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Novel Voltage Controller for Stand-alone Induction

Generator using PWM-VSI


G. V. Jayaramaiah B. G. Fernandes
Research Scholar, Department of Electrical Engineering,
Energy Systems Engineering. Indian Institute of Technology Bombay,
Indian Institute of Technology Bombay Powai , Mumbai - 400 076 , INDIA
Powai , Mumbai - 400 076 Phone : +91 - 022 - 25767428,
INDIA Email : bgf@ee.iitb.ac.in

Abstract— This paper presents a DSP-based constant voltage added or removed at the IG terminals either using contactors
controller for stand alone wind energy conversion system using or power electronic switches in series with the capacitors,
an induction generator. The system uses a pulse-width modulated depending upon change in speed and load. Another method
voltage source inverter (PWM-VSI) with a start-up battery. The
limitation of having stand alone wind energy conversion system of providing excitation involves using a saturable reactor [5]
with self-excited induction generator (SEIG) is poor voltage connected in each phase of IG. This inductor with stepped
regulation which occurs with change in speed and load condition. air gap gradually saturates with stator current. As a result, its
To overcome this problem, a DSP-based voltage controller is inductance decreases with load. However the overall system
developed. It regulates the voltage when SEIG is subjected to is bulky and expensive.
a sudden application/removal of load. It is now possible to
operate the induction generator (IG) at constant voltage from In order to improve the performance of the system, use of
no load to full load. The amplitude of the terminal voltage of the modern control techniques such as vector control and sliding
IG is regulated by varying the modulation index of the PWM mode control have been suggested [6 & 7]. Though the use
inverter. The system has an inherent current limiting feature of vector control technique improves the performance of the
and it requires only sensing of dc link voltage. To predict the system, the overall system becomes complex. It should be
performance of the proposed system, a MATLAB/SIMULINK-
based simulation study is carried out. The control algorithm is noted that one of the key issues in standalone system is
implemented on a TMS320F243 DSP platform at the assembly reliability and simplicity in control structure. The use of these
language level for optimum performance of the voltage controller. techniques defeats this purpose.
Viability of the compensation process is ascertained through The excitation schemes proposed in [6]–[10] involve power
experimental results obtained from the laboratory prototype. electronic converters to source the required reactive power
to excite the IG. Though the voltage build-up process has
I. I NTRODUCTION
been discussed and the results have been presented in these
Among the different renewable energy systems, wind papers, the dynamic behaviour of SEIG is not discussed.
energy appears as the most promising one, due to both Moreover, the overall control structure is complex in nature.
technical and economic factors. Important progress in wind Therefore the main objective of this paper is to develop a
energy conversion technologies has been achieved and more simple control strategy to overcome the limitations of the
efficient and more powerful wind generators are now available. existing schemes. The proposed controller is also capable of
The selection of the generator depends upon many factors such handling reactive loads and does not require the mechanical
as type of application, machine characteristics, maintenance, speed sensors, ac voltage or current sensors, thereby reducing
cost etc. Currently induction machines are more popular the overall cost and hardware complexity. This also improves
compared to other machines. However its major disadvantage the overall reliability of the system. The controller maintains
is the requirement of excitation power. This reactive power a constant voltage at the IG terminal during the change in
can be supplied by a variety of methods [1]–[3], ranging load by adjusting the inverter frequency. The amplitude of
from using simple capacitors to that of a VSI inverter with the terminal voltage of IG is controlled by the modulation
complex power conversion techniques. Another limitation of index of the VSI. Unlike in most of the systems reported in
the SEIG in stand-alone systems is its inability to control literature, the proposed system does not require a dump load.
the terminal voltage and frequency under change in load and Detailed Matlab/Simulink-based simulation studies are carried
wind speed. To overcome this problem, several methods are out to demonstrate the effectiveness of the scheme. Viability
proposed in [2]–[4]. The capacitor excitation [3], [4] is suitable of the scheme is confirmed through experimental results using
only when there is a constant load at the IG terminal and is a scaled down laboratory prototype. The control algorithm is
driven at constant mechanical speed. However any change in implemented on a TMS320F243 DSP.
load and rotor speed may result in a loss of excitation. To
overcome this problem, discrete blocks of capacitors can be

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1-4244-0365-0/06/$20.00 (c) 2006 IEEE
II. M ATHEMATICAL M ODELLING OF 3-Φ S ELF - EXCITED The set point of Vdc must be greater than the peak value
I NDUCTION G ENERATOR of the machine line voltage in order to force the desired line
The d-q axes equivalent circuits of an induction genera- currents. Total d. c. current Idc can be expressed in terms of
tor (IG) in synchronously rotating reference frame are shown inverter switching function as
in Fig. 1. The complete dynamic equations of IG, taking Idc = Sa iea + Sb ieb + Sc iec

ω eλqs (ω e− ω r)λ qr (suffix e identifies compensator phase currents)


Rs Lls Llr Rr The three switching functions take the value of 1 if the upper
− + + − switch of the inverter leg is on and it is 0 if the lower switch
I ds I dr
in the same inverter leg is on.
Vds λds Lm λdr Vdr
B. Model of the Voltage Source Inverter (VSI)
Using the switching function SF 1a,b,c the Vao , Vbo and Vco
can be obtained as:

Vdc 
(a)
Vdc
ω eλds Lls Llr (ω e − ω r)λ dr R Vao = SF1a = An sin(nωt)
Rs r 2 2 n=1
+ − + −

I qs I qr
Vdc Vdc 
Vbo = SF1b = An sin(nωt − 120o )
Vqs λqs Lm λqr 2 2 n=1
Vqr

Vdc Vdc 
Vco = SF1c = An sin(nωt + 120o )
2 2 n=1
(b)
The Line-to-Line voltages generated by the inverter can be
derived as:
Fig. 1. d-q model of IG (a) d - axis (b) q - axis
Vab = Vao − Vbo
saturation into account, in synchronously rotating reference
frame [11], [12] is represented in matrix form as follows : Vbc = Vbo − Vco
        
d λds V i 0 −1 λds
= ds − Rs ds − ω
dt λqs Vqs iqs 1 0 λqs Vca = Vco − Vao

         C. Mathematical model of the Load


d λdr Vdr ids 0 −1 λdr Equations dealing with generator feeding a (R-L) load
= − Rr − (ω − ωr )
λ
dt qr V qr iqs 1 0 λqr in d-q frame are
Equations for electromagnetic torque and mechanical speed of
the SEIG are expressed as follows: d
Vds = RL iLds + LL iLds − ωe LL iLqs
3P dt
Te = (iqr λdr − λqr idr )
4 d
Vqs = RL iLqs + LL iLqs + ωe LL iLqs
d P ∗ (Tshaf t − Te ) dt
ωr = where iLds and iLqs are the d-axis and q-axis components
dt 2J
of the load current
IV. P RINCIPLE OF OPERATION OF THE CIRCUIT
III. M ATHEMATICAL M ODELING OF 3 − Φ PWM - VSI The proposed overall system block diagram is shown in
The complete mathematical modeling of the PWM-VSI and Fig. 2. A 12 V battery on the dc side of inverter is provided
the load are explained in the following sections. for initial excitation. The reactive power required by the IG
and load is provided by the voltage source inverter. Therefore
A. Representation of the d. c. side of the inverter the rating this inverter is chosen based on the excitation power
The capacitor voltage equation is governed by: of IG and reactive power requirements of the load. During
startup, the controller sets the stator frequency lower than the
d Idc rotor frequency so that the power produced by IG is used
Vdc = −
dt C to charge the capacitor connected across the dc link to a set
where Vdc is the voltage across the capacitor and Idc is the reference value. In this study this voltage is maintained at
current flowing through it, as shown in Fig. 2. 150 V. The error between the reference and actual capacitor

205
PM−Prime mover Idc Charging circuit

IG − Induction Generator S1 S3 S5 Diode


1
0
0
1 11
00
00
11 1
0
0
1 1
0
0
1

R C
PM IG Y Vdc Vs 12 V

B
R S4 S6 S2
1
0
0
1 11
00
00
11 1
0
0
1
Y
B

Control Signals
R Y B

R S1 S4 S3 S6 S5 S2 Vdc *
Vdc

L PI

ωmax ωmin
N Vtri
V ma
Load 1 Vryb ryb Sin
OSC
0 dq Cos ωs
1 kHz
DSP TMS320F243

Fig. 2. Block diagram of the Proposed System

voltages is processed by the PI controller. If the measured load. Under this condition active power generated by the IG
capacitor voltage is higher than the reference value, the stator is higher than the power required by the load. In order to
frequency is increased by the controller, thereby decreasing decrease the active power the controller increases the inverter
the torque and power supplied by IG, and, if the measured frequency.
capacitor voltage is lower than the reference value the stator
frequency is decreased. The output of the PI regulator is fed V. S IMULATION R ESULTS
to the harmonic oscillator to generate the sine and cosine The developed models of the sub-system are inte-
waveforms. These waveforms are multiplied by the modulation grated and the resulting system is simulated using MAT-
index (ma ) to get Vr , Vy and Vb as shown in Fig. 2. These LAB/SIMULINK. The machine rating and its equivalent cir-
sinusoidal waveforms are compared with 1 kHz triangular cuit parameters used for the study are given in appendix.
carrier signal to generate the switching pulses to the IGBT In order to prove the viability of the control scheme a
inverter. TMS320F243 DSP based scaled down laboratory prototype
Any variation in the output power of IG is directly is designed and developed. The simulated results showing the
indicated by the variation in the terminal voltage of the variation of terminal voltage of the generator and the voltage
generator. A decrease in capacitor voltage below the reference across dc link capacitor during start up are shown in Fig. 3
value indicates that the active power drawn by the load is while, Fig. 4 shows these results obtained from the prototype
higher than the power generated by IG. This difference in developed in the laboratory.
power is supplied by the VSI and hence the dc link voltage
falls. Due to step change in load, the input power to the When the IG is suddenly loaded the frequency and
induction generator decreases as speed of the prime mover terminal voltage of IG, and the capacitor voltage tend
decreases. To maintain a constant voltage at the IG terminal, to fall. The terminal voltage is restored to the reference
the controller decreases the inverter frequency. value by adjusting the inverter frequency. The simulated
An increase in capacitor voltage indicates that the active and experimental results are shown in Fig. 5 and Fig. 6
power required by the load is reduced due to the removal of respectively. Similar behaviour of SEIG is observed when

206
100

(V)
IG Voltage V (V)

100 0 (a)

RY
ry

−100

V
0 (a) −200
1.45 1.5 1.55 1.6 1.65 1.7 1.75 1.8

160

Vdc (V)
−100
150 (b)
140
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.4 1.45 1.5 1.55 1.6 1.65 1.7 1.75 1.8

(A)
4

Phase−A
2
150 0
−2
(c)

IG
−4
(V)

100 1.4 1.45 1.5 1.55 1.6 1.65 1.7 1.75 1.8
(b) Time (Sec)
dc
V

50
Trace a : Line-to-line voltage of IG
0 Trace b : Capacitor voltage Vdc
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 Trace c : phase current of IG
Time (Sec)

Trace a : Line-to-line voltage of IG Fig. 5. Simulated results of SEIG during step increase in load
Trace b : Capacitor voltage Vdc

Fig. 3. Simulated results of SEIG on no-load

Trace a : Line-to-line voltage of IG 200V/div


Trace b : Capacitor voltage Vdc 100V/div
Trace c : Load current 1A/div
Time : x-axis 200ms/div

Fig. 6. Experimental results of SEIG during step increase in load

are shown in Fig. 9.

Trace 1 : Line-to-line voltage of IG 200V/div VI. C ONCLUSION


Trace 2 : Capacitor voltage 50V/div
A simple DSP based constant voltage controller for stand
Time : x-axis 250ms/div
alone wind energy conversion system using induction genera-
Fig. 4. Experimental results of DSP controlled SEIG on no-load tor is proposed. The controller is able to maintain a constant
voltage at the terminals of IG during step change in load.
The developed controller has a fast dynamic response, robust
and reliable. The controller does not require any mechani-
the load on IG is reduced. The terminal voltage and stator cal speed sensor thereby reducing the cost and complexity
frequency tend to increase. The terminal voltage and capacitor of the hardware. The control algorithm is implemented on
voltage increase due to the mismatch in active power produced TMS320F243 EVM DSP platform using assembly level lan-
by the IG, which is more than the power consumed by the guage and simulated using MATLAB/SIMULINK. Viability of
load. The closed loop controller adjusts the inverter frequency the compensation process is ascertained through experimental
so that the the terminal voltage is maintained at the reference results obtained from the laboratory prototype.
value. The simulated and experimental results are shown in
the Fig. 7 and Fig. 8 respectively. The variation of the stator
frequency and capacitor voltage during step change in load

207
200 155
150

Vdc (V)
100

V (V)
0 145
(a)

ry
(a) 140
−100
135
−200 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2
3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 4
55
165

fs (Hz)
50 (b)
155
V (V)

(b)
dc

145 45
1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2
135 160
3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 4

Vdc(V)
0.5 155
(c)
150
I (A)

0 (c) 145
L

3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 4


50
−0.5
(d)

fs(Hz)
3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 4
Time(Sec) 45

40
Trace a : Line-to-line voltage of IG Vry 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7
Time (Sec)
3.8 3.9 4

Trace b : Capacitor voltage Vdc


Trace c : Load current Trace a and c : Capacitor voltage Vdc
Trace b and d : Stator frequency fs
Fig. 7. Simulated results of SEIG during step decrease in load
Fig. 9. Simulated results of SEIG during step change in load.

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Stator resistance(rs ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.83 (Ω) Conversion, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 484–492, 1995.
Rotor resistance(rr ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.55 (Ω)
Stator inductance(ls ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.4535 (H)
Rotor inductance (lr ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.475 (H)
Magnetizing inductance(unsaturated) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.3H
Rated power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1kW
Number of Poles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Rotor inertia(J) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.664 (kg.m2 )

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