indeed your powerful spirit envisaged and predicted great things, inspire me, by the pen of your prophetic grace, the things which I have to tell; approach me, you who predicted the glory of the only son of God and the mystery of the Virgin, after having seen the throne of God, and having heard the song of the Seraphs, and the doors trembling before you on their hinges, and besides every obstacle depart before he that entered the sacrosanct residence of God. It is for you to paint for me the current miracle, and to give the grace which I can see in the figure and the example of old Jerusalem, all these admirable miracles that the Mother of God accomplished for this city because of the divine love for men. Listen then, and understand thereafter, the picture that is before us, what it represents and what it shows. In the house of David at once time reigned king Ahaz, the son of Ozias the leper, the heir to both the spite and the kingdom of his father. And because even Ahaz fell easily into sin, and was inclined to injustice, he did not accept in his heart the teaching of the divine mystery of the Virgin, though he was invited by God, by the prophet, to ask that He grant to him a sign of the end of the reign of death, or further, on the divine incarnation. The sign was anyway given to the house of David, and this sign is completed, because the Virgin gave birth to God, while keeping until the end her virginity. Ahaz remained nevertheless the image of unbelief, while the Jewish people shout until our own day: "I do not ask for a sign, because I will not test the Lord."

however skillfully one draws one's arrows. saying: Let us go up against Judah. so that your heart does not weaken because of these ends of smoking firebrands. How could our city not obtain help and divine support more than the other Jerusalem. but the picture that I intend to give differs anyway from the description of the prophet. and to help to power the son of Tabeel who formed part of and became companion in their spite. IV. king of Samaria. and who transmits in a sober spirit the decrees of God to his people? But. and he symbolically names the Fuller. flows from the teaching of the mystery of Christ. — our city which has received from God such an emperor 1. that which can clean the stain.e. opens to the men the way to heaven. ever vigilant. Because look: God revealed by the prophet the blessed message of the redemption of Ahaz. and we will make the son of Tabeel king there! But that won't happen. Because every time my anger is raised. against Jerusalem. listen. it is obvious that conversion. as history and parabole. the descendants of earth and the sons of men. devoting. i. In the past Syria and . on the road of the field of the Fuller. "Hear this. The son of Aram and the son of Remaliah have exploited your loss. And all that the prophet said and wrote. all his life to completing and observing the divine commands and he encourages all his subjects to do the same. as a my talent allows. my report will have the value of the words of a modest historiographer. and the sons of men are those who keep the dignity of the image of God. Because my emperor is religious and without misdeeds." V. all the peoples. the figure of the prophet. painting this picture. paint for me the other details of the picture. He brought this news brought to the house of David while saying: Aram has allied itself to Ephraim. since the difference between the two monarchs and their characters is obvious! So while Ahaz was the king to devastate the town of Jerusalem. on the road of the field of the Fuller. "In the time of Ahaz.III. according to the Bible. not only because they are full of holiness and divine grace. leading to baptism by true knowledge. like the trees in the forest sway in the wind. son of Joatham. But I will not relate further events with these details (because that would exceed the power of even the wisest) but.) Listen well. But it is time to return to our main subject. as a figure and example. The Lord said to Isaiah: So go and join Ahaz. my archpriest 2. because there is no point in missing the target. at the end of the channel of the upper pool. because man is a microcosm. happened to those of the Jews who then lived in Jerusalem. and through him of the unbelieving people of the Jews. but also so that you see your own eyes. to terrify it and to plunder. by listening to what was said in paraboles. (Because the descendants of earth 3 are those who are interested only in terrestrial things. king of Judah. Because I know that his words say "field" for the Universe. and I will tell you what great things the Lord of armies has done through the Mother of God. VI. and has another Isaiah. Rezin. son of Romelius. "returning to God"). it can be said. all the inhabitants of the world. to whom God spread the grace of his love.e. son of Oziah. it is calmed. you and your son that survives and is called Jaschub (i. king of Aram. Because the word clearly shows that any redemption which was purchased. and you will say to him: Hey. therefore. and to dethrone the descendant of David. to besiege it. by the way of the channel of the higher pool. a descendant of David in the carnal way. but was used also as a prediction for us. my prophet. So Ahaz reigned over Jerusalem. From all that. Then the heart of the king and the heart of his people began to sway. purchases and will purchase mankind. by the mediation of the Mother of God. who loves God particularly. went up with Phacaeus. don't be disturbed! don't be afraid. it is beautiful to read the words of the prophet himself about them.

councils and by the sending of troops. attacked the ramparts of the city for several days. and entrusted the throne to his son. but which were rightly minimised by their neighbors. he mouthed off at heaven and reached the land of his language. However the powerful emperor was far away. from the confines of the land down to the sea. he even intended to burn the imperial city. who reigned indeed over the people living next to the country of Judah. sprang. VIII. The other dog also started to boast and was mad. VII. left them. according to his plan. called by the barbarians in their own language the Khagan. So what led him into so great a nonsense? And who inspired him with this malevolent plan? I will answer the first question initially. But he did not prevent the wickedness of that demented person who showed himself by words. vicious and cruel. the imperial prince 6. he did not see the the three-headed chimera. living in the north and most of the west. furious and barbarous. because he wanted to devastate this Jerusalem from all sides. and that in Samaria. soiled with blood. I speak about the current tyrant of Babylon: of the devil Chosrau who owes his life and empire over the Persians to the grace of the Christian emperor 5. the Chaldaeans and Assyrians started to boast. to put an obstacle to the incursion of those which are uncircumcised in their hearts. every warehouse and private dwelling. famous for their malice and power. who made foreign peoples migrate. and that we run our public life unworthily from every point of view of the divine commands of . as you heard in the prophetic words. and after having burned all the holy places. whose the number is only like the grains of sand of the beaches of the sea. Firstly. advanced. he showed himself to be the child of the devil. Because he was the devastating revenge of the eternal malignant spirit. because he had left on campaign for a remote area. This is why he extended his hands. not by nature. but by his own decision. IX. The mighty emperor was thus far away. in his advance without delay and his effervescent fury. like a swarm of bees. every imperial building. encircled Chalcedon nearby with his cavalry and his siege-engines. making advance innumerable people which covered the land and the sea with their arms. believing that he had power over land and sea. he transformed the sea into firm ground.Samaria undertook the war against Jerusalem. and every diabolical wickedness was incarnate in him. who wished to follow the piety and devotion of his father. However. attacking our city from the west. then finally I will be able to do the second also. Like an anti-god. But the heart of Ahaz and the heart of his people began to sway anyway as the trees in the forest sway. the son of Remaliah. to crush the people of God. the multiplicity and the variety of our sins. these deliberated. which was led by a terribly abominable little runt. against those who were devastating all the Eastern part of the Roman empire. but the many-headed. the ruler of savage peoples. Against this city and the man reigning there in the love of God with his pious father. the ally and battle-companion of this pig. and he covered the firm ground with cavalry and infantry. The emperor thus entrusting him with his brothers and the city to the guardianship of God and the Virgin. according to every writing. the enemy of the west. they had been formerly the Masters of the Eastern people. because of the favorable situation of the city: he laid out in front of the city our Jordan. I say and I report as the primary cause. and surrounded the earth and the sea. because God prevented his passage. Nabuchodonosor 4. Using his pirate fleet. of which the monarch and the king in Damascus was Rezin. like abandonned eggs. But the Persian Shahrbaraz (as the Babylonians call this Holophernes) outrunning all the elite army of Persia. because their power was short-lived.

though even demons would have been ashamed. and would have improved the cruelty of Phalaris also. and he reinforced the terms of the treaty also with an ancient formula on oath. even there. However in a short time. given by his emissary. little by little they grew and multiplied. old men and children also were chained and removed in great number to the enemy land. his children and the palace 8. where his people currently live. the successor. and there is nothing so strong and capable which can soften his low and barbarian intentions. when he was informed that the emperor had gone on campaign against the Persians. had clothed him naked. and there is nothing which could and would satisfy this leech. Who doesn't know the plot and the trick of this serpent. But it is inappropriate on this occasion to recount now all the events then. to greet him from the Long Walls. At the same time the emperor gave orders to surround him with every care and courtesy. and spread himself with threats that he would devastate this city. the elder brother of this dog of today. and what a devastating danger for the Roman empire they accomodated almost at their heart! 7 The empire of the father was inherited by his son. He received all that in consequence of the earlier peace treaty. On the contrary. Because his carnal procreator (if only it had not happened!) had taken refuge. like a plague sent by God. he did not leave this proud and boastful man without making peace with him. unless he received half of all the treasures and goods in the city. the payment of treasure became the stimulant to still greater faithlessness for this dog. X. XI. But he did not put an end to his spite. And when this crafty and malignant fox became his brother's heir (which he was not!). For a good man is to be able to conclude his business reasonably. they did not even suspect what a infamous creature they admitted in their vicinity. and that his unexpected trickery seized a mass of men. these seized control of nearby people by plunderings and massacres. women. flowing from what he had done. In short. nor the payment of so much treasure. by beseeching previous Roman emperors. supposing at the same time that he would succeed in appeasing this wild beast by a reasonable subsidy. he left courageously on campaign. nor the imperial treatment. in the remote lands near these regions. when he learned that his . But he entrusted the city. However. he received enough money and property to fill even the hands of Briaraeus. his imperial children and the palace to God and the Virgin. So who does not know of his devastating invasion that it dared to carry out a few years ago. Those had treated him then as a refugee. David and Solomon say in the Holy Scriptures. and in the unquestionable hope. which means of intriguing did he not try against us? And on the other hand what did our emperor not do to try to alleviate his spite? Which forms of kindness did he not show towards this dog? But apparently there is no end to the spite of this wild beast. and making them their slaves.our redeemer God. when the most pious emperor left. But neither the ancient oath. and the judicious king makes the prosperity of his people and his city. nor the wisdom and the influence of so powerful an emperor were effective to change his perfidy. he thought this since he had already earlier entrusted to this barbarian the city. and covered that land by their multitude. and we attempt to commit every form of wickedness. and made them captives? With the men. on the contrary. according to certain treaties. when the pious and good emperor left to meet him. But even this did not make the spite of this dragon more moderate. against the Eastern enemies of God. because we corrode ourselves and we devour ourselves. as was told earlier. and had given food to him starving. but all that did not satisfy this leech. In the second place I mention the insatiability and culpability of this wild beast. as the wise kings. reigning over the other cities. hoping by this to reconcile and appease this savage.

protected by the Virgin. and they exclaimed all in tears: "All-Powerful Lady! our father had entrusted to you your city and us. and helped him with all things necessary. the city which I entrusted to the force of your power and the mother of your kindness. when you ordered that a deposit or a pledge was to be kept intact and without fault. While the children of the emperor. even by unequalled power the emperor cannot be saved. save us from the snake who attacks us. the gathering of the monoxyles on the sea which can travel the sea by oar. to whom I entrusted my heart. your servants who are still children. So save us. would quieten down. However you see what great things he devises against your people trusting in your name. he protested thus to the Lord: "You." XIII. I entrusted my business to him. finding himself between two distresses. raising his cross. I believed that the Khagan. if the Lord does not keep it. Is it thus that the powerful emperor beseeched God? balancing up this and that. he covered land and sea with the wild tribes whose element of life is war. Come and cry before the Lord who created us. safe and well. he harangued them to be brave and not discouraged. keep your pledge intact. as an entreaty and an aromatic incense. being attached to the palace. to make the town of God. and let us prostrate ourselves before the only son of God the Father." The Preceptor of the city. weighing up his care and plans. and asked the Virgin for assistance and protection. if he were a priest or clerk. nor will the city remain intact. All this was premeditated and carried out by him. according to your own law. spending his nights in prayer and speeches. the preparation of arms and helepoles. from the child to the old man. then. in the oratory of the Mother of God. as you see it.benefactor and his father — as he called him — had left the city. and you know all. Even so I could not achieve a result. our God. after having heard all this. this barbarian savage. save the city and its inhabitants. the booty of this deer. if we ourselves turn all . because our archpriest gathered everyone. he went against these wolves which were ravaging the sheep of the sheep-fold of your son. directed him by letters. he concentrated all the barbarian armed forces subjected to him. our Isaiah who knew himself the concentration of the troops and their armament. So keep now. very Holy Lady. The enemy attacks us on horse and with war engines. at once the preparations started: the concentration of the barbarian peoples. perhaps. with an enormous multitude. sabre and shield for all the inhabitants of the city. even manufactured engines. my life and the children that you gave me. There they devised all kinds of tricks. and he had given us to you. "Come. XII. just as the virginity and the purity of their bodies. The fact that they raised their hands to God. except by the will of God the multitude cannot be saved. While raising his hands towards the sky. — of the men of any age. stimulated to action the guardian of public affairs (this was Bonos. I believed that thus this beast would change. to the Mother of God. Lord. Therefore you. but we will overcome by the holy name of our Lord God. Because you gave the law to Moses. a man known by all). The most pious emperor. Lord of the Universe. better called the wild beasts. and because he holds the fate of the war in his hands. and because the Virgin Mother of God will also be protective of this city. and by the following words. and I did not succeed in dominating the insatiability of his spirit. as if he armed them. and you know that I had entrusted to you and your Immaculate Mother my children. just as the city given by you to my care. living as a monk or among the people. and based on this opinion. while transporting the tribes. your servant on pledges. you see all. the city and your people living there. offered their ingenuous innocence and their heart. was a weapon. was the worthy archpriest. Because the Lord himself fights for us. because it is him.

However. because there are not human words which took to tell what was done and said in their houses and publicly in this city entrusted to the government and direction of the most holy shepherd. But the Mother of God will put an end to all your boldness and pride by its only call. when a fire devours a forest. Moses. XIV. because he does not wish that those who have confidence in him to be saved. son of Nun. Ammon and Amalek and all the Philistines? even Assur has joined them. XVI. But the city begged in tears the Virgin by the words of the inspired mouth of the archpriest: "Save me. they set ablaze and razed to the ground the sanctuaries of God and all the imperial buildings and all the private buildings. as if they were responding to each other and wanted to increase their zeal on both sides. lifted his arms towards . day and night. and he made Gideon arm his men with jugs and torches against the Midianites.' " The city was in this state and did what it did. and motivating his most faithful guardian. intact. then he beseeched God and the Virgin to keep the city. shouted in a comprehensible and reasonable voice to the masses of barbarians and the demons leading them: "Oh foreign people and diabolical hordes. — the archpriest. be lazy and impotent. He was motivated to this by fear of the mighty emperor. and so teaching the city. Moab and Agaranians. At the same time at all the western doors of the city. because I will perish. because even in his absence the struggle was led by the servant of God: the emperor. my adversaries thunder and say: 'Come let's cut it off from the nations so that no-one will remember the name of Israel. Because God himself delights in such men. was the first to start fires. he showed his ingenuity in various ways in accomplishing everything that depends on the effort and diligence of man." This was done and said by the archpriest. because it is to be feared that with her even the lessons of the mystery of Christ could run into extreme danger. Do not remain dumb. because she is really the mother of He which drowned Pharaoh and all his army in the middle of the Red Sea." So saying. the man that the wise and powerful emperor left to manage and supervise the affairs of the city did not neglect at all his duties. reinforced the walls. you have undertaken the whole war against these. and discouraged and weakened all the diabolical horde.our heart toward them with all our heart and a devoted soul. and containing instructions. I say. on the other side Charybdis. A poet named what he saw on one side Scylla. See. arriving unceasingly from afar. The guardian of the affairs of the emperor thus examined everything with a very vigilant eye. XVII. driving out the darkness by its rays. after having painted on icons the holy features of the Virgin carrying in her arms that which she had given birth to. when he led in Israel to war against Amalek. unceasingly. because I know that you are powerful. inactive. 'Have they conspired there. XV. with one heart. and made provision for all that was necessary for the battle. It was thus that Joshua. But treat them like a straw blown in the wind. the archpriest prayed to God. oh Lady. and by his letters. by sea and on the North. The enemy tribes thus encircled the city on the East and on the West. save me. — and these icons were like the most brilliant sun. The enemy of the West at once put himself in contention with him. The barbarian of the East. silent any longer. camped with all his army close to the town of Chalcedon. from which left even the revenge of darkness. the Lord. in the past gave the order in which he drew up an ambush against the town of Hal. the holy archpriest. teaching his duty. so that they can never say: 'She has no refuge in her God. Gebal. the lighthouse of the law of the Christians.

" XVIII. and filled all the earth with their weapons.he withdrew into his camp. and the aspect of the enemies was such as to almost drive one mad. remained the mad and barking dog that he had been before. because it dealt too much with the flesh. On the other hand. refleced its rays on their steel. with a single blow. they all wore a helmet and they carried all kinds of military machines. each one was covered in armour. And it was the third day of the week 9. instead of going up the mountain. and covered the ground. our Moses raised with his own innocent hands the effigy of the only son of God whom even the demons fear and of whom it is said that He was not created by human hands. revealed to him the presages of the fall which quickly awaits the sinner. with turrets. when he had the Ark of the Covenant carried before of the people. as wax melts before a fire. as an invincible weapon. The following day. who faced tens of thousands with a limited number of soldiers. like Gideon once." The other. because he thought that he would subjugate all. The guardian of the affairs of the emperor. preceded and followed by a procession of priests. like swarms of wasps. but . But this voracious and greedy dog did not restrain himself even then. Because she attracted a great number of soldiers of the Khagan into a trap before of one of her churches. it is for this reason that God sent his Son into the world. in front of the army. The Virgin. after having made known to him her own power by experience. making those who looked at them shiver with fear. That means the loss of the power of the Law. though he accepted the food and listened to the remarks of the monarch. said to the Lord: "Arise. and continued to behave like a voracious dog. struck the pride of the Khagan down to the ground. He died.yielding to the night --.the sky (his form thus showing the shape of the cross). He passed. my goal is peace. so to speak. This the son of the emperor gave him. This place bore the name of a healing spring which was there. and the enemy attacked the walls. on the side of the East. like a hail accompanied by lightnings. I treat you with friendship. and all while preparing myself for war. Lord! let your enemies be scattered! Let those who hate you flee before you!" and he added to it again the words of king David: "As smoke is dissipated. The archpriest. But the AllPowerful Virgin. while Aaron and Hur supported the hands of the legislator on the two sides. to show his power and numbers. The third day arrived. according to the Gospel of Christ-God. because they were tired. crucified. being in front of the wall of the city. they are dissipated. went up on the Western wall. like a second Moses. and showed them still more terrible. when things happened thus. Because for each of our soldiers there was a hundred or even more barbarians. then --. and demanded food from the city. around all the ramparts of the city. But so far the barbarian only wanted. because. while letting the barbarian dog know what follows: "Even if you hate me. ordered the soldiers and a selected part of the people to make a fierce résistence. So it was the first day of the siege of the peoples come from the west. And in a low voice. This is because I am raised thus by my God and my very pious father. pouring tears. on the other hand. from sea to sea. The sun which reflected on them. towards the nebulous troops of darkness and the phalanxes of the West. the barbarian army was not yet prepared for battle. However. The crafty man did not show his fear then. the barbarian prepared all that was necessary for war. like the first Moses. so called. and weakened all his army. He did not need corporeal support. The barbarian tribes lined up opposite. by massacring the barbariabs at the hands of the Christian soldiers. for the world. At the same time. with a generosity of an emperor. and he showed the effigy. on the side of the sea. the view from the side of the land was most terrible. so perish the foreign tribes opposing our God who comes from the west to help us. XIX. all selected.

XX. to again summon the tyrant to a armistice. when all this occurred. his appearance and character terrible. to me and to the people which are with me Tomorrow I will occupy the city in any case. So he sent Somnas. The Virgin was present everywhere. The third day of the presence of the barbarians proceeded thus. So leave. and did not require much time. But. Like a second Salmoneus. --. on the other hand. Eliakim and Joach. He added further: if we do not leave early. but do not ask anything humanitarian of me!' These are the words that he said to us. spread fear and horror on the enemy. this imbecile started to draw up the helepoles and the catapults. the tyrant. to hide their shame. all this was done almost more quickly than the pronunciation of the orders. because Hezekiah in the past also sent only three men to the Babylonian Rabshakah who in the past wanted to devastate Jerusalem. XXI. because the wooden material was within his range. while giving strength to her servants. and never reasons justly. on the one hand. then they said to those which had sent them: "We saw a terrestrial Proteus. The construction of all that was a very easy task for him.which we saw --. to send the Slavic monoxyles. and I will render it uninhabited. as if he was short of allies.which we heard ---. by sea. and devastated the enemy masses. different local skirmishes took place and shooting with bow and sling. On the fifth day. And. in addition. and I will make possible for them to leave the city completely naked.he sent gifts and a delegation. to transport the Persian army from Chalcedon. since it is absolutely necessary that we tell you the essence of the words that he said to us. right now as I said. and at the same time material from the houses destroyed by him. thinks nothing of the future. he and all his people." XXII.ah! his words --. but in mercy I will leave to each one a chiton. overcame without being overcome. we will see that tomorrow the mass of Persians will fight beside the tyrant in front of the ramparts of the city. having taken men on his side. though they had handed over the gifts willing or not. he tattoos his skin below. indeed. as we said. but he wanted to make known to us his alliance with the Persians. Because then. a demon in human form whose word is unstable.all this gave courage to our men who knew on the one hand by experience the power of the Virgin. . terrifying him in his rage. this depraved monster said to us what follows: 'Let your God not mislead you. since he used the waggons. he built siege-towers out of wood. You trust him by saying that you will not hand over the city. unceasingly. I overlook the fourth legate 10. because the firm ground and the sea were both full of wild people under his command. But God made fun of him. These were the words of the legates. We understand again that they have concluded an alliance. I will summon Shahrbaraz to them and the Persian troops so that they cause you no loss. we saw also the Persian legates sent by Shahrbaraz who brought him gifts. those naturally which were his companions in all the plans and his support in the execution of the decisions: the archpriest himself and the best of the senate. On the fourth day. we feel sick to speak to you about him and we are afraid of him. because a whole multitude of barbarians worked there. the very young monarch. and in his fury he addressed sarcastic words to him. all along the wall. throughout the day. and he threatened us with still more serious things. on which he travelled here. She preserved her subjects safe and sound. Ah! the filth of his body and clothing --. I will make —by my kindness — a gift of their lives to the inhabitants. the city. and on the other hand believed that the Mother of God really hastened to fight for the interest of her city. But the legates returned without result. Of course the barbarian did not ask for an army of Perses.

because all the Universe is suject to you --. the monoxyles were launched. see. to blaspheme you.throw a glance from the throne of the Master on the masses of the peoples who do not know each other.' Who is it that by his will alone conquered the Ethiopian Zare who led formerly his army with a thousand times a thousand men against king Asa? Who killed the enemy peoples whose number was innumerable. XXIII. you who can decide according to your will everything that happens in the world. raised their hands with all those which lived the city towards the sky. by your pure will. in order to abolish the tabernacle of your glory.to .hear all the words of Sennacherib that he transmitted. it was a very tiring and extremely serious task.this happened in the areas where those who were sailing towards the Euxine Sea took to sea --. selected as well as he could --. Because the Slavs had already great experience with regard to bravery at sea. you. the head of the army and the city prayed constantly. because you have the power to do so. by experience. after listening to the words of the legates. at the same hour. neither on the sixth. the archpriest and guardian of the affairs of the emperor. and it is from there that you look at the Hells --. and so the bay was named Red Sea after the event. 'Let them fall into their own traps. that it was necessary that all the army of this Pharaoh perish in the sea. and this is what safeguarded the city and all its inhabitants. to build helepoles against the bastions. the bay of the Horn into firm ground. The monarch. even against these so powerful enemies. he advanced some armoured riders. It is you. using the monoxyles filled with foreign tribes. deprived of any human help. lifted his hands towards you? Since you are able.who moved against us. and on the other hand. sighed seriously. when you wish. when Josaphat.who is seated on the Cherubins. against the city. so that no-one can say 'Where is their God?' On the contrary: Let these people understand that they are only men. For the barbarian. and by killing some of those which were sent by the tyrants to each other. now also. see that this Rezin and the son of Remaliah were allied. and concluded a contract. While this nutcase prepared the fight by land and sea. He thought that to approach the city this was the best place. so that they could start the siege at the same time. For our hope does not reside in our arrows. When night fell. because under the pride of the impious people your unhappy people is consumed. Our Lord. XXIV. and said: "Mighty Lord --. Because. But God put an obstacle in the passing of the Persians to this dog. whose force is incomparable and whose power can be neglected by none. But he did not know. seventh. to do everything. being at Blachernae. what he knew later. nor eighth day and continued with shootings and local brawls. preparing an ambush for them. that the invincible guard of the city was the holy house of the Mother of God. save then the city of your heritage. by land and sea. on the one hand." Thus they the monarch. And so who could face the strength of your arm. fell into agreement. and to choke the voice of those who glorify you. since the time when they also attacked the territories of the Romans. Because he had already transformed earlier. our Lord God? Do not give the sceptre of your glory to those which do not even exist! 11 Do not let these men overcome you. The fight did not cease. our Lord. and who have surrounded us from the east and the west. close to the bay of Horn. to draw up on the land the siege-engines. our strong bastion. omnipotent and all-mighty --. and we do not have a sword to save us. to prepare on the sea the monoxyles of the Slavs.you who bring low every proud man. It is there. and save the people who are called by your name. the devil. And for this reason thus. the archpriest. there were a multitude of Slavs who directed them to transport the advancing army of the allied Persians. it is in your power to save small and great. the Master of the Universe.

XXVII. because they condemned innocent blood. of divine origin. Finally the tenth. because doing so. without rest. he writes in his book these words: "This happened in the fifth month. which completes all. because they carried in themselves the love of God and the Virgin towards us. The infallible witness is Jeremiah who is wisest in the things of God. Moreover nobody prevents them from understanding. The foreign tribe. and it is very right which they wear mourning for that. as they wish. and believing in the words of Zachariah. like a virgin and without mother. and the combat continued on both sides throughout the night. one of the immediate entourage of the king of Babylon. by its effect. by God and the Virgin. one of the twelve minor prophets. and conquered the city by assault. on firm ground. all along the wall. that the Romans call August. carrying off his dead in the sight of all our men." It is true. made his entry into Jerusalem. would become joy and happiness for Judah. total freedom. XXV. it is the date when the Jews hope for that. prophesied by his prophetic heart that day. the royal palace.show himself to the Persian army and to Shahrbraz which showed themselves in their turn. of the divine love. would be a sin against justice itself. and he named it that of happiness and of divine exaltation. was worthy of the grace of the Eternal Virgin. It was the fifth day of the week. the most violent fighting burst out. the fast of the seventh and the fast of the tenth will become for the house of Judah happiness. fills with divine happiness all our senses which are at the center of the spiritual combats. shown towards us. There came the tenth day of the stay of this dog. The army of Chaldaeans which . the ten of the month. did not have men who would have been worthy of ours. The fifth day. we know that the sons of the Hebrews interpreted differently the words of prophecy. and who was crowned already in the belly of his mother by the Lord. and who is able to show the power of the Virgin? Glory to he that names holy the chosen day which was the day of the most and most miraculous deeds. and the seventh of the month. but the seventh also. he did the same. the Jews which are always precisely in mourning. by saying that the fact that Jerusalem would pass into the hands of strangers in the days mentioned. I believe that even Zachariah. and filled all the opposite bank with heavy cavalry.one for certain things. Because Nabuzardan. The latter attacked the part of the city in Asia. brought to us. and he set fire to all the houses of the city and all the palaces. Because even the fifth. commanding the guard.12 XXVI. Nabuzardan. In any case for us the fifth. It is God whom they nailed on the cross. thinking that she would be surely their booty. in the words that he says to us: "The fast of the fifth. Some of ours were also wounded. and consequently the enemy perished in heaps. Because on the other side. The tenth day has also another mystery about which I cannot keep silent. in its combat against us. in my opinion. set fire to the Temple of Jerusalem on the tenth day of the fifth month of the Hebrews. and the former that in Europe. the seventh and the tenth days became absolutely identical. What I do not know. and what would follow: the disastrous humiliation and the austere fasting. the Mother of God. But who has the strength to tell the miraculous deeds of God. When the ninth day came. and especially the tenth proved --. the other for others --clearly such days which showed us all the miracles of our rescue. The seventh on the other hand. Even the following night did not put an end to the fight. joy and merry feastdays. He set fire to the Temple of the Lord. like mad beasts. the commander of the guard of the Babylonian Nabuchodonosor. Our army overcame the enemy everywhere with great courage.

These words of the prophet tell us that the fifth month of the Hebrews was in its tenth day. The Khagan also. Josephus. from the west. the tenth day of the month Loos arrived. As for the devastation of Jerusalem. XXXI. even if it is a digression. in order to show their divine kindness towards us. and to show that before God the worship which is pure and without cruelty of the Christians is much more valuable and much better received than that which is according to the law. and by the passage of time. very many of the divine sacraments. XXIX. but they agree only in general: thus the month of Nisan often falls in April. on the tenth day of the fifth month. is identical with the tenth day of the month of Loos. when the Persians set fire to the Temple and the capital of the Jews." However. Nabuzardan left part of the ordinary people of the country.was with the commander of the guard. writes thus in the sixth book of the History of the Fall of the Jews:13 "God already condemned beforehand the Temple to be delivered to the flames. had to carry out. Therefore everyone can admire the punctuality of the flow of time: because fate fixed the same month and the same day when Babylonians had set fire to the Temple formerly.that the months and the days of the Hebrews are not harmonized exactly with the days and the months of the Romans. a writer worthy of trust. if we count the first month in the series of the months lately established in accordance with the law of God. the king of Babylon had occupied the Temple and Jerusalem. Titus destroyed them in the same way. him and those who were gathered. was not hidden by me. it. And if the Hebrews learned how to count the months according to the changes of the moon. But God and the Virgin covered him with shame. Our worship is better received. on the tenth day of the fifth month. on which day the monarch of Babylon had formerly made it burn. this sinful tyrant. where according to divine Jeremiah. according to the flesh. was accomplished by the devastators on the tenth of the . it is thus proof that Josephus knew himself that the months of the Hebrews show. Among the Hebrews the fifth month is named Ab. who were unworthy of rescue. exactly in the fifth month. and it happens that the fifth month of the Hebrews is at the same time as August of the Romans. Among the Romans we find that the fifth month is August. the Khagan hoped to occupy Constantinople. from time to time. spread out against the city so great a mass of enemies. when Titus devastated the same city.as anyone could say --. as vine growers and ploughmen. on the tenth day of his arrival. starting from April. And thus we find the month Ab is the fifth starting from Nisan. so to speak. XXX. for their sin against our Saviour. Our history shows that Nabuzardan demolished the Temple and Jerusalem. even if we. because God had ordered that they hold and call Nisan the first among the months newly named. then it is clear --. and on the tenth day of his stay. Nisan among Hebrews is usually what is among Romans April. are not afraid to approach boldly. All that is true. from the east. This last includes all the fatty and bloody sacrifices that the people of Israel. by land and sea. As the commander of the guard thus occupied Jerusalem on the tenth day of the fifth month of the Hebrews. threw down all the ramparts which surrounded Jerusalem. several times a simultaneity. I believe that I did not understand it until the end. Josephus correctly wrote that the tenth day of the month of Ab. with sinful conscience and hands which were not washed. set fire to the Temple of Jerusalem and destroyed the city." XXVIII. That which is to be told about the tenth day. but with regard to the numerical coincidence with the tenth day. Because even the Roman emperor who carried out the punishment of the Jews. on the tenth day of the fifth month.

Because the months did not differ much from the other. and won this victory. could easily approach the city. some of the barbarians who --. refusing to endure such a spectacle. XXXII. even if they differ in their names. because all that was the church of the Mother of God in Blachernae. and the day the tenth. made the monoxyles with their men sink. in the bay of Horn. The Mother of God. She put in action her own force and power. since the Jewish Ab. And this sight and astonishing and mighty miracle could be seen: while all the bay became firm ground. And the tyrant thought. all along the wall. on our vessels. he had everything prepared that he wanted for the attack against the city. that he was going to take the city on the tenth day after his arrival. fled into the mountains. at the same time against the city. Not like Moses. even now. . which he had brought with him. often coincide completely. It was the fifth day of the week. because she wanted to achieve a miracle. our case is very differ from the others. the Macedonian Loos and the month named August among the Romans. and the monoxyles tossing randomly quite empty and moving without a goal. That is allowed. the bugles sounded the signs of the attack everywhere and all the city was filled with noises and clamours all around. showed him that his hopes were unrealizable and were overcome on all sides. That is to say August the fifth month. on the other hand.succeeded in escaping from the dead and devastation at sea. should start to row against the city with terrible cries. in front of her holy church of Blachernae. Both the two dates coincide with the former ones. not being pursued by anybody. turn around at the first attack of the enemy force and they failed to beat a retreat. the miraculous deeds of God and the Virgin. It is about this that we will speak in the continuation. on land and sea. In consequence of that.as good swimmers --. Because on each point of the wall a so great number of corpses lay. and to reach the north bank. our calm harbour. those who attacked from the sea. In the bay of Horn he filled the monoxyles with the Slavs and other wild peoples. The tyrant prepared so that the catapults were put in motion and a multitude of projectiles was launched. as we mentioned earlier.month. Strong clamours were heard and a great noise of war all along the wall and over all the sea. and he gave the order that the barbarians with the heavy weapons. the seventh of August. Now it is time to tell. because it is really thus. Because he had tested and planned: while the besiegers from the land were going to destroy the walls of the city. being transported in an innumerable mass in the monoxyles. covered in blood. with the sailors and their instruments. But with regard to the care of God towards us. Everyone sank there. and the enemy fell unceasingly that the barbarians were no longer in a position to take away and to burn their dead. if possible. God and the Lady Virgin. If this expression were not serious. in the sea battle. because of the corpses and abandoned monoxyles. XXXIII. He began the battle. but that it is the Virgin itself which ordered ours to pretend to retire. was shown clearly by the following facts: those who fought on the sea. in front of her holy church. The fact that the Virgin herself won this fight. in the bridge of our rescue. but only by her gesture and her pure will she made the chariots of Pharaoh and his army to sink. at a single gesture. Some say that ours were not withdrawn from the fear of the enemy. but of the arrival of this enemy criminal. dividing and uniting again the floods of the Red Sea by his staff. the tenth day of the attack against us by this ravaging dog. one could have said that all the bay could have been passed on dry foot because of the corpses lying there. if the pity of the Virgin had not prevented this misfortune. and by that they would have made almost possible attacks by the enemy. and that will surely be it. even if we do not count it from the beginning of the month. the barbarians sank completely. accomplished that day.

the helepoles.making noise and cries. the Gilded Door. or had been transferred onto chariots. because of widespread smoke. on the one hand to collect with weariness the corpses of the barbarians floating in the water. sitting on a horse and surrounded by his men-at-arms. he withdrew to his own lands.XXXIV. only by her goodwill. while the barbarians felt grief and despair to such a state that even the children and the women marched against them. along the wall. cut the enemy in pieces. by running. was shown by its strength. he was about to leave even more as casualties. The archpriest. indicating confidence and victory --poured outside for a hand. all that was there. The Virgin Mother of God reached and ensures that these orders are carried out by the barbarians themselves. One could see how one can drive out a thousand. raised their hands towards heaven. and two pursue ten thousand in an attack. It is also obvious that the Mother of God did this so that our men could burn the siege-engines of the enemy. being outside the door whom we call. and by the excess of your glory. learned the happy news of the loss of the barbarians at sea. In his retreat. your right hand. all the machines of war and the catapults. and recall at the same time those which were running outside of the walls. Since the impudent dog thus received the reward of his own baseness. The course of the events proves it too. and she wanted to show by that also a greater sign of her love for us. and at the same time he was the minister of his own loss. XXXV. This fool could thus learn. in accordance with reality. but by cries. It is said that even the wicked tyrant was an eyewitness of his own shame. and still more admired the multitude of the heads splitted on the lances that our men carried slowly towards the man to whom the mighty emperor had entrusted the management of the affairs of state. as Moses said formerly. on the other hand to fish out their monoxyles so that they could be burned. courtesy of the Virgin. when the night fell. and prevent the exit of our men. you have defeated the adversaries. we could see neither the city nor the sea. the General and a considerable multitude of townsmen. After having contemplated his own defeat from a hill. And he did it. not by bugles sounding the retirement. Our men were full of such happiness and strength. drawn up in front of the walls of the city. the caltrops. because she trusted them to destroy by fire their own siege-engines. or had been manufactured on the spot.to. In consequence of that. At sunset. the fugitives reported to us that these soon died. the Lady gave such strength to those which did not have any and such power to the weak. Because very wisely she influenced the guardian of the affairs of the state. that there is no god more . all the air was lit by the light of the burning. So they started the similar fire which does not die out and which will absorb them. the tortoises. and uttered cries and tears of gratitude: "Your law. the Virgin. For most of the following day. Many days passed during which our men succeeded. encouraged by the power of God and protected by the strength of the Virgin. assault-towers on wheels. during all the night. by experience. and looking at the fire and the smoke of the barbarian engines. by gesticulating and by exhorting with words our men with sure and reasonable words.hand fight against the enemy and his engines. arriving in the camp of the enemy. in the Western part of the city. while beating his chest and his cheeks with his hands." XXXVI. Lord. That was affirmed as a safety measure and an precautionary act by the head of the army. these devils lit and burned. he returned shaken to his camp. Lord. they opened wide the doors of the ramparts and --. to have care for a greater security. The Mother of God. When those who fought on the walls against the enemy. he was to see thousands of corpses of the men and animals which he had brought with him. to justly prevent those who were leaving with all enthusiasm.

On the contrary: their lot became opprobrium and eternal shame before each people and nation. This was the experience of the Egyptians also who. like Phineas who transfixed a Midianite and an Israelite. she did not do it with a blow of a lance. himself: " If so strong peoples of which the number can be compared only with the grains of sand of the sea. but could do nothing against this city and were lost despite every apparent advantage. was delighted at this. Because it is not only the tyrant of the west who withdrew shamefully. XXXVIII. Because disappointment in their hopes usually determines even the barbarians to hold the power of God as invincible. but the Persian also returned humiliated. against my city and my people. as he had made him his companion and accessory to turpitude. it is impossible for anyone to harm it. the monarch of Samariah. and that with true title. This is why he still camped several days at Chalcedon. Because this Holophernes had promised to his king Nabuchodonosor that he would succeed. ashamed and rightly humiliated. XXXIX. the son of darkness. Finally when God and the Virgin also reversed his hopes. --. caused by the burning of the engines by the barbarians of the west. She did that by her voice and will only. It became obvious to us that very holy Isaiah depicted in the figure and example of the old Jerusalem the miracles accomplished today. after having tried the . They were in no state either to harm Jerusalem." According to what I know." This said. ready. He was delighted. and why I still nourish in myself these vain hopes? It is obvious that a divine and superhuman power guard this city and have kept it safe and sound. or trickery. it is said. either to strip the son of David of his power or to make the son of Tabeel monarch. of the then king of the two tribes. thought. and the unlucky one hoped for the execution of his own foolish plan. The two ends of smoking firebrands thus appeared. Phaceus. in vain. and as it is said.plans in which they agreed and that they concluded at the time of their alliance. though he never needed a Master in spite. but --. and that there is no power which could oppose the very Blessed Virgin. seeing the smoke of the fire. but at the same time he was saddened. because he thought in error that the capital of the Romans was already vanished. we all were eyewitnesses of the fact that the Virgin and Mother of God put to flight with a single blow the armed strength of both enemies. either by fighting. XXXVII. the murderer. Thus the enemy of the west returned empty-handed and ashamed. all this also occurred as divine Isaiah had predicted.as he believed --. according to wise Isaiah: Rezin. the tyrant of Babylon who camped in the surroundings of Chalcedon. However. reaching without a battle the edge of the sea. and apparently very astonished. camped so many days under the walls of the city. The other enemy. for the fight. on the beach. this one because of the flame and smoke of the fire which he had lit himself. that the city burned (God keep us!). "Do not fear a allied attack of these two ends of smoking firebrands which they have organised against you. terrifying and pursueing this one and that one at the same time.the other tyrant who had devastated the city. and that this scumbag would be the Master of the city.powerful than our God. he blamed extremely those which had instigated him to this boldness. as he was to ruminate in these words. the king of Syria and son of Remaliah. but he sighed and was saddened at the same time as it was not him. even after the departure of the Western enemies. in the figure and example in connection with Jerusalem and Achaz. he took the road of retreat. the other because of the darkness and the sadness of his sinful conscience. and now he spoke to the descendant of David reigning in our time. he himself withdrew. then why I do remain still here.

the spoils of the wild beasts and the birds of prey. it must be that we seek that which the prophet names Israel. many troop. Many peoples will come from the extreme north with you. But before that. on your subject. and burn the Temple by fire and the city to the ground. Since neither time. Thus speaks the Lord God to Gog: My anger will go up and my jealousy in the heat of my fury. as the prophet says. became their property. I will plunder them and make booty of them. make it acceptable to us to think that the things said concern the land of Israel and the people which mark themselves by the circumcision of the flesh. march against the quiet people which live in the land in safety where there are no ramparts. men and the holy objects. all will be mounted on horses.divine power at sea. But so that what I say become clear and quite comprehensible. horses and riders. and they will know that I am the Lord. You will get under way and you will leave your residence in the extreme north and of the many people with you. You will go up against Israel. Prince de Rosh. Gog. and killed the majority of the population. the Ethiopians and the Libyans are with them and you. I declare myself against you. then it became the grazing ground of the birds of prey and the wild beasts. You will be like a cloud which covers the earth. Because the prophet Ezechiel wrote what has been said before the deportation of the people to Babylonia. and I will express my greatness and holiness and glory and I will make myself known to the eyes of the many nations. nor the events of war against Judah which followed. nor bolts. but the prophetic words will not be complete and continual. It appears obvious that what Ezechiel said was prophesied about the land of the people of Israel according to the flesh. XLI. all bearing shields and helmets. I restrict myself to what is relevant because the length of the place quoted: "The word of the Lord was addressed to me in these terms: Son of man. it is reasonable and suitable to quote words of the prophet. and what he names his land. turn to Gog and prophesy against him and say to him: Thus speaks the Lord God: Here. finding the place given. on the other hand. he gave a prophecy in the Holy Scriptures on Gog. the people which marched against Judah did not withdraw empty-handed. That day. but neither the date of what the prophet condescended to predict. They are Sheba. were constrained to say: " Let us run. I will break your bow in your left hand. Mesoch and Thobel. I will go up against those which live on the navel of the earth. with all your army. but. we do not find anything similar to what the prophet wrote. and I will make your arrows fall from your right hand. in their eyes. nor doors. Dedan and the traffickers of Chalcedon 14. all perfectly armoured. when I express my holiness. and did not become. I believe that the words and the visions of the prophet Ezechiel who saw great things. In these. as booty." XL. Because did not the Romans and Titus attack Judah after the activity of the prophet Ezechiel. and all your army and the . by famine and sword? those who remained. run because God fights against the Egyptians for Israel. and I will make you go out. And I will bring you against my country so that all the nations know me. the enemy often fell. instigated by the prophetic inspiration. nor the events make it possible for us to accept prophecy as relating to the land of Israel. after this time. The Persians. when Mattathias and his sons had to face the attack of the peoples neighbouring Judah which wanted to exterminate the remainder of the people. my people. I will drive you over the mountains of Israel and you will succumb. thoughts will be born in your spirit and you will utter evil designs: I will go up against a country without defense. in these wars. Titus and the Romans. against which Gog led his armies. are fulfilled now. There are some who say that in Hebrew "Gog" means "assembly of the people" because they believe that no-one was ever called by this name.

is obvious to any reasonable man. from the words of the prophet nothing occurred with the people which went on campaign against the land of Israel. says the Lord God. which examines whether the prophecies quoted relate to the old Israel and its land. by clear reasoning. The verb "to fall" is used in one of its meanings and senses: to break down in certain foolish hopes. they returned with booty. according to the flesh. in Israel. and even the places where according to the words of the prophet all that should be accomplished do not lead us to think of the land of Israel. they can understand them as they wish. the sons of Mattathias heroically fought against the neighbouring peoples. nothing accomplishes the words of the prophet in the land of Israel. when Ezechiel did prophesy.people with you will be given to the multitude of the birds of prey. and they put in prison those which remained. when I will give a famous place for his burial to Gog. and the people of Gog will be buried there. everyone who knows the Holy Scriptures well. fighting against Israel. knows that the verb "to fall" into the divine writings has several senses and several meanings. undertook their attack only after these events against the land of Israel. and if they can be accomplished on them? The date excludes the accomplishment of the prophecy in Israel. however. Says the Lord God. After all that. can they show? When and how were the islands lived in in safety after Gog. My attention is not diverted from the fact that the prophet has predicted that with the people Gog himself would fall to earth and would subside. nor in the future. I give you like pasture to the wild beasts of the earth. as we have just said. XLII. they devastated all the landd. the common grave of the Passers. If thus the words of the prophet. But if the sons of the Hebrews wish to interpret the words of the prophet in another way. this is why the barbarian peoples begin a war. . the removal of men. the seizure of goods.by which is on the sea. and people will live in the islands in safety. and thus time could come when somebody will set out again and say that if this assassin did not fall with those who perished. according to the flesh. then we cannot well relate the prophetic predictions to the events of today. against which Gog could fight in the intention to have profit and booty. the words of the prophet could have been accomplished. the islands will be delivered from their terror. does not have its own land. nor in the future of any sort that could be such a cause of war. So. and by their fall. However. what then must we think? Because the Romans. It can be interpreted in several fashions and in various ways. what goal could there be for peoples attack the land of Israel? The goal of war is in general the hope of booty. But what other common grave. The fact that the Jews live today all dispersed. had vanished? XLIII. On the land of Israel there is nothing. threatening Israel. and the day will arrive. they killed the majority of the people by a terrible famine and the murderous sword. And if after the deportation of the Jews. It remains after that to examine whether in the times which follow. Because the prophet had said that for the people marching against the land of Israel their common grave will be in the sea. and not of this one. among all the peoples. neither today. to be found at sea and pertaining to the people travelling with Gog against the land of Israel. neither in the past. form an opinion. Can anyone. and Israel. The divine Ezechiel prophet declared rightly in this sense that the wicked tyrant falls. according to the flesh. and his fall can be also noted by that the part armed with his people fell indeed and really. you have heard the words of the prophet. At the time of Hasmonaeans.

bolts. and it is their strength which was overcome by the Lord who had said in Sion: "Be without fear. Even if somebody said that by the "Chalcedonians" it is necessary to understand Libyan traffickers. Thus. and get booty.e. and where the rite of the true piety of God is celebrated. in its totality. and he missed men too. And there will be nobody who can stop me." Because the fool thinks that the country is without defense. and did all that he did." The insatiability and the greed of the barbarian pushed him to think all that. a multitude of people. Because the Chalcedonian traffickers never traded with that land of Israel. in arranging his wicked plans. and who deals too much with superfluous things. say that Sheba and Dedan are people subject to the Romans. saying: "So let us go up against those who live on the navel of the earth where Sheba. neither the Virgin. if it is not inconsiderate to say so. that we should interpret the word "Gog" for the assembly of these people led against us by this mad dog. and I will plunder it and I will make booty of it. However. according to the flesh. then my reasoning is on the right road and is irrefutable. it only remains to interpret them in fact by the events of the present. I have learned from other people that the name Gog means the multitude and the assembly of the people. says: "I will go up against a country without defense. he believed that the people of the Christians were not expert in war. He supposed that the people lived quietly and lived in the city in safety. of the horses and armoured riders. i. Gog. I have reasoned carefully. by its central position. presented themselves in . because he had news of the departure of the powerful emperor. and to live the innocent land of Israel means to celebrate a sacrifice everywhere pure and without bloodshed to God. and the city without monarch. assembled against this land of Israel. XLVI. the place of sacrifice of God. existing among the Hebrews. XLV. And when this most shameless dog advanced against the Long Walls. but it is I who took this city for "the land of Israel" where God and the Virgin is glorified with a holy piety. and one can see that it is generally speaking the only church which sings the glory and the anthems of God and the Virgin. march against quiet people which live on the land in safety where there are no ramparts. it is He which can save you. It is also necessary to examine these words of the prophet. and as ramparts. as a foolish man. This is why I go up against the navel of the earth. Sion! Let not your hands weaken! See. peoples and nations gathered. nor the arm of the divine power will save the city. and that He made. such that it can by itself be used as an intermediary between the east and the west." Those who know the significance of the names. and with them of Persians. Because the real existence of the true Israel means that the Lord is glorified with true heart and a devoted soul. But if we must understand for traffickers of Chalcedon the neighbours of this city. let us pillage plunder. I pass over the circumstances which relate to this. so that I do not appear one who deploys more zeal than one should. Thus. It is against this city that sovereigns." The gathering of the peoples of the northern lands. even in this case there is no possibility that the prophet spoke about the land of Israel. where he ensures that Gog. And what other place could one name as "the navel of the earth" but this city where God put the imperial residence of the Christians. he said in his heart: "There is no God here. your God is in the midst of you. Dedan and the traffickers of Chalcedon are found. XLIV. What other but our city would rightly be that which could be named infallibly and correctly. or doors. I will plunder them and make booty of them. I will go up against the navel of the earth.could not and cannot be fulfilled.

because Bel has bowed and Dagon broken down. who will be saved.pierced this Sisera with a lance. that he alone is the Lord. the mass of whom was drowned by God and the Virgin in the bay of Horn. even if they wander in darkness. or indeed to correct me by saying that the prophecy did not logically relate to my discourse. in singing the anthem of the victory against this Sisera. They fell on the mountains of Israel and they became the pasture of wild beasts and birds of prey. that death carries out them to feed and that their strength is lost in Hell. I will give to Gog a famous place for his burial in Israel. and the sound of drum also to its song. because it is an indisputable fact. the fact of the achieved rescue.the people God saved with so much difficulty. This current Deborah is called by me the church of God who --. Because our enemies learned from all that they had suffered. God of Israel! How the great ones of the people praise the Lord! Make heard the song of those who sing briskly. All that was prophesied by Ezechiel. by the Lord. cannot be discussed. beyond hope. And all the earth knew. princes. and my opinion which follows. the common grave of the Passersby which is on the sea. Let us sing with the Lord because He was greatly glorified. if it is necessary that I refer to this prophecy. in giving the example of virginal purity. from death and bitter and imminent slavery --. the place of burial of the people which is on the sea.front of this city. and as the prophet says: "Our Lord God manifested His greatness and His holiness and He became glorious in the eyes of the nations and the people." I think that that means another thing than the loss of the foreign people. even if it is here that the Mother of God became the "horn of safety" for the city. let us sing for the Lord. believing that her son already was distributing the spoils. then. and those who glorified images were covered with shame. i. This bay is named not only the Bay of Horn. in your interest. What does she say. and adds to it. to quote the words of the prophet Ezechiel. However. We others --. and humiliate those who are stronger than your people!" The current Deborah. God Almighty. XLVIII. The strength of our God made their bows fall from their left hands and from their right. where the chariots of Pharaoh drowned. and that they are banished from glory. listen. but those who fulfill the will of the Lord. and at the same time the Red Sea.raising his hands towards God --. the church of God. in this place. Because the zeal of the Lord of armies. it was the Virgin who broke their arrows.let us show by good deeds our recognition of the Saviour. the divine prophet: "On that day. and all those who adored the idols were humiliated. You who judge rightly. However. on the sea. though I know indeed that it is possible to accuse me of verbosity. Because it is not those who just say: My Lord. where all the people of Gog will be buried. and that they will be thus too in the future. but also the common grave of Gog. That was said word for word by the prophet. by the sttrength of His own arm. lend an ear." I thought that it is good. even all its army. says this. the mother of this Sisera watched by the grilles of her window. XLVII. . My Lord. It is a beautiful and worthy thing that the Deborah of today employs the words of the Deborah of before. May they do justice to the Lord! Lord! Strengthen justice among the people of Israel.e. did all that. and the sun of justice has not yet risen on them. our Deborah. marching in the middle of the road. of the mortification of the flesh. as the sister of Moses did. it is for you to decide if you accept my procedure. and that He saved. says the Lord God. singing a song of victory to our Lord: "Kings.

those. he looked at and watched for every part of the roads and the sea. But now. and his spirit meditated ceaselessly.even unworthily? "Because the Lord has rescued the poor. on the other hand. let us not look only at the deeds committed towards us by the barbarians. in irons to foreign lands. because of their age cannot be useful yet." It is necessary that we appear neither good-for-nothings. Mother of God and Lady. And when he found that the news corresponded to that which he solicited. which can be. As if we had seen women and children. and prostrated himself on the ground. according to the envoys bringing the imperial rescripts the faithful and mighty emperor who. in exchange for what they did for us. . to a deplorable life to which even death is preferable. and his spirit was vigilant. massacred. that the Lord saved us of all these dangers. He did not scorn the prisoners! How the heavens and the earth acclaim Him. and you also Virgin. Is there a sight more miserable than this? It would be all as well as to traverse. so as not to reduce in this way our recognition of the rescue and kindness of being delivered! It is necessary that we consider also from what a powerful danger the Lord delivered us! And at this point in time we will recognize the greatness of the benefits with which God and the Virgin have filled us.XLIX. proven towards us. the beautiful buildings and the brilliant houses. are deported in front of our eyes. nor inactive." Those which brought back the imperial rescripts. the sea and all that is stirred up there! Because the Lord God has saved Sion. we could have been the cause of the devastation of this great city. he did not ask them the news that they brought. in the sight of the army and the people present. As if we had seen children who. he knelt again on the ground. And while these miraculous things took place by the love of God the merciful. each one according to his possibilities must accomplish good deeds. However. as an immediate danger. and thus he will glorify and praise the Saviour. but you have carried them towards the waters of saving baptism giving peace. and we could have become unworthy of all that. and more precisely you have made them praise you with myself. priests. have said that the . by burning the forsaken houses and by devastating the best lands. to the Lord and the Virgin Mother of God? What praise and what glorification should we sing for the benefits in which we have taken part --. Divine Word. and he reflected during long sleepless nights on the outcome of this complex concern: what news would he receive on the rescue of this city by God. carried in a bitter servitude. he said. himself held open day and night his ears and eyes. objects of mockery placed in the sight of their husbands who do not dare to howl. what thanksgivings do we owe.women who were obscenely dishonoured and who became toys of barbarian vice. by these foreign hands. Beforehand he ran to the church of the Virgin and the Mother of God. and He comforted the poor wretches of its people. the palace. the couriers arrived. all the city lying on the ground. children --all who could beforehand have fled from death and in exchange ensured a miserable life. and at the same time. you safeguarded them from any distress and you made the herd inaccessible to the wolves. and while pouring out tears. as it is reported. neither lazy.. L. because of the multitude of our sins. our Saviour and king of all things visible and invisible. Even if we have received forgiveness now. asking Her that he would hear good news brought by the newly-arrived legates. There when on the other hand. contemplate and count the holy churches. he prayed to God and the Virgin: "I give you grace. LI. Because we already believed that we saw with our eyes. even if they must endure such terrible things. because you did not denied anything to the city which you condescended to entrust to me and the people of whom you made me shepherd. leaders. announcing the marvellous deeds of God.

after these events. Hesiod. seal. just as he makes his son reigning with him a man distinguished for wisdom and love of peace. 3. and David. with your seal again the end of this sermon. and announce that the city will be safeguarded. 6. Amen. 7. but can always escape thanks to God and to the Virgin." Because by the devotion for God and tenderness for his subjects. and with the example of David. 5. and also beseech the Virgin whom you saw in your heart. LII. at Blachernae. how it was in cosideration of former pains taken. at the invitation of God. Constantine. Khosrau used the murder as a pretext to throw off his obligation and wage war on the Eastern Roman Empire. Pray. like a favourable holocaust. Cf. and what happened. to God. . our God: I will protect this city to save it. Thus beseech them that they save always the city and its people which are sinners.as you outlined to me at the beginning of my speech in broad outline the delivery of this city ---. on the one hand by the mortification of his own flesh. Oh. 4. also George of Pisidia. The references to Nabuchodonosor and Holophernes are a reference to the apocryphal book of Judith. Because it is God who has glory and strength in the centuries of the centuries. that the Lord adorned him with victories. in the future also. because of myself. the very worthy archpriest dedicated himself to God without ceasing. Notes 1. Sergius. Khosrau II was restored to his throne by the emperor Maurice in 590 AD. all this shows. In Pannonia. yourself. Theogony 185.most wise emperor said and did all that. offered in favour of the delivery in the sacrosanct church of the Mother of God. and that he is endowed with devotion and the true faith. Heraclius (610-641 AD). with the example of Solomon. After the murder of Maurice. Bellum Avaricum 215. just like his father! Because the devotion and the faith of Solomon was not to follow. He unceasingly celebrates the triumphal festival of the delivery from evil with communal litanies and asks that the city remain intact for the eternity of all time. and you announced it by your prophetic words. Speak thus to this city: "Here is the oracle of the Lord. very wise Isaiah --. from war. that she would be really the Mother of God. my servant. prophet. And he obtains for us safety for the future not by the blood of sheep and goats. 2. on the other hand by the divine enthusiasm of his heart. At the same time. Patriarch from 610-658 AD. in advance. our emperor is also a David. but this was proven by the letters of the emperor also which he condescended to address in imperial manner to several. the 14-year old son of Heraclius. but by the sacrifice without bloodshed.

10. nor their worshippers. pp. When Heraclius was preparing to campaign against the Persinas. UK. Ed. vol. 1.copy freely. Fr. The Septuagint reads Καρχηδόνιοι. G. The whole passage is from Ezechiel 38-39.8. Paris (1883). Fragmenta Philosophorum Graecorum. In April 622 the emperor left to campaign in the east against the Persians. 464-465. 11. 2007. Jewish War. Theodore the Syncellus himself. 13. Early Church Fathers Additional Texts . 29th July 626 AD. so the biblical reading may have been massaged here to fit the interpretation. A. The gods of the pagans do not really exist. Josephus. Commentarius in Aureum Carmen 20. Greek text is rendered using unicode. he addressed a letter to the Avar Khagan. See Esther 4:17 and Deuteronomy 6:4. 45-48. 12. This file and all material on this page is in the public domain . Mullachius. book 6. This text was transcribed by Roger Pearse. 4:8. 14. This numerology of 7 and 10 is discussed in Hierocles Alexandrinus. 9. Ipswich. and appointing him tutor to his sons. reminding him of the treaty agreed in 620.