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First exam is on 27th of October at the same time of the lecture, at 23.

The doctor will give the handout of the syllabus. The practical exam, which is the lab exam will be on the 17th of December. It is going to be at 9 o clock in the morning. The doctor said: day by day, I may not remember your names, but I will actually remember your faces

The doctor gave some introduction of the course which Ive sort out in points:
- The first lecture is about the cell that we studied the cell in biology. We focus in certain aspect, which we think that are important for medical line studies. Our focus is from the prokaryotic cells, the study of the different aspect of the components that make up the cell, and of course all of us, we know that the prokaryotic cell is enclosed by the cell membrane, and I think you all have studied the component of the cell membrane, which is the phospholipids bilayer with the hydrophobic and hydrophilic parts. o The hydrophilic is the part which rubs the water and is exposed to the exterior and interior of the cell, and then we have the hydrophobic heads which scared of the water and hide themselves within the membrane. - We have the protoplasm with the organelles present within the cells. Within the cytoplasm, we have what we call by the matrix, the cytoskeletal matrix. What we understand by that is THE SKELETON of the cell. We do know that each cell that youve seen has different shapes. o What if the shape of the cell is the cytoskeletal pathway? Well come across those parts; well talk

about it, what are the components of the cytoskeleton. - And of course, well talk about the other organelles, which is only visible if we use electron microscopy, we cannot see that with the light microscopy. - The next lecture, hell give the features of each type of microscope and well see that the light microscope do not have the solution to be able to see the cell membrane. We could only see it by the electron microscopy. - Well come across the components of the phospholipids: - The phospholipids, the cholesterol, the proteins and the oligosaccharides.

Before we go on, the cell membrane we described as the fluid structure, is it actually a fluid structure? No, it is just a description to show you the dynamic properties of the cell membrane. There are so many dynamic processes, because we know that the function of the cell membrane is to surround the cell and to protect the content. That means it has to act as: a. Selective barrier permits what is permitted to enter, depends on the size (if it is small, it could pass the cell membrane, larger particles have to pass by other methods, by signal transduction ) b. Cell communication Receptor that is present binds to the ligand and the ligand could be hormone, drug or anything. After the binding of ligand to the receptor, then there is a conformational change that occurs to the part of receptor that projects inside the cell and that that is how the message is

c. d. e. f. g.

passed from the outer to the inner. That is how the cells talk (communicate) to each other. Cell recognition (mentioned above in the cell communication) Cell attachment Active transport Endocytosis and exocytosis Phagocytosis

Then, he started explaining about the organelles and part of the cell briefly.
The nucleus - Contain genetic material (DNA). DNA is wrapped around proteins (histones). Described as the string and beads. It is very important, because any damage or toxic substances could result in mutation. Extra exposure to ionic radiation and toxic drugs may lead to mutation and damage to DNA. - Surrounded by the nuclear envelope. Nuclear envelopes have pores to regulate what enters the cell nucleus. - Basic Functional component of cell is the protein. So the nuclear envelope is composed of a group of protein which regulate what enters into the nucleus. - Nucleolus. The essential unit of the ribosomal type of RNA - rRNA. The doctor showed the structure of the nuclear pore and the components which is made of essential protein. You dont have to know the detailed part of it right now. Mitochondria - The doctor later then showed the structure of the elongated structure of mitochondria. He showed the double membrane (outer and inner membrane), matrix.

Inner membrane has the respiratory chain of enzyme production of ATP. It is important to remember. The doctor said, In the lecture, if we point out something, that means we ask in the exam about it

- The mitochondria are the site of synthesis of ATP source of energy the Krebs' Cycle. - In the future they might give us the different types of muscle cardiac muscle, skeletal muscle and smooth muscle. o Smooth muscle prolonged, slow contraction o Skeletal muscle as the need arise, it could be fast twitch muscle or slow twitch muscle
Extra info: There are two broad types of voluntary muscle fibers: slow twitch and fast twitch. Slow twitch fibers contract for long periods of time but with little force while fast twitch fibers contract quickly and powerfully but fatigue very rapidly.

o Cardiac muscle contraction and relaxation continuously. - More mitochondria is present at muscles with higher metabolic demand Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) - Rough endoplasmic reticulum - if ribosome is present at the endoplasmic reticulum - Smooth endoplasmic reticulum no ribosome present - synthesis lipid and steroids - So if the cell have large smooth ER it must be concerned with steroid synthesis

- If it has large amount of rough ER we conclude that it is the active secretory cell that is responsible for continuous secretion of proteins The doctor said: What Im trying to say that, from now onwards, we want to make certain conclusion about things we already know. Golgi complex - Functional aspect modification of proteins. o E.g.: glycosation, sulphasion, phosphorylation, addition of sugar to protein The doctor said: what you are responsible for is what is the structure is made of, the second aspect is what the functional aspect is Synthesis of protein
transcription DNA mRNA

Goes to ribosome which consist of two units (large and small unit)


Polymerization of amino acid complementary of the DNA (present at the mRNA)

It is a complex process where the protein is looked as a new baby, not functional until it undergone some modification. After the modification, it has to fold in a proper manner. If it is not folded, the protein is not functional. The newly synthesized protein will move from the cis part to the trans part of the Golgi body and it is always surrounded by the vesicle. And thats how it passes from one system to the other, until the modification is completed and the protein is released.

Lysosome - Functional aspect: degradation - Types of degradation: o Bulk degradation a. not specific b. Normally found in phagocytic cells. c. E.g.: the macrophages or the neutrophils (first line of defense) d. When the foreign body enters, they send pseudopods around the foreign body and wrap them. Hydrolytic enzyme is released. o Specific degradation Peroxisome - Functional aspect: oxidation-reduction. - Presence of specific enzyme: catalase In the exam, the question might be: On examining certain type of cells, there was abundance of the enzyme catalase. This indicates what? Proteosome - Concerned with specific degradation. - When there is a protein to be degraded, it will be marked by another protein. Cytoskeletal - Structural protein present inside the cell. The basic function to begin with is the maintenance of the shape of the cell. Composed of three parts: o Micro filaments Concerned with the actual maintenance of the shape of the cell They will be attached to the proteins present on the cell membrane o Intermediate filaments c o o Microtubules
n c o n

form out of the tubulin units (alpha and beta) that undergoes polymerization (small units that join together to form a structure like a rope) Secretion inside the cell nervous cell release neurotransmitter and it will pass through this micro tubules Movement of cell (2 types): The whole cell moves e.g. the flagellum of the spermatocytes, Internal movement microtubules are responsible for that Polymerization and depolymerisation occurs at the same time. (very fast)

In the future, you will see that the mechanism of action of certain drugs inhibits the cell division. During the cell division, there are mitotic spindles (made of microtubules) that attach to the chromosomes and move the chromosome towards the opposite end. The drugs (anti-mitotic drugs) inhibit the polymerization of the tubulin units. The doctor said: You go back to your books and study the cell, in the same way I asked you to do. What are the different component that makes up the cell, the structure and the functional aspects.

Recipe for success: Study while others is sleeping; work while others are loafing; prepare while others are playing; and dream while others are wishing. ~ William A. Ward

Prepared by: Nur Eida Sazali