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G. V. Jayaramaiah B. G. Fernandes

Research Scholar, Department of Electrical Engineering,

Energy Systems Engineering. Indian Institute of Technology Bombay,

Indian Institute of Technology Bombay Powai , Mumbai - 400 076 , INDIA

Powai , Mumbai - 400 076 Phone : +91 - 022 - 25767428,

INDIA Email : bgf@ee.iitb.ac.in

Abstract— This paper presents a DSP-based constant voltage added or removed at the IG terminals either using contactors

controller for stand alone wind energy conversion system using or power electronic switches in series with the capacitors,

an induction generator. The system uses a pulse-width modulated depending upon change in speed and load. Another method

voltage source inverter (PWM-VSI) with a start-up battery. The

limitation of having stand alone wind energy conversion system of providing excitation involves using a saturable reactor [5]

with self-excited induction generator (SEIG) is poor voltage connected in each phase of IG. This inductor with stepped

regulation which occurs with change in speed and load condition. air gap gradually saturates with stator current. As a result, its

To overcome this problem, a DSP-based voltage controller is inductance decreases with load. However the overall system

developed. It regulates the voltage when SEIG is subjected to is bulky and expensive.

a sudden application/removal of load. It is now possible to

operate the induction generator (IG) at constant voltage from In order to improve the performance of the system, use of

no load to full load. The amplitude of the terminal voltage of the modern control techniques such as vector control and sliding

IG is regulated by varying the modulation index of the PWM mode control have been suggested [6 & 7]. Though the use

inverter. The system has an inherent current limiting feature of vector control technique improves the performance of the

and it requires only sensing of dc link voltage. To predict the system, the overall system becomes complex. It should be

performance of the proposed system, a MATLAB/SIMULINK-

based simulation study is carried out. The control algorithm is noted that one of the key issues in standalone system is

implemented on a TMS320F243 DSP platform at the assembly reliability and simplicity in control structure. The use of these

language level for optimum performance of the voltage controller. techniques defeats this purpose.

Viability of the compensation process is ascertained through The excitation schemes proposed in [6]–[10] involve power

experimental results obtained from the laboratory prototype. electronic converters to source the required reactive power

to excite the IG. Though the voltage build-up process has

I. I NTRODUCTION

been discussed and the results have been presented in these

Among the different renewable energy systems, wind papers, the dynamic behaviour of SEIG is not discussed.

energy appears as the most promising one, due to both Moreover, the overall control structure is complex in nature.

technical and economic factors. Important progress in wind Therefore the main objective of this paper is to develop a

energy conversion technologies has been achieved and more simple control strategy to overcome the limitations of the

efficient and more powerful wind generators are now available. existing schemes. The proposed controller is also capable of

The selection of the generator depends upon many factors such handling reactive loads and does not require the mechanical

as type of application, machine characteristics, maintenance, speed sensors, ac voltage or current sensors, thereby reducing

cost etc. Currently induction machines are more popular the overall cost and hardware complexity. This also improves

compared to other machines. However its major disadvantage the overall reliability of the system. The controller maintains

is the requirement of excitation power. This reactive power a constant voltage at the IG terminal during the change in

can be supplied by a variety of methods [1]–[3], ranging load by adjusting the inverter frequency. The amplitude of

from using simple capacitors to that of a VSI inverter with the terminal voltage of IG is controlled by the modulation

complex power conversion techniques. Another limitation of index of the VSI. Unlike in most of the systems reported in

the SEIG in stand-alone systems is its inability to control literature, the proposed system does not require a dump load.

the terminal voltage and frequency under change in load and Detailed Matlab/Simulink-based simulation studies are carried

wind speed. To overcome this problem, several methods are out to demonstrate the effectiveness of the scheme. Viability

proposed in [2]–[4]. The capacitor excitation [3], [4] is suitable of the scheme is confirmed through experimental results using

only when there is a constant load at the IG terminal and is a scaled down laboratory prototype. The control algorithm is

driven at constant mechanical speed. However any change in implemented on a TMS320F243 DSP.

load and rotor speed may result in a loss of excitation. To

overcome this problem, discrete blocks of capacitors can be

204

1-4244-0365-0/06/$20.00 (c) 2006 IEEE

II. M ATHEMATICAL M ODELLING OF 3-Φ S ELF - EXCITED The set point of Vdc must be greater than the peak value

I NDUCTION G ENERATOR of the machine line voltage in order to force the desired line

The d-q axes equivalent circuits of an induction genera- currents. Total d. c. current Idc can be expressed in terms of

tor (IG) in synchronously rotating reference frame are shown inverter switching function as

in Fig. 1. The complete dynamic equations of IG, taking Idc = Sa iea + Sb ieb + Sc iec

Rs Lls Llr Rr The three switching functions take the value of 1 if the upper

− + + − switch of the inverter leg is on and it is 0 if the lower switch

I ds I dr

in the same inverter leg is on.

Vds λds Lm λdr Vdr

B. Model of the Voltage Source Inverter (VSI)

Using the switching function SF 1a,b,c the Vao , Vbo and Vco

can be obtained as:

∞

Vdc

(a)

Vdc

ω eλds Lls Llr (ω e − ω r)λ dr R Vao = SF1a = An sin(nωt)

Rs r 2 2 n=1

+ − + −

∞

I qs I qr

Vdc Vdc

Vbo = SF1b = An sin(nωt − 120o )

Vqs λqs Lm λqr 2 2 n=1

Vqr

∞

Vdc Vdc

Vco = SF1c = An sin(nωt + 120o )

2 2 n=1

(b)

The Line-to-Line voltages generated by the inverter can be

derived as:

Fig. 1. d-q model of IG (a) d - axis (b) q - axis

Vab = Vao − Vbo

saturation into account, in synchronously rotating reference

frame [11], [12] is represented in matrix form as follows : Vbc = Vbo − Vco

d λds V i 0 −1 λds

= ds − Rs ds − ω

dt λqs Vqs iqs 1 0 λqs Vca = Vco − Vao

d λdr Vdr ids 0 −1 λdr Equations dealing with generator feeding a (R-L) load

= − Rr − (ω − ωr )

λ

dt qr V qr iqs 1 0 λqr in d-q frame are

Equations for electromagnetic torque and mechanical speed of

the SEIG are expressed as follows: d

Vds = RL iLds + LL iLds − ωe LL iLqs

3P dt

Te = (iqr λdr − λqr idr )

4 d

Vqs = RL iLqs + LL iLqs + ωe LL iLqs

d P ∗ (Tshaf t − Te ) dt

ωr = where iLds and iLqs are the d-axis and q-axis components

dt 2J

of the load current

IV. P RINCIPLE OF OPERATION OF THE CIRCUIT

III. M ATHEMATICAL M ODELING OF 3 − Φ PWM - VSI The proposed overall system block diagram is shown in

The complete mathematical modeling of the PWM-VSI and Fig. 2. A 12 V battery on the dc side of inverter is provided

the load are explained in the following sections. for initial excitation. The reactive power required by the IG

and load is provided by the voltage source inverter. Therefore

A. Representation of the d. c. side of the inverter the rating this inverter is chosen based on the excitation power

The capacitor voltage equation is governed by: of IG and reactive power requirements of the load. During

startup, the controller sets the stator frequency lower than the

d Idc rotor frequency so that the power produced by IG is used

Vdc = −

dt C to charge the capacitor connected across the dc link to a set

where Vdc is the voltage across the capacitor and Idc is the reference value. In this study this voltage is maintained at

current flowing through it, as shown in Fig. 2. 150 V. The error between the reference and actual capacitor

205

PM−Prime mover Idc Charging circuit

1

0

0

1 11

00

00

11 1

0

0

1 1

0

0

1

R C

PM IG Y Vdc Vs 12 V

B

R S4 S6 S2

1

0

0

1 11

00

00

11 1

0

0

1

Y

B

Control Signals

R Y B

R S1 S4 S3 S6 S5 S2 Vdc *

Vdc

L PI

ωmax ωmin

N Vtri

V ma

Load 1 Vryb ryb Sin

OSC

0 dq Cos ωs

1 kHz

DSP TMS320F243

voltages is processed by the PI controller. If the measured load. Under this condition active power generated by the IG

capacitor voltage is higher than the reference value, the stator is higher than the power required by the load. In order to

frequency is increased by the controller, thereby decreasing decrease the active power the controller increases the inverter

the torque and power supplied by IG, and, if the measured frequency.

capacitor voltage is lower than the reference value the stator

frequency is decreased. The output of the PI regulator is fed V. S IMULATION R ESULTS

to the harmonic oscillator to generate the sine and cosine The developed models of the sub-system are inte-

waveforms. These waveforms are multiplied by the modulation grated and the resulting system is simulated using MAT-

index (ma ) to get Vr , Vy and Vb as shown in Fig. 2. These LAB/SIMULINK. The machine rating and its equivalent cir-

sinusoidal waveforms are compared with 1 kHz triangular cuit parameters used for the study are given in appendix.

carrier signal to generate the switching pulses to the IGBT In order to prove the viability of the control scheme a

inverter. TMS320F243 DSP based scaled down laboratory prototype

Any variation in the output power of IG is directly is designed and developed. The simulated results showing the

indicated by the variation in the terminal voltage of the variation of terminal voltage of the generator and the voltage

generator. A decrease in capacitor voltage below the reference across dc link capacitor during start up are shown in Fig. 3

value indicates that the active power drawn by the load is while, Fig. 4 shows these results obtained from the prototype

higher than the power generated by IG. This difference in developed in the laboratory.

power is supplied by the VSI and hence the dc link voltage

falls. Due to step change in load, the input power to the When the IG is suddenly loaded the frequency and

induction generator decreases as speed of the prime mover terminal voltage of IG, and the capacitor voltage tend

decreases. To maintain a constant voltage at the IG terminal, to fall. The terminal voltage is restored to the reference

the controller decreases the inverter frequency. value by adjusting the inverter frequency. The simulated

An increase in capacitor voltage indicates that the active and experimental results are shown in Fig. 5 and Fig. 6

power required by the load is reduced due to the removal of respectively. Similar behaviour of SEIG is observed when

206

100

(V)

IG Voltage V (V)

100 0 (a)

RY

ry

−100

V

0 (a) −200

1.45 1.5 1.55 1.6 1.65 1.7 1.75 1.8

160

Vdc (V)

−100

150 (b)

140

0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.4 1.45 1.5 1.55 1.6 1.65 1.7 1.75 1.8

(A)

4

Phase−A

2

150 0

−2

(c)

IG

−4

(V)

100 1.4 1.45 1.5 1.55 1.6 1.65 1.7 1.75 1.8

(b) Time (Sec)

dc

V

50

Trace a : Line-to-line voltage of IG

0 Trace b : Capacitor voltage Vdc

0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 Trace c : phase current of IG

Time (Sec)

Trace a : Line-to-line voltage of IG Fig. 5. Simulated results of SEIG during step increase in load

Trace b : Capacitor voltage Vdc

Trace b : Capacitor voltage Vdc 100V/div

Trace c : Load current 1A/div

Time : x-axis 200ms/div

Trace 2 : Capacitor voltage 50V/div

A simple DSP based constant voltage controller for stand

Time : x-axis 250ms/div

alone wind energy conversion system using induction genera-

Fig. 4. Experimental results of DSP controlled SEIG on no-load tor is proposed. The controller is able to maintain a constant

voltage at the terminals of IG during step change in load.

The developed controller has a fast dynamic response, robust

and reliable. The controller does not require any mechani-

the load on IG is reduced. The terminal voltage and stator cal speed sensor thereby reducing the cost and complexity

frequency tend to increase. The terminal voltage and capacitor of the hardware. The control algorithm is implemented on

voltage increase due to the mismatch in active power produced TMS320F243 EVM DSP platform using assembly level lan-

by the IG, which is more than the power consumed by the guage and simulated using MATLAB/SIMULINK. Viability of

load. The closed loop controller adjusts the inverter frequency the compensation process is ascertained through experimental

so that the the terminal voltage is maintained at the reference results obtained from the laboratory prototype.

value. The simulated and experimental results are shown in

the Fig. 7 and Fig. 8 respectively. The variation of the stator

frequency and capacitor voltage during step change in load

207

200 155

150

Vdc (V)

100

V (V)

0 145

(a)

ry

(a) 140

−100

135

−200 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2

3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 4

55

165

fs (Hz)

50 (b)

155

V (V)

(b)

dc

145 45

1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2

135 160

3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 4

Vdc(V)

0.5 155

(c)

150

I (A)

0 (c) 145

L

50

−0.5

(d)

fs(Hz)

3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 4

Time(Sec) 45

40

Trace a : Line-to-line voltage of IG Vry 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7

Time (Sec)

3.8 3.9 4

Trace c : Load current Trace a and c : Capacitor voltage Vdc

Trace b and d : Stator frequency fs

Fig. 7. Simulated results of SEIG during step decrease in load

Fig. 9. Simulated results of SEIG during step change in load.

R EFERENCES

[1] E.D.Basset and F.M.Potter, “Capacitance excitation of Induction Gen-

erators,” Transaction on American Institute of Electrical Engineering,

vol. 54, no. 1, pp. 540–545, 1935.

[2] H. C. Rai and A. K. Tandon, “Voltage Regulation of SEIG Using Passive

Elements,” 6th European Conference on Electrical Machines and Drives,

vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 240–245, 1983.

[3] M.B.Brennan and A.Abbondanti, “Static Excitation for Induction Gen-

erator,” IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, vol. 13, no. 5, pp.

422–428, Sept/Oct, 1977.

[4] N. H. Malik and A. H. Al-Bahrani, “Influence of the Terminal Capacitor

on the Performance Characteristics of SEIG,” IEE Proceedings of

Instituteion of Electrical Engineering,Part C, vol. 137, no. 2, pp. 168–

173, March, 1990.

[5] S. M. Alghuwainew, “Steady State Analysis of a Self-Excited Induction

Generator by Shunt Saturable Reactor,” IEEE Conference on Electrical

Trace a : Line-to-line voltage of IG 200V/div Machines and Drives, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 101–103, 1997.

Trace b : Capacitor voltage Vdc 100V/div [6] D. W. Novotny and G. H. Studtmann, “Self-excitation in Inverter

Trace c : Load current 1A/div Driven Induction machine,” IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and

Systems, vol. 96, no. 4, pp. 1117–1125, July/Aug, 1977.

Time : x-axis 200ms/div [7] S. N. Bhadra, K. V. Ratnam, and A. Manjunath, “Study of Voltage

Build up in a Self-Excited, Variable Speed Induction Generator/Static

Fig. 8. Experimental results of SEIG during step decrease in load Inverter System With D.C side Capacitor,” IEEE Conference on Power

Electronics, Drives and Energy System, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 964–970, 1996.

[8] T.L.Maguire and A.M.Gole, “Apparatus for supplying an isolated dc

load from a variable speed Self-Excited Induction Generator,” IEEE

Transactions on Energy Conversion, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 468–475, 1993.

VII. A PPENDIX [9] G. V. Jayaramaiah and B. G. Fernandes, “Dynamic Simulation of

Three Phase Self-Excited Induction Generator With PWM-VSI,” Na-

Parameters of the Induction Machine at 50 Hz tional Conference on Control,Communication and Informations Systems,

vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 132–137,Jan,GOA, 2004.

Phase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3Φ [10] M.S.Miranda, R.O.Lyra, and S.R.Silva, “An Alternative Isolated wind

electric pumping system using Induction machine,” IEEE Transactions

Connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ∆ on Energy Conversion, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 1611–1616, Dec, 1999.

Rated voltage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220 V [11] P.C.Krause, O.Wasynczuk, and S. Sudhoff, Analysis of Electrical Ma-

Rated current . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.425 A chinery. New York: IEEE Press, 1994.

[12] O. Ojo, “Minimum Airgap Flux linkage Requirement for Self-Excitation

Speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1430 RPM in Stand Alone Induction Generators,” IEEE Transactions on Energy

Stator resistance(rs ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.83 (Ω) Conversion, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 484–492, 1995.

Rotor resistance(rr ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.55 (Ω)

Stator inductance(ls ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.4535 (H)

Rotor inductance (lr ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.475 (H)

Magnetizing inductance(unsaturated) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.3H

Rated power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1kW

Number of Poles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

Rotor inertia(J) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.664 (kg.m2 )

208

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