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UNIVERSITATEA "AL. I.

CUZA" IAI Facultatea de Informatic


Departamentul de nvmnt la Distan

LAURA IOANA LEON

MANUAL DE LIMBA ENGLEZ

CONTENTS INTRODUCTION English as a World Language ................................................ 3 I. LESSONS Lesson 1 The Invention of the Internet ...................................................... 5 Lesson 2 Professional and Educational Internet ....................................... 7 Lesson 3 People in Computing .................................................................. 10 Lesson 4 Designing a Webpage ................................................................. 14 Lesson 5 Internet Ethics ............................................................................ 18 Lesson 6 Computer Security ..................................................................... 21 Lesson 7 Storage Devices ........................................................................... 24 Lesson 8 Cyberculture ............................................................................... 27 Lesson 9 Electronic Trade ......................................................................... 29 Lesson 10 Futurology ................................................................................. 32 II. LANGUAGE FOCUS A. Writing a CV ............................................................................................ 35 B. Writing Letters and Faxes ...................................................................... 37 B1. Writing a Letter of Application ............................................................ 37 C. Interviews .................................................................................................. 39 D. Writing Emails ......................................................................................... 40 E. Presentations ............................................................................................. 42 F. Dissertations and Long Essays ................................................................ 44 III. TESTS Test A ............................................................................................................. 47 Test B ............................................................................................................. 50 Test C ............................................................................................................. 53 Test D ............................................................................................................. 56 Test E ............................................................................................................. 59 Tests Answer Key ...................................................................................... 61 IV. GRAMMAR REFERENCE .............................................................................. 66 BIBLIOGRAPHY ..................................................................................................... 92

INTRODUCTION ENGLISH AS A WORLD LANGUAGE Do you think the following statements are true or false? 1. English was already an important world language four hundred years ago. 2. It is mainly because of the United States that English has become a world language. 3. One person out of seven in the world speaks perfect English. 4. There are few inflections in modern English. 5. In English, many verbs can be used as nouns. 6. English has borrowed words from many other languages. 7. In the future, all other languages will probably die out. Skim reading Read the article on English as a world language. Find out the answers to the true/false statements. There is one statement for each paragraph. Discuss your answers in pairs. Then read the article in more depth. Today, when English is one of the major languages in the world, it requires an effort of the imagination to realize that this is a relatively recent thing that in Shakespeare's time, for example, only a few million people spoke English, and the language was not thought to be very important by the other nations of Europe, and was unknown to the rest of the world. English has become a world language because of its establishment as a mother tongue outside England, in all the continents of the world. This exporting of English began in the seventeenth century, with the first settlements in North America. Above all, it is the great growth of population in the United States, assisted by massive immigration in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, that has given the English language its present standing in the world. People who speak English fall into one of three groups: those who have learned it as their native language; those who have learned it as a second language in a society that is mainly bilingual; and those who are forced to use it for a practical purpose administrative, professional or educational. One person in seven of the world's entire population belongs to one of these three groups. Incredibly enough, 75% of the world's mail and 60% of the world's telephone calls are in English. BASIC CHARACTERISTICS SIMPLICITY OF FORM. Old English, like modern German, French, Russian and Greek, had many inflections to show singular and plural, tense, person, etc., but over the centuries words have been simplified. Verbs now have very few inflections, and adjectives do not change according to the noun. FLEXIBILITY. As a result of the loss of inflections, English has become, over the past five centuries, a very flexible language. Without inflections, the same word can operate as many different parts of speech. Many nouns and verbs have the same form, for example swim, drink, walk, kiss, look, and smile. We can talk about water to drink and to water the flowers; time to go and to time a race; a paper to read and to paper a bedroom. Adjectives can be used as verbs. We warm our hands in front of a fire; if clothes are dirtied, they need 3

to be cleaned and dried. Prepositions too are flexible. A sixty-year old man is nearing retirement; we can talk about a round of golf, cards, or drinks. OPENNESS OF VOCABULARY. This involves the free admissions of words from other languages and the easy creation of compounds and derivatives. Most world languages have contributed some words to English at some time, and the process is now being reversed. Purists of the French, Russian and Japanese languages are resisting the arrival of English in their vocabulary. THE FUTURE OF ENGLISH. Geographically, English is the most widespread language on Earth, second only to Mandarin Chinese in the number of people who speak it. It is the language of business, technology, sport, and aviation. This will no doubt continue, although the proposition that all other languages will die out is absurd. Speaking 1. How do you learn languages? - What are the differences between the ways a baby learns its first language and the ways an adult learns a second language? - What advantages does the baby have? - What advantages does the adult have? 2. Work alone. What is most important for you in learning a language? Put the list in order of importance, 1 being the most important. .......... learning grammar .......... learning vocabulary .......... speaking and being corrected .......... speaking and not being corrected all the time .......... listening .......... reading .......... writing .......... pronunciation practice 3. Work in groups. Compare your lists. Justify your order, but remember that different people learn in different ways. 4. Can you think of some suggestions for effective language learning? Example Practice as much as possible. Read books and newspapers.

I. LESSONS LESSON 1 THE INVENTION OF THE INTERNET A blast from the past It's 1969 (...). A department of the US Government decides to set up some sort of computer network enabling its scientists and researchers to exchange information easily even if they are miles apart a sort of military chatline. But this network will have to be Cold Warproof. There will be no "command center", no single computer that controls the rest of them. Instead, each machine will have equal status. The way in which a message travels from one computer to another won't be important, it will just take whatever route it can to reach its destination. The Advanced Research Projects Agency, for it was they, built a network consisting of supercomputers and modestly named it ARPANET. The clever folks at ARPA designed a system which broke up any message into bits or packets, to use the techy term. These packets could be sent independently over the network. Each packet could travel to its destination by a different route, and as long as they were all reassembled at the other end in the right order, the way they got there was unimportant. By 1971 there were 15 computers on the Net; by 1972, 37. Amazingly, it worked. Scientists rapidly exchanged their findings and productivity increased. But then an odd thing started to happen. Instead of using the network strictly for business, users began sending personal messages too at first notes and theories on their work, then news and eventually gossip. They set up their own electronic mailboxes. They had, in fact, invented e-mail, still the most popular use of the Net by far. This blatant misuse of the US Government's funds continued throughout the '70s, and the Internet, as it came to be called, just kept on growing. Other networks joined in, uninvited but still welcome. Because of the way the messaging system worked, it didn't matter what sort of computer was used as long as it spoke the right language. Enthusiastic amateurs knocked up programs for their own machines, swapped them (via the net, of course) and encouraged other people to join in. In the mid-'80s came the rise of the personal computer, machines that would sit on your desk rather than in your lab, computers you could play games on and use unproductively. Crude as they were, they were capable of far more interesting things that were ever dreamt possible. The pioneering owners of these machines found out about the Net, decided that it was a good thing and started joining in. But they weren't interested in science or academia, they were interested in film and music and TV and the opposite sex and all sorts of fascinating topics. They didn't use the Net to swap research data, they used it to swap gossip. They started mailing lists, they opened newsgroups, they sent each other games. 1. Say if each of these statements is right or wrong (according to the text): 1. You can use any type of computer to send a message on the Internet. 2. The Internet is regulated and funded by the US Government. 3. A message always takes the shortest route to its destination. 4. A message is cut into packets of bits to be a computer specialist any more to use the Internet.

2. Computer sizes. Here are five types of computers. Can you order them from the largest to the smallest? 1. desktop computer 2. personal digital assistant (DPA) 3. supercomputer 4. mainframe 5. notebook 3. Find the correct definition for each of the following words: newsgroup, packet, mailbox, network, researcher A. a series of bits being a part of message B. a set of related computers C. a place on the Internet where people can discuss D. a person who tries to discover something E. a place on the Internet where messages are put and kept until read 4. Put the verbs in brackets in the following text into the appropriate tense (Past Tense or Present Perfect). Note that in the final two examples you also have to use a frequency adverb: Eckert and Machy (invent) the first modern computer in 1946. Since then the computers (become) smaller, cheaper and more reliable. Te early computers (use) vacuum tubes, but transistors soon (replace) them. Over the last few years, however, silicon chip technology (dominate) the computer world. In the 1970s Intel (produce) a microprocessor, which (lead) to the mass production of the first personal computer by Apple. Apple, of course (be) a big name in computers since the seventies, along with IBM. Both of these companies (set) standards that most software houses and computer manufacturers (adopt). Miniaturization (be) a key word in the 1980s, and computers (decrease) in size and price quite drastically. People (begin) to use their TV sets as computer monitors and software engineers (make) fortunes by selling arcade games. The 1990s (continue) this trend towards miniaturization, but the market (saturate) to some extent, so that even IBM (have to) lay off some workers. A computer that (fill) a room in the fifties (recently/be reduced) to the size of a notepad. It is an undeniable fact that computer firms (always/to believe) that small is beautiful! Talking point How long have you been using the Internet? How much has it changed your life?

LESSON 2 PROFESSIONAL AND EDUCATIONAL INTERNET Wired U For many students, the Net will be alma mater. There's a revolution happening in education. It's called distance learning, and its prime practitioners are using the techniques and technology of computerized networking to offer a wide range of degree and non-degree courses to students in Asia, Australia, Europe, and the Americans. University Online University online is for-profit organization that, rather than offering their own set of courses, is contracting with top-quality schools to convert their courses to an interactive, online environment. Originally tested in 1992 the company has been busily developing courseware for a rollout this fall. The main idea is to replace existing for-credit degree-oriented programs that are available through the mail with equivalent computerized courses over the Internet. For example, courses that may be well computerized by the time you read this include a University of Southern Carolina business program that would be offered in Virginia, and a University of Carolina at Berkeley degree-program in English, offered by mail. Using modern technology, a teacher who now conducts an introductory course for several hundred students in a huge amphitheatre can have the same material automated and delivered on demand to students worldwide. The professor would receive a royalty for every student who took this course, and as with mail order programs, the material would be available to students at their convenience. "The typical course we do is one where about 700 students are trying to learn Economics 101", says Nat Kannan, founder and president of University Online. "We make it so students can dial up from their bedrooms, learn the material, use a bulletin board, check for FAQs on the questions that get asked over and over every year, and even conference with the teacher when necessary". The complete distance-learning package generally includes a text-book, videotape of professor's lectures, and interactive courseware. Students can log onto the Internet, visit the school's We site, click on the course they want, and connect to a server that presents information. The site offers questions to test the student's proficiency, then switches the student to a hypertext document that covers material for which the student needs more study. The computer keeps track of each student's progress and an make reports available to the teacher, who can thus oversee the education of many more than it would be possible without automation. Proctored final exams are given under reciprocal arrangements with schools in the student's area. University Online offers kinder-garden-through-8th-grade programs for the Calvert School and nationally accredited 9th-through-12th-grade programs from the North Dakota Independent Student Program. Within a few months, Kannan said his company hopes to offer courses from five major business schools, in addition to several large urban universities scheduled to go on like this fall. 1. Use the elements to make complete sentences, all of which express personal opinions: 1. As far as I am concerned/University Online/good idea 2. In my opinion/real teachers/electronic conferences 3. Personally, I/campus life/bulletin boards 4. I would suggest/Internet/traditional universities 7

5. From my own point of view/to replace/university atmosphere 6. To my mind, I consider/modern technology/efficient teaching aid 7. I agree with the idea that/everybody/access to knowledge/Internet 8. I am convinced/University Online/successful venture 2. Find the verb ending in ize that corresponds that correspond to each of these definitions (e.g. to put a system on computer = to computerize) 1. to represent in a digital form 2. to make use of a symbol for something 3. to put a story in the form of a drama 4. to take a material form 5. to arrange in an optimal way 6. to reduce to the minimum 7. to give a linear form to 8. to make something according to a customer's individual specifications 9. to give authority to 10. to write a summary of 3. Fill the blanks in this passage with since, for and ago: 1. University Online was originally tested over five years ..... in 1992 2. It was put on the market in 1994; so it has been tested ..... over two years. 3. ..... the beginning of the experiment, a few months ......, several new courses have been offered. 4. You have to follow a course ..... at least two semesters to be allowed to sit for an exam. 5. This University has only existed ..... 1992 and it is already known worldwide. 6. When we started, four years ....., we never believed it would be so successful. LANGUAGE FOCUS SUFFIXES: FORMING NEW WORDS Noun-forming suffixes: SUFFIX -al -ance -ary -asm -dom -ee -ence -er, -or -hood -ian -ion, -tion -ism -ist MEANING quality of state connected with condition, state condition, domain a person in a condition quality of a person who a thing which quality, condition belonging to act of, state condition, state a person who 8 EXAMPLE terminal, withdrawal clearance, performance corrolary enthusiasm wisdom, boredom, kingdom employee, addressee audience, independence employer, operator voucher, connector childhood, neighbo(u)rhood electrician, musician introduction, execution, possession magnetism, behavio(u)rism typist, scientist

-ity -ment -ness -our (GB) -or(US) -ry, -ery -ship

state, quality state, action condition of quality, condition place, condition, state condition, state

electricity, reality achievement, government business, happiness, boldness labo(u)r, behavio(u)r foundry, slavery, rivalry friendship, hardship

Verb-forming suffixes: SUFFIX -ate -en -fy -ize, -ise MEANING to make to make to make to make EXAMPLE activate, concentrate, tolerate shorten, widen, lengthen classify, simplify customize, computerize, advertise

Adjective-forming suffixes: SUFFIX -able, -ible -al -ar -ary -free -ful -ic, -ical -ish -less -ous, -ious MEANING capable of quality of quality of connected with without full of quality of like without full of EXAMPLE manageable, interruptible environmental, logical, terminal planar binary bug-free useful automatic, economical foolish useless porous, laborious

Adverb-forming suffixes: SUFFIX -ly MEANING in the manner of EXAMPLE actually, generally, furiously

4. Now, using the verb-forming suffixes above, transform the following words into verbs. 1. broad 2. active 3. simple 4. tight 5. robot 6. short 7. auto 8. local 9. soft 10. analysis 11. initial 12. long 13. mode 14. personal 15. loose 16. electric 17. standard 18. weak 19. stimulus 20. computer Talking point What is your opinion about universities online?

LESSON 3 PEOPLE IN COMPUTING How to become a programming expert The primary requirements for being a good programmer are nothing more than a good memory, an attention to detail, a logical mind and the ability to work through a problem in a methodical manner breaking tasks down into smaller, more manageable pieces. However it's not enough just to turn up for a job's interview with a logical mind as your sole qualification. An employer will want to see some sort of formal qualification and a proven track record. But if you can show someone on impressive piece of software with your name on it, it will count for a lot more than a string of academic qualifications. So what specific skills are employers looking for? The Windows market is booming and there's a demand for good C, C++, Delphi, Java and Visual Basic developers. Avoid other languages such as FORTRAN and COBOL unless you want to work as a contract programmer. For someone starting out, my best advice would be to subscribe to the programming magazines such as Microsoft Systems Journal. Get one or two of the low cost "student" editions of C++, Visual Basic and Delphi. Get a decent book on Windows programming. If you decide programming is really for you, spend more money on a training course. How to become a computer consultant The first key point to realize is that you can't know everything. However you mustn't become an expert in too narrow a field. The second key point is that you must be interested in your subject. The third key point is to differentiate between contract work and consultancy. Good contractors move from job to job every few months. A consultant is different. A consultant very often works on very small timescales a few days here, a week there, but often for a core collection of companies that keep coming back again and again. There's a lot of work out there for people who know Visual Basic, C++, and so on. And there are lots of people who know it too, so you have to be better than them. Qualifications are important. Microsoft has a raft of exams you can take, as does Novell, and in my experience these are very useful pieces of paper. University degrees are useless. They merely prove you can think, and will hopefully get you into a job where you can learn something useful. Exams like Microsoft Certified Systems Engineer are well worth doing. The same goes for NetWare Certification. However, this won't guarantee an understanding of the product, its positioning on the market, how it relates to other products and so on. That's where the all-important experience comes in. Here's the road map. After leaving university you get a technical role in a company and spend your evenings and weekends learning the tools of your trade and getting your current employer to pay for your exams. You don't stay in one company for more than two years. After a couple of hops like that, you may be in a good position to move into a junior consultancy position in one of the larger consultancy companies. By the age of 30, you've run big projects, rolled out major solutions and are well known. Maybe then it's time to make the leap and run your own life. How to become an IT Manager IT managers manage projects, technology and people. Any large organization will have at least one IT manager responsible for ensuring that everyone who actually needs a PC has one and it works properly. This means taking responsibility for the maintenance of servers and the installation of new software, and for staffing a help-desk and a support group. 10

Medium to large companies are also likely to have an IT system manager. They are responsible for developing and implementing computer software that supports the operations of the business. They are responsible for multiple development projects and oversee the implementation and support of the systems. Companies will have two or three major systems that are probably bought off the shelf and then tailored by an in-house development team. Apart from basic hardware and software expertise, an IT manager will typically have over five years' experience in the industry. Most are between 30 and 45. Since IT managers have to take responsibility for budgets and for staff, employers look for both of these factors in any potential recruit. Nearly all IT managers have at least a first degree if not a second one as well. Interestingly, many of them don't have degrees in computing science. In any case, the best qualification for becoming a manager is experience. If your personality is such that that you're unlikely to be asked to take responsibility for a small team or project, then you can forget being an IT manager. You need to be bright, communicative and be able to earn the trust of your teams. Most of this can't be taught, so if you don't have these skills then divert your career elsewhere. 1. For which of the careers described are these statements true? More than one career may match each statement. 1. You may work for only a few days or a week for your company. 2. It's a good idea to buy books on languages such as C++. 3. You are responsible for developing and implementing the software a company needs to run its operations. 4. You need to be able to break down a problem into a number of smaller tasks. 5. It's worth paying for a training course if you get serious about this career. 6. Microsoft Certified Systems Engineer is a useful qualification for your career. 7. Your objective is to become self-employed. 8. It's important you have the right personality to lead a team. 2. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate form of the verbs, need to, have to, must, to make sensible statements. More than one answer is possible in some examples. 1. Technical qualifications .......... to be renewed at intervals to ensure they do not go out of date. 2. You .......... become an expert in too narrow a field. 3. You .......... to have good communication skills to become an IT Manager. 4. You .......... be an expert in hardware to become a programmer. 5. You .......... have worked with IBM mainframes for at least two years. 6. You .......... be able to show leadership. 7. You .......... have a degree but it .......... be in computing science. 8. You .......... to have experience in JavaScript. 9. You .......... be able to use C++. 10. These days you .......... study BASIC. LANGUAGE FOCUS SUFFIXES: FORMING NEW WORDS English words can often be divided into three parts: a prefix, a stem and a suffix. Prefixes change the meaning of the word; suffixes change the part of speech (noun, verb, adjective, etc.). Look at the examples: 11

to plug in a device (stem) = to connect a device to the mains to unplug a device (+prefix "un-") = to disconnect a device from the mains use (stem: noun), useful (+suffix "-ful": adjective), usefully (+suffix "-ly": adverb) Study the following table of prefixes which give a negative meaning: PREFIX antidedisiliminirmisnonunMEANING opposite reverse opposite not not not not wrong, bad non not EXAMPLE antithesis debug, decode disagree, disable illiteracy impossible insufficient, inaccurate irrelevant mislead, misfortune nonsense unreal, unhealthy

Study the following tables of prefixes. The first is a list of prepositions which also act as prefixes. They confer their prepositional meaning on to the stem. PREFIX byinoutoverunderwithMEANING near, side in, into going away more than above too much beneath, below not enough away against EXAMPLE bypass, bystander input, involve output, outlaw outperform overlay overestimate underscore underestimate withdraw withstand

The following are prefixes of degree, size, location, time and order: PREFIX anteequiexforeintermicromacroperipostpresemiOther prefixes: 12 MEANING before equal out before between reduced enlarged around after before half EXAMPLE antecedent equivalent extend, external foreground, foresee, forecast interface microminiaturisation macroinstruction peripheral postscript predict semiconductor, semicolon

PREFIX subtransautoconeopro-

MEANING under across for oneself joint, together new before for

EXAMPLE subliminal transfer automaton cofounder neologism proclaim proposal

3. Now use the prefixes of degree, size, location, time and order to find words equivalent in meaning to the following. 1. that is already programmed 2. to predict 3. after the war 4. to grow larger 5. a program that is part of a larger program 6. half automatic, half manual 7. to convey data from one place to another 8. a form of computing when you dialogue with the computer 9. not up to standard 10. devices that exist around a central computer Talking point What computing career would you choose and why?

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LESSON 4 DESIGNING YOUR WEBPAGE First paragraph Your website may be chock full of information about your company and its products, but if visitors to the site can't easily find their way around its pages they may never return. Besides content, the most important aspect of a website is its navigation scheme. Unfortunately they may also be the most commonly neglected design consideration. These nine site-design pointers will help you to build an effective navigation system. 1 Trust Text It's tempting to spice up pages with graphics but sometimes even a little is too much. If possible your navigation system should be based on text links, rather than image maps or graphical buttons. Studies have shown that visitors will look at and try text links before clicking on graphical buttons. 2 Next Best ALTernative If you must use a graphical navigation system, include descriptive ALT text captions. The ALT text will make it possible for visitors who use text browsers such as Lynx or who browse with graphics turned off, to find their way around. In addition to the graphical navigation buttons, be sure to include text links at the bottom of every page that provide a clear route to the main areas of your site. 3 Map It A site map offers a god overview of your site and will provide additional orientation for visitors. It should be in outline form and include all the major sections of your site with key subpages listed beneath those sections. For example, you may group the FAQ, Contact and Troubleshooting pages so they're accessible from a Support page. It's good idea to visit a few larger sites to get some ideas on designing an effective site map. 4 Forego Frames Avoid frames wherever possible. Most veteran browsers dislike them and they can be confusing for visitors who are suddenly presented with multiple scrollbars. If you are committed to using frames on your site, you'd better commit yourself to some extra work too, because you will have to create a no-frames version of your site for visitors whose browsers don't support frames. 5 Consistency Counts Don't change the location of your navigation elements, or the color of visited and notvisited links from page to page. And don't get clever with links and buttons that appear and disappear: turning things on and off is usually done as an attempt to let visitors know where they are at the site but more often than not it ends up confusing them. 6 Just a Click Away Keep contact close at hand. Every page on your site should be accessible from every other one within four clicks. You should regularly reexamine your page structure and links, and make necessary adjustments. People come to your site to find information don't make them dig for it. 7 Shun Search Most sites have a search function, but try to discourage its use as much as possible. Even the best search engines turn up irrelevant matches, and visitors may not know how to

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use yours effectively. Logical, clearly placed links are more likely to help visitors find what they want. 8 Passing Lanes Provide multiple paths through your site so visitors aren't restricted to one style of browsing. For most sites, a pull-down navigation menu is an easy addition that offers an alternative route through your pages, without wasting space. 9 Overwhelming Options Don't overwhelm visitors by presenting dozens of places that they can go. A large number of choices is not necessarily a good thing. 1. Visit a website of your choice. Take notes on any special features. You may refer to these seven points for evaluating a site: design, navigation, ease of use, accuracy, up to date, helpful graphics, compatibility. Here are some useful words and phrases for talking about websites: visually attractive, well laid out, features, password protected, good reactivity, nice design, (hot) links, structure connections, colorful, search facility, a visitor, cluttered, confusing, on-line support, a user, contact information. LANGUAGE FOCUS COMPARATIVE ADJECTIVES 1. SUPERIORITY With adjectives consisting of one and sometimes two syllables ("short adjectives"), add the suffix "er" to the stem: cheap cheaper high higher With adjectives ending in "y", turn the "y" into and "i" and add "er": easy easier fuzzy fuzzier With adjectives of more than two syllables ("long adjectives"), put the word "more" before the adjective: expensive more expensive cumbersome more cumbersome With many two-syllable adjectives, you can add the suffix "er", especially those ending in "y" (see above). However, if a two-syllable adjective already consist of a stem plus a suffix, use "more": dreadful more dreadful ideal more ideal Some two-syllable adjectives can take either form: clever cleverer clever more clever The second part of the comparison is introduced by "than": A 486 chip is faster than a 286. 15

A laser printer is more expensive than a bubble-jet printer. Some comparatives of superiority are irregular. There are not very many of them but they are very common: good better bad worse far further / farther little less Note that, when preceded by "X times", "as ... as" is preferred to "than" + a comparative: This car is ten times as fast as mine. 2. EQUALITY Equality is expressed using the word "as". It is placed before and after the adjective: This device is as efficient as some much more expensive models. You will not find another processor as fast as this one. 3. INFERIORITY Inferiority is sometimes expressed by placing "less" before the adjective and "than" after it: A minicomputer is less cumbersome than a mainframe computer. However you can also express inferiority by using "not as ... as", especially with monosyllabic adjectives: A minicomputer is not as cumbersome as a mainframe computer. Inferiority can also be expressed using adjectives of opposite meaning in the superiority form. For the preceding sentence, this would result in: A minicomputer is smaller than a mainframe computer. 4. SPECIAL USES Comparatives are used for "parallel increase" or "parallel decrease" and are preceded by the definite article "the": The more I think about it, the more I feel depressed. The less he works, the better he feels. The higher the resolution, the sharper the picture. The less sophisticated the software, the slower the speed of execution. When comparing two items, the comparative can be preceded by "the"; John was the elder of the two boys. This computer is the cheaper of the two. 2. Compare the elements in the left-hand column with those in the right-hand column using the adjective and the appropriate comparison, indicated by the symbols. 1. This microchip is > fast a conventional one. 2. This computer is < powerful the NEXT design. 3. The picture on SVGA monitors is > sharp on VGS monitors. 4. The monitors supplied when < sharp more expensive models. when buying a PC are often 5. Ten years ago screen < high it is today. resolution was 16

SUPERLATIVE ADJECTIVES The superlative form is constructed in a similar way to the comparative form. With short adjectives, add "est" to the stem: short shortest easy easiest With long adjectives, "most" precedes the adjective: cumbersome most cumbersome reliable most reliable These adjectival forms are preceded by "the": These are the fastest machines on the market. This is the most powerful computer available today. 3. Transform the following into their superlative forms and use the superlative form in a complete sentence. 1. powerful computer 2. cheap computer 3. fast chip 4. reliable device 5. expensive card 6. big memory device 7. fuzzy image 8. ugly picture 9. inconsistent program 10. significant bit Writing Write an advertisement for your website!

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LESSON 5 INTERNET ETHICS The 27th Commandments Though the Net is supposedly free of rules and regulations, over time a code of conduct has been developed by its users. This form of internal policing, a set of guidelines unfortunately known as Netiquette, is supposed to ensure that Net users are polite and civil to each other while not wasting time and network resources. It doesn't work; you need only to look at some of the newsgroups with their constant petty bickering, unwarranted abuse and long, rambling, off-the-point arguments to see that. Ironically most of Netiquette deals with posting to these very same newsgroups. Here are some of the "rules" in brief: Read the newsgroup FAQ before you post to avoid asking stupid questions. (If you don't know what a FAQ is, read the FAQ). Don't cross-post messages. This means posting the same message to several different groups at once. The reason for this is never given. Don't quote a long message just to add "I agree" or some such unenlightening comment at the bottom. Don't use a signature of more than four lines, because it wastes people's time. (A whole quarter second in some cases). Don't type entirely in upper case BECAUSE IT'S MORE DIFFICULT TO READ COMFORTABLY. Don't criticize others for their misspellings. Conversely, make sure you spell correctly yourself. Had enough yet? For a system that's supposedly rule-free these are pretty damn heavy. There are other problems with Netiquette not least being that those who force it most vociferously down others' throats tend to be the first to ignore it. In practice, no one checks their Netiquette checklists before sending an email or replying to a newsgroup message; if that happened, nothing would ever be said on the Net at all. Netiquette is something of an idealistic dream, and overzealous at that. No intelligent adult needs to be told when to be polite and when to speak their mind, when to criticize and when to stay silent, on the Net or elsewhere. When Netiquette boils down to is: treat your communication on the Net as you would any other form of written or spoken contact and you won't go far wrong. 1. The following sentences have been scrambled. Put the words back in the right order: 1. documents/answer/questions/are/the most common/that/FAQs 2. simultaneously/to/several newsgroup/the same message/is sending/cross-posting 3. asking/it is/to read/a question/the FAQ/good Netiquette/before 4. and/agreement/read/please/before installation/license/the/the README file 5. these/are/by/in practice/rules/most users/overlooked 2. Fill in the blanks in the following sentences with the appropriate form of can, have to, may or could 1. You .......... break down a problem into every single step before writing the actual program. 2. A bug .......... cause unexpected results. 3. Programs .......... be debugged before being executed. 4. A flowchart .......... sometimes be useful when designing a program. 5. This piece of software .......... be thoroughly tested before it is marketed. 6. You .......... buy software packages like this at any local computer shop. 18

7. They .......... work hard if they want to finish by the end of the week. 8. You .......... write this program in a high-level language. If you do, it will take up too much space in the computer memory. 3. Translate the following sentences into English, paying attention to the use of modal verbs: 1. Compania trebuie sa fi facut multa munca de cercetare inainte de a-si fi lansat programul procesor de text. 2. Ei au putut profita de cele mai recente inovatii. 3. Cu toate acestea, fabricantul ar fi trebuit sa amelioreze calitatea documentatiei. 4. Ar fi putut, de exemplu, sa accentueze aspectele de tehnoredactare computerizata ale pachetului. 5. Trebuie ca s-a gindit ca un bun program de verificare a ortografiei si un dictionar de sinonime erau suficiente pentru a vinde produsul. 6. Cind am incercat soft-ul, am putut aprecia usurinta folosirii pictogramelor. 7. Nu a fost nevoie sa consult manualul de instructiuni nici macar o data! 8. de cite ori am rut sa efectuez o operatie complicata, am putut sa folosesc macroinstructiunile limbajului Powerplus. 9. Daca as fi vrut, as fi putut sa-mi constitui un dictionar personalizat. 10. Este posibil ca alte firme de soft sa fi copiat unele caracteristici. Optional activity Word Search Find twenty-two words (including one abbreviation and two acronyms) associated with the Internet, email, and computing. Write them next to the correct definition. (You can find the words left to right, top to bottom, and diagonally top to bottom). H O M E P A G E X N A Y U V I R U S B E C D P R X M S M O T K B O E L A P I O I E I R W R I A L K Q R M T O N L M E M U W W W A A H W L I Y A E G L X I S O N R T E B S I T E A K T P R O V I D E R D E

1. a way of remembering addresses of websites you like, also known as "favorites" .......... 2. a program that is used to access the internet and read webpages .......... 3. to transfer files from someone else's computer to your own .......... 4. a computer user who specializes in breaking into other people's systems .......... 5. a measure of visits to a website .......... 6. the main, opening page of a website .......... 7. electronic connections to sites within your website or else where on the WWW .......... 8. picture, photo, graphic .......... 19

9. a software package generally used to start you up for a program .......... 10. something that automatically connects you to another page .......... 11. the Internet equivalent of post .......... 12. abbreviation for the Internet .......... 13. the right way to behave when communicating on the Net .......... 14. a physical input / output point .......... 15. a website point of entry with a catalogue of websites, a search engine, email, etc. .......... 16. an ISP a company that provides you with access to the Internet .......... 17. a way of showing emotion in an email, e.g. :-) .......... 18. unsolicited mail, inappropriate use of a mailing list .......... 19. Uniform Resource Locator, i.e. website address .......... 20. a bug which infects data on your computer .......... 21. a location on the WWW .......... 22. the World Wide Web ..........

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LESSON 6 COMPUTER SECURITY The hacker attack Triludan the Warrior's parents were surprised when they looked at The Daily Telegraph they had bought on holiday. Their 20-year-old son was on the front page. Triludan had been equally surprised a few hours earlier when John Austin, head of the computer crime unit at Scotland Yard, had knocked on this door. Austin had brought with him several black binliners, three police cars and a warrant for Triludan's arrest. Triludan, better known as Robert Schifreen, had not been in trouble with the law before. As a journalist he had accidentally stumbled into hacking when he tried out a false password on a piece of software for the Micronet bulletin board. Hacking seemed like a lot of fun and always impressed his friends. His first indication that he was doing something wrong was the policeman's knock. The box of Triludan's hayfever tablets on the sideboard gave his alias away. Schifreen's case is not that unusual. He had a slight advantage because when he was tried there was no legislation in place against computer hacking. He was not found guilty on an appeal to the House of Lords, after the prosecution had tried to catch him under the Forgery Act. Today's hacker is not so lucky. Following the Computer Misuse Act of 1990, hacking has been criminalized. The Act made it an offence to gain unauthorized access to a computer. The law covers both malicious alteration of data and tapping in and "just looking". The law was tightened up, and so, the computer companies would have you believe, has the security. But according to those who practice, hacking is still easy. One BT data network can be penetrated by trying out a series of four figure numbers after its three figure prefix, which is readily available. Hacking is a cheap for of entertainment. One-and-a-half hours of hacking around with a million pounds' worth of mainframe attached to your budget PC costs around 48 p. All the hacker needs is a modem, a basic computer and a bit of patience. Admittedly, the more advanced stuff like hacking into NATO, NASA and Royal Mailboxes needs rather more patience and expertise. Code of Conduct Hackers tend to see themselves as shadowy romantic figures of the computer underworld. For some teenagers, the chance to gain a title like Captain Crunch or the Warrior, or being able to join the Legions of Doom (a US computer gang) means a break away from reality. Ity also means the chance of respect and admiration from similar underground figures. Typically, the hacker is male and quite possible unaware that he is carrying out anything illegal. Hackers have their own code of conduct. They consider it wrong to tamper with computers to alter, infect or damage the equipment deliberately but see no harm in taking a look inside. A survey carried out by the National Computing Center (NCC) shows that a third of its members have suffered from security breaches such as hacking and viruses. The survey's findings are contrary to the hacker's perception of what is damaging. NCC members put system problems caused by hacking as the highest threat, costing companies an average of $23,000 a year to repair. Damage caused by viruses fell well below this at an average of $12,000. It put this average loss to UK companies damaged in this way at $530 million. Hackers may be popular with other like-minded people, but to the computer industry the hacker is seen as a threat to business survival. 1. MULTIPLE CHOICE - Choose the ending (A, B, C, or D) which seems to you to correspond most closely to the information given in the text. 1. Robert Schifreen 21

A. had a 20 year old son who was a journalist. B. chose his pseudonym because of medicine he was taking. C. was arrested and sent to prison because of hacking D. tried out a false password on a piece of Micronet software to impress his friends 2. The Computer Misuse Act of 1990 A. has eliminated all computer security. B. was used to convict Robert Schifreen. C. outlaws hacking. D. has made hacking more difficult. 3. Hacking A. is popular because it is romantic. B. costs about 48p a time C. requires a modem and a computer which can run a basic program. D. is a form of escape from the everyday world. 4. The majority of hackers are shown to be A. deliberately destructive B. merely curious. C. totally unaware of what they are doing. D. male criminals. 5. According to the NNC A. 33% of its members are hackers B. hackers know very well that they cause damage C. hacking is about twice as expensive for firms as viruses. D. the survival of hackers is threatened. 2. Match each cause and effect. Then link them with an ing clause. Cause 1. Computers with MIDI interface boards can be connected to MIDI instruments. 2. Each side of a DVD can have two layers. 3. MP3 removes sounds we can't hear. 4. You can download single tracks. 5. Each MP3 file has a tag. 6. MP3 players contain several devices. 7. You can download a skin program. 8. You can legally download some music. Effect a. This permits extra information to be stored on the performer and other track details. b. You can create your own compilation. c. This allows you to sample a new group before buying their CD. d. This gives an enormous storage capacity. e. This allows the music being played to be stored by the computer and displayed on the monitor. f. This enables you to change the appearance of your player. g. These allow you to control the way the music sounds. h. This produces much smaller files. 22

3. Complete these definitions with the correct participle of the verb given in brackets. 1. A gateway is an interface (enable) dissimilar networks to communicate. 2. A bridge is a hardware and software combination (use) to connect the same type of networks. 3. A backbone is a network transmission path (handle) major data traffic. 4. A router is a special computer (direct) messages when several networks are linked. 5. A network is a number of computers and peripherals (link) together. 6. A LAN is a network (connect) computers over a small distance such as within a company. 7. A server is a powerful computer (store) many programs (share) by all the clients in the network. 8. A client is a network computer (use) for accessing a service on a server. 9. A thin client is a simple computer (comprise) a processor and memory, display, keyboard, mouse and hard drives only. 10. A hub is an electronic device (connect) all the data cabling in a network. Talking point Hackers are a menace to society and should be punished very severely

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LESSON 7 STORAGE DEVICES Information without limit The subtitles have been removed from the following passage and listed below (15). Put them back in the appropriate place. 1. Measuring drive performance 2. Mainstream applications 3. Review criteria 4. CD-ROM to finally take off? 5. Price points ............................... CD-ROMS offer straightforward benefits. No other medium offers publishers a cheaper way of distributing information or provides such storage space 640 MB, the equivalent of 300,000 pages of printed text on a single platter. CD-ROMS can also store a variety of data formats successfully without clogging up hard disk space. Finally data access is relatively quick and painless. The CD-ROM market has grown slowly but steadily. According to the market researcher Dataquest, 1.2 million disk drives were installed worldwide at the beginning of 1992, with a further 1.5 million predicted to ship in that year alone. Dataquest further predicts that five million drives will be shipping annually by 1996. Such a growth rate is rapidly bringing the installed base of CD-ROM drives up to a critical mass. Growth will be further boosted now that many PC manufactures are installing internal CD-ROM drives as standard, along with the conventional 3.5in. floppy drive. ............................... Applications are the key issue. Early CD-ROM applications were limited to vertical markets such as finance or medicine, or were vast collections of specific information. This is still a valuable use of CD-ROM technology, but it's not the only one. Mainstream application can now take advantage of CD-ROM storage capacity, and justify the cost of a drive. The first mainstream applications were little more than plain DOS versions ported onto CD at twice the price. But CD standards now allow interleaved video and sound to breathe life into programs. Titles are no longer merely for minority interest groups, but are spread throughout business, literature and art. Virtually everything you could possibly want it now available in CD-ROM format; and because there's more space, the applications are generally better. For example, Microsoft Works integrated package which comprises a spreadsheet, word processor and database comes on one CD. The only printed instructions are on how to get into the product the manual and help are all on-line. The extra space means that all the manuals can be placed on disk rather than in clumsy binders. Short animated clips show you how to get the best form each module and how to use them together as an integrated whole. A spin-off benefit of CD-ROM's large capacity is that the smaller packaging means cheaper postage. Because such large amounts of information can be sent safely through the post, many suppliers update their customer base on a regular basis. As with other areas of the computer industry, the leisure industry has provided much of the driving force behind CD-ROM technology The professional programmer has not been forgotten either. The sheer quantities of material required for a modern software development kit have brought CD-ROM technology to the fore.

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But CD-ROM, however advanced, is still a read-only product, where the information on the disc cannot be changed by the user. When CD-ROMs appeared on the market, they were as overpriced as consumer CD players. In fact CD-ROM drives cost even more, as manufacturers claimed they had to equip CD-ROM drives with faster, more faster, more precise head positioning mechanism. While data and video files are harder to error-correct than simple audio files, this excuse was taken too far. Increased competition has now reversed the trend. The price of CDs themselves is also failing as the selection becomes broader. ..................................... A drive must have audio output through headphones or eternal RCA jacks and a data transfer rate of at least 150K per second at less than 40% CPU utilization. This enables the drive to maintain an even flow of information into its buffer, which is vital so that sound and animation do not stutter and jerk. As long as the drives conforms to this specification you should be able to access all CD-ROM titles that adhere to the ISO 9660 format. ...................................... Performance differences between drives can be determined by measuring the data access time. This is often confused with the average access searches. A CD-ROM search must not only negotiate the interface with the PC hardware, but also frequently relies on archaic retrieval software. So while the results may not be as instantaneous as a hard disk search, consider how long it would take to manually check how many times the word "cat" appears in the Guiness Book of Records compared with the time it takes using a CD-ROM system. ........................................... CD-ROM technology has now reached a stage where interesting and productive titles are available on reliable and relatively low-cost drives. So it is time for users to take a closer look at CD-ROM. The industry, while still developing rapidly, had settled on solid standards that provide a workable platform. As a result of this market maturity, customers can be confident that the CD-ROM drives they buy today will have a long-term future. 1. TRUE OR FALSE? - Are the following statements true or false? If you think a statement is false, give reasons for your choice. 1. CD-ROMs are the cheapest means of storing information. 2. Dataquest predicts that 5 million disk drives will have been sold before 1996. 3. The first CD-ROMs were used mainly to store huge quantities of specific information. 4. Microsoft's Works integrated package has no written instructions for use. 5. The use of CD-ROMs means the customers have more up-to-date information. 6. The author suggests manufacturers were not always honest about pricing. 7. The drive must have an unchanging data transfer rate to avoid problems with its sound and picture quality. 8. Some CD-ROMs are slower in access time than hard disks. 9. The author uses the word "cat" to show just how fast hard disks are. 10. Standards have developed to ensure that CD-ROMs are not just a passing phase. 2. Backing Store - Complete the following passage by inserting the following words and expressions so as to form a coherent explanation of backing store devices. Then translate the terms used: Winchesters, access time, files, pie chart, drawback, disk 25

drives, old-fashioned, magnetic tapes, database, double-sided, directory, floppy disk, retrieved, direct-access, read-write head, sequential access, address, formatted (x3), disk packs. Despite the mushrooming storage capacity of modern computers, this capacity can be greatly increased by backing store devices such as .........., magnetic disks or diskettes. In this way only a small part of a .......... needs to be in main memory at any one time. Data is stored in groups that are referred to as ........... Before a file can be opened it must be transferred to the main memory, and ........... (how long this transfer takes) is of paramount importance when choosing the type of storage device to use. Some cheap microcomputers still work with cassettes and cassette recorders, though these are becoming ........... This technology is cheap and easy to use, but has the .......... that is extremely slow because of ............ Disk have the advantage of being serial or .......... media and .......... both internal and external, are now part and parcel of most computer systems. Large systems often use cartridges or .........., where a number of circular disks are stacked on a single spindle. The ........... in the disk drives moves radially either to detect magnetized areas (READ) or create them (WRITE). Hermetic data modules called ".........." are also common. Most users are more familiar with the ..........., so-called because of its flexibility. Before being used, a disk must be .........., i.e. storage areas are marked on the magnetic, oxide-coated surface. If the disk is .......... on both surfaces, it is called a .......... disk, as opposed to a single-sided disk, where only one surface is ........... The read-write head moves radially along a track that is divided into sectors. These sectors therefore cut up the circular disk in the same fashion as a ........... Each file that is to be stored is allocated an .......... (i.e. a track and a sector number). Hence files can be .......... very quickly when the user has located them by consulting a .......... of all the files on the disk. 3. THE PASSIVE - Translate the following sentences into English: 1. Vechiul fisier este in curs de actualizare. 2. Se asteapta ca noua unitate de disc sa fie si mai performanta. 3. Dintr-o greseala de manipulare datele au fost sterse. 4. De acum in 5 ani casetele nu vor mai fi folosite ca memorie auxiliara. 5. I s-a spus ca acest CD poate stoca 1080Mb. 6. Mai mult de 15 milioane de unitati CD-ROM au fost vindute anul acesta. 7. Un nou tip de discheta este in curs de proiectare. 8. Gratie unui sistem denumit CIRS, erorile se pot corecta. 9. Aceasta depinde de fisierul la care se face referinta. 10. Un sector este alcatuit din 98 de cadre. Writing Write a short account of how computers have developed over the last fifty years. You should write between 150 and 200 words.

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LESSON 8 CYBERCULTURE Visiting Museums Virtually Throughout their history, museums have been accorded a revered status in society. They are institutional repositories that provide a snapshot and timeline of humanity's achievements in all facets of civilization the arts, crafts, science, fashion, military, and industry. It's where great works of art and historical artifacts are maintained and displayed for future generations to study and appreciate. The word "museum" is taken from the ancient Greek name for the temple of the Muses, the patron goddesses of the arts. It was not until the Renaissance that efforts were made by Europe's aristocracy to collect art, and public art museums only were founded in the 18th century. But for all the improvements to museums and their increasing popularity, the main drawbacks to visiting them have been geographical and logistical. For many people, it's simply too difficult to get to many museums and galleries, especially in distant lands. While the advent of virtual museums will never replace visiting a physical site and experiencing artifacts in person, it does provide an intriguing and valuable option. The explosive growth of the World Wide Web with its multimedia and hypertext capabilities is transforming the creation and presentation of art in digital age. Within the last few years, imaging and scanning technology and the Internet have combined to bring museums closer to people who may never have had the opportunity to view many of the great works. Moreover, the Internet is providing a pipeline for people to display all kinds of artworks, many of which will probably never hang in a traditional museum. Museums of every type are responding to the new opportunities presented by the Internet, and in doing so are undergoing a revolution in the way they perceive themselves. Elizabeth Brown, director of Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of American Art, in a paper called Embracing the Electronic Future, wrote: "The new electronic media give at last the tools needed to reach people everywhere, so art can fit into all kinds of experience, beyond the straightforward museum visit. The National Museum of Art is as committed to sharing what we have and what we know with people who may never come to our front door as we are to enhancing the experience of visitors in our galleries. Only a small percentage of our extensive collections can e displayed in our galleries; electronically, we can open a window into our storage spaces and research files, providing an invigorating context for visitors on-site and distant. 1. With reference to the information in the article, choose the most appropriate ending for each sentence: 1. A museum can best be defined as A. An overview of lost techniques. B. a storeroom of mankind's accomplishments. C. a basis for study for future generations. 2. At the time of the Renaissance A. public museums did not exist. B. only aristocrats could go to museums. C. aristocrats were Europe's best artists. 3. With the internet, virtual museums A. will replace traditional museums. 27

B. will show works of art that do not exist. C. will be a valuable addition to traditional museums. 4. The National Museum of Art A. will organize visits to its storage spaces. B. reserves its virtual museums for people who never visit the museum. C. only exhibits a fraction of its treasures in its galleries. 2. Match the words and their definitions: 1. work of art, art work 2. artefact 3. masterpiece 4. collection 5. museum A. institution devoted to the exhibition of works of art B. best work of an artist C. group of objects kept in a museum because of their significance and value D. something produced by creative talent E. object produced by human hands

3. Find a synonym in the article for each of these words: 1. photo (taken quickly) 2. to see, to admire 3. vast 4. honored 5. to establish 6. disadvantage 7. storehouse 8. country 9. to enjoy 10. article (in a magazine) 4. Put the following sentences into the passive form, as in the example: Europe's aristocracy made efforts to collect art. Efforts were made by Europe's aristocracy to collect art. 1. Museums maintain and display great works of art. 2. Certain governments founded public art museums in the 18th century. 3. The Internet offers new opportunities to museum curators. 4. Museums often keep valuable works of art in storage. 5. The Web may transform our perception of art. 6. Electronic media will reach people everywhere. Talking point Would you rather pay a traditional visit to a museum or visit it via the Internet?

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LESSON 9 ELECTRONIC TRADE Cash on the Wire Traditional forms of payment barter, currency, and signed checks and vouchers simply don't work in cyberspace. Making payment possible across the Internet and the WWW (World Wide Web) in particular is the goal of a new breed of electronic payment systems that are just coming into use. Debit and Credit All systems for making payments digital or otherwise fall into one of two different classes: debit and credit. In a debit system, you gather your money up front and then spend it. In a credit system, you spend the money first and pay the bill later. Payment systems based on gold, paper currency, traveler's checks, and instant-debit ATM (automatic teller machine) cards are debit systems. Checks, charge accounts, and credit cards are credit systems. Just as cash and credit coexist in today's business climate, both exist in the digital world as well. Digital cash is the digital equivalent of a cashier's check or a bearer bond (i.e., a token or note issued and signed by a bank or other institution with its name a random and unique identifying note number, and the amount of money represented). Users can buy these notes from a bank (which makes it a debit system) and then redeem them later for real cash. Although users can make digital copies of such notes, a bank redeems each note number only once. Digital credit is similar to the credit systems used in the business world. With such a system, the payer creates a voucher record that contains a description of the transaction, the name of the payer and the recipient, the date and time of the transaction, and the amount to be paid. The payer signs this voucher with his or her private key. Using a public key, the recipient of a voucher can read the record and verify that it was signed and obliged by the possessor of the private key. The recipient can submit the voucher to a clearing system and have legal grounds for collecting payment. The Mechanics of Payment Systems An on-line payment transaction generally involves three parties. The customer pays, the merchant receives the payment, and a bank does the accounting, making sure that money from the customer ends up in the merchant's account. In a peer-to-peer system, users can act as both customers and merchants. For the purposes of this discussion, a payment service can act like a bank even if it's not legally considered to be one. The customer runs client software. This might be a WWW browser, such as Netscape or Mosaic with S-HTTP (Secure Hypertext Transport Protocol); or a dedicated payment client. The merchant runs merchant software on its server to request and process payments. In many cases, the merchant software is integrated in the WWW server. A payment server is the bank's POP (point of presence) on the network. To execute a real-time transaction, the merchant generally forwards information to the payment server, which authorizes the payment and credits the merchant's bank account. 1. Find the word in the text corresponding to each of these definitions: 1. A bank employee who pays out money. 2. A person who receives (money, for example). 3. A huge computer which gathers applications and information and can be accessed through a network. 4. A person who buys goods or services from you. 5. It allows you to make deposits and withdrawals from a bank. 29

6. Money used in a specific country. 7. A computer that can access a server. 8. To add money (to an account). 2. Use each of the relative pronouns in the list to complete the sentences: who, which, of which, where, whom, whose. 1. Digital credit, .......... is used in electronic trade, is similar to traditional credit. 2. The customer, .......... wanted to buy some shirts, entered the virtual shop. 3. The bank director, I met personally, agreed to honor my check. 4. He is the very man .......... name is on the check. 5. A large number of banknotes, some .......... were still new, were found in the safe. 6. The site, .......... we found CD-ROMs on sale, accepts digital cash. 3. Choose words from the list below to complete the paragraph. You will not need to use them all! account, holder, overdraft, to sign, balance, interest, receipt, statement, to clear, loan, remittance, to start, deposit, to open, safe, withdrawal The Longstone company wish .......... a current .......... for their manager. He alone will be authorized .......... cheques. The initial .......... will be $10,000. The account will not produce any .......... will only be charged at 12%. The bank will send the company a weekly .......... of account. For $20 a month, the company can have access to a .........., one foot large by two deep in the bank's basement. Reading Getting it right! Read this article and put the paragraphs in the correct order. The first one has already been done for you. Stupid Computer Error A - ? The following month he decided that it was about time that he tried out the troublesome credit card, figuring that f there were purchases on his account it would put an end to his ridiculous predicament. However, in the first store that he produced his credit card in payment for his purchases he found that his card had been cancelled. He called the credit card company who apologized for the computer error once again and said that they would take care of it. B 1 In March 1992 a man living in Newtown near Boston Massachusetts received a bill for his yet unused credit card stating that e owed $0.00. He ignored it and threw it away. C - ? The following month the man received a letter from the credit card company claiming that his check had bounced and that he now owed them $0.00 and unless he sent a check by return of post they would be taking steps to recover the debt. The man, who had been considering buying his wife a computer for her birthday, bought her a typewriter instead. D - ? The next day he got a bill for $0.00 stating that payment was now overdue. Assuming that having been spoken to the credit card company only the previous day the latest bill was yet another mistake, he ignored it, trusting that the company would be as good as their word and sort the problem out. The next month he got a bill for $0.00 stating that he had 10 days to pay his account or the company would have to take steps to recover the debt.. 30

E - ? Finally giving in, he though he would pay the company at their own game and mailed them a check for $0.00. The computer dully processed his account d returned a statement to the effect that he now owed the credit company nothing at all. F - ? In April he received another and threw that one too. The following month the credit card company sent him a very nasty note stating they were going to cancel his card if he didn't send them $0.00 by return of post. He called them and talked to them, and they said it was a computer error and told him they'd take care of it. G - ? A week later, the man's bank called him asking him what he was doing writing a check for $0.00. After a lengthy explanation the bank replied that the $0.00 check had caused their check processing software to fail. The bank could not now process ANY checks from ANY of their customers that day because the check for $0.00 had crashed their computers How would you have dealt with the situation?

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LESSON 10 FUTUROLOGY What the future holds for the Internet Four years ago the last time the prestigious International Telecommunication's Union's Telecom event was held the Internet did not, for all intents and purposes, exist. At his opening address at this year's Internet forum, ITU secretary-general Pekka Tarjanne, said, "At telecom 91, I think the word Internet was uttered twice. The Internet companies which are worth billions now simply were not around". So things have changed. Not only did the Telecom 95 organizers set aside two days for Internet discussion, but it was timetabled to take place over a weekend. And needless to say, that didn't keep the crowds away. Sing of the times Although the two days were ostensibly divided into three sessions covering the present, the future, and the role of the providers, there was an inevitable blur of content. For sheer impact, the prime speaker had to be chair of the Internet Architecture Board, Dr. Christian Huitema, who radiated enthusiasm on the subject of the Internet. Dr. Huitema's concerns expressed as they were with classic Gallic expansiveness, were fair reflection of those of the majority of the other speakers. The tone of the entire event was one of humble ignorance as to what exactly the coming years will bring, but also immense excitement about the possibilities, and his overall categorization of the progress of the Internet into four parts set a loose agenda for the rest f the proceedings. Aspects of the Internet Commerce came first. As he pointed out, every bank is now looking seriously at the Net, and, he predicted, the current issue of security will only be short. What should concern us, he said, was how online commerce will evolve. Next came, more controversially, network computing the connection of lots of computers via the Net to do the otherwise impossible job of one computer. "The Internet will be the next generation of supercomputer solving problems for humanity", said Dr. Huitema. This point was later to evolve into a push-and-pull discussion as to the direction of Internet terminals will they be PCs, dumb terminals, TVs or will virtually every electrical appliance in the home be attached, with "intelligent" fridges and phones? Huitema next touched on multimedia and broad band access. These issues were to figure largely in subsequent discussion would cable, satellite, TV or phone lines dominate? Huitema made the point that the new version of IP will dramatically improve video and audio and that audio would soon develop into hi-fi quality. Lastly, dipping even further into the future, came the issue of virtual reality. "Someone will eventually enable us to send and receive smells over the Internet", he enthused. "Sight, smells, sound and feeling will arrive. You will be able to do a virtual handshake with special gloves with your business partner on the other side of the world. And as for the taste, well, we'll have to work on that one". 1. Make sentences or write a short paragraph on the future of the Internet, computing, networks, or virtual reality using the following expressions: in the near future... one can predict / foretell that... that probability that ... is high / low it is highly probable that ... experts expect that.... futurologists forecast... 32

it is a well-founded supposition that... it is reasonable to think that... there are grounds for believing that.... there are scientific arguments for... 2. Fill the gaps with the correct form of these verbs (use each word only once): let, make, allow, enable, permit 1. When I was young my parents never .......... me to stay out later than 11.00. 2. I hope that doing the course .......... me to get a better job. 3. Being a single parent ......... it hard for me to have a social life. 4. A security password .......... access to confidential files. 5. My boss is easygoing and .......... me leave early every Friday afternoon. 3. Read these extracts from a beginner's Internet glossary and underline any of the forms in italics that are correct ( = no pronoun) BCC (blind carbon copy) You can use this to send a copy of a message to other Net users as well as to the main recipient, that / who / can't see to who else you're sending the message / who else you're sending the message to. Sneaky, huh? Chat room A webpage where you can "chat" to other visitors in real time (that / which / means right there and then). Cyberspace This is the imaginary space that / which / you're moving through when you're travelling on the Internet. The term was first coined by William Gibson, that / who / is a science-fiction writer. HTML Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) is the code from that / which / whose every webpage is made. Your web browser reads the HTML and then presents the page on your screen. Keyword The word, words or phrase that / who / whose / you enter into a search engine to try to find the web site that / which / you want. Kill file A list of people that / who / whose / email messages you automatically delete. Link A "hot-spot" on a webpage, indicated by a finger symbol, that / who / automatically connects you to another webpage when you click on it with your mouse. Reading Read the article. Work out (or check in a dictionary) the meaning of as many of the words / acronyms in bold as you can. Prepare to explain them to your partner. 33

ONLINE CHATROOM U may have noticed some odd phrases slipping into your kids' emails. FWIW (for what is worth), a new idiom has been born. Across the world, every night, teenagers are yakking online in chat rooms with friends and Net acquaintances. It's fast: try talking to sic people at once. It's brief: three or four words per exchange. It takes wit, concentration and agile fingers. And it requires tremendous linguistic economy. There's neither time nor space for exposition. The solution is to abbreviate, contract and condense. Why consume precious keystrokes telling six M8s you have to go and smack your little brother when BRB (be right back) will do? Want to enter an ongoing conversation? Just type PMFJI (pardon me for jumping in). Interested in whom you're talking to? Type A/S/L, the nearly universal request to know your correspondent's age, sex and location. If something cracks you up, say you're OTF (on the floor) or LOL (laughing out loud), or combine the two: ROTFL (rolling on the floor laughing). And when your POS (parent over shoulder) finally makes you get back to your maths homework, it's easy to type GTG (got to go) or TTYL (talk to you later). C? Don't think this new jargon is limited to teenagers. Plenty of adults talk the talk, or type the type, all day at work. It's the result of computer services that let users compile buddy lists of friends and family, and construct an exclusive chat network that can be accessed at any time. America Online's Instant Messenger is the biggest. It has an estimated 75 million users, sending more that 700 million realtime messages a day and has given the verb IMing to the phenomenon. Many scholars see it as something that can e traced back to RSVP, PBAB (please bring a bottle), FYI (for your information) and even the close used in 19th century letters, yr mst ob svt (your most obedient servant). Well, GTG. C-U-L8R

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II. LANGUAGE FOCUS A. WRITING A CV When writing a CV in English it is best not to translate your diplomas, degrees and other qualifications, but it is useful for your potential employer to have some idea of what they correspond to in the English / American system. The best solution is to place the equivalents in brackets after the Romanian qualification. It is also important to observe the correct headings that are standard to English CV writing practice and not just translate Romanian terms literally, e.g. "situatie familiala" as "family situation", which sounds very strange indeed. Here are some useful terms in Romanian and their English equivalents: nume de fata maiden name situatie familiala marital status nume surname data nasterii- date of birth limba materna mother tongue prenume forename locuri de munca anterioare previous employment bacalaureat "A" level(s) Writing - Now study the CV of Paul W Cair, then write your own CV in the same way. For the purpose of this task, you can invent experience and assume you have passed all your examinations! CURRICULUM VITAE Paul W Cair Personal details Date of birth 30 / 5 / 79 Address 7 Linden Crescent, Stonebridge, EH21 3TZ email p.w.cair@btinternet.com Education 1991-1995 Standard grades in Maths, English, Spanish, Computer Studies, Geography, Science, James High School 1996-1997 HNC in Computing Maxwell College 1997-1999 HDN in Computing Support Maxwell College Other qualifications Jan 2000 CTEC Work Experience 1999-present IT support consultant Novasystems Novasystems is an IT company that provides a complete range of computing services for its corporate clients My experience includes: 35

- advising clients on IT issues and strategies - 1st line customer telephone support - database design - configuration and installation of hardware and software to clients' specification - network administration and implementation - PC assembly I have knowledge of these areas: - Windows 200 Server / Professional - Office 97, 2000 - Sage line 50 & 100 - Windows 95 / 98 - TCP / IP Networking - Windows NT4 Server/Workstation - Exchange Server 5.5 - Veritas Backup Exec for NT Hobbies and interests volleyball Referees 1 Academic Dr. L. Thin, IT Department, Maxwell College 2 Work Ms Y. Leith, Personnel Officer, Novasystems

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B. WRITING LETTERS AND FAXES When writing a letter or a fax in English you have to know where to put the date, the name and address of the addressee, how to begin a letter, how to end it, and where to put the handwritten signature, the signatory's full name (typed), and the function of the signatory in his or her organization (you will get a sample of a letter of application that will show you all these details). Faxes are very similar to letters but tend to be less formal. se the same format as for letters but do not forget to specify how many pages there are and number the pages. The ending most generally used is "Best regards" which is often considered too informal for a business letter. B.1. A LETTER OF APPLICATION Write a letter of application for the training period, respecting the letter-writing format of the following letter of application. You may find some of the following expressions useful: - should be only too pleased to supply further details and references - please find enclosed my curriculum vitae - am currently studying for - should you feel I could be of use to your firm - am available to start as from June 15 - gain insight into methods and techniques used outside Romania - in the light of the Single European Market 10 GOLDEN RULES FOR YOUR LETTER OF APPLICATION 1. Write clearly 2. Keep your letter short and to the point 3. State what job you are applying for 4. Make the information you give relevant to the job, and firm, so read the advertisement carefully first 5. Type your letter 6. Draft out what you want to say in rough first 7. Give all the information you are asked for 8. Check your spelling and punctuation 9. State when you are available for the interview 10. Print your name clearly under your signature Dos and don'ts How not to do it - avoid sounding negative or pessimistic - state the purpose of your letter in the first paragraph - avoid sounding over confident don't give the impression you are unlikely to stay long How it should be done - state where you saw the job advertised - name and address of firm. Reference number if there is one. Use the person's name if you know it - state you qualifications in brief - "Yours faithfully" is correct unless you address the person by name "dear Mr. Black" then put "Yours sincerely". 37

Here is a sample of an authentic letter of application: 33 Looseleigh Lane Derriford Plymouth Devon PL6 8BH Mr Roy Cross Deputy Director British Council Romania 16 Oxford Street London LA1 6 PD June 21, 1994 Dear Mr Cross I would like to apply for one of the Regional Teacher Trainer / Adviser positions which you have recently advertised in The Guardian. I believe I have skills and qualifications appropriate to the position. Although at present I do not have a Masters degree, I have applied to do the Moray House in TESOL by Distance Learning. I feel that it would be advantageous to be following this course while working in this particular position as ideas would be fresh and I would be able to apply new knowledge and insights in my daily work and share them with colleagues. I have considerable teaching and teacher training experience through my position as teacher and as Director of Studies in a variety of language schools. I have taught students at all levels and of all ages. Over the past year, for example, I have taught post-graduates at International House and 6 year-olds in a primary school. I have regularly observed teachers and given feedback on their lessons, as well as leading fortnightly education seminars. The International House / British Council teacher development courses on which I was a trainer consisted of methodology input sessions and language development. Through my work in Cairo and Sabah (Malaysia) I learnt about the work of the British Council overseas. I Cairo I administered IELTS tests and ran short courses for UK bound students. In Malaysia I arranged, through the British Council, study tours for project personnel. All the positions of responsibility I have held have involved people management, team leadership and team membership. I have always enjoyed developing productive working relationships with management, teachers and administrative staff, as well as students. As the Director of Studies of International House I have represented the school and the culture of English speaking world on many occasions, from official situations such as conferences and media interviews to day-to-day enquiries from students and members of the public. Based on my educational background and employment record I believe I could make a significant contribution towards achieving the aims of the ENGIMP Project. My contact address until the end of July is as above. I hope this letter of application will clarify some of the information on the enclosed CV. Yours sincerely, Alan Bannister

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C. INTERVIEWS What do you think are the most important things to consider when you are preparing for: (a) a job interview, (b) an appraisal or progress report? Look at the list of the "Twelve Most Common Interview Questions" 1. Describe your greatest strengths and weaknesses. 2. Where do you see yourself in five years' time? 3. Why should you be employed by this company? 4. Describe your most recent accomplishments. 5. Describe a recent situation at work which you found frustrating 6. In the past year, what have you been dissatisfied about in your performance? 7. What do you think is the most important skill that a manager should possess? 8. What major problem have you encountered recently and how did you deal with it? 9. In what ways could you be described as creative? 10. Have you ever managed a conflict? How? 11. Which is more important to you, money or job satisfaction? 12. How has your recent project been going? Dos and don'ts at the interview - Do arrive in plenty of time. If you think you may have trouble finding the place, set out early. You can always explore the neighborhood if you have half an hour to spare. - Don't let your clothes be too extreme. Dress in a business-like way. - It's polite to knock before you enter an office if the door is closed. - Don't smoke. - Don't put your handbag or briefcase on the interviewer's desk it creates a barrier between you. - Don't cross your arms and legs it looks as though you are withholding information. - Do sit still. Fidgeting with jewellery or shuffling your feet can e very distracting for the interviewer. - Don't exaggerate your abilities or achievements. You are likely to be found in the end. - Be ready with the basic facts and information about yourself your education, experience, interests and hobbies. - Do make a graceful exit. Thank your interviewer; walk to the door; don't rush. And if you can give him or her a smile as you leave the room, so much the better.

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D. WRITING EMAILS Answer these questions: 1. How often do you use email? 2. If you use email at work, how has it changed your working life? 3. What do you use email for? 4. To what extent do you think writing emails differs from writing letters or faxes? How much difference is there between a formal letter and a formal email? 5. Do you think email has changed the way people address each other? How? Here is a survey of typical mistakes made in emails: - not making clear who you are and why you are writing - assuming that al emails are informal and not responding with the same level of formality as the sender - not answering all the points raised by the sender - not making clear which part of the sender's email you are responding to - writing too much, or in sentences that are too long - not bothering to correct spelling mistakes - writing everything in UPPER CASE - sending attachments that the receiver may not be interested in, or may not be able to open - not making it clear what tone you are writing in (for example, if you intend your comments to be humorous) - not telling the reader what you expect them to do, and how you yourself will proceed Exercise - Read these emails, written by an Italian researcher asking the same favor of two different English researcher. One letter is formal, the other informal. Choose the most appropriate word or phrase from 1-15 to fill each gap: A. Dear Sir, I ...... if you might be able to help me. My name is Monica Ciampi and I am ..... working for Aitech in Pisa on the Lingo Project. I found your name in the references of Martin and Steinberg's paper and I see that you are ..... working on Lingo. I would be extremely ..... if you could give me some information about what software you have been using. Thank you very much in advance for any kind of help you might be able to give me in this ...... ..... you in the ..... future. Yours sincerely, Monica Ciampi P.S. Please find ..... my recent paper, which I hope you will find interesting. B. Dear James, How are you? I bet you are ..... the Italian sun and pasta! I'm writing to you to ask you a small favor. I was wondering if ..... any chance you happen to know what software your department is using on the Lingo project. Could you email me details? 40

In a ..... of weeks I'll be in England, in fact I should be very neat to Manchester ..... perhaps we could meet up and go for a ...... together. Hope to hear from you ...... and thank you for your help. Best wishes, Monica P.S. Send my ...... to Peter 1. a. ask 2. a. actually 3. a. additionally 4. a. glad 5. a. affair 6. a. I am looking forward to hearing from 7. a. close 8. a. annexed 9. a. lacking 10. a. by 11. a. bracket 12. a. and 13. a. dinner 14. a. before 15. a. concerns b. demand b. currently b. also b. grateful b. business b. I look forward to news from b. near b. attached b. losing b. for b. couple b. so b. drink b. beforehand b. love c. request c. now c. as well c. happy c. matter c. I look forward to hearing from c. next c. enclosed c. missing c. from c. match c. then c. meal c. early c. respect d. wonder d. presently d. too d. pleases d topic d. I look forward to hearing news from d. topic d. included d. wasting d. with d. pair d. thus d. supper d. soon d. wishes

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E. PRESENTATIONS Discuss the following questions: 1. What is a presentation? 2. For what purpose are presentations made? 3. What makes a presentation effective? 4. What is the worst presentation you have experienced? 5. Even experienced presenters can make mistakes during a presentation. Can you give any examples from first-hand knowledge? Here are some aspects to consider before starting to prepare a good presentation: Planning evidence of careful preparation Objectives clarity, appropriacy to audience / subject Content extent, relevance, subject knowledge, research Approach message support and reinforcement, variety, humor Organization coherence, clarity, appropriacy Visual aids appropriacy, clarity, handling Delivery pace, enthusiasm, rapport / eye contact, audibility, intonation, confidence, body language Language clarity, accuracy, fluency, appropriacy, pronunciation, signalling (Simplicity Use short words and sentences that you are comfortable with. There is no benefit in using difficult language; Clarity Active verbs and concrete words are much clearer and easier to understand than passive verbs and abstract concepts. Avoid jargon unless you are sure your audience will understand it; Signalling Indicate when you've completed one point or section in your presentation and are moving on to the next. Give your audience clear signals as to the direction your presentation is taking. Overall clarity of message, achievement of objectives, interesting, enjoyable, informative, motivating Exercise - Complete the following presentation excerpts with the given words: after that, finally, to start with, specifically, outline, bring you up to date, illustrate, purpose, then, thank, sum up, describe, tell you, concluding, indicate, talked, you will notice, draw your attention, interrupt, expand, move on, options, priority, referring, in conclusion, on balance, recommend, pointed out "Good afternoon, everybody. I'd like to ..... you all for being here. My ..... today is to ..... about our corporate strategy for the next decade, and, more ..... , to ..... with our plans for Europe. ..... I'd like to ..... briefly our current marketing policy in the UK. ..... I'll ..... some of the problems we are having over the market share. ..... I'll ..... the opportunities we see for further progress in the 21st century. ..... I'll quickly ..... before ..... with some recommendations. Please feel free to ..... me if you have questions at any time. Now I'd like to ..... to Chart B showing our sales revenue and pre-tax profits over the last ten years. ..... that although turnover has risen, our profits have not increased at the same rate. I've ..... about our current position in the UK and I've ..... some of the problems we are facing. Well, what .....are open to us now? Where do we go from here? As I have already ....., I think our first .... must be to build on the excellent results we have achieved in certain European markets. I'm ..... , of course, to Italy and Spain. Let me quickly ..... on those successes before we ......

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We should not forget the French market. Admittedly our results there have been poor so far, but there are sings the market is changing and we can learn a lot from our mistakes. ....., though, I think we stand to gain most from concentrating on southern Europe and I strongly ..... we put all our efforts into further expansion in Italy, Spain and possibly Greece. ....., may I thank you all for being such an attentive and responsive audience. Thank you also for your pertinent questions. Are there any final questions?"

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F. DISSERTATIONS AND LONG ESSAYS In many institutions, two modules in the third year of a full-time degree are given over to an extended piece of work , called a dissertation or long essay. This means you have a whole year to write it. In part-time degrees, you will probably tackle it last and over a year also. What is a dissertation? A dissertation is a long essay written on a single topic, which you research by yourself. A member of staff will supervise progress, and be available to assist you. Going about writing a long essay or dissertation is similar to writing an essay, but there are a number of differences: - you can choose your own title - a dissertation is about five times longer than an ordinary essay - research should take you further afield than your institution's library Choosing a topic Choosing your own topic sounds very exciting, but it can also be very daunting. You should start thinking about your topic before the long vacation of your second year of a fulltime degree (the vacation before you begin the dissertation if you are studying part-time). There are several criteria for your choice: - is the topic academic enough? - is the topic broad enough / too broad? - is the topic relevant to your degree course? - will the topic keep you interested for a whole year? Keeping interested The last question might sound facetious, but is probably the most important. You will have to work on this subject for the summer vacation. Is the topic academic enough? Almost any topic can be academic. It is not the topic itself but the analysis of the topic that makes it academic. However seemingly unacademic your idea may be, try it out with your supervisor. Is the topic broad enough / too broad? As with essays, dissertations need to say a lot about a little. Like an essay, what you will need to do is to narrow down what you are going to say to get depth. However, since you have more space, you will be able to give a number of sets of evidence, which will go to make up the argument of the whole dissertation. Is the topic relevant to your degree course? The point of a dissertation is to use one or two of the methods of study you have learned on your degree course.

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What you must try to do is choose a topic that you can analyze using the methods you found most easy and interesting. This will make the topic relevant to your degree course. Do not choose a topic you have studied on your degree course Is there enough published material available on your topic? You will need to build up a fair-sized bibliography (about twenty items) for your dissertation. Begin using the methods described above and throughout this book; but it will better if you go further afield that your institution's library to find materials You might even consider buying books for this project, since you may need a few by your side. Searching further afield To find out whether there is enough published material on your topic, you will need to consult several up-to-date bibliographical sources. Your institution's library will have electronic access to many of these relevant to your degree course. You need to search databases which give lists of books and articles Your title When you get started on your dissertation, the first thing to do, as you are reading through the material you have gathered, is to try to think exactly what you want to argue in your dissertation. As you are reading through the books on your topic, ask yourself: - What do I want to say about my topic? Try to answer in a sentence of less than ten words. This will be your title. Structure of the dissertation When you have worked out the title, you must work out the structure of the dissertation. Dissertations are usually 10, 000 words. It might seem a lot so break this up into manageable sections. Introduction 1, 000 words Theoretical chapter 2, 000 words Evidential chapter 1 2, 000 words Evidential chapter 2 2, 000 words Evidential chapter 3 2, 000 words Conclusion 1, 000 words Progression of the argument You should begin researching and writing your dissertation with the theoretical chapter. This will set the ground rules for the evidential chapters. Theoretical chapter This chapter should be like the introduction to an essay. It is longer, since you have more to say. What you are trying to do is lay out your opinion: 45

- this is, explain what you have said in the title Also, you need to say why your opinion is valid in the light of other work that has been done. In this chapter you do not need evidence. - this chapter will have a lot of theoretical references Evidential chapters 1, 2, and 3 These chapters should be like the body of the essay. They give the evidence for the validity of your opinion. They differ from the body of a single essay since they need to show the progression of the argument. Each new chapter needs its own stance that marks a progression from the last, so that the whole dissertation: - takes on a shape; - has a direction; - has a coherent argument throughout; Each chapter, whether it be the theoretical chapter or the evidential chapters, ought to follow the structure of an essay. Introduction and conclusion These should be written last. The introduction should lay out the whole argument, and briefly state where the argument is going in the individual chapters. This will amount to 200 words on the whole project and 200 words on each of the chapters. The conclusion should point out the weak points in the argument, but give an idea, say, why this argument is better than the alternatives. Page layout and presentation Your institution will have stringent requirements about page layout and presentation of dissertations. Follow them to the letter.

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III. TESTS Test A A. Grammar 1. Present Simple, Present Continuous, Present Perfect Simple, or Present Perfect Continuous? Underline the correct word or phrase in italics. 1. I am not sleeping well lately / at the moment. 2. I've been talking to her a lot recently / last month. 3. I've lived here all my life / last year. 4. I am here for a week / since last month. 5. You're all wet! What are you doing / have you been doing? 6. She is always playing / always plays tennis on Saturday mornings. 7. I have never seen / have never been seeing this film before. 8. I am having / have been having problems with my car recently. 9. Is this the first time you eat / have eaten Korean food? 10. She doesn't stop / hasn't stopped talking since she arrived. 2. Past Simple, Past Continuous, Past Perfect Simple, or Past Perfect Continuous? Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verb in brackets. 1. This time last year I .................... (live) in Malaysia. 2. While I .................... (travel) to work this morning I .................... (witness) a terrible car crash. 3. The pilot .................... (have) problems with the engines and so they couldn't take off again until checks had been made. 4. It was only after she .................... (read) the letter twice that she .................... (start) crying. 5. Her eyes were tired because she .................... (sit) at her computer all day. 6. When I .................... (arrive) at work yesterday I realized that I .................... (leave) my presentation on the train. 7. I .................... (wake up) this morning with a terrible headache. 3. Used to and would Rewrite sentences to show how different things were in the past. Use used to, didn't use to, or would. 1. Nowadays professional sportspeople get paid a lot of money. In the past ................................................................................ 2. I sold my Porsche two years ago. I ................................................................................ 3. I usually write emails instead of letters or faxes these days. I ................................................................................ 4. Nowadays I usually get up for breakfast on Sundays. When I was younger I .................... never .............................................. ...................................................... 5. There are more and more Internet companies today. In the past ................................................................................ 4. Gerund or infinitive? Complete the sentences using the correct form of the verb in brackets. 47

1. Do you regret .................... (say) that you thought his work was awful? 2. I always try .................... (entertain) my colleagues during the lunch break. 3. I really like .................... (go) to office parties. 4. I usually remember .................... (turn off) my computer before I leave the office at night. 5. I stopped .................... (go) to the pub after work when my first baby was born. B. Functions 1. Welcoming a visitor Put the following conversation in order. The first and last sentences are marked. a. May I introduce you to my colleague, Andrew Sloane? He'll be working closely with us on this project. b. Please take a seat. Mr. Rose won't be long. c. Right, would you like some coffee before we show you round? (7) d. How do you do, Mr. Rose? It's very nice to meet you. e. Good morning, I'm David De Knoop. I've an appointment with Mr. Rose at 9.30. (1) f. Pleased to meet you, Mr. Sloane. g. Hello. You must be Mr. De Knoop. I'm George Rose. 2. Giving information Put the telephone conversation between Jeremy Sharland and Mr. De Groot's secretary in the correct order. The first one is done for you. a. JS And ask him to phone me on 01193 246657 as soon as he gets this message. b. DG I'm afraid not. Would you like to leave a message? c. JS Yes, that's right. Thank you for your help. d. DG Yes, of course. e. DG I'm afraid he's not in the office this morning, but he should be in some time this afternoon. f. JS Well, I really need to speak to him in person, but could you tell him that Jeremy Sharland from Blue Buffalo Clothing called? g. DG You're welcome. Goodbye. h. JS Good morning. Could I speak to Mr. De Groot, please? i. JS Oh, dear. It's rather urgent. Do you know where I can contact him? j. DG OK. So you're Jeremy Sharland from Blue Buffalo, and you want him to call you asap on 01193 246657. k. DG Good morning, Langton De Groot. How can I help you? (1) C. Vocabulary 1. Write the adjective which describes someone who is: 1. very good at what they do 2. extremely sociable and confident 3. very organized and precise 4. inflexible, doesn't change opinion easily 5. very aware of other people's feelings c.................... o.................... m.................... s.................... s....................

2. Underline the correct word, or words, in italics. If more than one is possible, underline both. 48

1. Do you look / seem as / look like your mother or your father? 2. How much TV do you look / see / watch a week? 3. That sounds like / seems like / sounds your mobile phone ringing. 4. He seems / seems like / looks like very good on paper, but you can never tell. 5. It's really cold, and it looks like / seems like / sounds it's going to snow.

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Test B A. Grammar 1. Future forms Complete the sentences with the most suitable phrase in italics. In each case choose the most likely alternative. 1. There are some countries that I'm probably never visiting / I'll probably never visit. 2. I'm going to / I'll go to Bali for my summer holiday this year. I booked it last week. 3. I'll play / I'm playing / I play tennis with Harry this Saturday, so I won't be able to go shopping with you I'm afraid. 4. Right, I've done that for you. I'll just check / I'm just checking that information with my colleague when she gets back and I'll call / I'm going to call / I'm calling you back to confirm the booking details. 5. If you're too hot in here, I'll turn on / I'm turning on / I'm going to turn on the air-conditioning. 6. Look at those clouds. I think it will rain / is going to rain / is raining soon. 7. I'm spending / I'm going to spend / I'll spend this afternoon planning my trip to Honduras. 8. I think Brazil will win / are winning the next football World Cup. 9. Are you going / Do you do / Will you do anything on Saturday? Would you like to go for a drink? 2. Articles Complete this text with a / an, the, or no article. I had .......... lovely morning. First I went to .......... bank to withdraw some cash. Then I went swimming at .......... local pool and saw Bob McGraw, .......... old school friend who I hadn't seen for .......... years. He's .......... professional musician and plays with .......... Royal Philharmonic Orchestra. After .......... lunch with Bob, I went for .......... long walk by .......... River Thames. 3. Indirect speech Write the actual words used in these situations. 1. When the police arrived they asked an old man if he had seen anything. .................................................................................................................. 2. They wondered how we had managed to do it. .................................................................................................................. 3. He wanted to know why we hadn't attended the meeting. .................................................................................................................. 4. He inquired when the winner of the contract would be known. .................................................................................................................. 5. I asked whether she had spoken to Tim about his resignation, and she said that she hadn't had a chance. .................................................................................................................. 6. She predicted that more and more women would move into top management positions. .................................................................................................................. 7. The pilot said that in 25 years of flying he had never experienced such terrible weather conditions. .................................................................................................................. 50

8. He wondered whether they would be able to finish the proposal in time, and they said they would get it to him by 10.00 a.m. at the latest. .................................................................................................................. 9. As we were leaving, he asked if we had enjoyed our trip to Scotland. .................................................................................................................. 10. He asked if we would give him a hand with the new software, and we told him that we could do it next week. .................................................................................................................. B. Functions 1. Arranging meetings Complete the conversation with a suitable word or phrase. C Hello, is that Paula. P Yes. C Paula, hello, this is Charles Kennedy from IBC Engineering. ......................... it would be possible to meet sometime next week to discuss the conference in Budapest. P OK. Good idea. Would Thursday morning at 10.00 ......................... ? C ......................... I'm busy on Thursday. ........................ Wednesday at 9.00 ? P ......................... fine. So I'll see you on Wednesday at 9.00, then. Goodbye. 2. Interrupting and clarifying Complete the following conversation with phrases from a to e. a. Sorry, can I just interrupt you a second? b. OK, let me give you an example. c. OK, I've got you. d. I'm not really with you. e. So, you're talking about... AK Hello, is that Emma Jones? EJ Speaking? AK My name is Alan Kowalski. Your name was given to me by Simon Herbert. EJ Oh, yes, right. AK He said you might be interested in our online English language dictionary to help you with translation of key documents. EJ ................................................................... AK ................................................................... The online dictionary enables you to translate words quickly and easily, without having to look them up in a conventional dictionary. EJ ................................................................... something for people who need English translations of words, is that right? AK Yes. EJ ................................................................... . It sounds useful. AK Exactly, which is why I thought ... EJ ................................................................... AK Yes. EJ I don't actually have a computer at the moment.

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C. Vocabulary 1. miss, lose, and waste Complete the sentences with an appropriate form of miss, lose, or waste. 1. A lot of company's resources are .................... because of inefficiency. 2. I've never .................... an important meeting in my life. 3. Oh, no! I seem to have .................... my money. Do you take credit cards? 4. You just sat at home for two weeks while you were on holiday? What a .................... opportunity! 5. I really .................... my family when I was abroad on business for four months. 2. Prepositions Complete the sentences with the correct preposition. 1. He apologized .......... the inconvenience caused. 2. Thank you for taking part .......... the discussion today. 3. The meeting coincided .......... the beer festival. 4. He is lacking .......... sensitivity. 5. I am not accustomed .......... my new job. 6. I had three jobs to choose .......... . 7. Don't worry. You can depend .......... me. 8. Please listen .......... me. 9. I can't eat seafood. I'm allergic .......... it. 10. We need to concentrate .......... the UK market for the time being.

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Test C A. Grammar 1. Defining and non-defining relative clauses 1. Complete the sentences. Use which / that / who / whom / (no pronoun). In some cases more than one answer may be possible. a. What's the name of the woman .............. has just joined the company? b. For three years she worked with her boyfriend .............. she later married. c. This is the room .............. we hold meetings in. d. The reception area, .............. is on the fifth floor, is comfortable and spacious. e. You can download software from many websites, the majority of .............. is free. 2. Match the two parts of the sentences in A and B. Then complete them, using where, that, who, which, or whom. A. The people What's the name of the bank We started the company in 1999 I really like the apartment I've met a lot of people through work, some of B. you used to work? was also the year I got married. have become good friends. work opposite us are not very friendly. I'm living in at the moment. 2. Countable or uncountable? Seven of the sentences have a mistake. Write C (correct) or I (incorrect), then correct the mistakes. 1. He gave us a lot of information about his company. 2. I'm doing many work at the moment. 3. There's not much news to tell you. Nothing happened yesterday. 4. There are quite a few billionaires in Europe. 5. One million dollars is plenty of for one person. 6. My company does much business in Asia. 7. How many items of furniture do you want to buy? 8. You need to invest in some more machinery. 9. I like playing sport, but I don't spend a lot on equipments. 10. The consultant gave us a lot of good advices. 3. Time clauses Choose the correct form to complete the sentences. 1. As soon as / Until the merger was announced, he bought shares in the company, anticipating an increase in value. 2. If you manage to finish your report until / by Monday, I give / will give you a bonus. 3. We can't start the meeting until / when / while you are / will be here, so please hurry up. 53

B. Functions 1. Avoiding ambiguity Complete the text using the phrases a-e. a. By secure, I mean b. To give you an example c. The point is d. Let me explain what I mean. e. So essentially I think online fraud is a big problem. .................................................. . Although credit card transactions over the Internet are usually done through a secure server, fraud still occurs. .................................................., a friend of mine bought tickets for the theatre online, and found that his credit card details had been used to purchase other things. .................................................., can we trust these servers to be secure? .................................................. can we have 100% faith in them? 'No', is the answer to that. .................................................., I think that banks and Internet companies have to think of new ways to make the system safer. 2. Explaining consequences, trends, and statistics Match the words and phrases 1-8 with a word or phrase a-h that has a similar meaning. 1. because of a. for example 2. due to b. as 3. because c. on the other hand 4. while d. such as 5. like e. whereas 6. however f. due to the fact that 7. e.g. g. as a result of 8. so h. thus C. Vocabulary 1. Phrasal verbs Complete these sentences with the phrasal verb that means the same as the word or phrase in brackets. 1. He's not a very good team player. He's always letting his colleagues ......................... . (disappoint) 2. Even though he knew about the redundancies last week he didn't let ......................... . (indicate awareness of something) 3. He really gets ......................... on abusing the little power he has. (be excited by) 4. The problems with her job are really starting to get her ......................... . (make depressed) 5. I had a day off work last week to make ......................... working at the weekend. (compensate for) 6. It's such a bad line, I can only just make ......................... what you're saying. (understand)

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7. The company really took ......................... last year when we broke into the German market. (became very successful) 8. She's very good at getting her ideas ......................... (communicate) 9. I can't believe that you won $3 million on the lottery! Are you making it ......................... ? (invent) 10. She called in sick so that she could get ......................... the meeting. (avoid) 2. Describing increase and decrease Complete the text by choosing the correct word in italics. A new opportunity has raised / arisen / risen in London. It's good news, but house prices in the capital have raised / risen so sharp / sharply in recent years that I will need a substantial / substantially pay rise / risen / raise to afford even the most basic of properties. I think I'll raise / arise / rise this question when I go for my second interview.

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Test D A. Grammar 1. Passives Turn the following sentences from active to passive. Use have / get something done where appropriate. 1. People in the US recognize that a degree from Harvard or Yale opens doors. ...................................................................................................................... 2. We invite successful applicants to a second interview. ...................................................................................................................... 3. The head of department recommends candidates for promotion. ...................................................................................................................... 4. Somebody stole my laptop computer. ...................................................................................................................... 5. Our mechanics always check cars thoroughly before they leave the garage. ...................................................................................................................... 6. The optician tested my eyes yesterday. ...................................................................................................................... 7. The storm blew a lot of trees down last night. ...................................................................................................................... 8. The Admissions Service passes on applications to universities. ...................................................................................................................... 9. Companies usually provide managers with language training. ...................................................................................................................... 10. I asked Miranda to write the report for me. ...................................................................................................................... 2. Modal auxiliary verbs Complete the sentences with an appropriate modal verb. 1. A: Did you know that she gave all her money away? B: Did she? How stupid! I think she .................... have kept some of it for herself. 2. When I go to Barcelona I .................... be staying at the conference venue, but I'm not sure yet. 3. Oh, no! I .................... have left my keys in the restaurant. We're locked out! 4. The store manager had only just moved to the branch. He .................... have known that staff had been stealing money from the tills for a number of months. 5. I think we .................... pull out of this deal before we start losing serious money! 6. His colleague's death .................... be a big shock. He was only 42 years old. 7. According to Peter, company profits .................... well top $150 million this year. 8. I thought I saw Henry in his office this morning, but I .................... be wrong. 3. Conditionals 1. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form. a. What three things ............... (you save) if your house ............... (be) on fire? b. If someone ............... (knock) on your door at home ............... (you open) the door immediately? 56

c. If you ............... (can) exchange your life for anyone else's, whose life ............... (you choose) ? d. If the weather ............... (be) good this weekend what ............... (you do) ? e. If you ............... (not study) your subject at school / university, what ............... (you study) ? f. If you ............... (be) there the mayor of your town what three things ............... (you change) ? g. Where ............... (you work) if you ............... (not get) a job with your current company? h. What ............... (happen) if ............... (you arrive) late for work at your company? 2. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense. a. A: If I ............... (be) you, I ............... (go) to the police. B: That's exactly what I did but they didn't believe a word I said. b. A: If I ............... (be) you, I ............... (go) to the police. B: Yes, I know, but I don't think they'd believe me. c. A: If you ............... (see) a UFO, what ............... (you do)? B: I don't believe in UFOs. d. A: Careful! If ............... (you park) your car there they ............... (give) you a ticket. B: Thanks for warning me. B. Functions 1. Explaining stages in a process Complete the description, using the words a-e. a. Then b. ultimately c. eventually d. firstly e. actually When we want to fill a job vacancy through internal promotion, ............... the post is advertised internally on company noticeboards, ............... when all the applications have been received our human resources team select candidates for interview. The interviews take place and ............... after lengthy discussion, one candidate is chosen. ..............., there is often some debate when two or more candidates are equally strong. However, ............... we are usually happy with the candidate who is appointed. 2. Meetings Match each phrase to the appropriate function. 1. To manage interruptions 2. To keep to the point 3. To ensure other people get to speak 4. To ask for clarification 5. To summarize a. Could you be more specific? b. So, basically what you're saying is... c. Can I finish what I was saying? d. Can we just stick to this for a minute? e. Would you like to come in here, Ella?

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C. Vocabulary 1. Suffixes Add the correct suffix to create adjectives from these nouns and verbs. 1. rely ............... 2. humor ............... 3. create ............... 4. understand ............... 5. criticize ............... 2. Prefixes Add the correct prefix to create opposites. 1. .......... interested 2. .......... replaceable 3. .......... credible 4. .......... connect 5. .......... legible

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Test E A. Grammar 1. Permission, possibility, necessity, and obligation 1. Match each question with an appropriate category. i possibility ii permitted iii necessary iv obligatory a. Am I allowed to smoke in here? b. Do you need to wear a suit and tie to the office? c. Is it possible to leave the room for a few minutes? d. Can I open a window? It's very hot in here. e. Must I really go to the meeting? f. Is it necessary to spend so much on R&D? 2. Complete the sentences by choosing the correct word in italics. a. If you have time during your stay in Sydney, you really must / have to / need to visit the Opera House it's wonderful. b. I'm sorry, you can't / mustn't enter the country without a valid visa. c. It can / may / must rain a lot in Scotland in May, so don't forget to take waterproofs. d. I'll ask my secretary to write the date of the meeting in my diary, otherwise I may / must / can forget it. 2. Future Continuous, Future Perfect, and will Complete the sentences using the verb in brackets in the correct form. 1. Good luck with your exam tomorrow. I .................... (think) of you. 2. Will they .................... (finish) their meeting by 7.00 p.m.? 3. In three months' time I .................... (work) for PJ Plastics for twenty years. 4. Call me sometime over the weekend. I .................... (work) from home. 5. By 2050 people .................... (live) in space, I'm sure. 6. I .................... (speak) to Serena tomorrow if you like, it's no problem. 7. By the time I retire I hope I .................... (earn) enough money to live comfortably for the rest of my life. 8. Do you think there .................... (be) more or less environmental pollution in the future? 9. Do you know what .................... (do) at 8.00 p.m. tomorrow? We .................... (take) our seats in a box at the Royal Opera House. Look, I've got two tickets! B. Functions 1. Invitations, requests, and suggestions Complete the conversation with a suitable word or phrase. A: I don't know if you have any plans for tomorrow, but .................... if you'd like me to show you around Prague. B: .............................. . Thank you, I'd like that. A: Great. .............................. I pick you up at your hotel? B: Yes, thank you. 59

A: .............................. eight o'clock? B: Eight o'clock. Yes, that ............................. 2. Concluding, thanking, and leave-taking Complete the conversations with a suitable word or phrase a-e. a. best of luck b. I'm glad you enjoyed it c. keep in touch d. you're welcome e. hope to see you again sometime 1. A: So, I hear this is your last day at work here. B: Yes, I'm starting a new job next week. A: Oh, great. Well, ......................... with everything. B: Thanks. A: ........................................................... B: You too. ........................................ 2. A: Well, thank you for that lovely dinner once again. B: ........................................ . Thanks for coming. A: I've had a lovely evening. B: ........................................... C. Vocabulary 1. bring, carry, get, lead to, and take Complete the sentences with bring, carry, get, lead to, or take. 1. Can I help you ............... your bags? They look very heavy! 2. Sally's late as usual! Do you want me to go and ............... her? 3. Mark, did you ............... the minutes of the last meeting with you? 4. Remember to ............... warm clothes. It'll be cold in Poland at this time of year. 5. Late payment often .............. cash-flow problems for small businesses. 2. make and do Complete the dialogue with an appropriate form of make or do. A: How did you ............... in your English test? B: Oh, not too bad. I don't think I ............... too many mistakes. A: Have you ............... any plans for tonight yet? Are you going to celebrate? B: No, I can't. I have to ............... some research for my thesis. 3. Phrasal verbs Match the phrasal verbs 1-4 with the verbs a-d closest in meaning. 1. take on a. begin (a hobby) 2. bring about b. succeed 3. carry off c. cause 4. take up d. employ (someone)

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Tests - Answer key Test A A1 1. at the moment 2. recently 3. all my life 4. for a week 5. have you been doing 6. always plays 7. have never seen 8. have been having 9. have eaten 10. hasn't stopped 1. was living 2. was traveling / witnessed 3. had been having 4. had read / started 5. had been sitting 6. arrived / had left 7. woke up 1. ... professional sportspeople didn't use to earn so much money. 2. ... used to have a Porsche. 3. ... used to write a lot more letters and faxes than I do today. 4. ... would never get up for breakfast on Sundays. 5. ... there didn't use to be many Internet companies. 1. saying 2. to entertain 3. going 4. to turn off 5. going 1. a 5 2. b 2 3. c 7 4. d 4 5. e 1 6. f 6 7. g 3 1. competent 2. outgoing 3. meticulous 4. stubborn 5. sensitive B2 a8 b5 c 10 d7 e3 f6 1. look like 2. watch 3. sounds like 4. seems 5. looks like g 11 h2 i4 j9 k1

A2

A3

A4

B1

C1

C2

Test B A1 1. I'll probably never visit 61 A2 1. a

2. I'm going to 3. I'm playing 4. I'll just check / I'll call 5. I'll turn on 6. is going to rain 7. I'm going to spend 8. will win 9. Are you doing A3

2. the 3. the 4. an 5. 6. a 7. the 8. 9. a 10. the

1. 'Did you see anything?' 2. 'How did you manage to do it?' 3. 'Why didn't you attend the meeting?' 4. 'When will the winner of the contract be known?' 5. 'Have you spoken to Tim about his resignation?' 'No, I haven't had a chance.' 6. 'More and more women will move into top management posts.' 7. 'In 25 years of flying I have never experienced such terrible weather 8. 'Will you be able to finish the proposal in time?' 'We will get it to you by 10.00 a.m. at the latest.' 9. 'Have you enjoyed your trip to Scotland?' 10. 'Will you give me a hand with the new software?' 'Yes, we can do it next week.'

conditions.

B1

1. I was wondering whether 2. be convenient (for you) / suit you 3. I'm afraid 4. How about / What about 5. That would be / Yes, that's / That suits me 1. I'm not really with you. 2. OK, let me give you an example. 3. So, you're talking about ... 4. OK, I've got you. 5. Sorry, can I just interrupt you a second? 1. wasted 2. missed 3. lost 4. wasted 5. missed C2 1. for 2. in 3. with 4. in 5. to 6. from 7. on 8. to 9. to 10. on

B2

C1

Test C A1 1. a. who / that b. who / whom c. that / which / d. which e. which 2. a. The people that / who work opposite us are not very friendly. 62

b. What's the name of the bank where you used to work? c. We started the company in 1999, which was also the year I got married. d. I really like the apartment that / I'm living in at the moment. e. I've met a lot of people through work, some of whom have become good friends. A2 1. I information 2. I a lot of 3. C 4. I quite a few 5. I plenty of 6. I a lot of 7. C 8. C 9. I equipment 10. I a lot of good advice 1. as soon as 2. by / will give 3. until / are 1. Let me explain what I mean 2. To give you an example 3. The point is 4. By secure, I mean 5. So essentially 1g 2f 3b 4e 5d 6c 7a 8h 1. down 2. on 3. off 4. down 5. up for 1. arisen 2. risen 3. sharply 4. substantial 5. rise 6. raise 6. out 7. off 8. across 9. up 10. out of

A3

B1

B2

C1

C2

Test D A1 1. It is recognized in the US that a degree from Harvard or Yale opens doors. 63

2. Successful candidates are invited to a second interview. 3. Candidates are recommended for promotion. 4. My laptop has been stolen. / I've had my laptop stolen. 5. Cars are always checked thoroughly before leaving the garage. 6. I had my eyes tested yesterday. My eyes were tested yesterday. 7. A lot of our trees were blown down in the storm. / We had a lot of trees blown down in the storm. 8. Applications are passed on to universities. 9. Language training is provided for managers. / Managers are provided with language training. 10. Miranda was asked to write the report. A2 1. should 2. might / may / could 3. must 4. can't / couldn't 5. should / must 6. must 7. could / may / might 8. could / might / may 1. a. would you save / was b. knocked / would you c. could / would you choose d. is / will you do e. hadn't studied / would you have studied f. were / would you change g. would you work / hadn't got h. happens, would happen / arrive, arrived 2. a. had been / would have gone b. was you / would go c. saw / would you do d. park / give 1d 2a 3c 4e 5b 1. Excuse me, I was in the middle of saying something. 2. Can we just stick to this for a minute (and try to come to a decision)? 3. Would you like to say something about this, John? 4. Can you be more specific? 5. So, basically what you're saying is ... 1. reliable 2. humorous 3. creative 4. understandable 64 C2 1. uninterested 2. irreplaceable 3. incredible 4. disconnect

A3

B1

B2

C1

5. critical Test E A1 1. 1b 2c 3a 4a 5d 6c 2. 1. must 2. can't 3. can 4. can't

5. illegible

A2

1. will be thinking 2. have finished 3. will have been working 4. will be working 5. will be living 6. will speak 7. will have earned 8. will be 9. we will be doing / will be taking 1. I was wondering 2. That's very kind of you 3. Shall 4. Shall we say 5. would be fine / suits me fine 1. best of luck 2. Hope to see you again some time 3. Keep in touch 4. You're welcome 5. I'm glad you enjoyed it 1. carry 2. get 3. bring 4. take 5. lead to 1. do 2. made 3. made 4. do 1d 2c 3b 4a

B1

B2

C1

C2

C3

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IV. GRAMMAR REFERENCE 1. Present simple Form I go to the Soundhouse most evenings. He doesn't want to be in the school play. Do you work in a bank? Use We use the present simple to describe: a routine (something which happens regularly or always): Lisa always takes part in the school play. a state (something which is unlikely to change soon): Julie works for a bank. Verbs not used in continuous tenses These are some verbs which we don't normally use in the continuous form. Their meanings are often connected with thoughts and feelings: believe realize forget remember hate know like love suppose understand NOT NOT need want

She likes sport. He knows a lot about music. 2. Present continuous Form I'm practicing my lines for the play. Lisa isn't coming with us tonight. Are you writing a letter? Use

She's liking sport. He's knowing a lot about music.

We use the present continuous to: describe a current action (something which is happening at this moment): We're reading the poster about the play. describe an incomplete action (something which is happening around this time but not necessarily at this moment): I'm trying to concentrate on the exams this term. make a criticism: He's always being rude about my cooking. Present simple and present continuous Look at these sentences. In each pair one is right and one is wrong. 1. 2. I'm going to the cinema tomorrow evening. I'm going to the cinema every day. She's working here until Christmas. She works here until Christmas. 66

3. 4. 5. 6.

He seems very tired. He's seeming very tired. A Where's Graham? B He's cleaning the car. A Where's Graham? B He cleans the car. Vegetarians don't eat meat. Vegetarians aren't eating meat. I want to go out for dinner. I'm wanting to go out for dinner.

3. The present prefect tense Form We make the present perfect tense with have/has and the past participle. Positive and negative She has cooked dinner. You haven't lived abroad. Questions Short answers Have you been to Paris before? Yes, I have. To make regular past participles, we add ed to the infinitive. play played open opened This is the same as the regular past tense. A lot of common verbs have an irregular past participle. go gone write written see seen Use The present perfect links the past with the present. We use the present perfect tense: when we are interested in the present result of a past action: She's gone home. (She isn't here now.) I've bought a new car. (I've got a new car now.) when the activity or situation started in the past and still continues in the present: He's worked in the same office for twenty years. (He still works there now.) I've lived here for three years. (I still live here now.) when we are referring to a time frame that comes up to the present: Have you ever been to Brazil? (In your life until now.) I've been to Brazil three times. (Until now I've been there three times.) Have you seen John today? (We are still in the time frame of 'today'.) Present perfect, present simple, and present continuous Look at these sentences. Some are right and some are wrong. 1. 2. How long have you lived in this house? How long do you live in this house? How long are you living in this house? I've worked here since October. 67

3.

I'm working here since October. I work here since October. How many times have you been to New York? How many times do you go to New York?

4. Adverbs of frequency never hardly ever sometimes often frequently normally usually always

We put the adverb of frequency: after the verb to be. The train is always on time. He's never here at 9.00. in front of the main verb. We often go to the park. I don't usually get up late. Sometimes, normally, and usually can also go at the beginning or end of the sentence, but they usually go before the main verb. * I * have lunch in a restaurant *. 5. Comparatives and superlatives Form one syllable tall taller the tallest cold colder the coldest one syllable: short vowel + one consonant hot hotter the hottest thin thinner the thinnest big bigger the biggest two syllables: consonant + y heavy heavier the heaviest pretty prettier the prettiest two or more syllables modern more modern the most modern interesting more interesting the most interesting irregular good better the best bad worse the worst far further the furthest A comparative adjective is often followed by than. Russia is bigger than Canada. The film was much better than I expected. as ... as ... can be used to make comparisons. Her house is as big as mine. 68

Silver isn't as expensive as gold. In the negative so ... as ... is also possible. Silver isn't so expensive as gold. Comparatives and superlatives Look at these sentences. In each pair one is right and one is wrong. 1. 2. 3. 4. Use The comparative is used to compare two separate items or groups. Alex 1.92m Alex's brothers 1.85m 1.83m 1.75m Alex is taller than his brothers. The superlative is used to compare one member of a group with the rest of the group. all the mountains in the world Mount Everest Mount Everest is the highest mountain in the world. 6. The past simple tense Form The verb to be Positive and negative I was at home last week. We weren't here yesterday. Questions Was he at home last week? Use We use the past simple tense to describe: a completed action in the past We went to the cinema yesterday. a completed situation in the past I worked in Edinburgh from 1989 to 1995. a repeated action in the past They went to Greece every year until 1995. Past simple and present perfect Compare the uses of the past simple and the present perfect. We use the past simple: 69 The elephant is the heaviest land animal in the world. The elephant is the most heavy land animal in the world. He's as tall as his brother. He's so tall as his brother. The film was better than the book. The film was better that the book. My exam results were worse than Andy's. My exam results were more bad than Andy's.

Short answers Yes, he was.

when we are interested in the action or the time of the action, not the effect. She's gone home. (She isn't here now.) She went at four o'clock. (We're interested in when the action took place.) when we are talking about a finished time in the past. I've lived here for five years. (I still live here.) Before that I lived in Madrid. (But I don't live there now.) when we are referring to a time frame that ended in the past. 'Have you been out today?' 'Yes, I went out this morning.' Note: When there is a past time reference (e.g. in 1993, two days ago, last week), you must use the past simple tense, not the present perfect. I went there four years ago. I've been there four years ago. I saw Hamlet last Tuesday. I've seen Hamlet last Tuesday. used to Form Positive and negative He used to smoke. We didn't use to live in London. Questions Short answers Did you use to smoke? Yes, I did. Use We use used to to: describe a state in the past which is not true now. She used to be a teacher. describe a habit in the past which is not true now. He used to smoke, but he gave up five years ago. Note: The past simple tense can also be used to describe states and habits in the past. For individual past actions, or past actions which were not habits, only the past simple can be used. We went to the cinema twice last week. Last year he went on five foreign holidays. Used to can only be used to talk about the past. It has no present form. To describe present states and habits we use the present simple tense. 7. The past continuous tense Form Positive and negative You were standing at the bus stop. She wasn't going to work. Questions Short answers Was he having a bath? Yes, he was. Use The past continuous tense describes a continuous or unfinished activity in the past. We use the past continuous tense to: 70

describe an action that started before a particular moment, and probably continued after it. At 8.00 I was having breakfast. This time last week I was lying on a beach in Greece. describe a temporary situation in the past. I as living in Bristol last year. Past continuous and past simple We often use the past continuous tense with the past simple tense. The past continuous describes the situation it is background information. The past simple describes the main event. The clauses are usually joined by while, as or when. While I was waiting for a bus, it started to rain. As I was going to bed, the doorbell rang. Compare these two sentences. While I was waiting for a bus, it started to rain. When it started to rain, I decided to take a taxi. The first sentence uses the past continuous tense to describe the background situation and the past simple tense to say what happened. The second sentence has two past simple tenses. One action happened after the other. 8. The past perfect tense Form We make the past perfect tense with had/hadn't and the past participle. Positive and negative I had been there for 2 hours. They hadn't finished the project. Questions Short answers Had you seen him before? Yes, I had. Use We use the past perfect tense to look back on an event that occurred before another event in the past. We had dinner. We weren't hungry. We weren't hungry because we'd had dinner. The past perfect is often use with when, after, before, as soon as. I was sure I'd seen him before. After we'd finished dinner, we went for a walk. The past perfect is necessary when we need to make it clear that one thing happened before another. Compare these sentences. Sheila got up, got dressed, had some breakfast, and went out. When Sheila got to the party, Amanda had gone home. In the first sentence we do not use the past perfect, because the order of events is clear. In the second sentence we need to use the past perfect to make it clear that Amanda went home before Sheila got to the party. Past perfect and past simple Look at these sentences. In each pair one is right and one is wrong. 71

1. 2. 3.

I was sure I had never heard the song before. I was sure I never heard the song before. I met him yesterday and I told him the news. I had met him yesterday and I told him the news. How long had you worked for the company when it closed? How long did you work for the company when it closed?

9. Talking about the future There are several ways of talking about the future in English. It can be difficult for learners of English to choose between them, and in some cases more than one form is possible. The form used does not depend on how certain a future event is, but on how the speaker sees the future. a) The future with will Form Positive and negative I will see you tomorrow. You will not get the job. Questions Will you be at the meeting? Use We use the future with will to: make predictions or general statements about the future. We'll need some more money soon. In the year 2050 the world's population will reach 10 billion. describe a decision made at the moment of speaking, often to make an offer. 'Have you got that report?' 'Yes, I'll fax you a copy.' I can't hear the TV very well.' 'I'll turn it up.' b) going to Form Positive and negative I'm going to do the shopping. She's not going to have a shower. Questions Short answers Are you going to play football? Yes, I am. Use We use going to to: describe plans, intentions, and things we have decided to do. I'm going to look for a new job. I'm going to sell my car. describe things we can see or feel will definitely happen in the future. She's going to have a baby. 3-0 up with five minutes to play, Manchester United are going to win.

Short answers Yes, I will.

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The present continuous with future meaning Form See the form of the present continuous tense. Use We can use the present continuous to describe personal arrangements in the future. There is normally a future time expression. She's going to the doctor's next week. We're meeting at four o'clock this afternoon. It is often possible to use either the present continuous or going to to talk about the future. Sometimes there is a difference between an arrangement and something we have decided to do. I'm seeing my grandmother on Saturday. (I've arranged it. She knows I'm coming.) I'm going to see my grandmother on Saturday. (I've decided to go, but possibly it isn't arranged yet.) Will, going to, and the present continuous Look at these sentences. Some are right and some are wrong. 1. A I've got a terrible headache. B I'll get you some aspirin. B I'm going to get you some aspirin. B I'm getting you some aspirin. A What are you doing this evening? B I'm going to go to a party. B I'm going to a party. B I'll go to a party. The weather forecast says it'll rain tomorrow. The weather forecast says it's going to rain tomorrow. The weather forecast says it's raining tomorrow. You'll feel better after a good night's sleep. You're feeling better after a good night's sleep. He's lost control! He's going to crash! He's lost control! He'll crash!

2.

3. 4. 5.

10. Expressing probability Here are some ways of making statements about possible or probable future events. The modal verbs may, might, and could Might can be less definite than may. The train may be late. (It is probable.) We might not survive the 21st century. (It is possible.) Could can only be used to describe future possibility in the positive form. The train could be late. NOT We could not survive the 21st century. Note: Can is not used to describe possible or future events. It may/might/could rain tomorrow. NOT It can rain tomorrow. The adverbs possibly and probably + future verb form We will possibly see some rain in the morning. It probably won't be very warm tomorrow. 73

I'm probably going to play tennis this afternoon. She's probably coming this weekend. Note: Possibly and probably are placed after will but before won't. Adjectival clauses I'm likely to come to the party. It's unlikely to rain this afternoon. It is likely that the Prime Minister will resign. Expressing probability Look at these sentences. It'll probably rain today. It's likely to rain today. It may (not) rain today. It might (not) rain today. It could rain today. It's unlikely to rain today. It probably won't rain today. would Form Positive and negative He would like to live alone. They wouldn't steal from a friend. Questions Short answers Would you buy a car? Yes, I would. Use Would has many uses. Two of the most common uses are to describe improbable, impossible, or imaginary situations. If I had the money, I'd buy a house. (But I haven't got the money.) She'd be a good politician. (But she works in a bank.) make polite offers. Would you like a cup of coffee? Would you like to go to the cinema? 11. Relative clauses A relative clause gives more information about a noun in a sentence. I saw the man. I saw the man who lives next door. A relative clause starts with a relative pronoun. We use who with people. He's the man who lives next door. which with things. Where's the disk which was on my desk? that with people and things. 74 least likely most likely

He's the man that lives next door. Where's the disk that was on my desk? Reduced relative clauses In a relative clause we can sometimes leave out the relative pronoun who, which, or that. We can only do this if the relative pronoun is the object of the clause. Look at these sentences. He's the man. She married him. He's the man (who/that) she married. In this sentence the man is the object of the relative clause, so we can leave out the relative pronoun. He's the man. He lives next door. He's the man who/that lives next door. In this sentence the man is the subject of the relative clause, so we can't leave out the relative pronoun. 12. Question tags Form When the statement is positive the tag is negative. You're Italian, aren't you? When the statement is negative the tag is positive. They aren't coming to the party, are they? With the verb to be we make the tag with the verb and the subject. It isn't very warm, is it? When there is a modal verb or an auxiliary verb we make the tag from the modal or auxiliary and the subject. You can swim, can't you? She won't be here tomorrow, will she? It doesn't matter, does it? You've finished, haven't you? It was raining, wasn't it? When the verb in the sentence hasn't got an auxiliary, we make the tag from the auxiliary that we would normally use for making questions in that tense. She arrived yesterday, didn't she? You like fish, don't you? Note: Negative tag questions are contracted. You knew about this yesterday, didn't you? NOT ... did not you? She can speak Russian, can't she? NOT ... can not she? When the subject of the statement is a noun, we replace it with a pronoun in the tag. This chair's French, isn't it? Bob and Betty live near here, don't they?

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The question tag for a sentence with Let's is shall we? Let's get a pizza, shall we? The question tag for a sentence with I am is aren't I? I'm going to Helsinki next week, aren't I? When we write a question tag it is separated from the statement by a comma (,) and is followed by a question mark (?). Use A question tag turns a statement into a question. It is less direct than an ordinary question. We can use falling intonation or rising intonation on a question tag. We use falling intonation when we think the statement is true and we expect the other person to agree. We use rising intonation when we are less certain and we want to check something. 13. The passive Form We make the passive with the verb to be and a past participle. These computers are made in Japan. This wine is produced in Portugal. We can use the passive in any tense. To make different tenses we change the verb to be. Past Present perfect Present will would The car was stolen. Someone has been arrested. Thousands of cars are stolen. The crime will be solved. Fewer crimes would be committed.

To make the negative of the passive, we use the negative of the verb to be. The man wasn't sent to prison. The weapon hasn't been found. To make questions we use the normal question form of the verb to be in each tense. Was the man sent to prison? Has the weapon been found? We can use the passive with a modal verb. We use a modal verb + be + past participle. Cars shouldn't be parked there. It can't be done. She must be told. Use We use the passive when the action is more important than the agent (who or what did the action). we don't know the agent. The car has been found. These houses were built in the 1930s.

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If we want to show the agent, we use by. The car has been found by some children. The suspect was identified by a witness. 14. First conditional Form We use the present simple tense in the if clause and the future with will in the main clause. We usually use a comma (,) when the if clause is first, but not when the main clause is first. If she eats all the ice cream, she'll feel terrible. They won't arrive on time if they miss the bus. Note: We do not use will in the if clause. If it rains, we'll go to the cinema. NOT If it will rain, we'll go to the cinema. Use First conditionals predict the results of a real or probable action or event. If you get up late, you'll miss the appointment. (There is a real chance that you'll get up late.) We won't go if it rains. (There is a real chance that it will rain.) 15. Second conditional Form We use the past simple form in the if clause and would + infinitive without to in the main clause. We usually use a comma (,) when the if clause is first, but not when tha main clause is first. If I had enough money, I'd buy that house. He'd feel better if he didn't smoke so much. Note: We do not use would in the if clause. If I had enough money ... NOT If I would have enough money ... Use Second conditionals describe unreal, unlikely, or imaginary situations. If we had more money, we'd travel business class. What would you do if you saw a ghost? First and second conditionals First and second conditionals both refer to the present or the future. The difference between them is how probable the action or situation is. If I get the job I'll earn more money. (I think there is a real chance that I'll get the job.) If I got the job I'd earn more money. (I don't think I'll get the job.)

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16. Time clauses As in clauses with if, we do not use will or would in time clauses with the conjunctions when, as soon as, until, before, and after. I'll phone you when she arrives. NOT ... when she will arrive. I won't know the situation until Phil gets back. NOT ... until Phil will get back. We'd have dinner before we went to the cinema. NOT ... before we would go to the cinema. 17. Phrasal verbs Phrasal verbs consist of a verb + a particle, e.g. up, on, in, away. Literal/idiomatic phrasal verbs Some phrasal verbs have literal meanings you can work out what they mean from the meaning of the verb and the meaning of the particle. He heard a helicopter and looked up. Some phrasal verbs have idiomatic meanings the meaning is not obviously connected to the meanings of the two parts. She takes after her mother. Many phrasal verbs have a literal and an idiomatic meaning. He saw the mouse and ran out. Oil will run out in the next century. Transitive/intransitive phrasal verbs Like other verbs, phrasal verbs can be transitive (they have an object) or intransitive (they do not have an object). He took off his jacket. (transitive) The plane took off. (intransitive) Separable/inseparable phrasal verbs Some transitive phrasal verbs are separable the object can go between the verb and the particle. She switched on the TV. or She switched the TV on. When the object is a pronoun we must separate the two parts. She switched it on. NOT She switched on it. Other transitive phrasal verbs are inseparable the verb and the particle cannot be separated. Could you look after the children this evening? NOT Could you look the children after this evening? You can tell if a phrasal verb is separable or inseparable by looking in a dictionary. If the object is shown between the verb and the particle, the verb is separable. look something up 78

I looked up the word in the dictionary. or I looked the word up in a dictionary. If the object is shown after the verb and the particle, the verb is inseparable. come across something I came across some old photographs the other day. NOT I came some old photographs across the other day. 18. The present perfect continuous Form Positive and negative I have been playing football. He hasn't been waiting for an hour. Questions Short answers Has he been reading? Yes, he has. Use We use the present perfect continuous tense to describe an activity that is still incomplete. I've been writing a letter. (I haven't finished it yet.) How long have you been reading this book? (You haven't finished it yet.) focus on the process of an activity. 'What have you been doing?' 'I've been running.' emphasize the duration of an activity. You're late. I've been waiting for an hour. Present perfect simple and present perfect continuous The present perfect continuous and the present prefect simple can both be used to describe situations which started in the past and are still going on, or about past actions which have present results. The important difference is that the present perfect continuous focuses on the action itself, but the present perfect simple focuses on the completion or result of the action. I've been playing a lot of football this week. (focus on activity) I've played two matches. (focus on completion) We always use the present perfect simple when we say how much or how many. How many letters have you written this week? How much rice have you cooked? With the verbs live and work we can normally use either the present perfect simple or the present perfect continuous. Have you lived here long? Have you been living here long? Sometimes the present perfect simple can describe a more permanent state and the present perfect continuous can describe a temporary activity. I've lived here for ten years. (permanent) I've been living with my sister for the last few months. (temporary) The present perfect continuous, like other continuous forms, is not normally used with stative verbs. 79

19. Question forms If the sentence contains the verb to be, a modal verb, or an auxiliary verb, we invert this verb and the subject to make a question. We're going to be late? Are we going to be late? She can swim. Can she swim? They've arrived. Have they arrived? In the present simple and the past simple tenses there is no auxiliary verb, so we must provide one, using do/does in the present or did in the past. They live here. Do they live here? You saw her. Did you see her? In Wh- questions, if the question word is the subject of the sentence we use the positive form of the verb to make a question. Compare these questions.
object subject object

Who did you tell? (I told my parents.)


subject object subject

Who told you? (My wife told me.)


object subject object

Who did they invite? (They invited all their friends.)


subject object subject

Who invited them? (Barbara invited them.) Prepositions go at the end of questions. Who did you talk to? What were you looking at? Who are you going with? 20. Indirect questions An indirect question is a question that is in a statement or another question. Where does he live? I can't remember where he lives. NOT I can't remember where does he live? What's the time? Do you know what the time is? NOT Do you know what's the time? Indirect questions use the statement form of the verb. We do not use a question mark (?) in statements. We use indirect questions after verbs like know, remember, decide, imagine, see, ask, know, have no idea, wonder. question word(s) subject verb 80

I don't know I can't remember I'll ask I have no idea I wonder

where what what time why how much money

he his name the bus she they

lives. is. arrives. left. 've got.

With Wh- questions we use the question word in the indirect question. In Yes/No questions we use whether or if. Should I buy the computer? I can't decide whether/if I should buy computer. Has the parcel arrived? I'll see if/whether the parcel has arrived. Indirect questions are often used to make polite requests with expressions like Could you (possibly) tell me ...? or Do you think you could tell me ...? Could you tell me where the post office is, please? Do you think you could tell me how much this costs? Indirect questions Look at these sentences. In each pair one is right and one is wrong. 1. 2. 3. 4. I've decided how much money I need. I've decided how much money do I need. I don't know if he's coming. I don't know is he coming? Could you tell me where the post office is? Could you tell me where is the post office? I wonder why he did that. I wonder why did he do that?

21. Compound nouns Form Compound nouns are very common in English. We make a compound noun by putting two or more separate nouns together to make a new noun. football boots a telephone box a car seat a computer software shop In a compound noun there is a headword and one or more words that define the headword. The headword always goes at the end. football boots These are boots. What kind of boots? Boots for playing football. a computer software shop This is a shop. What kind of shop? A shop that sells software. What kind of software? Software for computers. A defining noun in a compound noun is normally singular. A shop that sells records is a record shop. A shop that sells books is a bookshop. Note: However, we say clothes shop and sports shop. 81

A compound noun sometimes has a different meaning from a noun phrase with of. Compare these sentences. How many bottles of wine do we need for the party? (How much wine?) They threw the wine bottles away. (Empty bottles.) He bought three packets of cigarettes. (New packets.) The floor was covered with cigarette packets. (Empty packets.) Some compound nouns are written as one word. Others are written as two words, or are hyphenated. Unfortunately there are no rules. a teacup, a bathroom a coffee cup, a tennis racket a living-room, stomach ache 22. -ing forms Use -ing forms are used in continuous tenses. He was driving at 120mph. She's playing tennis. I've been working since 7.00. as gerunds (a verb used as a noun). Gerunds can be subjects or objects.
subject

Swimming is my favorite sport.


object

I don't enjoy cooking. with there is/are to describe what is or was happening. There's someone coming. There were two people waiting for you. to describe what someone can sense (with see, hear, feel, watch, smell, notice, etc.). I can hear someone coming. We saw them leaving the house. I could smell burning. as adjectives. This is a really boring film. I read a fascinating book the other week. with after, before, and while to replace a clause, when the subject of both clauses is the same. After I'd had a shower, I got dressed. After having a shower, I got dressed. I had the idea while I was driving home. I had the idea while driving home. 23. -ing form or infinitive A. Some verbs can take an ing form or an infinitive and the meaning is more or less the same. 82

like, love, hate, prefer I prefer watching horror films to action films. I prefer to watch horror films to action films. In British English, like + -ing is usually used to talk about enjoyment, whereas in American English like + infinitive is usually used. I like lying in bed late. (British) I like to lie in bed late. (American) Note: would + like/love/hate/prefer always takes the infinitive. I'd like to live abroad. I'd prefer to go to the cinema. begin, start, continue It's just started raining. It's just started to rain. Note: We normally use infinitives after continuous tenses and with verbs which are not used in the continuous form. I'm beginning to learn the piano. I began to realize how he felt. B. Some verbs can take an ing from or an infinitive but the meaning is different. remember, forget I remember meeting her. (I had met her before and I remembered it.) I'll never forget dancing with him that night. (I danced with him and I won't forget it.) I remembered to meet her. (I had to meet her and I did.) I forgot to dance with him at the party. (I was supposed to dance with him, but I didn't.) try I tried to speak to her about it, but she wasn't there. (I wanted to speak to her, but I couldn't.) I tried speaking to her about it, but she still wouldn't listen. (I spoke to her, but it didn't work.) stop He has stopped smoking. (He used to smoke but he doesn't now.) He stopped to have a cigarette. (he was doing something, then he stopped in order to smoke.) C. Some verbs can only be followed by an ing form. Some of the most common are finish, enjoy, consider, give up, imagine, feel like, suggest, and can't stand. I enjoy doing the gardening. NOT I enjoy to do the gardening. She's considering emigrating to Australia. NOT She's considering to emigrate to Australia. -ing forms Look at these sentences. In each pair one is right and one is wrong. 1. Smoking is bad for your health. 83

2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

To smoke is bad for your health. There's someone coming up the stairs. There's someone that comes up the stairs. Before leaving the office, I made a phone call. Before to leave the office, I made a phone call. I'd love to go to New Zealand. I'd love going to New Zealand. I began to understand the problem. I begun understanding the problem. I must remember to post this letter. I must remember posting this letter. Stop making so much noise. Stop to make so much noise.

24. Agreeing and disagreeing To agree with a positive statement we use So + auxiliary verb + subject. A I really love pizza. B So do I. To agree with a negative statement we use Nor/Neither + auxiliary verb + subject. A I've never been to Ireland. B Nor/Neither have I. To disagree with a positive statement we use (Oh,) I + negative auxiliary verb. A I wouldn't like to live abroad. B Oh, I would. To disagree with a negative statement we use (Oh,) I + positive auxiliary verb. A I couldn't read until I was seven. B Oh, I could. Note: In informal speech we can use Me, too to agree with a positive statement, and Me, neither to agree with a negative statement. A I'd love to go to New Zealand. B Me, too. A I can't stand people talking in the cinema. B Me, neither. 25. Modal verbs These are the modal verbs in English: can, could, may, might, must, need, ought to, shall, should, will, would. Form Modal verbs have these features They are the same for all persons. 84

They are followed by an infinitive without to (except ought to). I can swim. You might go to London. She should see a doctor. They ought to be more careful. They have no infinitive or participle form. to must to should to can To make questions the modal verb and subject are inverted. What should we do? Can you speak Japanese? Shall we go out for dinner? We make negatives with not. You shouldn't do that. They might not come to the party. I couldn't believe what he told me. Modal verbs have no tense forms. Note: Need can behave as a modal verb or as a normal verb. Need I go? or Do I need to go? You needn't come. or You don't need to come. Modal verbs form Look at these sentences. In each pair one is right and one is wrong. 1. 2. 3. 4. Use Each modal verb can have different meanings. For example, we can use could to talk about ability, possibility, and permission. I couldn't read until I was eight years old. (ability) If the traffic's bad I could be late. (possibility) Could I borrow your pen? (permission) Ability Can and could are used to describe ability. Present: He can speak four languages. Past: He could speak French when he was four. Can and could become be able to in other tenses. Past: I could play the piano when I was six. (or I was able to play the piano when I was six.) Present perfect: I haven't been able to find a new job. will: I'll be able to find a new job. would: I'd be able to find a new job. (or I could find a new job.) I must remember to post this letter. I must to remember to post this letter. Can you swim? Do you can swim? You shouldn't leave your car there. You don't should leave your car there. He might come later. He mights come later.

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Could, was/were able to, and managed to Could and was/were able to can both be used to describe general ability in the past, though could is more common. I could drive when I was sixteen. I was able to drive when I was sixteen. To describe the ability to do something successfully on one occasion in the past, we use was/were able to or managed to. The firemen managed to save everyone. The firemen were able to save everyone. The firemen could save everyone. Obligation Must and need are used to describe obligation and necessity. Have to is also used. Passengers must show their boarding cards. You need to be at the station by 8.30. I have to work on Saturday this week. Must and have to Have to is not a modal verb, but it is also used to describe strong obligation. Must is used to describe obligation that comes 'from the speaker'. Have to is used to describe general obligation, which comes from 'outside' the speaker. I must start taking more exercise. (I want to, it is 'my' obligation.) My doctor says I have to start taking more exercise. (It is and 'outside' obligation, from my doctor.) You must drive more slowly if you want to pass your test. (The obligation comes 'from the speaker', a driving instructor.) In Britain you have to drive on the left. (It is a general obligation.) We use mustn't to describe strong obligation not to do something. You mustn't park on double yellow lines. You mustn't do that it's very dangerous. If there is no obligation or necessity to do something, we use don't/doesn't have to or needn't/don't need to. You don't have to come if you don't want to. The party's informal. You needn't wear a suit./You don't need to wear a suit. Note: Must has no tense forms. we use have to to describe obligation in other tenses. Past: I had to find a new job. Present prefect: I've had to find a new job. will: I'll have to find a new job. would: I'd have to find a new job. Advice Should and ought to are used to give advice, or to say what we think is the best thing to do. If you feel ill you should go to the doctor. You shouldn't work so hard. You drive much too fast you ought to be more careful. You ought not to carry so much cash. 86

Probability May, might, and could are used to describe probability and possibility. Permission Can, could, and may are used to ask for permission. Could is more polite than can, and may is the most polite and formal. Can I open the window? Could I borrow the car this evening? May I use your phone? Shall/will/would In modern English shall is usually only used in suggestions and offers, with we and I. Where shall we go for our holidays this year? Shall we go to the cinema? Shall I open the window? Modal verbs use Look at these sentences. Some are right and some are wrong. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. The bus driver managed to avoid hitting the dog. The bus driver was able to avoid hitting the dog. The bus driver could avoid hitting the dog. Yesterday I had to get the bus to work. Yesterday I must get the bus to work. I'll be able to go swimming every day next week. I will can go swimming every day next week. She might not be here tomorrow. She could not be here tomorrow. Don't worry about the report you needn't do it today. Don't worry about the report you don't have to do it today. Don't worry about the report you mustn't do it today.

26. causative have (have something done) We use have + object + past participle to describe a job that is done for us by someone else. Compare these sentences. I had my room painted. This means that the room was painted but I didn't do it myself. I arranged for a decorator to do it for me. I painted my room. This means that I painted the room myself. We often use have + object + past participle to describe services that we pay someone else to do. I had the car fixed. He had his jacket dry-cleaned. I had my hair cut.

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27. make / let someone do something get someone to do something Make someone do something means that one person forces or compels another person to do something that they probably don't want to do. The judge made the man apologize. My parents made me practice the piano for two hours every day. Let someone do something means that one person allows another person to do something. David's father lets him use the car. My boss let me leave work an hour early yesterday. Get someone to do something means that one person asks or persuade another person to do something. I'll get my secretary to type the letter. I got the garage to service my car. Make and let are followed by the infinitive without to. Get is followed by the infinitive with to. 28. need + -ing We can also use need + -ing. The car's really dirty. It needs cleaning. We can also use need with to be + past participle. The car's really dirty. It needs to be cleaned. Need + -ing is more informal. 29. Reported speech When we report what somebody says we make the following changes. The pronouns and possessive adjectives change, because a different person is now speaking. Direct speech: I like cooking. Reported speech: Sally says that she like cooking. When we report something with a past tense verb (e.g. said or told), some of the tenses of the verbs also change. Direct speech Reported speech present perfect past perfect past simple past perfect / past simple present simple past simple present continuous past continuous will would Note: The past perfect tense, would, and modal verbs do not change.

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Direct speech Walter: I've read that book. Zoe: We saw a great film last week. Tom: I don't want to stay here. Andrea: I'm going out. Luke: I'll be away till March. Zoran: I had never been there before. Helen: I'd like a coffee. Monica: I might phone you later.

Reported speech Walter said (that) he'd read that book. Zoe said (that) they had seen a great film the week before. Tom said (that) he didn't want to stay there. Andrea said (that) she was going out. Luke said (that) he'd be away till March. Zoran said (that) he had never been there before. Helen said (that) she'd like a coffee. Monica said (that) she might phone us later.

Note: In everyday speech the rules are not always followed, particularly when the direct speech is still true at the time of reporting. Zoe said that they saw a great film. Tom said that he doesn't want to go. 30. say and tell We say something. We tell somebody something. Andrea said (that) she was going out. NOT Andrea said me ... Andrea told me (that) she was going out. NOT Andrea told (that) ... Tell is almost always followed by a personal object, but there are some expressions where it is not necessary to use one. You have to tell (me) the truth! He's always telling (her) lies. They told (us) a story. She told (them) jokes all night. 31. Reposted speech: Questions Reported questions are a form of indirect question. When we report questions, we make the following changes. The tenses and pronouns change as for statements. The word order changes to a statement word order, and verbs have a statement form. There is no question mark at the end of a reported question. 'Where does John work?' A man asked me where John worked. 'How many times have you seen this film?' She asked me how many times I'd seen the film. With Yes/No questions, the reported question starts with whether or if. 'Have you seen them today?' He asked me whether/if I had seen them today.

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32. Reported speech: Commands and requests We normally use tell for commands and ask for requests, but other verbs can also be used, such as advise, warn, persuade, beg, order, and command. To report a command or a request we use the following structure: told/asked + person + (not) to + verb. 'Don't worry.' He told me not to worry. 'Please sit down.' The doctor asked me to sit down. Reported speech Look at these sentences. Some are right and some are wrong. 1. 2. 3. 4. Mary said that she didn't enjoy the film. Mary said that she doesn't enjoy the film. They told me that the exam was very hard. They said me that the exam was very hard. She asked me where I lived. She asked me where did I live? The instructor told me not to do that. The instructor told me not to do that. The instructor told me that I don't do that.

33. Third conditional Form We use the past perfect (continuous) form in the if clause and would have + past participle in the main clause. We usually use a comma (,) when if clause is first, but not when the main clause is first. If I had told the truth, she wouldn't have left. If you hadn't studied so hard, you would have failed. I would have passed if I'd worked harder. They wouldn't have come if they hadn't wanted to see you. Use We use third conditionals to describe something that didn't happen, an imaginary situation in the past. If I'd worked harder I would have passed the exam. (I didn't work hard, and I didn't pass the exam.) You wouldn't have crashed if you hadn't been driving so fast. (You were driving too fast, and you crashed.) Conditionals Look at these sentences. In each pair one is right and one is wrong. 1. 2. 3. If it doesn't rain this evening we'll play tennis. If it won't rain this evening we'll play tennis. I'd lend you some money if I had any. I'd lend you some money if I would have any. If I knew the answer I'd tell you. 90

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If I knew the answer I'll tell you. I'd have got lost if I hadn't had a map. I'd have got lost if I wouldn't have had a map.

34. should / shouldn't have Form Positive and negative He should have gone. We shouldn't have stayed in bed. We can also use this structure in the continuous form. should / shouldn't + have been + present participle You shouldn't have been driving so fast. She should have been wearing a seatbelt. Use We use should / shouldn't + have + past participle to express regret and criticism. I shouldn't have left at ten o'clock. (I regret leaving at ten o'clock.) They should have bought the house. (They didn't buy the house I think it was a bad decision.)

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BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Brooks, Michael & Francois Lagoutte. Engleza pentru informatica. Bucuresti: Editura Teora, 2001. 2. Dorner, Jane. Writing for the Internet. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002. 3. Driscoll, Liz & Paul A Davies & Simon Greenall. All Stars. Oxford: Oxford Univeristy Press, 2001. 4. Glendinning, Eric H. & John McGwan. Oxford English for Information Technology. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002. 5. Hutchinson, Tom. Life Lines.Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1998. 6. Kennewell, Steve & Peter Fox, Chris Mitton, Ian Selwood. Computer Studies Through Applications. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992. 7. Otman, Gabriel. Engleza pentru internet. Bucuresti: Editura Teora, 2001. 8. Wallwork, Adrian & Nicjolas Sheard. International Express. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001.

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