General Topology

Jesper M. Møller
Matematisk Institut, Universitetsparken 5, DK–2100 København
E-mail address: moller@math.ku.dk
URL: http://www.math.ku.dk/
~
moller
Contents
Chapter 0. Introduction 5
Chapter 1. Sets and maps 7
1. Sets, functions and relations 7
2. The integers and the real numbers 11
3. Products and coproducts 13
4. Finite and infinite sets 14
5. Countable and uncountable sets 16
6. Well-ordered sets 18
7. Partially ordered sets, The Maximum Principle and Zorn’s lemma 19
Chapter 2. Topological spaces and continuous maps 23
1. Topological spaces 23
2. Order topologies 25
3. The product topology 25
4. The subspace topology 26
5. Closed sets and limit points 29
6. Continuous functions 32
7. The quotient topology 36
8. Metric topologies 42
9. Connected spaces 45
10. Compact spaces 51
11. Locally compact spaces and the Alexandroff compactification 57
Chapter 3. Regular and normal spaces 61
1. Countability Axioms 61
2. Separation Axioms 62
3. Normal spaces 64
4. Second countable regular spaces and the Urysohn metrization theorem 66
5. Completely regular spaces and the Stone–
ˇ
Cech compactification 69
6. Manifolds 71
Chapter 4. Relations between topological spaces 73
Bibliography 75
3
CHAPTER 0
Introduction
These notes are intended as an to introduction general topology. They should be sufficient for further
studies in geometry or algebraic topology.
Comments from readers are welcome. Thanks to Micha l Jab lonowski and Antonio D´ıaz Ramos for
pointing out misprinst and errors in earlier versions of these notes.
5
CHAPTER 1
Sets and maps
This chapter is concerned with set theory which is the basis of all mathematics. Maybe it even can
be said that mathematics is the science of sets. We really don’t know what a set is but neither do the
biologists know what life is and that doesn’t stop them from investigating it.
1. Sets, functions and relations
1.1. Sets. A set is a collection of mathematical objects. We write a ∈ S if the set S contains the
object a.
1.1. Example. The natural numbers 1, 2, 3, . . . can be collected to form the set Z
+
= ¦1, 2, 3, . . .¦.
This na¨ıve form of set theory unfortunately leads to paradoxes. Russel’s paradox
1
concerns the
formula S ,∈ S. First note that it may well happen that a set is a member of itself. The set of all infinite
sets is an example. The Russel set
R = ¦S [ S ,∈ S¦
is the set of all sets that are not a member of itself. Is R ∈ R or is R ,∈ R?
How can we remove this contradiction?
1.2. Definition. The universe of mathematical objects is stratified. Level 0 of the universe consists
of (possibly) some atomic objects. Level i > 0 consists of collections of objects from lower levels. A set is
a mathematical object that is not atomic.
No object of the universe can satisfy S ∈ S for atoms do not have elements and a set and an element
from that set can not be in the same level. Thus R consists of everything in the universe. Since the
elements of R occupy all levels of the universe there is no level left for R to be in. Therefore R is outside
the universe, R is not a set. The contradiction has evaporated!
Axiomatic set theory is an attempt to make this precise formulating a theory based on axioms, the
ZFC-axioms, for set theory. (Z stands for Zermelo, F for Fraenkel, and C for Axiom of Choice.) It is not
possible to prove or disprove the statement ”ZFC is consistent” within ZFC – that is within mathematics
[12].
If A and B are sets then
A∩ B = ¦x [ x ∈ A and x ∈ B¦ A∪ B = ¦x [ x ∈ A or x ∈ B¦
AB = ¦(x, y) [ x ∈ A and y ∈ B¦ AHB = ¦(1, a) [ a ∈ A¦ ∪ ¦(2, b) [ b ∈ B¦
and
A−B = ¦x [ x ∈ A and x ,∈ B¦
are also sets. These operations satisfy
A∩ (B ∪ C) = (A∩ B) ∪ (A∩ C) A∪ (B ∩ C) = (A∪ B) ∩ (A∪ C)
A−(B ∪ C) = (A−B) ∩ (A−C) A−(B ∩ C) = (A−B) ∪ (A−C)
as well as several other rules.
We say that A is a subset of B, or B a superset of A, if all elements of A are elements of B. The
sets A and B are equal if A and B have the same elements. In mathematical symbols,
A ⊂ B ⇐⇒ ∀x ∈ A: x ∈ B
A = B ⇐⇒ (∀x ∈ A: x ∈ B and ∀x ∈ B: x ∈ A) ⇐⇒ A ⊂ B and B ⊂ A
The power set of A,
T(A) = ¦B [ B ⊂ A¦
is the set of all subsets of A.
1
If a person says ”I am lying” – is he lying?
7
8 1. SETS AND MAPS
1.2. Functions. Functions or maps are fundamental to all of mathematics. So what is a function?
1.3. Definition. A function from A to B is a subset f of A B such that for all a in A there is
exactly one b in B such that (a, b) ∈ f.
We write f : A → B for the function f ⊂ A B and think of f as a rule that to any element a ∈ A
associates a unique object f(a) ∈ B. The set A is the domain of f, the set B is the codomain of f;
dom(f) = A, cod(f) = B.
The function f is
• injective or one-to-one if distinct elements of A have distinct images in B,
• surjective or onto if all elements in B are images of elements in A,
• bijective if both injective and surjective, if any element of B is the image of precisely one element
of A.
In other words, the map f is injective, surjective, bijective iff the equation f(a) = b has at most one
solution, at least one solution precisely one solution, for all b ∈ B.
If f : A → B and g : B → C are maps such that cod(f) = dom(g), then the composition is the map
g ◦ f : A → C defined by g ◦ f(a) = g(f(a)).
1.4. Proposition. Let A and B be two sets.
(1) Let f : A → B be any map. Then
f is injective ⇐⇒ f has a left inverse
f is surjective
AC
⇐⇒ f has a right inverse
f is bijective ⇐⇒ f has an inverse
(2) There exists a surjective map A B
AC
⇐⇒ There exits an injective map B A
Two of the statements in Proposition 1.4 require the Axiom of Choice (1.27).
Any left inverse is surjective and any right inverse is injective.
If f : A → B is bijective then the inverse f
−1
: B → A is the map that to b ∈ B associates the unique
solution to the equation f(a) = b, ie
a = f
−1
(b) ⇐⇒ f(a) = b
for all a ∈ A, b ∈ B.
Let map(A, B) denote the set of all maps from A to B. Then
map(X, AB) = map(X, A) map(X, B), map(AHB, X) = map(A, X) map(B, X)
for all sets X, A, and B. Some people like to rewrite this as
map(X, AB) = map(∆X, (A, B)), map(AHB, X) = map((A, B), ∆X)
Here, (A, B) is a pair of spaces and maps (f, g): (X, Y ) → (A, B) between pairs of spaces are defined to
be pairs of maps f : X → A, g : Y → B. The diagonal, ∆X = (X, X), takes a space X to the pair (X, X).
These people say that the product is right adjoint to the diagonal and the coproduct is left adjoint to
the diagonal.
1.5. Relations. There are many types of relations. We shall here concentrate on equivalence rela-
tions and order relations.
1.6. Definition. A relation R on the set A is a subset R ⊂ AA.
1.7. Example. We may define a relation D on Z
+
by aDb if a divides b. The relation D ⊂ Z
+
Z
+
has the properties that aDa for all a and aDb and bDc =⇒ aDc for all a, b, c. We say that D is reflexive
and transitive.
1.5.1. Equivalence relations. Equality is a typical equivalence relation. Here is the general definition.
1.9. Definition. An equivalence relation on a set A is a relation ∼⊂ AA that is
Reflexive: a ∼ a for all a ∈ A
Symmetric: a ∼ b =⇒ b ∼ a for all a, b ∈ A
Transitive: a ∼ b and b ∼ c =⇒ a ∼ c for all a, b, c ∈ A
1. SETS, FUNCTIONS AND RELATIONS 9
The equivalence class containing a ∈ A is the subset
[a] = ¦b ∈ A [ a ∼ b¦
of all elements of A that are equivalent to a. There is a canonical map [ ] : A → A/∼ onto the set
A/∼= ¦[a] [ a ∈ A¦ ⊂ T(A)
of equivalence classes that takes the element a ∈ A to the equivalence class [a] ∈ A/∼ containing a.
A map f : A → B is said to respect the equivalence relation ∼ if a
1
∼ a
2
=⇒ f(a
1
) = f(a
2
) for
all a
1
, a
2
∈ A (f is constant on each equivalence class). The canonical map [ ] : A → A/∼ respects the
equivalence relation and it is the universal example of such a map: Any map f : A → B that respects the
equivalence relation factors uniquely through A/ ∼ in the sense that there is a unique map f such that
the diagram
A
f

[ ]

A
A
A
A
A
A
A
B
A/∼
∃!f
¸
}
}
}
}
}
}
}
commutes. How would you define f?
1.10. Example. (1) Equality is an equivalence relation. The equivalence class [a] = ¦a¦ contains
just one element.
(2) a mod b mod n is an equivalence relation on Z. The equivalence class [a] = a + nZ consists of all
integers congruent to a modn and the set of equivalence classes is Z/nZ = ¦[0], [1], . . . , [n −1]¦.
(3) x ∼ y
def
⇐⇒ [x[ = [y[ is an equivalence relation in the plane R
2
. The equivalence class [x] is a circle
centered at the origin and R
2
/∼ is the collection of all circles centered at the origin. The canonical map
R
2
→ R
2
/∼ takes a point to the circle on which it lies.
(4) If f : A → B is any function, a
1
∼ a
2
def
⇐⇒ f(a
1
) = f(a
2
) is an equivalence relation on A. The
equivalence class [a] = f
−1
(f(a)) ⊂ A is the fibre over f(a) ∈ B. we write A/f for the set of equivalence
classes. The canonical map A → A/f takes a point to the fibre in which it lies. Any map f : A → B can
be factored
A
f

[ ]

B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
A/f
¸ f
¸
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
as the composition of a surjection followed by an injection. The corestriction f : A/f → f(A) of f is a
bijection between the set of fibres A/f and the image f(A).
(5) [Ex 3.2] (Restriction) Let X be a set and A ⊂ X a subset. Declare any two elements of A to be
equivalent and any element outside A to be equivalent only to itself. This is an equivalence relation. The
equivalence classes are A and ¦x¦ for x ∈ X −A. One writes X/A for the set of equivalence classes.
(6) [Ex 3.5] (Equivalence relation generated by a relation) The intersection of any family of equivalence
relations is an equivalence relation. The intersection of all equivalence relations containing a given relation
R is called the equivalence relation generated by R.
1.11. Lemma. Let ∼ be an equivalence relation on a set A. Then
(1) a ∈ [a]
(2) [a] = [b] ⇐⇒ a ∼ b
(3) If [a] ∩ [b] ,= ∅ then [a] = [b]
Proof. (1) is reflexivity, (2) is symmetry, (3) is transitivity: If c ∈ [a] ∩ [b], then a ∼ c ∼ b so a ∼ b
and [a] = [b] by (2).
This lemma implies that the set A/∼⊂ T(A) is a partition of A, a set of nonempty, disjoint subsets
of A whose union is all of A. Conversely, given any partition of A we define an equivalence relation by
declaring a and b to be equivalent if they lie in the same subset of the partition. We conclude that an
equivalence relation is essentially the same thing as a partition.
10 1. SETS AND MAPS
1.5.2. Linear Orders. The usual order relation < on Z or R is an example of a linear order. Here is
the general definition.
1.12. Definition. A linear order on the set A is a relation <⊂ AA that is
Comparable: If a ,= b then a < b or b < a for all a, b ∈ A
Nonreflexive: a < a for no a ∈ A
Transitive: a < b and b < c =⇒ a < c for all a, b, c ∈ A
What are the right maps between ordered sets?
1.13. Definition. Let (A, <) and (B, <) be linearly ordered sets. An order preserving map is a map
f : A → B such that a
1
< a
2
=⇒ f(a
1
) < f(a
2
) for all a
1
, a
2
∈ A. An order isomorphism is a bijective
order preserving map.
An order preserving map f : A → B is always injective. If there exists an order isomorphismf : A → B,
then we say that (A, <) and (B, <) have the same order type.
How can we make new ordered sets out of old ordered sets? Well, any subset of a linearly ordered set
is a linearly ordered set in the obvious way using the restriction of the order relation. Also the product
of two linearly ordered set is a linearly ordered set.
1.14. Definition. Let (A, <) and (B, <) be linearly ordered sets. The dictionary order on AB is
the linear order given by
(a
1
, b
1
) < (a
2
, b
2
)
def
⇐⇒ (a
1
< a
2
) or (a
1
= a
2
and b
1
< b
2
)
The restriction of a dictionary order to a product subspace is the dictionary order of the restricted
linear orders. (Hey, what did that sentence mean?)
What about orders on AHB, A∪ B, map(A, B) or T(A)?
What are the invariant properties of ordered sets? In a linearly ordered set (A, <) it makes sense to
define intervals such as
(a, b) = ¦x ∈ A [ a < x < b¦, (−∞, b] = ¦x ∈ A [ x ≤ b¦
and similarly for other types of intervals, [a, b], (a, b], (−∞, b] etc.
If (a, b) = ∅ then a is the immediate predecessor of b, and b the immediate successor of a.
Let (A, <) be an ordered set and B ⊂ A a subset.
• M is a largest element of B if M ∈ B and b ≤ M for all b ∈ B. The element m is a smallest
element of B if m ∈ B and m ≤ b for all b ∈ B. We denote the largest element (if it exists) by
max B and the smallest element (if it exists) by min B.
• M is an upper bound for B if M ∈ A and b ≤ M for all b ∈ B. The element m is a lower bound
for B if m ∈ A and m ≤ b for all b ∈ B. The set of upper bounds is

b∈B
[b, ∞) and the set of
lower bounds is

b∈B
(−∞, b].
• If the set of upper bounds has a smallest element, min

b∈B
[b, ∞), it is called the least upper
bound for B and denoted sup B. If the set of lower bounds has a largest element, max

b∈B
(−∞, b],
it is called the greatest lower bound for B and denoted inf B.
1.15. Definition. An ordered set (A, <) has the least upper bound property if any nonempty subset
of A that has an upper bound has a least upper bound. If also (x, y) ,= ∅ for all x < y, then (A, <) is a
linear continuum.
1.16. Example. (1) R and (0, 1) have the same order type. [0, 1) and (0, 1) have distinct order
types for [0, 1) has a smallest element and (0, 1) doesn’t. ¦−1¦ ∪(0, 1) and [0, 1) have the same order
type as we all can find an explicit order isomorphism between them.
(2) R R has a linear dictionary order. What are the intervals (1 2, 1 3), [1 2, 3 2] and
(1 2, 3 4]? Is RR a linear continuum? Is [0, 1] [0, 1]?
(3) We now consider two subsets of RR. The dictionary order on Z
+
[0, 1) has the same order type
as [1, ∞) so it is a linear continuum. In the dictionary order on [0, 1) Z
+
each element (a, n) has
(a, n+1) as its immediate successor so it is not a linear continuum. Thus Z
+
[0, 1) and [0, 1)Z
+
do
not have the same order type. (So, in general, (A, <) (B, <) and (B, <) (A, <) represent different
order types. This is no surprise since the dictionary order is not symmetric in the two variables.)
(4) (R, <) is a linear continuum as we all learn in kindergarten. The sub-ordered set (Z
+
, <) has the
least upper bound property but it is not a linear continuum as (1, 2) = ∅.
2. THE INTEGERS AND THE REAL NUMBERS 11
(5) (−1, 1) has the least upper bound property: Let B be any bounded from above subset of (−1, 1)
and let M ∈ (−1, 1) be an upper bound. Then B is also bounded from above in R, of course, so there
is a least upper bound, sup B, in R. Now sup B is the smallest upper bound so that sup B ≤ M < −1.
We conclude that sup B lies in (−1, 1) and so it is also a least upper bound in (−1, 1). In fact, any
convex subset of a linear continuum is a linear continuum.
(6) R − ¦0¦ does not have the least upper bound property as the subset B = ¦−1, −
1
2
, −
1
3
, . . .¦ is
bounded from above (by say 100) but the set of upper bounds (0, ∞) has no smallest element.
2. The integers and the real numbers
We shall assume that the real numbers R exists with all the usual properties: (R, +, ) is a field,
(R, +, , <) is an ordered field, (R, <) is a linear continuum (1.15).
What about Z
+
?
1.17. Definition. A subset A ⊂ R is inductive if 1 ∈ A and a ∈ A =⇒ a + 1 ∈ A.
There are inductive subsets of R, for instance R itself and [1, ∞).
1.18. Definition. Z
+
is the intersection of all inductive subsets of R.
We have that 1 ∈ Z
+
and Z
+
⊂ [1, ∞) because [1, ∞) is inductive so 1 = min Z
+
is the smallest
element of Z
+
.
1.19. Theorem. (Induction Principle) Let J be a subset of Z
+
such that
1 ∈ J and ∀n ∈ Z
+
: n ∈ J =⇒ n + 1 ∈ J
Then J = Z
+
.
Proof. J is inductive so J contains the smallest inductive set, Z
+
.
1.20. Theorem. Any nonempty subset of Z
+
has a smallest element.
Before the proof, we need a lemma.
For each n ∈ Z
+
, write
S
n
= ¦x ∈ Z
+
[ x < n¦
for the set of positive integers smaller than n (the section below n). Note that S
1
= ∅ and S
n+1
= S
n
∪¦n¦.
1.21. Lemma. For any n ∈ Z
+
, any nonempty subset of S
n
has a smallest element.
Proof. Let J ⊂ Z
+
be the set of integers for which the lemma is true. It is enough (1.19) to show
that J is inductive. 1 ∈ J for the trivial reason that there are no nonempty subsets of S
1
= ∅. Suppose
that n ∈ J. Consider a nonempty subset A of S
n+1
. If A consists of n alone, then n = min A is the
smallest element of A. If not, A contains integers < n, and then min(A ∩ S
n
) is the smallest element of
A. Thus n + 1 ∈ J.
Proof of Theorem 1.20. Let A ⊂ Z
+
be any nonempty subset. The intersection A ∩ S
n
is
nonempty for some n, so it has a smallest element (1.21). This is also the smallest element of A.
1.22. Theorem (General Induction Principle). Let J be a subset of Z
+
such that
∀n ∈ Z
+
: S
n
⊂ J =⇒ n ∈ J
Then J = Z
+
.
Proof. We show the contrapositive. Let J be a proper subset of Z
+
. Consider the smallest element
n = min(Z
+
− J) outside J. Then n ,∈ J and S
n
⊂ J (for n is the smallest element not in J meaning
that all elements smaller than n are in J). Thus J does not satisfy the hypothesis of the theorem.
1.23. Theorem (Archimedean Principle). Z
+
has no upper bound in R: For any real number there
is a natural number which is greater.
Proof. We assume the opposite and derive a contradiction. Suppose that Z
+
is bounded from
above. Let b = sup Z
+
be the least upper bound (R has the least upper bound property). Since b −1 is
not an upper bound (it is smaller than the least upper bound), there is a positive integer n ∈ Z
+
such
that n > b −1. Then n + 1 is also an integer (Z
+
is inductive) and n + 1 > b. This contradicts that b is
an upper bound for Z
+
.
12 1. SETS AND MAPS
1.24. Theorem (Principle of Recursive Definitions). For any set B and any function
ρ:

¦map(S
n
, B) [ n ∈ Z
+
¦ → B
there exists a unique function h: Z
+
→ B such that h(n) = ρ(h[S
n
) for all n ∈ Z
+
.
Proof. See [8, Ex 8.8].
This follows from the Induction Principle, but we shall not go into details. It is usually considered
bad taste to define h in terms of h but the Principle of Recursive Definition is a permit to do exactly
that in certain situations. Here is an example of a recursive definition from computer programing
fibo := func< n | n le 2 select 1 else Self(n-1) + Self(n-2) >;
of the Fibonacci function. Mathematicians (sometimes) prefer instead to apply the Principle of Recursive
Definitions to the map
ρ(S
n
f
−→ Z
+
) =
_
1 n < 2
f(n −1) +f(n −2) n > 2
Recursive functions can be computed by Turing machines.
3. PRODUCTS AND COPRODUCTS 13

j∈J
A
j
⊂ J

j∈J
A
j
-
J

j∈J
A
j
6
Figure 1. The coproduct
3. Products and coproducts
1.25. Definition. An indexed family of sets consists of a set / of sets, an index set J, and a
surjective function f : J → /.
We often denote the set f(j) by A
j
and the whole indexed family by ¦A
j
¦
j∈J
. Any set / of sets can
be made into an indexed family of sets by using the identity map / → / as the indexing function.
We define the union, the intersection, the product, and the coproduct of the indexed family as

j∈j
A
j
= ¦a [ a ∈ A
j
for all j ∈ J¦,
_
j∈j
A
j
= ¦a [ a ∈ A
j
for at least one j ∈ J¦

j∈J
A
j
= ¦x ∈ map(J,
_
A
j
) [ ∀j ∈ J : x(j) ∈ A
j
¦

j∈J
A
j
=
_
j∈J
¦(j, a) ∈ J
_
j∈J
A
j
[ a ∈ A
j
¦
There are natural maps

A
j
A
j
→j

J
Q
A
j
¸¸
π
j
:

j∈J
A
j
→ A
j
(projection) ι
j
: A
j

j∈J
A
j
(injection)
given by π
j
(x) = x(j) and ι
j
(a) = (j, a) for all j ∈ J. These maps are used in establishing the identities
map(X,

j∈J
A
j
) =

j∈J
map(X, A
j
), map(

j∈J
A
j
, Y ) =

j∈J
map(A
j
, Y )
for any sets X and Y . This gives in particular maps
∆:

j∈J
A
j

j∈J
A
j
(diagonal), ∇:

j∈J
A
j

_
j∈J
A
j
(codiagonal)
If the index set J = S
n+1
= ¦1, . . . , n¦ then we also write
A
1
∪ ∪ A
n
, A
1
∩ ∩ A
n
, A
1
A
n
A
1
H HA
n
for

j∈S
n+1
A
j
,

j∈S
n+1
A
j
,

j∈S
n+1
A
j

j∈S
n+1
A
j
, respectively. If also and A
j
= A for all j ∈ S
n+1
we write A
n
for the product

j∈S
n+1
A. The elements of A
n
are all n-tuples (a
1
, . . . , a
n
) of elements
from A.
If the index set J = Z
+
then we also write
A
1
∪ ∪ A
n
∪ , A
1
∩ ∩ A
n
∩ , A
1
A
n
A
1
H HA
n

for

j∈Z
+
A
j
,

j∈Z
+
A
j
,

j∈Z
+
A
j
,

j∈Z
+
A
j
, respectively. If also A
j
= A for all j we write A
ω
for the
product

j∈Z
+
A, the set of all functions x: Z
+
→ A, i.e. all sequences (x
1
, . . . , x
n
, . . .) of elements from
A.
2
1.26. Example. (1) S
1
∪ S
2
∪ ∪ S
n
=

n∈Z
+
S
n
= Z
+
.
(2) If the set / = ¦A¦ consists of just one set A then

j∈J
A = A =

j∈J
A,

j∈J
A = map(J, A),
and

j∈J
A = J A.
(3) There is a bijection (which one?) between ¦0, 1¦
ω
= map(Z
+
, ¦0, 1¦) and T(Z
+
). More generally,
there is a bijection (which one) between the product

j∈J
¦0, 1¦ = map(J, ¦0, 1¦) and the power set
T(J).
Even though we shall not specify our (ZF) axioms for set theory, let us mention just one axiom which
has a kind of contended status since some of its consequences are counter-intuitive.



`


_•
2
ω is the formal set within set theory corresponding to the na¨ıve set Z
+
[12, V.1.5]
14 1. SETS AND MAPS
1.27. Axiom (Axiom of Choice (AC)). For any nonempty set of nonempty disjoint sets, /, there
exists a set C ⊂

A∈A
A such that C ∩ A contains exactly one element for all A ∈ /.
If the ZF axioms of set theory are consistent, then both ZF+AC (G¨odel 1938) and ZF+AC (Fraenkel
and Mostowsski, Cohen) are consistent theories [12, IV.2.8]. You may take or leave AC without penalty.
(Just like you may take or leave Euclid’s axiom on parallels depending on what kind of geometry you like
to do.) We shall here include AC and work within ZFC (ZF + AC).
Unlike the other axioms of set theory, the AC does not determine the set C uniquely.
1.28. Theorem. [3, Thm B.18] The following statements are equivalent:
(1) The Axiom of Choice
(2) Any surjective map has a right inverse.
(3) For any nonempty indexed family of (not necessarily disjoint) nonempty sets, ¦A
j
¦
j∈J
, there
exists a function c: J →

j∈J
A
j
(a choice function) such that c(j) ∈ A
j
for all j ∈ J.
(4)

j∈J
A
j
,= ∅ for any nonempty indexed family of nonempty sets.
Proof. (1) =⇒ (2): Let f : A → B be a surjective map. Define the right inverse g : B → A by ¦g(b)¦ =
C ∩f
−1
(b) where C ⊂ A =

b∈B
f
−1
(b) is a set such that C ∩f
−1
(b) contains exactly one point for each
b ∈ B.
(2) =⇒ (3): Define c to be J →

A
j

−→

A
j
where the first map is a right inverse to the function

j∈J
A
j
→ J taking A
j
to j for all j ∈ J.
(3) ⇐⇒ (4): By definition, the product is the set of choice functions.
(3) =⇒ (1): Let / be a nonempty set of nonempty sets. Put C = c(/) where c: / →

A∈A
A is a choice
function.
c: J →

j∈J
A
j
-
J

j∈J
A
j
6








Figure 2. A choice function
Here is a special, but often used, case. Let A be any nonempty set and T

(A) = T(A) −¦∅¦ the set of
nonempty subsets of A. Then there exists (1.28.(3)) a choice function c: T

(A) → A such that c(B) ∈ B
for any nonempty B ⊂ A. (The choice function selects an element in each nonempty subset of A.) If A
is the set R of real numbers, then the Axiom of Choice is a permit to work with a function that to every
nonempty subset of R associates an element of that subset. How would you write down such a function?
4. Finite and infinite sets
1.29. Definition. A set A is finite if S
n+1
∼ A for some n ∈ Z
+
. A set is infinite if it is not finite.
We write X ∼ Y if there is a bijection between the two sets X and Y .
1.30. Lemma. Let n ∈ Z
+
and let B be a proper subset of S
n+1
.
(1) It is impossible to map B onto S
n+1
.
(2) S
m+1
∼ B for some m < n.
Proof. Both statements are proved by induction.
(1) If n = 1, then S
2
= ¦1¦ and B = ∅ so the assertion is true in this case. Assume it is true for some
n ∈ Z
+
. Consider a proper subset B of S
n+1+1
. Suppose that there exists a surjection f : B → S
n+1+1
.
By permuting the elements of B and S
n+1+1
if necessary, we can assume that f(n + 1) = n + 1. Then
B − f
−1
(n + 1) is a proper subset of S
n+1
which is mapped onto S
n+1
by f. But that is impossible by
induction hypothesis.
(2) If n = 1, then S
2
= ¦1¦ and B = ∅ so S
1
∼ B. Assume the assertion is true for some n ∈ Z
+
.
Consider a proper subset B of S
n+1+1
. By permuting the elements of S
n+1+1
if necessary, we can assume
that n + 1 ,∈ B so that B is a subset of S
n+1
. If B = S
n+1
, then B ∼ S
n+1
, of course. Otherwise, B is a
proper subset of S
n+1
and then S
m+1
∼ B for some m < n < n + 1 by induction hypothesis.
4. FINITE AND INFINITE SETS 15
1.31. Corollary. Let A be a finite set.
(1) If S
m+1
∼ A ∼ S
n+1
, then m = n.
(2) Any subset of A is finite.
Proof. (1) Suppose that m ,= n. We may then assume that m < n. But then S
m+1
is a proper
subset of S
n+1
which can be mapped onto S
n+1
. That is not possible.
(2) Since this is true for the model finite set S
n+1
, it is true for all finite sets.
We have just learned that if A is finite then S
n+1
∼ A for a unique n ∈ Z
+
. This n is called the
cardinality of A and it is denoted cardA or [A[. We also learned that if B ⊂ A then B is finite, [B[ ≤ [A[,
and
(1.32) [B[ < [A[ ⇐⇒ B A
which is often called the ‘pidgeon-hole principle’.
1.33. Theorem (Characterization of finite sets). Let A be a set. The following statements are
equivalent
(1) A is finite
(2) There exists a surjection S
n+1
→ A for some n ∈ Z
+
(3) There exists an injection A → S
n+1
for some n ∈ Z
+
Proof. (1) =⇒ (2): There even exists a bijection S
n+1
→ A.
(2) ⇐⇒ (3): 1.4.(2)
(3) =⇒ (1): If there exists an injection A → S
n+1
, then there exists a bijection between A and a subset
of S
n+1
. But we have just seen that all subsets finite sets are finite.
1.34. Corollary (Hereditary properties of finite sets).
(1) Subsets of finite sets are finite.
(2) Images of finite sets are finite.
(3) Finite unions of finite sets are finite.
(4) Finite Cartesian products of finite sets are finite.
Proof. (1) Proved already in 1.31.
(2) S
n+1
A B.
(3) To see that the union of two finite sets is finite, it is enough to show S
m+1
H S
n+1
is finite (for the
union of any two finite sets is an image of this set). But it is immediate that S
m+n+1
∼ S
m+1
H S
n+1
.
Induction now shows that A
1
∪ ∪ A
n
is finite when A
1
, . . . , A
n
are finitely many finite sets.
(4) Let A and B be finite. Since A B =

a∈A
B is the union of finitely many finite sets, it is finite.
Induction now shows that A
1
A
n
is finite when A
1
, . . . , A
n
are finitely many finite sets.
Are all sets finite? No!
1.35. Corollary. Z
+
is infinite.
Proof. There is a surjective map of the proper subset Z
+
−¦1¦ onto Z
+
.
1.36. Theorem (Characterization of infinite sets). Let A be a set. The following are equivalent:
(1) A is infinite
(2) There exists an injective map Z
+
→ A
(3) There exists a surjective map A → Z
+
(4) A is in bijection with a proper subset of itself
Proof. (1) =⇒ (2): Let c: T

(A) → A be a choice function. Define h: Z
+
→ A recursively by
h(1) = c(A)
h(i) = c(A−¦h(1), . . . , h(i −1)¦), i > 1
Then h is injective (if i < j then h(j) ∈ A−¦h(1), . . . , h(i), . . . , h(j −1)¦ so h(i) ,= h(j)).
(2) ⇐⇒ (3): 1.4.(2)
(2) =⇒ (4): We view Z
+
as a subset of A. Then A = (A − Z
+
) ∪ Z
+
is in bijection with the proper
subset A−¦1¦ = (A−Z
+
) ∪ (Z
+
−¦1¦).
(4) =⇒ (1): This is 1.30.
Here we applied the Principle of Recursive Definitions (1.24) to ρ(S
n
f
−→ Z
+
) = c(A−f(S
n
)).
16 1. SETS AND MAPS
5. Countable and uncountable sets
1.37. Definition. A set C is countably infinite if Z
+
∼ C. It is countable if it is finite or countably
infinite. It is uncountable if it is not countable.
1.38. Lemma. Any subset of Z
+
is either finite or countably infinite (in bijection with Z
+
).
Proof. Let C ⊂ Z
+
be an infinite set of positive integers. We show (the stronger statement) that
C has the order type of Z
+
. Define a function h: Z
+
→ C recursively (1.24) by
h(1) = min C
h(i) = min(C −¦h(1), . . . , h(i −1)¦), i > 1
using 1.20. Note that C −¦h(1), . . . , h(i −1)¦ is nonempty since C is infinite (1.33). We claim that h is
bijective.
h is order preserving: If i < j, then
h(i) = min(C −¦h(1), . . . , h(i −1)¦) < min(C −¦h(1), . . . , h(i −1), . . . , h(j −1)¦) = h(j)
because C −¦h(1), . . . , h(i −1)¦ C −¦h(1), . . . , h(i −1), . . . , h(j −1)¦.
h is surjective: Let c ∈ C. We must find a positive integer m such that c = h(m). Our only hope is
m = min¦n ∈ Z
+
[ h(n) ≥ c¦
(Note that this has a meaning since the set ¦n ∈ Z
+
[ h(n) ≥ c¦ is nonempty as we can not inject the
infinite set Z
+
into the finite set ¦1, . . . , c − 1¦ = S
c
(1.31). Note also that again we use 1.20.) By
definition of m,
h(m) ≥ c and h(n) ≥ c ⇒ n ≥ m
The last of these two properties is equivalent to n < m ⇒ h(n) < c, so c ,∈ ¦h(1), . . . , h(m − 1)¦, or
c ∈ C −¦h(1), . . . , h(m−1)¦, and therefore
h(m) = min(C −¦h(1), . . . , h(m−1)¦) ≤ c
by definition of h. Thus h(m) = c.
Here we applied the Principle of Recursive Definitions (1.24) to ρ(S
n
f
−→ C) = min(C −f(S
n
)).
1.39. Theorem (Characterization of countable sets). Let A be a set. The following statements are
equivalent
(1) A is countable
(2) There exists a surjection Z
+
→ A
(3) There exists an injection A → Z
+
Proof. If A is finite, the theorem is true, so we assume that A is countably infinite.
(1) =⇒ (2): Clear.
(2) ⇐⇒ (3): 1.4.(2)
(3) =⇒ (1): We may as well assume that A ⊂ Z
+
. Since A is assumed to infinite, A is countably infinite
by Lemma 1.38.
1.40. Example. Z
+
is obviously infinitely countable. The map f : Z
+
Z
+
→ Z
+
given by f(m, n) =
2
m
3
n
is injective by uniqueness of prime factorizations. The map g : Z
+
Z
+
→ Q
+
given by g(m, n) =
m
n
, is surjective. Thus Z
+
Z
+
and Q
+
are infinitely countable.
1.41. Corollary (Hereditary properties of countable sets).
(1) A subset of a countable set is countable
(2) The image of a countable set is countable.
(3) A countable union of countable sets is countable (assuming AC).
3
(4) A finite product of countable sets is countable.
Proof. (1) B A Z
+
.
(2) Z
+
A B.
(3) Let ¦A
j
¦
j∈J
be an indexed family of sets where J is countable and each set A
j
is countable. It is
enough to show that

A
j
is countable. We leave the case where the index set J is finite as an exercise
3
In set theory without AC, R is a countable union of countable sets [12, p 228]
5. COUNTABLE AND UNCOUNTABLE SETS 17
and consider only the case where J is infinite. Then we may as well assume that J = Z
+
. Choose (!) for
each n ∈ Z
+
an injective map f
n
: A
n
→ Z
+
. Then we have injective maps

A
n

f
n
−−−→

Z
+
= Z
+
Z
+
(1.40)
−−−−→ Z
+
so

A
n
is countable.
(4) If A and B are countable, so is A B =

a∈A
B as we have just seen. Now use induction to show
that if A
1
, . . . , A
n
are countable, so is A
1
A
n
.
You may think that a countable product of countable sets is countable or indeed that all sets are
finite or countable – but that’s false.
1.42. Theorem. Let A be any set.
(1) There is no injective map T(A) → A
(2) There is no surjective map A → T(A)
Proof. (Cantor’s diagonal argument.) It is a general fact (1.4.(2)) that (1) ⇐⇒ (2). Thus it
suffices to show (2). Let g : A → T(A) be any function. Then
¦a ∈ A [ a ,∈ g(a)¦ ∈ T(A)
is not in the image of g. Because if this set were of the form g(b) for some b ∈ A, then we’d have
b ∈ g(b) ⇐⇒ b ,∈ g(b)

1.43. Corollary. The set T(Z
+
) = map(Z
+
, ¦0, 1¦) =

n∈Z
+
¦0, 1¦ = ¦0, 1¦
ω
is uncountable.
Russel’s paradox also exploits Cantor’s diagonal argument.
We have seen (1.38) that any subset of Z
+
is either finite or in bijection with Z
+
. What about
subsets of R?
1.44. Conjecture (Cantor’s Continuum Hypothesis, CH). Any subset of R is either countable or
in bijection with R.
CH is independent of the ZFC axioms for set theory in that if ZFC is consistent then both ZFC+CH
(G¨odel 1950) and ZFC+CH (Cohen 1963) are consistent theories [12, VII.4.26] [4]. Our axioms are not
adequate to settle the CH.
Look up the generalized continuum hypothesis (GCH) [Ex 11.8] (due to Hausdorff) somewhere [15,
16]. It is not customary to assume the GCH; if you do, the AC becomes a theorem.
18 1. SETS AND MAPS
6. Well-ordered sets
We have seen that all nonempty subsets of (Z
+
, <) have a smallest element and we have used this
property in quite a few places so there is reason to suspect that this is an important property in general.
This is the reason for the following definition. You may think of well-ordered sets as some kind of
generalized versions of Z
+
.
1.45. Definition. A set A with a linear order < is well-ordered if any nonempty subset has a smallest
element.
Any well-ordered set has a smallest element. Any element a ∈ A (but the largest element, if there is
one) in a well-ordered set has an immediate successor a
+
, the smallest successor. (And any element (but
the smallest) has an immediate predecessor?) A well-ordered set can not contain an infinite descending
chain x
1
> x
2
> , in fact, a linearly ordered set is well-ordered if and only if it does not contain a
copy of the negative integers Z

[Ex 10.4].
Let (A, <) be a well-ordered set and α an element of A. The subset of predecessors of α,
S
α
(A) = S
α
= (−∞, α) = ¦a ∈ A [ a < α¦
is called the section of A by α.
The induction principle and the principle of recursive definitions apply not only to Z
+
but to any
well-ordered set.
1.46. Theorem (Principle of Transfinite Induction). (Cf 1.22) Let (A, <) be a well-ordered set and
J ⊂ A a subset such that
∀α ∈ A: S
α
⊂ J =⇒ α ∈ J
Then J = A.
Proof. Formally identical to the proof of 1.22.
1.47. Theorem (Principle of Transfinite Recursive Definitions). Let (A, <) be a well-ordered set. For
any set B and any function
ρ:

¦map(S
α
, B) [ α ∈ A¦ → B
there exists a unique function h: A → B such that h(α) = ρ(h[S
α
) for all α ∈ A.
1.48. Proposition (Hereditary properties of well-ordered sets).
(1) A subset of a well-ordered set is well-ordered.
(2) The coproduct of any well-ordered family of well-ordered sets is well-ordered [Ex 10.8].
(3) The product of any finite family of well-ordered sets is well-ordered.
Proof. (1) Clear.
(2) Let J be a well-ordered set and ¦A
j
¦
j∈J
a family of well-ordered sets indexed by J. For i, j ∈ J
and x ∈ A
i
, y ∈ A
j
, define
(i, x) < (j, y)
def
⇐⇒ i < j or (i = j and x < y)
and convince yourself that this is a well-ordering.
(3) If (A, <) and (B, <) well-ordered then A B =

a∈A
B is well-ordered. Now use induction to
show that the product A
1
A
n
of finitely many well-ordered sets A
1
, . . . , A
n
is well-ordered.

If C a nonempty subset of A B then min C = (c
1
, min π
2
(C ∩ π
−1
1
(c
1
))) where c
1
= min π
1
(C) is
the smallest element of C.
1.49. Example. (1) The positive integers (Z
+
, <) is a well-ordered set.
(2) Z and R are not well-ordered sets.
(3) Any section S
n+1
= ¦1, 2, . . . , n¦ of Z
+
is well-ordered (1.48.(1)).
(4) The product S
n+1
Z
+
is well-ordered (1.48.(3)). The finite products Z
n
+
= Z
+
Z
+
Z
+
are
well-ordered (1.48.(3)).
(5) The infinite product ¦0, 1¦
ω
is not well-ordered for it contains the infinite descending chain (1, 0, 0, 0, . . .) >
(0, 1, 0, 0, . . .) > (0, 0, 1, 0, . . .) > .
7. PARTIALLY ORDERED SETS, THE MAXIMUM PRINCIPLE AND ZORN’S LEMMA 19
(6) The set S
ω
= [1, ω] = Z
+
H ¦ω¦ is well-ordered (1.48.(2)). It has ω as its largest element. The
section S
ω
= [1, ω) = Z
+
is countably infinite but any other section is finite. Any finite subset A of
[1, ω) has an upper bound because the set of non-upper bounds
¦x ∈ [1, ω) [ ∃a ∈ A: x < a¦ =
_
a∈A
S
a
is finite (1.34.(3)) but [1, ω) is infinite. S
ω
has the same order type as the interval [1 1, 2 1] in
Z
+
Z
+
.
Which of these well-ordereds have the same order type [Ex 10.3]? Draw pictures of examples of
well-ordered sets.
We can classify completely all finite well-ordered sets.
1.50. Theorem (Finite order types). [Ex 6.4] Any finite linearly ordered set A of cardinality n has
the order type of (S
n+1
, <); in particular, it is well-ordered and it has a largest element.
Proof. Define h: S
n+1
→ A recursively by h(1) = min A and
h(i) = min(A−¦h(1), . . . , h(i −1)¦, i > 1
Then h is order preserving. In particular, h is injective and hence bijective (by the pigeon hole principle
(1.32)) since the two sets have the same cardinality.
Can you find an explicit order preserving bijection S
m+1
S
n+1
→ S
m+n+1
?
So there is just one order type of a given finite cardinality n. There are many countably infinite
well-ordered sets (1.49). Is there an uncountable well-ordered set? Our examples, R and ¦0, 1¦
ω
, of
uncountable sets are not well-ordered (1.49.(2), 1.49.(5)).
1.51. Theorem (Well-ordering theorem). (Zermelo 1904) Any set can be well-ordered.
We focus on the minimal criminal, the minimal uncountable well-ordered set. (It may help to look at
1.49.(6) again.)
1.52. Lemma. There exists a well-ordered set S

= [0, Ω] with a smallest element, 0, and a largest
element, Ω, such that:
(1) The section S

= [0, Ω) by Ω is uncountable but any other section, S
α
= [0, α) for α < Ω, is
countable.
(2) Any countable subset of S

= [0, Ω) has an upper bound in S

= [0, Ω)
Proof. (Cf 1.49.(6)) Take any uncountable well-ordered set A (1.51). Append a greatest element to
A. Call the result A again. Now A has at least one uncountable section. Let Ω be the smallest element
of A such that the section by this element is uncountable, that is Ω = min¦α ∈ A [ S
α
is uncountable¦.
Put S

= [0, Ω] where 0 is the smallest element of A. This well-ordered set satisfies (1) and (2). Let C
be a countable subset of S

= [0, Ω). We want to show that it has an upper bound. We consider the set
of elements of S

that are not upper bounds, i.e
¦x ∈ S

[ x is not an upper bound for C¦ = ¦x ∈ S

[ ∃c ∈ C: x < c¦ =
countable
¸ .. ¸
_
c∈C
S
c

uncountable
¸..¸
S

This set of not upper bounds is countable for it is a countable union of countable sets (1.41.(4)). But S

is uncountable, so the set of not upper bounds is a proper subset.
See [SupplExI : 8] for an explicit construction of a well-ordered uncountable set. Z
+
is the well-
ordered set of all finite (nonzero) order types and S

is the well-ordered set of all countable (nonzero)
order types. See [Ex 10.6] for further properties of S

.
Recall that the ordered set Z
+
[0, 1) is a linear continuum of the same order type as [1, ∞) ⊂ R.
What happens if we replace Z
+
by S

[Ex 24.6, 24.12]?
7. Partially ordered sets, The Maximum Principle and Zorn’s lemma
If we do not insist on comparability in our order relation (Definition 1.12) we obtain a partial order:
1.53. Definition. A strict partial order on a set A is a non-reflexive and transitive relation ≺⊂ AA:
(1) a ≺ a holds for no a ∈ A
(2) a ≺ b and b ≺ c implies a ≺ c.
20 1. SETS AND MAPS
A partially ordered set (a poset, for short) is a set with a strict partial order. We do not require
that any two elements can be compared. For instance, power sets are strictly partially ordered by strict
inclusion (in fact, it is good idea to read ≺ as ”is contained in”). Here is an example of a finite poset:
A11
A12 A21
A22
A23
A24
A31
A32
A33
A34
A41
A42
A43
A44
A51
A52

O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O

o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o

o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o

O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
¸























o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o

O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O

o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o

O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O

O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O

o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o

O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O

?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?

?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?

O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O

o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o

¸






















O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O

o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o

o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o

O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
1.54. Definition. Let (A, ≺) be a set with a strict partial order and m an element of A.
• m is maximal if it has no successors, ∀a ∈ A: m _ a =⇒ m = a
• m is an upper bound for B ⊂ A if all elements of B precedes or equals m, ∀b ∈ B: b _ m.
In the above example, the elements A51 and A52 are maximal because they have no successors. The
element A51, but not the element A452, is an upper bound for the set ¦A33, A42¦
1.55. Theorem (Hausdorff’s Maximum Principle). Any linearly ordered subset of a poset is contained
in a maximal linearly ordered subset.
Proof. We shall only consider the case where the linearly ordered subset is empty where the state-
ment is that any poset contains maximal linearly ordered subsets. As a special case, suppose that the
poset is infinitely countable. We may as well assume that the poset is Z
+
with some partial order ≺.
Define h: Z
+
→ ¦0, 1¦ recursively by h(1) = 0 and
h(i) =
_
0 ¦j < i[h(j) = 0¦ ∪ ¦i¦ is linearly ordered wrt ≺
1 otherwise
for i > 0. Then H = h
−1
(0) is a maximal linearly ordered subset.
For the proof in the general case, let (A, <) be a poset, well-order A (1.51), apply the Principle of
Transfinite Recursion (1.47) to the function
ρ(S
α
f
−→ ¦0, 1¦) =
_
0 f
−1
(0) ∪ ¦α¦ is a linearly ordered subset of A
1 otherwise
and get a function h: A → ¦0, 1¦.
1.56. Theorem (Zorn’s lemma). Let (A, <) be a poset. Suppose that all linearly ordered subsets of
A have upper bounds. Then any linearly ordered subset is bounded from above by a maximal element. In
particular, for any element a of A there is a maximal element m of A such that a _ m.
Proof. Let H ⊂ A be a maximal linearly ordered subset. According to Hausdorff’s Maximum
Principle, we may assume that H is maximal. By hypothesis, H has an upper bound m, i.e. x _ m for
all x ∈ H. By maximality of H, m must be in H, and there can be no element in A greater than m.
(Suppose that m ≺ d for some d. Then x _ m ≺ d for all elements of H so H ∪ ¦d¦ is linearly ordered,
contradicting maximality of H.)
We shall later use Zorn’s lemma to prove Tychonoff’s theorem (2.149) that a product of compact
spaces is compact. In fact, The Axiom of Choice, Zermelo’s Well-ordering theorem, Hausdorff’s maximum
principle, Zorn’s lemma, and Tychonoff’s theorem are equivalent.
Here are two typical applications. Recall that a basis for a vector space over a field is a maximal
independent subset and that a maximal ideal in a ring is a maximal proper ideal.
1.57. Theorem. Any linearly independent subset of a vector space is contained in a basis.
Proof. Apply Zorn’s lemma to the poset of independent subsets of the vector space. Any linearly
ordered set of independent subsets has an upper bound, namely its union.
1.58. Theorem. Any proper ideal of a ring is contained in a maximal ideal.
7. PARTIALLY ORDERED SETS, THE MAXIMUM PRINCIPLE AND ZORN’S LEMMA 21
Proof. Apply Zorn’s lemma to the poset of proper ideals. Any linearly ordered set of proper ideals
has an upper bound, namely its union.
As a corollary of (1.57) we see that R and R
2
are isomorphic as vector spaces over Q.
Other authors prefer to work with partial orders instead of strict partial orders.
1.59. Definition. Let A be a set. A relation _ on A is said to be a partial order precisely when
it is symmetric (that is a _ a for all a in A), transitive (that is a _ b and b _ c implies a _ c), and
anti-symmetric (that is a _ b and b _ a implies a = b).
> SubgroupLattice(AlternatingGroup(5));
Partially ordered set of subgroup classes
----------------------------------------------
[1] Order 1 Length 1 Maximal Subgroups:
---
[2] Order 2 Length 15 Maximal Subgroups: 1
[3] Order 3 Length 10 Maximal Subgroups: 1
[4] Order 5 Length 6 Maximal Subgroups: 1
---
[5] Order 4 Length 5 Maximal Subgroups: 2
[6] Order 6 Length 10 Maximal Subgroups: 2 3
[7] Order 10 Length 6 Maximal Subgroups: 2 4
---
[8] Order 12 Length 5 Maximal Subgroups: 3 5
---
[9] Order 60 Length 1 Maximal Subgroups: 6 7 8
Table 1. The poset of subgroups of the alternating group A
5
CHAPTER 2
Topological spaces and continuous maps
1. Topological spaces
What does it mean that a map f : X → Y between two sets is continuous? To answer this question,
and much more, we equip sets with topologies.
2.1. Definition. Let X be a set. A topology on X is a set T ⊂ T(X) of subsets of X, called open
sets, such that
(1) ∅ and X are open
(2) The intersection of finitely many open sets is open
(3) Any union of open sets is open
A topological space is a set X together with a topology T on X.
2.2. Example (Examples of topologies). (1) In the trivial topology T = ¦∅, X¦, only two subsets
are open.
(2) In the discrete topology T = T(X), all subsets are open.
(3) In the particular point topology, the open sets are ∅, X and all subsets containing a particular point
x ∈ X. For instance, the Sierpinski space is the set X = ¦0, 1¦ with the particular point topology for
the point 0. The open sets are T = ¦∅, ¦0¦, X¦.
(4) In the finite complement topology (or cofinite topology), the open sets are ∅ and X and all subsets
with a finite complement.
(5) The standard topology on the real line R is T = ¦unions of open intervals¦.
(6) More generally, suppose that (X, d) is a metric space. The open r-ball centered at x ∈ X is the
set B
d
(x, r) = ¦y ∈ X [ d(x, y) < r¦ of points within distance r > 0 from x. The metric topology on
X is the collection T
d
= ¦unions of open balls¦. The open sets of the topological space (X, T
d
) and
the open sets in the metric space (X, d) are the same. (See ¸.8 for more on metric topologies.)
The Sierpinski topology and the finite complement topology on an infinite set are not metric topolo-
gies.
Topologies on X are partially ordered by inclusion. For instance, the finite complement topology
(2.2.(4)) on R is contained in the standard topology (2.2.(5), and the indiscrete topology (2.2.(1)) on
¦0, 1¦ is contained in the Sierpinski topology (2.2.(3)) is contained in the discrete topology (2.2.(2)).
2.3. Definition (Comparison of topologies). Let T and T

be two topologies on X.
T is finer than T

T

is coarser than T
_
def
⇐⇒ T ⊃ T

The finest topology is the topology with the most opens sets, the coarsest topology is the one with
fewest open sets. (Think of sandpaper!) The discrete topology is finer and the indiscrete topology coarser
than any other topology: T(X) ⊃ T ⊃ ¦∅, X¦. Of course, two topologies may also be incomparable.
2.4. Definition. A neighborhood of a point x ∈ X is an open set containing x. A neighborhood of
a set A ⊂ X is an open set containing A.
2.5. Subbasis and basis for a topology. In a metric topology (2.2.(6)) the open sets are unions
of balls. This is a special case of a topology basis. Remember that, in a metric topology, any point is
contained in an open ball and the intersection of two open balls is a union of open balls.
2.6. Definition (Basis and subbasis). A topology basis is a set B ⊂ T(X) of subsets of X, called
basis sets, such that
(1) Any point of X lies in a basis set, ie X =

B.
(2) The intersection of any two basis sets is a union of basis sets.
A topology subbasis is a set o ⊂ T(X) of subsets of X, called subbasis sets, such that
23
24 2. TOPOLOGICAL SPACES AND CONTINUOUS MAPS
(1) Any point of X lies in a subasis set, ie X =

o
If B is a topology basis then the set of subsets of X
T
B
= ¦unions of basis sets¦
is called the topology generated by B. Note that T
B
is a topology, the coarsests topology in which the
basis sets are open.
If o is a topology subbasis then the set of subsets of X
T
S
= ¦unions of finite intersections of subbasis sets¦
is called the topology generated by o. Note that T
S
is a topology, the coarsests topology in which the
subbasis sets are open. (Use the distributive laws [¸1] for ∪ and ∩.) The set
(2.7) B
S
= ¦Finite intersections of o-sets¦
is a topology basis generating the same topology as the subbasis: T
B
S
= T
S
.
A topology is a topology basis is a topology subbasis.
Given a topology T and a topology basis B, we say that B a basis for T if B generates T , ie T
B
= T .
Given a topology T and a topology subbasis o, we say that o a subbasis for T if o generates T , ie
T
S
= T .
2.8. Proposition (Finding a (sub)basis for a given topology). The topology basis B is a basis for
the topology T if and only if
(1) the basis sets are open, and,
(2) all open sets are unions of basis sets
The subbasis o is a subbasis for the topology T if and only if
(1) the subbasis sets are open, and,
(2) all open sets are unions of finite intersections of subbasis sets
2.9. Example. (1) The set of all open rays o = ¦(−∞, b) [ b ∈ R¦ ∪ ¦(a, +∞) [ a ∈ R¦ is a
subbasis and the set B = ¦(a, b) [ a, b ∈ R, a < b¦ of all open intervals is a basis for the standard
topology on R (2.2.(5)).
(2) The set of all open balls is a basis for the metric topology on a metric space (2.2.(6)).
How can we compare topologies given by bases? How can we tell if two bases, or a subbasis and a
basis, generate the same topology? (Two topologies, bases or subbases are said to be equivalent if they
generate the same topology.)
2.10. Lemma (Comparison). Let B and B

be two bases and o a subbasis.
(1)
T
B
⊂ T
B
⇐⇒ B ⊂ T
B
⇐⇒ All B-sets are open in T
B

(2)
T
B
= T
B
⇐⇒
_
All B-sets are open in T
B

All B

-sets are open in T
B
_
(3)
T
B
= T
S
⇐⇒
_
All B-sets are open in T
S
All o-sets are open in T
B
_
Proof. (1) is obvious since T
B
is the coarsest topology containing B. Item (2) is immediate from (1).
Item (3) is proved in the same way since T
B
= T
S
iff T
B
⊂ T
S
and T
B
⊃ T
S
iff B ⊂ T
S
and T
B
⊃ o.
2.11. Example. [Topologies on R] We consider three topologies on R:
R: The standard topology with basis the open intervals (a, b).
R

: The right half-open interval topology with basis the right half-open intervals [a, b).
R
K
: The K-topology with basis ¦(a, b)¦ ∪ ¦(a, b) −K¦ where K = ¦1,
1
2
,
1
3
,
1
4
, . . .¦.
The right half-open interval topology is strictly finer than the standard topology because any open interval
is a union of half-open intervals but not conversely (2.10) ((a, b) =

a<x<b
[x, b), and [0, 1) is open in R

but not in R; an open interval containing 0 is not a subset of [0, 1)). The K-topology is strictly finer
than the standard topology because its basis contains the standard basis and R−K is open in R
K
but
not in R (an open interval containing 0 is not a subset of R− K). The topologies R

and R
K
are not
comparable [Ex 13.6].
3. THE PRODUCT TOPOLOGY 25
2.12. Example. (1) In a metric space, the set B = ¦B(x, r) [ x ∈ X, r > 0¦ of open balls is (by
definition) a basis for the metric topology T
d
. The collection of open balls of radius
1
n
, n ∈ Z
+
, is an
equivalent topology basis for T
d
.
(2) The collection of rectangular regions (a
1
, b
1
)(a
2
, b
2
) in the plane R
2
is a topology basis equivalent
to the standard basis of open balls B(a, r) = ¦x ∈ R
2
[ [x −a[ < r¦. you can always put a ball inside
a rectangle and a rectangle inside a ball.
(3) Let f : X → Y be any map. If T is a topology on Y with basis B or subbasis o , then the pull-back
f
−1
(T ) is a topology, the initial topology for f, on X with basis f
−1
(B) and subbasis f
−1
(o).
(4) More generally, let X be a set, ¦Y
j
¦ a collection of topological spaces, and f
j
: X → Y
j
, j ∈ J, a set
of maps. Let T
j
be the topology on Y
j
, B
j
a basis and o
j
a subbasis for all j ∈ J. Then

f
−1
j
(T
j
),

f
−1
j
(B
j
),

f
−1
j
(o
j
) are equivalent subbases on X. The topology they generate is called the initial
topology for the maps f
j
, j ∈ J.
2. Order topologies
We associate a topological space to any linearly ordered set and obtain a large supply of examples
of topological spaces. You may view the topological space as a means to study the ordered set, to find
invariants, or you may view this construction as a provider of interesting examples of topological spaces.
Let (X, <) be a linearly ordered set containing at least two points. The open rays in X are the
subsets
(−∞, b) = ¦x ∈ X [ x < b¦, (a, +∞) = ¦x ∈ X [ a < x¦
of X. The set o
<
of all open rays is clearly a subbasis (2.8) for a topology on X (just as in 2.9).
2.13. Definition. The order topology T
<
on the linearly ordered set X is the topology generated by
all open rays. A linearly ordered space is a linearly ordered set with the order topology.
The open intervals in X are the subsets of the form
(a, b) = (−∞, b) ∩ (a, +∞) = ¦x ∈ X [ a < x < b¦, a, b ∈ X, a < b.
2.14. Lemma (Basis for the order topology). Let (X, <) be a linearly ordered set.
(1) The union of all open rays and all open intervals is a basis for the order topology T
<
.
(2) If X has no smallest and no largest element, then the set ¦(a, b) [ a, b ∈ X, a < b¦ of all open
intervals is a basis for the order topology.
Proof. We noted in (2.7) that B
S
<
= ¦Finite intersections of o-sets¦ = o ∪¦(a, b) [ a, b ∈ X, a < b¦
is a basis for the topology generated by the subbasis o
<
.
If X has a smallest element a
0
then (−∞, b) = [a
0
, b) is open. If X has no smallest element, then
the open ray (−∞, b) =

a<c
(a, c) is a union of open intervals and we do not need this open ray in the
basis. Similar remarks apply to the greatest element when it exists.
2.15. Example. (1) The order topology on the ordered set (R, <) is the standard topology (2.9).
(2) The order topology on the ordered set R
2
has as basis the collection of all open intervals (a
1

a
2
, b
1
b
2
). An equivalent basis (2.10) consists of the open intervals (a b
1
, a b
2
). The order
topology R
2
<
is strictly finer than the metric topology R
2
d
.
(3) The order topology on Z
+
is the discrete topology because (−∞, n) ∩ (∞, n + 1) = ¦n¦ is open.
(4) The order topology on Z
+
Z
+
is not discrete. Any open set that contains the element 2 1 also
contains elements from ¦1¦ Z
+
. Thus the set ¦1 2¦ is not open.
(5) The order topology on Z Z is discrete.
(6) Is the order topology on S

discrete?
(7) I
2
= [0, 1]
2
with the order topology is denoted I
2
o
and called the ordered square. The open sets
containing the point x y ∈ I
2
o
look quite different depending on whether y ∈ ¦0, 1¦ or 0 < y < 1.
3. The product topology
Let (X
j
)
j∈J
be an indexed family of topological spaces. Let π
k
:

j∈J
X
j
→ X
k
be the projection
map. An open cylinder is a subset of the product space of the form
π
−1
k
(U
k
), U
k
⊂ X
k
open, k ∈ J.
The set π
−1
k
(U
k
) consists of the points (x
j
) ∈

X
j
with kth coordinate in U
k
. Alternatively, π
−1
k
(U
k
)
consists of all choice functions c: J →

j∈J
U
j
such that c(k) ∈ U
k
(Figure 2).
26 2. TOPOLOGICAL SPACES AND CONTINUOUS MAPS
2.16. Definition. The product topology on

j∈J
X
j
is the topology with subbasis
o
Q
=
_
j∈J
¦π
−1
j
(U
j
) [ U
j
⊂ X
j
open¦
consisting of all open cylinders or, equivalently, with basis (2.7)
B
Q
= ¦

j∈J
U
j
[ U
j
⊂ X
j
open and U
j
= X
j
for all but finitely many j ∈ J¦
The product topology is the coarsest topology making all the projection maps π
j
:

X
j
→ X
j
, j ∈ J,
continuous.
This becomes particularly simple when we consider finite products.
2.17. Lemma. Let X = X
1
X
2
X
k
be a finite Cartesian product. The collection
B = ¦U
1
U
2
U
k
[ U
1
open in X
1
, U
2
open in X
2
, . . . , U
k
open in X
k
¦
of all products of open sets is a basis for the product topology.
2.18. Corollary. Suppose that B
j
is a basis for the topology on X
j
, j = 1, . . . , k. Then B
1
B
k
is a basis for the product topology on X
1
X
k
.
Proof. Note that B
1
B
k
is indeed a basis. Compare it to the basis of 2.17 using 2.10.
2.19. Products of linearly ordered spaces. When (X, <) and (Y, <) are linearly ordered sets, we
now have two topologies on the Cartesian product XY : The product topology of the order topologies,
(X, T
<
) (Y, T
<
), and the order topology of the product dictionary order, (X Y, T
<
). These two
topologies are in general not identical or even comparable. It is difficult to imagine any general relation
between them since X
<
Y
<
is essentially symmetric in X and Y whereas the dictionary order has no
such symmetry. But even when X = Y there does not seem to be a general pattern: The order topology
(Z
+
Z
+
, T
<
) is coarser than the product topology (Z
+
, T
<
)(Z
+
, T
<
) (which is discrete) (2.15.(4)–(5)).
On the other hand, the order topology (RR, T
<
) is finer than the product topology (R, T
<
) (R, T
<
)
which is the standard topology, see 2.15.(1)–(2) and [Ex 16.9].
2.20. Corollary (Cf [Ex 16.9]). Let (X, <) and (Y, <) be two linearly ordered sets. Suppose that Y
does not have a largest or a smallest element. Then the order topology (X Y )
<
= X
d
Y
<
where X
d
is X with the discrete topology. This topology is finer than X
<
Y
<
.
Proof. The equations
(−∞, a b) =
_
x<a
¦x¦ Y ∪ ¦a¦ (−∞, b), (a b, +∞) = ¦a¦ (b, +∞) ∪
_
x>a
¦x¦ Y
show that the order topology is coarser than the product of the discrete and the order topology. On the
other hand, the sets ¦x¦ (c, d) is a basis for = X
d
Y
<
(2.14.(2), 2.18) and ¦x¦ (c, d) = (x c, x d)
is open in the order topology since it is an open interval.
The corollary shows that the order topology on XY does not yield anything new in case the second
factor is unbounded in both directions. As an example where this is not the case we have already seen
Z
+
Z
+
and I
2
o
(2.15.(4), 2.15.(7)).
2.21. The coproduct topology. The coproduct topology on the coproduct

X
j
(Chapter 1.3)
is the finest topology making all the inclusion maps ι
j
: X
j

X
j
, j ∈ J, continuous.
This means that
U ⊂

j∈J
X
j
is open ⇐⇒ ι
−1
j
(U) is open for all j ∈ J
Alternatively, the open sets of the coproduct

X
j
are the coproducts

U
j
of open set U
j
⊂ X
j
.
4. The subspace topology
Let (X, T ) be a topological space and Y ⊂ X a subset. We make Y into a topological space.
2.22. Definition. The subspace topology on Y is the topology T

= Y ∩ T = ¦Y ∩ U [ U ∈ T ¦. A
subset V ⊂ Y is
_
open
closed
_
relative to Y if it is
_
open
closed
_
in T

.
It is immediate that T

is indeed a topology.
4. THE SUBSPACE TOPOLOGY 27
2.23. Lemma. If B is a basis for T , then Y ∩B = ¦Y ∩U [ U ∈ B¦ is a basis for the subspace topology
Y ∩ T . If o is a subbasis for T , then Y ∩ o = ¦Y ∩ U [ U ∈ o¦ is a subbasis for the subspace topology
Y ∩ T .
Proof. This is 2.12.(3) applied to the inclusion map A → X.
2.24. Lemma. Assume that A ⊂ Y ⊂ X. Then
(1) A is
_
open
closed
_
in Y ⇐⇒ A = Y ∩ U for some
_
open
closed
_
set U in X
(2) If Y is
_
open
closed
_
then: A is
_
open
closed
_
in Y ⇐⇒ A is
_
open
closed
_
in X
Proof. (1) This is the definition of the subspace topology.
(2) Suppose that Y is open and that A ⊂ Y . Then
A open in Y ⇐⇒ A = Y ∩ U for some open U ⊂ X ⇐⇒ A open in X
in that A = A∩ Y . Similarly, if Y is closed.
The lemma says that an open subset of an open subset is open and that a closed subset of a closed
subset is closed.
The next theorem says that the subspace and the product space operations commute.
2.25. Theorem. Let Y
j
⊂ X
j
, j ∈ J. The subspace topology that

Y
j
inherits from

X
j
is the
product topology of the subspace topologies on Y
j
.
Proof. The subspace topology on

Y
j
has subbasis

Y
j
∩ o
Q
X
j
=

Y
j

_
k∈j
¦π
−1
k
(U
k
)¦ =
_
k∈J
¦

Y
j
∩ π
−1
k
(U
k
)¦, U
k
⊂ X
k
open,
and the product topology on

Y
j
has subbasis
o
Q
Y
j
=
_
k∈J
¦π
−1
k
(Y
k
∩ U
k
)¦, U
k
⊂ X
k
open
These two subbases are identical for π
−1
k
(Y
k
∩ U
k
)
[8, Ex 2.2]
= π
−1
k
(Y
k
) ∩ π
−1
k
(U
k
) = (

Y
j
) ∩ π
−1
k
(U
k
).
2.26. Subspaces of linearly ordered spaces. When (X, <) is a linearly ordered set and Y ⊂ X
a subset we now have two topologies on Y . We can view Y as a subspace of the topological space X
<
with the order topology or we can view Y as a sub-ordered set of X and give Y the order topology. Note
that these two topologies are not the same when X = R and Y = [0, 1) ∪ ¦2¦ ⊂ R: In the subspace
topology ¦2¦ is open in Y but ¦2¦ is not open in the order topology because Y has the order type of
[0, 1]. See 2.28 for more examples. The point is that
• Any open ray in Y is the intersection of Y with an open ray in X
• The intersection of Y with an open ray in X need not be an open ray in Y
However, if Y happens to be convex then open rays in Y are precisely Y intersected with open rays in
X.
2.27. Lemma (Y
<
⊂ Y ∩ X
<
). Let (X, <) be a linearly ordered set and Y ⊂ X a subset. The order
topology on Y is coarser than the subspace topology Y in general. If Y is convex, the two topologies on
Y are identical.
Proof. The order topology on Y has subbasis
o
<
= ¦Y ∩ (−∞, b) [ b ∈ Y ¦ ∪ ¦Y ∩ (a, ∞) [ a ∈ Y ¦
and the subspace topology on Y has subbasis
o

= ¦Y ∩ (−∞, b) [ b ∈ X¦ ∪ ¦Y ∩ (a, ∞) [ a ∈ X¦
Clearly, o
<
⊂ o

, so the order topology on Y is coarser than the subspace topology in general.
If Y is convex and b ∈ X − Y then b is either a lower or an upper bound for Y as we cannot have
y
1
< b < y
2
for two points y
1
and y
2
of Y . If b is a lower bound for Y , then Y ∩ (−∞, b) = ∅, and if b is
an upper bound for Y , then Y ∩ (−∞, b) = Y . Therefore also o

⊂ T
<
so that in fact T
<
= T

.

2.28. Example. (1) S
2×1
= 1 Z
+
∪ ¦2 1¦ = [1 1, 2 1] is a convex subset of Z
+
Z
+
. The
subspace topology (2.15.(4)) is the same as the order topology.
28 2. TOPOLOGICAL SPACES AND CONTINUOUS MAPS
(2) The subset Z
+
Z
+
is not convex in ZZ so we expect the subspace topology to be strictly finer
than the order topology. Indeed, the subspace topology that Z
+
Z
+
inherits from the discrete space
Z Z is discrete but the order topology is not discrete (2.15.(4)–(5)).
(3) Consider X = R
2
and Y = [0, 1]
2
with order topologies. Y is not convex so we expect the subspace
topology to be strictly finer than the order topology. Indeed, the subspace topology on [0, 1]
2
, which
is [0, 1]
d
[0, 1], is strictly finer than I
2
o
(2.15.(7)): The set
[0,
1
2
] [0, 1] = ([0, 1] [0, 1]) ∩ (−∞,
1
2
2)
is open in the subspace topology on Y but it is not open in the order topology on Y as any basis open
set (2.14) containing
1
2
1 also contains points with first coordinate >
1
2
.
(4) Consider X = R
2
and Y = (0, 1)
2
with order topologies. Y is not convex so we expect the subspace
topology to be strictly finer than the order topology. But it isn’t! The reason is that (0, 1) does not
have a greatest nor a smallest element (2.20).
(5) The subset Q of the linearly ordered set R is not convex but nevertheless the subspace topology
inherited from R is the order topology. Again, the reason seems to be that Q does not have a greatest
nor a smallest element.
5. CLOSED SETS AND LIMIT POINTS 29
5. Closed sets and limit points
2.29. Definition. A subset of a topological space is closed if its complement is open.
2.30. Lemma. The closed subsets of a topological space X have these properties:
(1) ∅ and X are closed
(2) The union of finitely many closed sets is closed
(3) Any intersection of closed sets is closed.
Conversely, any set of subsets of X with these properties, are the closed sets for a topology.
2.31. Example. (1) [a, b] is closed in R, [a, b) is neither closed nor open, R is both closed and
open.
(2) Let X = [0, 1] ∪(2, 3). The subsets [0, 1] and (2, 3) of X are both closed and open (they are clopen)
as subsets of X.
(3) K = ¦1,
1
2
,
1
3
, . . .¦ is not closed in R but it is closed in R
K
(2.11).
(4) R

is (2.11) the set of real numbers equipped with the topology generated by the basis sets [a, b)
of right half-open intervals. All sets that are (open) closed in the standard topology R are also
(open) closed in the finer topology R

. Sets of the form (−∞, a) =

x<a
[x, a) = R − [a, ∞),
[a, b) = (−∞, b) ∩ [a, ∞), and [a, ∞) =

a<x
[a, x) = R− (−∞, a) are both open and closed. Sets of
the form (−∞, b] or [a, b] are closed (since they are closed in the standard topology) and not open
since they are not unions of basis sets. Sets of the form (a, ∞) are open (since they are open in
standard topology) and not closed. Sets of the form (a, b] are neither open nor closed.
(5) Let X be a well-ordered set (¸6). In the order topology (¸2), sets of the form (a, ∞) = [a
+
, ∞) =
X − (−∞, a], (−∞, b] = (∞, b
+
) = X − (b, ∞) and (a, b] = (a, ∞) ∩ (−∞, b] are closed and open.
(Here, b
+
denotes b if b is the largest element and the immediate successor of b if b is not the largest
element.)
(6) Let R be a ring and Spec(R) the set of prime ideals of R. (We adopt the convention that R itself
is not a prime ideal. The zero ideal is a prime ideal if R is a domain.) For any subset S of R let
V (S) = ¦a ∈ Spec(R) [ a ⊃ S¦
be the set of prime ideals containing S. Then ∅ = V (1), Spec(R) = V (0), V (S
1
) ∪ V (S
2
) = V (S
1
S
2
),
and

V (S
i
) = V (

S
i
). The Zariski topology on Spec(R) is the topology where the closed sets are the
sets V (S) for S ⊂ R. Thus the closed sets are intersections of the closed sets V (r) = ¦a ∈ Spec(R) [
a ÷ r¦, r ∈ R. The closed sets of Spec(Z) = ¦0¦ ∪ ¦p [ p > 0 is prime¦ are intersections of the closed
sets V (0) = Spec(Z) and V (n) = ¦p [ p[n¦, 0 ,= n ∈ Z, consisting of the prime divisors of n. The closed
sets of Spec(C[X]) = ¦(0)¦ ∪ ¦(X − a) [ a ∈ C¦ are intersections of the closed sets V (0) = Spec(Z)
and V (P) = ¦a ∈ C [ P(a) = 0¦ consisting of the roots of the complex polynomial 0 ,= P ∈ C[X].
The subspace topology on C ⊂ Spec(C[X]) is the finite complement topology (2.2.(4)).
2.32. Closure, interior, and boundary. We consider the largest open set contained in A and the
smallest closed set containing A.
2.33. Definition. The interior of A is the union of all open sets contained in A,
Int A =
_
¦U ⊂ A [ U open¦ = A

,
the closure of A is the intersection of all closed sets containing A,
Cl A =

¦C ⊃ A [ C closed¦ = A,
and the boundary of A is ∂A = A−A

.
2.34. Proposition (Properties of interior and closure). Let A, B ⊂ X and let x ∈ X. Then
(1) x ∈ A

⇐⇒ There exists a neighborhood U of x such that U ⊂ A
(2) X −A = (X −A)

and X −A

= X −A
(3) x ∈ A ⇐⇒ U ∩ A ,= ∅ for all neighborhoods U of x
(4) x ∈ ∂A ⇐⇒ U ∩ A ,= ∅ and U ∩ (X −A) ,= ∅ for all neighborhoods U of x
(5) A

⊂ A ⊂ A
(6) A

is open, it is the largest open set contained in A, and A is open iff A

= A
(7) A is closed, it is the smallest closed set containing A, and A is closed iff A = A
(8) (A∩ B)

= A

∩ B

, A∪ B = A∪ B, (A∪ B)

⊃ A

∪ B

, A∩ B ⊂ A∩ B,
(9) A ⊂ B =⇒
_
Int A ⊂ Int B
Cl A ⊂ Cl B
30 2. TOPOLOGICAL SPACES AND CONTINUOUS MAPS
(10) X = A

∪ ∂A∪ (X −A) is a disjoint union.
Proof. The first assertion is clear as A

is the union of the open sets contained in A. The second
claim follows from:
X −A = X −

¦C ⊃ A [ C closed¦ =
_
¦X −C ⊂ X −A [ X −C open¦
=
_
¦U ⊂ X −A [ U open¦ = (X −A)

or one can simply say that X − A is the largest open subset of X − A since A is the smallest closed
superset of A. The third assertion is just a reformulation of the first one,
x ,∈ A ⇐⇒ x ∈ X −A ⇐⇒ x ∈ (X −A)

⇐⇒ x has a neighborhood disjoint from A,
since X −A = (X −A)

. The remaining facts are easily proved.
2.35. Proposition (Closure with respect to subspace). Let A ⊂ Y ⊂ X. Then
(1) A is closed in Y ⇐⇒ A = Y ∩ C for some closed set C in X
(2) Cl
Y
(A) = Y ∩ A.
(3) If Y is closed, then Cl
Y
(A) = A.
Proof. (1) This is 2.24.1.
(2) The set Cl
Y
(A) is the intersection of all relatively closed sets containing A. The relatively closed sets
are the sets of the form Y ∩ C where C is closed in X. This means that
Cl
Y
(A) =

¦Y ∩ C [ C ⊃ A, C closed¦ = Y ∩

¦C [ C ⊃ A, C closed¦ = Y ∩ A
by a direct computation.
(3) As Y is closed and A ⊂ Y , also A ⊂ Y so that Cl
Y
(A) = Y ∩ A = A.
If A ⊂ Y ⊂ X, Y ∩ Int(A) ⊂ Int
Y
(A) for Y ∩ Int(A) is a relatively open set contained in A. These
two sets are equal if Y is open but they are distinct in general (consider A = [0, 1) ⊂ [0, 1] = Y ).
2.36. Definition. A subset A ⊂ X is said to be dense if A = X, or, equivalently, if every open
subset of X contains a point of A.
2.37. Proposition. Let A be a dense and U an open subset of X. Then A∩ U = U.
Proof. The inclusion A∩ U ⊂ U is general. For the other inclusion, consider a point x ∈ U. Let V
be any neighborhood of x. Then V ∩(A∩U) = (V ∩U) ∩A is not empty since V ∩U is a neighborhood
of x and A is dense. But this says that x is in the closure of A∩ U.
2.38. Limit points and isolated points. Let X be a topological space and A a subset of X.
2.39. Definition (Limit points, isolated points). A point x ∈ X is a limit point of A if U∩(A−¦x¦) ,=
∅ for all neighborhoods U of x. The set of limit points
1
of A is denoted A

. A point a ∈ A is an isolated
point if a has a neighborhood that intersects A only in ¦a¦.
Equivalently, x ∈ X is a limit point of A iff x ∈ A−¦x¦, and a ∈ A is an isolated point of A iff ¦a¦
is open in A. These two concepts are almost each others opposite:
x is not a limit point of A ⇐⇒ x has a neighborhood U such that U ∩ (A∪ ¦x¦) = ¦x¦
⇐⇒ x is an isolated point of A∪ ¦x¦
2.40. Proposition. Let A be a subset of X and A

the set of limit points of A. Then A ∪ A

= A
and A∩ A

= ¦a ∈ A [ a is not an isolated point of A¦ so that
A ⊃ A

⇐⇒ A is closed
A ⊂ A

⇐⇒ A has no isolated points
A∩ A

= ∅ ⇐⇒ A is discrete
A

= ∅ ⇐⇒ A is closed and discrete
If B ⊂ A then B

⊂ A

.
1
The set of limit points of A is sometimes denotes A
d
and called the derived set of A
5. CLOSED SETS AND LIMIT POINTS 31
Proof. It is clear that all limit points of A are in A, so that A∪ A

⊂ A, and that all points in the
closure of A that are not in A are limit points,
A−A = ¦x ∈ X −A [ all neighborhoods of x meet A¦ ⊂ A

⊂ A,
so that A = A ∪ (A − A) ⊂ A ∪ A

. This shows that A ∪ A

= A. From the above discussion we have
that the set of limit points in A, A ∩ A

= A − (A − A

), is the set of non-isolated points of A. If
A∩A

= ∅ then all all points of A are isolated so that the subspace A has the discrete topology. We have
A

= ∅ ⇐⇒ A ⊃ A

, A∩ A

= ∅ ⇐⇒ A is closed and discrete.
2.41. Example. (1) Q = R = R−Q (R−Q contains (Q−¦0¦)

2). Cl Int Q = ∅, Int Cl Q = R.
(2) Let C
r
⊂ R
2
be the circle with center (0, r) and radius r > 0. Then
_
n∈Z
+
C
1/n
=
_
n∈Z
+
C
1/n
,
_
n∈Z
+
C
n
= (R¦0¦) ∪
_
n∈Z
+
C
n
The first set of decreasing circles (known as the Hawaiian Earring [8, Exmp 1 p 436]) is closed because
it is also the intersection of a collection (which collection?) of closed sets.
(3) The set of limit points of K = ¦
1
n
[ n ∈ Z
+
¦ is ¦0¦ in R and R

and ∅ in R
K
.
(4) Let X be a linearly ordered space (2.13). Closed intervals [a, b] are closed because their complements
X −[a, b] = (−∞, a) ∪(b, ∞) are open. Therefore the closure of an interval of the form [a, b) is either
[a, b) or [a, b]. If b has an immediate predecessor b

then [a, b) = [a, b

] is closed so that [a, b) = [a, b).
Otherwise, [a, b) = [a, b] because any neighborhood of b contains an interval of the form (c, b] for some
c < b and [a, b) ∩ (c, b], which equals [a, b] or (c, b], is not empty.
2.42. Convergence, the Hausdorff property, and the T
1
-axiom. Let x
n
, n ∈ Z
+
, be a se-
quence of points in X, ie a map Z
+
→ X.
2.43. Definition. The sequence x
n
converges to the point x ∈ X if for any neighborhood U of x
there exists some N such that x
n
∈ U for all n > N.
If a sequence converges in some topology on X it also converges in any coarser topology but not
necessarily in a finer topology.
2.44. Example. In the Sierpinski space X = ¦0, 1¦ (2.2.(3)), the sequence 0, 0, converges to 0
and to 1. In R with the finite complement topology (2.2.(4)), the sequence 1, 2, 3, converges to any
point. In R
K
, the sequence
1
n
does not converge; in R and R

it converges to 0 (and to no other point).
The sequence −
1
n
converges to 0 in R and R
K
, but does not converge in R

. In the ordered space
[1, ω] = Z
+
H ¦ω¦ (1.49.(6)), the sequence n converges to ω (and to no other point). Can you find a
sequence in the ordered space [0, Ω] (1.52) that converges to Ω?
2.45. Definition (Separation Axioms). A topological space is T
1
-space if points are closed: For any
two distinct points x
1
,= x
2
in X there exists an open set U such that x
1
∈ U and x
2
,∈ U.
A topological space X is a T
2
-space (or a Hausdorff space) if there are enough open sets to separate
points: For any two distinct points x
1
,= x
2
in X there exist disjoint open sets, U
1
and U
2
, such that
x
1
∈ U
1
and x
2
∈ U
2
.
All Hausdorff spaces are T
1
. X is T
1
iff all finite subsets are closed. Cofinite topologies are T
1
by
construction and not T
2
when the space has infinitely many points. Particular point topologies are not
T
1
(on spaces with more than one point).
All linearly ordered [Ex 17.10] or metric spaces are Hausdorff; in particular, R is Hausdorff. R

and
R
K
are Hausdorff because the topologies are finer than the standard Hausdorff topology R.
2.46. Theorem. A sequence in a Hausdorff space can not converge to two distinct points.
A property of a topological space is said to be (weakly) hereditary if any (closed) subspace of a space
with the property also has the property. Hausdorffness is hereditary and also passes to product spaces.
2.47. Theorem (Hereditary properties of Hausdorff spaces). [Ex 17.11, 17.12] Any subset of a Haus-
dorff space is Hausdorff. Any product of Hausdorff spaces is Hausdorff.
2.48. Theorem. Suppose that X is T
1
. Let A be a subset of and x a point in X. Then
x is a limit point ⇐⇒ All neighborhoods of x intersect A in infinitely many points
32 2. TOPOLOGICAL SPACES AND CONTINUOUS MAPS
Proof. ⇐=: If all neighborhoods of x intersect A in infinitely many points, then, clearly, they also
intersect A in a point that is not x.
=⇒: Assume that x is a limit point and let U be a neighborhood of x. Then U contains a point a
1
of
A different from x. Remove this point from U. Since points are closed, U −¦a
1
¦ is a new neighborhood
of x. This new neighborhood of x contains a point a
2
of A different from x and a
1
. In this way we
recursively find a whole sequence of distinct points in U ∩ A.
6. Continuous functions
Let f : X → Y be a map between two topological spaces.
2.49. Definition. The map f : X → Y is continuous if all open subsets of Y have open preimages
in X: V open in Y =⇒ f
−1
(V ) open in X
If T
X
is the topology on X and T
Y
is the topology on Y then
(2.50) f is continuous ⇐⇒ f
−1
(T
Y
) ⊂ T
X
⇐⇒ f
−1
(B
Y
) ⊂ T
X
⇐⇒ f
−1
(o
Y
) ⊂ T
X
where B
Y
is a basis and o
Y
a subbasis for T
Y
. The finer the topology in Y and the coarser the topology
in X are, the more difficult is it for f : X → Y to be continuous.
2.51. Theorem. Let f : X → Y be a map between two topological spaces. The following are equivalent:
(1) f is continuous
(2) The preimage of any open set in Y is open in X: V open in Y =⇒ f
−1
(V ) open in X
(3) The preimage of any closed set in Y is closed in X: C closed in Y =⇒ f
−1
(C) closed in X
(4) f
−1
(B

) ⊂ (f
−1
(B))

for any B ⊂ Y
(5) f
−1
(B) ⊂ f
−1
(B) for any B ⊂ Y
(6) f(A) ⊂ f(A) for any A ⊂ X
(7) For any point x ∈ X and any neighborhood V ⊂ Y of f(x) there is a neighborhood U ⊂ X of x
such that f(U) ⊂ V .
Proof. It is easy to see that (7),(1),(2), and (3) are equivalent.
(2) =⇒ (4):
f
−1
(B

) ⊂ f
−1
(B)
f
−1
(B

) open
_
=⇒ f
−1
(B

) ⊂ (f
−1
(B))

.
(4) =⇒ (2): Let B be any open set in Y . Then f
−1
(B)
B=B

= f
−1
(B

)
(4)
⊂ (f
−1
(B))

⊂ f
−1
(B) so f
−1
(B)
is open since it equals its own interior.
(3) ⇐⇒ (5): Similar to (2) ⇐⇒ (4).
(3) =⇒ (6):
A ⊂ f
−1
(f(A)) ⊂ f
−1
(f(A))
f
−1
(f(A)) is closed
_
=⇒ A ⊂ f
−1
(f(A)) ⇐⇒ f(A) ⊂ f(A).
(6) =⇒ (5): f(f
−1
(B))
(6)
⊂ f(f
−1
(B))
f(f
−1
(B))⊂B
⊂ B
2.52. Example (Examples of continuous maps). (1) If X and Y and Y have metric topologies
(2.2.(6)) then f : X → Y is continuous if and only if for all x ∈ X and all ε > 0 there is a δ > 0 so
that fB(x, δ) ⊂ B(f(x), ε).
(2) If X has the discrete topology (2.2.(2)) or Y has the trivial topology (2.2.(1)) then any map
f : X → Y is continuous.
(3) If X and Y have the particular point topologies (2.2.(3)) then f : X → Y is continuous if and only
if f preserves the particular points.
(4) If X and Y have finite complement topologies (2.2.(4)) then f : X → Y is continuous if and only
if f has finite fibres.
(5) The function f(x) = −x is continuous R → R, but not continuous R
K
→ R
K
(K is closed
in R
K
but f
−1
(K) is not closed (2.44)) and not continuous R

→ R

([0, ∞) is open in R

but
f
−1
([0, ∞)) = (−∞, 0] is not open (2.31.(4))).
(6) Since [a, b) is closed and open in R

(2.31.(4)) the map 1
[a,b)
: R

→ ¦0, 1¦, with value 1 on [a, b)
and value 0 outside [a, b), is continuous.
(7) Any ring homomorphism R → S induces a map Spec(S) → Spec(R) taking any prime ideal x ⊂ S
to the prime ideal f
−1
x ⊂ R. This map is continuous because it takes Zariski closed set to Zariski
closed sets (2.31.(6)).
2.53. Theorem. (1) The identity function is continuous.
(2) The composition of two continuous functions is continuous.
6. CONTINUOUS FUNCTIONS 33
(3) Let B be a subspace of Y , A a subspace of X, and f : X → Y a map taking values in B. Then
f : X → Y is continuous =⇒ f[A: A → Y is continuous (restriction)
f : X → Y is continuous ⇐⇒ B[f : X → B is continuous (corestriction)
(4) Let f
j
: X
j
→ Y
j
, j ∈ J, be an indexed set of maps. Then

f
j
:

X
j

Y
j
is continuous ⇐⇒ f
j
: X
j
→ Y
j
is continuous for all j ∈ J
(5) (Glueing lemma) Let B be a covering of X. Suppose either that X is covered by the interiors of
the sets in B or that B is a locally finite closed covering. (The covering B is locally finite if any
point in X has a neighborhood that intersects only finitely many of the sets from B.) Then
f[B: B → Y is continuous for all B in B =⇒ f : X → Y is continuous
for any map f : X → Y .
Proof. Most of these observations are easy to check. The =⇒-part of (4) uses 2.64 below. In (5),
let us consider the case where B is a locally finite closed covering (or just a closed covering so that any
point in X has a neighborhood that is contained in a finite union of sets from B. Suppose that A∩ B is
open in B for all B ∈ B. We claim that A is open. Let a be a point in A. Choose a neighborhood U of a
and finitely many sets B
1
, . . . , B
m
∈ B such that a ∈ U ⊂ B
1
∪ ∪B
m
. We may assume that a ∈ B
i
for
all i = 1, . . . , m for otherwise we just replace U by U −B
i
. Since A ∩ B
i
is open in B
i
there is an open
set U
i
such that A ∩ B
i
= U
i
∩ B
i
for all i = 1, . . . , m. Now U ∩ U
1
∩ ∩ U
m
is an open neighborhood
of a and
U ∩ U
1
∩ ∩ U
m
⊂ (B
1
∪ ∪ B
m
) ∩ (U
1
∩ ∩ U
m
) ⊂ (B
1
∩ U
1
) ∪ ∪ (B
m
∩ U
m
) ⊂ A
This shows that A is open.
2.54. Homeomorphisms and embeddings. One of the central problems in topology is to decide
if two given spaces are homeomorphic.
2.55. Definition (Homeomorphism). A bijective continuous map f : X → Y is a homeomorphism
if its inverse is continuous.
A bijection f : X → Y induces a bijection between subsets of X and subsets of Y , and it is a home-
omorphism if and only if this bijection restricts to a bijection
_
Open (or closed) subsets of X
_
¸
U→f(U)
f
−1
(V )←V

_
Open (or closed) subsets of Y
_
between open (or closed) subsets of X and open (or closed) subsets of Y .
We now extend the subspace topology (2.22) to a slightly more general situation.
2.56. Definition (Embedding topology). Let X be a set, Y a topological space, and f : X → Y an
injective map. The embedding topology on X (for the map f) is the collection
f
−1
(T
Y
) = ¦f
−1
(V ) [ V ⊂ Y open¦
of subsets of X.
The subspace topology for A ⊂ X is the embedding topology for the inclusion map A → X.
2.57. Proposition (Characterization of the embedding topology). Suppose that X has the embedding
topology for the map f : X → Y . Then
(1) X → Y is continuous and,
(2) for any map A → X into X,
A → X is continuous ⇐⇒ A → X
f
−→ Y is continuous
The embedding topology is the only topology on X with these two properties. The embedding topology is
the coarsest topology on X such that f : X → Y is continuous.
Proof. This is because
A
g
−→ X is continuous
(2.50)
⇐⇒ g
−1
(T
X
) ⊂ T
A
⇐⇒ g
−1
(f
−1
T
Y
) ⊂ T
A
⇐⇒
(fg)
−1
(T
Y
) ⊂ T
A
⇐⇒ A
g
−→ X
f
−→ Y is continuous
by definition of the embedding topology. The identity map of X is a homeomorphism whenever X is
equipped with a topology with these two properties.
34 2. TOPOLOGICAL SPACES AND CONTINUOUS MAPS
2.58. Definition (Embedding). An injective continuous map f : X → Y is an embedding if the
topology on X is the embedding topology for f, ie T
X
= f
−1
T
Y
.
Any injective map f : X → Y induces a bijection between subsets of X and subsets of f(X), and it
is an embedding if and only if this bijection restricts to a bijection
(2.59)
_
Open (or closed) subsets of X
_
¸
U→f(U)
f
−1
(V )←V

_
Open (or closed) subsets of f(X)
_
between open (or closed) subsets of X and open (or closed) subsets of f(X).
Alternatively, the injective map f : X → Y is an embedding if and only if the bijective corestriction
f(X)[f : X → f(X) is a homeomorphism. An embedding is a homeomorphism followed by an inclusion.
The inclusion A → X of a subspace is an embedding. Any open (closed) continuous injective map is an
embedding.
2.60. Example. (1) The map f(x) = 3x + 1 is a homeomorphism R → R.
(2) The identity map R

→ R is bijective and continuous but not a homeomorphism.
(3) The map [0, 1) → S
1
: t → (cos(2πt), sin(2πt)) is continuous and bijective but not a homemorphism.
The image of the open set [0,
1
2
) is not open in S
1
.
(4) Find an example of an injective continuous map R → R
2
that is not an embedding.
(5) The obvious bijection [0, 1) ∪ ¦2¦ → [0, 1] is continuous but not a homeomorphism (the domain
has an isolated point, the codomain has no isolated points). There does not exist any continuous
surjection in the other direction.
(6) The spaces [1 1, 2 1] ⊂ Z
+
Z
+
and K = ¦
1
n
[ n ∈ Z
+
¦ ⊂ R are homeomorphic.
(7) The map R → R R: t → (t, t) is an embedding. For any continuous map f : X → Y , the map
X → X Y : x → (x, f(x)) is an embedding; see (3.25) for a generalization.
(8) R
n
embeds into S
n
via stereographic projection.
(9) R
2
embeds in R
3
. Does R
3
imbed in R
2
? (See notes on algebraic topology for the answer.)
(10) Are the spaces

C
n
and

C
1/n
of 2.41.(2) homeomorphic?
(11) A knot is in embedding of S
1
in R
3
(or S
3
). Two knots, K
0
: S
1
→ R
3
and K
1
: S
1
→ R
3
, are
equivalent if there exists a homeomorphism h of R
3
such that h(K
0
) = K
1
. The fundamental problem
of knot theory [1] is to classify knots up to equivalence.
2.61. Lemma. If f : X → Y is a homeomorphism (embedding) then the corestriction of the restriction
f(A)[f[A: A → f(A) (B[f[A: A → B) is a homeomorphism (embedding) for any subset A of X (and any
subset B of Y containing f(A)). If the maps f
j
: X
j
→ Y
j
are homeomorphisms (embeddings) then the
product map

f
j
:

X
j
→ Y
j
is a homeomorphism (embedding).
Proof. In case of homeomorphisms there is a continuous inverse in both cases. In case of embed-
dings, use that an embedding is a homeomorphism followed by an inclusion map.
2.62. Lemma (Composition of embeddings). Let X
f

Y
g

Z be continuous maps. Then
f and g are embeddings =⇒ g ◦ f is an embedding =⇒ f is an embedding
Proof. To prove he second implication, note first that f is an injective continuous map. Let U ⊂ X
be open. Since g ◦ f is an embedding, U = (g ◦ f)
−1
W for some open W ⊂ Z. But (g ◦ f)
−1
= f
−1
g
−1
W
where g
−1
W is open in Y since g is continuous. This shows that f is an embedding.
2.63. Maps into products. There is an easy test for when a map into a product space is contin-
uous.
2.64. Theorem (Characterization of the product topology). Give

Y
j
the product topology. Then
(1) the projections π
j
:

Y
j
→ Y
j
are continuous, and,
(2) for any map f : X →

j∈J
Y
j
into the product space we have
X
f
−→

j∈J
Y
j
is continuous ⇐⇒ ∀j ∈ J : X
f
−→

j∈J
Y
j
π
j
−→ Y
j
is continuous
The product topology is the only topology on the product set with these two properties.
6. CONTINUOUS FUNCTIONS 35
Proof. Let T
X
be the topology on X and T
j
the topology on Y
j
. Then o
Q
=

j∈J
π
−1
j
(T
j
) is a
subbasis for the product topology on

j∈J
Y
j
(2.16). Therefore
f : X →

j∈J
Y
j
is continuous
(2.50)
⇐⇒ f
−1
(
_
j∈J
π
−1
j
(T
j
)) ⊂ T
X
⇐⇒
_
j∈J
f
−1

−1
j
(T
j
)) ⊂ T
X
⇐⇒ ∀j ∈ J : (π
j
◦ f)
−1
(T
j
) ⊂ T
X
⇐⇒ ∀j ∈ J : π
j
◦ f is continuous
by definition of continuity (2.50).
We now show that the product topology is the unique topology with these properties. Take two
copies of the product set

j∈J
X
j
. Equip one copy with the product topology and the other copy with
some topology that has the two properties of the theorem. Then the identity map between these two
copies is a homeomorphism.
The reason for the great similarity between 2.64 and 2.57 is that in both cases we use an initial
topology.
2.65. Example. Suppose that J and K are sets and that (X
j
)
j∈J
and (Y
k
)
k∈K
are indexed families
of topological spaces. Given a map g : J → K between index sets and an indexed family of continuous
maps (f
j
: Y
g(j)
→ X
j
)
j∈J
. Then there is a unique map between product spaces such that

k∈K
Y
k

π
g(j)

j∈J
X
j
π
j

Y
g(j)
f
j

X
j
commutes and this map of product spaces is continuous by 2.64.
2.66. Theorem. Let (X
j
)
j∈J
be an indexed family of topological spaces with subspaces A
j
⊂ X
j
.
Then

j∈J
A
j
is a subspace of

j∈J
X
j
.
(1)

A
j
=

A
j
.
(2)
_
A
j
_

A

j
and equality holds if A
j
= X
j
for all but finitely many j ∈ J.
Proof. (1) Let (x
j
) be a point of

X
j
. Since o
Q
=

j∈J
π
−1
j
(T
j
) is a subbasis for the product topology
on

X
j
(2.16) we have:
(x
j
) ∈

A
j
⇐⇒ ∀k ∈ J : π
−1
k
(U
k
) ∩

A
j
,= ∅ for all neighborhoods U
k
of x
k
⇐⇒ ∀k ∈ J : U
k
∩ A
k
,= ∅ for all neighborhoods U
k
of x
k
⇐⇒ ∀k ∈ J : x
k
∈ A
k
⇐⇒ (x
j
) ∈

A
j
(2)
_
A
j
_



A

j
because π
j
is an open map (2.71) so that π
j
_
_
A
j
_

_
⊂ A

j
for all j ∈ J. If
A
j
= X
j
for all but finitely many j ∈ J then

A

j

_
A
j
_

because

A

j
is open and contained in

A
j
.
It follows that a product of closed sets is closed. (Whereas a product of open sets need not be open
in the product topology.)
2.67. Maps out of coproducts.
2.68. Theorem. Let f :

j∈J
X
j
→ Y be a map out of a coproduct space. Then
f :

j∈J
X
j
→ Y is continuous ⇐⇒ f ◦ ι
j
: X
j
→ Y is continuous for all j ∈ J
where ι
j
: X
j

j∈J
X
j
is the inclusion map.
Let f
j
: X
j
→ Y
j
, j ∈ J, be an indexed set of maps. Then

f
j
:

X
j

Y
j
is continuous ⇐⇒ f
j
: X
j
→ Y
j
is continuous for all j ∈ J
36 2. TOPOLOGICAL SPACES AND CONTINUOUS MAPS
7. The quotient topology
In this section we will look at the quotient space construction. But first we consider open and closed
maps.
2.1. Open and closed maps. [2, I.¸5] Let X and Y be topological spaces and f : X → Y a map.
2.69. Definition. The map f : X → Y is
_
open
closed
_
if for all U ⊂ X we have:
U
_
open
closed
_
in X =⇒ f(U)
_
open
closed
_
in Y
The restriction (2.80) of an open (or closed) map to an arbitrary subspace need not be open (closed).
However,
2.70. Proposition. [8, Ex 22.5] The restriction of an open (or closed) map f : X → Y to an open
(closed) subspace A ⊂ X is an open (closed) map f(A)[f[A: A → f(A) or f[A: A → Y .
Proof. Suppose that f : X → Y is an open map and A ⊂ X an open subset. Let U be an open
subset of A. The implications
U is open in A (A is open in X)
=⇒ U open in X (f is open)
=⇒ f(U) open in Y
=⇒ f(U) open in f(A)
show that f[A: A → f(A) is open.
2.71. Proposition (Projections are open). The projection map π
j
:

X
j
→ X
j
is open.
Proof. The map π
j
takes the basis B
Q
(2.16) for the product topology into the topology on X
j
.
2.72. Lemma (Characterization of open or closed continuous maps). Let f : X → Y be a continuous
map.
(1) f is open if and only if f
−1
(B

) = f
−1
(B)

for all B ⊂ Y .
(2) f is closed if and only if f(A) = f(A) for all A ⊂ X
Proof. See Solution June 04 (Problem 1) and Solution Jan 05 (Problem 1).
A bijective continuous map that is open or closed is a homeomorphism.
2.73. Example. (1) The projection π
1
: X Y → X is continuous and open (2.71). It is closed
if Y is compact. (Use 2.143 to see this.) The projection map π
1
: RR → R is not closed for
H = ¦(x, y) ∈ RR [ xy = 1¦ is closed but π
1
(H) = R−¦0¦ is not closed. Thus the product of two
closed maps (the identity map of R and the constant map R → ∗) need not be closed.
(2) The map f : [−1, 2] → [0, 1] given by
f(x) =
_
¸
_
¸
_
0 −1 ≤ x ≤ 0
x 0 ≤ x ≤ 1
1 1 ≤ x ≤ 2
is continuous and closed (2.141.(1)). It is not open for f([−1, −1/2)) = ¦0¦ is not open.
2.2. Quotient topologies and quotient maps. Quotient maps are continuous surjective maps
that generalize both continuous, open surjective maps and continuous, closed surjective maps.
2.74. Definition (Quotient topology). Let X be a topological space, Y a set, and p: X → Y a
surjective map. The quotient topology on Y is the collection
¦V ⊂ Y [ p
−1
(V ) is open in X¦
of subsets of Y .
The quotient topology is sometimes called the final topology [2, I.¸2.4] with respect to the map p.
2.75. Lemma (Characterization of the quotient topology). Suppose that Y has the quotient topology
with respect to the map p: X → Y . Then
(1) p: X → Y is continuous, and,
7. THE QUOTIENT TOPOLOGY 37
(2) for any map g : Y → Z out of Y
Y
g
−→ Z is continuous ⇐⇒ X
p
−→ Y
g
−→ Z is continuous
The quotient topology is the only topology on Y with these two properties. The quotient topology is the
finest topology on Y such that p: X → Y is continuous.
Proof. This is because
Y
g
−→ Z is continuous ⇐⇒ g
−1
(T
Z
) ⊂ T
Y
⇐⇒ p
−1
g
−1
(T
Z
) ⊂ T
X
⇐⇒ (gp)
−1
(T
Z
) ⊂ T
X
⇐⇒ X
p
−→ Y
g
−→ Z is continuous
by definition of the quotient topology.
If we give Y some topology with these two properties then the identity map between the two topologies
is a homeomorphism.
2.76. Definition (Quotient map). A surjective continuous map p: X → Y is a quotient map if the
topology on Y is the quotient topology.
This means that the surjective map p: X → Y is a quotient map if and only if for all V ⊂ Y :
p
−1
(V ) is open in X ⇐⇒ V is open in Y
Quotient maps and embeddings (2.58) are dual concepts.
Subsets A of X of the form A = p
−1
(B) =

y∈B
p
−1
(y) for some subset B of Y are called saturated
subsets of X. They are the subsets that are unions of fibres f
−1
(y), y ∈ Y . The saturation of A ⊂ X is
the union f
−1
f(A) =

y∈f(A)
f
−1
(y) of all fibres that meet A. A is saturated if and only if A = f
−1
f(A).
2.77. Proposition. For a surjective map p: X → Y the following are equivalent:
(1) p: X → Y is a quotient map
(2) For all V ⊂ Y we have: p
−1
(V ) is
_
open
closed
_
in X ⇐⇒ V is
_
open
closed
_
in Y .
(3) p: X → Y is continuous and maps saturated
_
open
closed
_
sets to
_
open
closed
_
open sets
Proof. Condition (1) and condition (2) with the word “open” are clearly equivalent. Suppose now
that: p
−1
(V ) is open ⇐⇒ V is open. Then we get
p
−1
(C) is closed ⇐⇒ X −p
−1
(C) is open ⇐⇒ p
−1
(Y −C) is open
⇐⇒ Y −C is open ⇐⇒ C is closed
for all C ⊂ Y . This shows that the two conditions of (2) are equivalent. The content of (3) is just a
reformulation of (2).
A surjective map p: X → Y induces a bijection between subsets of Y and saturated subsets of X,
and it is a quotient map if and only if this bijection restricts to a bijection
_
Saturated open (closed) subsets
of X
_
¸
U→p(U)
p
−1
(V )←V

_
Open (closed) subsets
of Y
_
between open (or closed) subsets of Y and open (or closed) saturated subsets of X.
2.78. Corollary. (1) Any
_
open
closed
_
continuous surjective map is a quotient map.
(2) A quotient map f : X → Y is
_
open
closed
_
if and only if all
_
open
closed
_
sets A ⊂ X have
_
open
closed
_
saturations f
−1
f(A).
(3) A bijective continuous map is a quotient map if and only if it is a homeomorphism.
Proof. (1) Let f : X → Y be an open map. Then
f
−1
(V ) is open
f open
=⇒ ff
−1
(V ) is open ⇐⇒ V is open
f is continuous
=⇒ f
−1
(V ) is open
for all V ⊂ Y . This shows that f is quotient.
38 2. TOPOLOGICAL SPACES AND CONTINUOUS MAPS
(2) Suppose that f : X → Y is quotient. Then
f is open
(2.69)
⇐⇒ f(A) is open in Y for all open sets A ⊂ X
(2.76)
⇐⇒ f
−1
f(A) is open in X for all open sets A ⊂ X
which is the claim.
(3) If f : X → Y is a bijective, any subset of X is saturated, and if f is also quotient, then it determines a
bijection between the open (saturated) subsets of X and open subsets of Y . So f is a homeomorphism.
There are quotient maps that are neither open nor closed [8, Ex 22.3] [2, Ex 10 p 135] and there are
(non-identity) quotient maps that are both open and closed (2.83) [2, Ex 3 p 128].
2.79. Corollary (Composition of quotient maps). Let X
f

Y
g

Z be continuous maps.
Then
f and g are quotient =⇒ g ◦ f is quotient =⇒ g is quotient
Proof. The first assertion is a tautology: Assume that f and g are quotient. Then
(g ◦ f)
−1
(V ) open in X ⇐⇒ f
−1
g
−1
(V ) open in X
f is quotient
=⇒ g
−1
(V ) open in Y
g is quotient
=⇒ V open in Z
for any set V ⊂ Y . Next, suppose that X
f
−→ Y
g
−→ Z is a quotient map. Then the last map g is surjective
and
g
−1
(V ) is open in Y
f continuous
=⇒ (g ◦ f)
−1
(V ) is open in X
g ◦ f quotient
=⇒ V is open in Z
for any set V ⊂ Z.
2.80. Example. (1) The projection map π
1
: RR → R is (2.73.(1)) open, continuous, and sur-
jective so it is a quotient map. The restriction π
1
[H ∪ ¦(0, 0)¦ is continuous and surjective, even
bijective, but it is not a quotient map (2.77) for it is not a homeomorphism: ¦(0, 0)¦ is open and
saturated in H ∪ ¦(0, 0)¦ but π
1
(¦(0, 0)¦) = ¦0¦ is not open.
Thus the restriction of a quotient map need not be a quotient map in general. On the positive side
we have
2.81. Proposition. The restriction-corestriction of a quotient map p: X → Y to an open (or closed)
saturated subspace A ⊂ X is a quotient map p(A)[p[A: A → p(A).
Proof. (Similar to the proof of 2.70.) Let p: X → Y be a quotient map and B ⊂ Y an open set.
(The case where B is closed is similar.) The claim is that B[p[p
−1
(B): p
−1
(B) → B is quotient. For any
U ⊂ B the implications
p
−1
(U) open in p
−1
(B) (p
−1
(B) is open)
=⇒ p
−1
(U) open in X (p is quotient)
=⇒ U is open in Y
=⇒ U is open in B
show that B[p[p
−1
(B): p
−1
(B) → B is quotient.
A typical situation is when R is an equivalence relation on the space X and X → X/R is the map
that takes a point to its equivalence class. We call X/R with the quotient topology for the quotient space
of the equivalence relation R. A set of equivalence classes is an open subset of X/R if and only if the
union of equivalence classes is an open subset of X: V ⊂ X/R is open ⇐⇒

[x]∈V
[x] ⊂ X is open. We
shall often say that X/R is the space obtained by identifying equivalent points of X.
A continuous map f : X → Y respects the equivalence relation R if equivalent points have identical
images, that is if x
1
Rx
2
=⇒ f(x
1
) = f(x
2
). The quotient map X → X/R respects the equivalence
relation R and it is the universal example of such a map.
2.82. Theorem (The universal property of quotient spaces). Let R be an equivalence relation on the
space X and let f : X → Y be a continuous map.
(1) The map p: X → X/R respects the equivalence relation R.
7. THE QUOTIENT TOPOLOGY 39
(2) If the continuous map f : X → Y respects R then there exists a unique continuous map f : X/R → Y
such that
X
f

p

A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
Y
X/R
f
¸
}
}
}
}
}
}
}
commutes. (We say that f factors uniquely through X/R.) Conversely, if f factors through
X/R then f respects R.
(3) If f exists then: f is quotient ⇐⇒ f is quotient
Proof. If f exists then clearly f respects R. Conversely, if f respects R then we can define f[x] =
f(x) and this map is continuous by 2.75 and it is the only possibility. The rest follows from 2.79:
f is quotient ⇐⇒ pf is quotient ⇐⇒ f is quotient.
The theorem says that there is a bijective correspondence
_
Continuous maps X → Y
that respect R
_
¸
f→f
g◦p←g

_
Continuous maps
X/R → Y
_
taking quotient maps to quotient maps.
2.83. Example (Orbit spaces for group actions). (1) Real projective n-space RP
n
is the quotient
space of S
n
by the equivalence relation with equivalence classes ¦±x¦, x ∈ S
n
. The quotient map
p: S
n
→ RP
n
is both open and closed since (2.78) the saturation ±U of an open (closed) set U ⊂ S
n
is
open (closed) because x → −x is a homeomorphism. Elements of RP
n
can be thought of as lines through
the origin of R
n+1
. A set of lines is open if the set of intersection points with the unit sphere is open.
(2) More generally, let G X → X be the action of a discrete group G on a space X. Give the orbit
space G¸X the quotient topology and let p
G
: X → G¸X be the quotient map. The points in the orbit
space are orbits of points in X and the open subsets are orbits of open subsets of X. The saturation of
any subset A of X is the orbit GA =

g∈G
gA of A. If A is open, GA is open as a union of open sets; if
A is closed and G is finite, GA is closed. Thus the quotient map p
G
is always open (2.78), and if G is
finite, it is also closed.
(3) The n-dimensional M¨obius band is the orbit space MB
n
= ¸(−1, −1))¸(S
n−1
R) for the action
(x, t) → (−x, −t) of the group with two elements. (Take n = 2 to get the standard M¨obius band.)
The (n −1)-dimensional real projective space RP
n−1
is a retract of MB
n
as there are continuous maps
RP
n−1

MB
n
¸ induced by the the maps S
n−1

S
n−1
R ¸ . The homeomorphism S
n−1
R →
S
n
−¦N, S¦ between the cylinder over S
n−1
and S
n
with two points removed induces a homeomorphism
between MB
n
and RP
n
with one point removed.
2.84. Example. (1) Let f : X → Y be any surjective continuous map. Consider the equivalence
relation corresponding to the partition X =

y∈Y
f
−1
(y) of X into fibres f
−1
(y), y ∈ Y . Let X/f
denote the quotient space. Thus X/f is the set of fibres equipped with the quotient topology. By
constuction, the map f respects this equivalence relation so there is a unique continuous map f such
that the diagram
X

C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
f

Y
X/f
f
¸
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
commutes. Note that f is bijective. The bijective continuous map f : X/f → Y is a homeomorphism if
and only if f is quotient (2.78.(3), 2.82). In particular, all quotient maps have (up to homeomorphism)
the form X → X/R for some equivalence relation R on X.
(2) Let f : X → Y be any surjective continuous map. The induced map f : X/f → Y is a continuous
bijection but in general not a homeomorphism. Instead, the topology on the quotient space X/f
is finer than the topology on Y because the quotient topology is the maximal topology so that the
projection map is continuous. This can sometimes be used to show that X/f is Hausdorff if Y is
Hausdorff.
(3) Let f : X → Y be any continuous map. Then f has a canonical decomposition
X
p
−→ X/f
f
−→ f(X)
ι
− → Y
40 2. TOPOLOGICAL SPACES AND CONTINUOUS MAPS
where p is a quotient map, f is a continuous bijection, and ι is an inclusion map.
(4) Let X be a topological space and A
1
, A
2
, . . . , A
k
a finite collection of closed subsets. Consider the
equivalence relation where the equivalence classes are the sets A
1
, A
2
, . . . , A
k
together with the sets
¦x¦ for x ,∈ A
1
∪A
2
∪ ∪A
k
. The quotient space X/(A
1
, . . . , A
k
) is obtained from X by identifying
each of the sets A
i
to the point p(A
i
). The quotient map p: X → X/(A
1
, . . . , A
k
) is closed because
(2.78) closed sets A ⊂ X have closed saturations A∪

A
i
∩A=∅
A
i
. A continuous map f : X → Y factors
through the quotient space X/(A
1
, . . . , A
k
) if and only if it sends each of the sets A
i
⊂ X to a point in Y
(2.82). The restriction p[X−(A
1
∪ ∪A
k
): X−(A
1
∪ ∪A
k
) → X/(A
1
, . . . , A
k
)−¦p(A
1
), . . . , p(A
k

to the complement of A
1
∪ ∪ A
k
is a homeomorphism (2.70). In case of just one closed subspace
A ⊂ X, the quotient space is denoted X/A.
(5) The standard map f : [0, 1] → S
1
that takes t ∈ [0, 1] to (cos(2πt), sin(2πt)) is quotient because it
is continuous and closed. (If you can’t see this now, we will prove it later (2.140.(1)).) The induced
map [0, 1]/¦0, 1¦ → S
1
is a homeomorphism. More generally, the standard map D
n
/S
n−1
→ S
n
is a
homeomorphism where D
n
⊂ R
n
, the unit disc, is the set of vectors of length ≤ 1.
(6) Let R be the equivalence relation “zero or not zero” on R. The quotient space R/R is homeomor-
phic to Sierpinski space ¦0, 1¦.
(7) There is an obvious continuous surjective map f :

Z
+
S
1
= Z
+
S
1

C
n
(2.41.(2)) that takes
Z
+
¦1¦ to the point common to all the circles. This map is continuous because its restriction to each of
the open sets ¦n¦S
1
is continuous (2.53.(5). However, f is not a quotient map (2.77) for the image of
the closed saturated set consisting of the points n(cos(
π
2
), sin(
π
2
)) is not closed as it does not contain
all its limit points. The induced bijective continuous map f : Z
+
S
1
/Z
+
¦1¦ →

C
n
is therefore not
a homeomorphism. There is an obvious continuous surjective map g :

Z
+
S
1
= Z
+
S
1

C
1/n
(2.41.(2)) that takes Z
+
¦1¦ to the point common to all the circles. This map is continuous because
its restriction to each of the open sets ¦n¦ S
1
is continuous (2.53.(5)). However, g is not a quotient
map for the image of the closed saturated set Z
+
¦−1¦ is not closed as it does not contain all its
limit points. The induced bijective continuous map g : Z
+
S
1
/Z
+
¦1¦ →

C
1/n
is therefore not
a homeomorphism either. (Actually (2.98.(7)), the quotient space Z
+
S
1
/Z
+
¦1¦, known as the
countable wedge of circles
_
n∈Z
+
S
1
[8, Lemma 71.4], is not homeomorphic to any subspace of the
plane.)
(8) [8, p 451] Let P
4g
be a regular 4g-gon and with edges labeled a
1
, b
1
, a
1
, b
1
, . . . , a
g
, b
g
, a
g
, b
g
in
counter-clockwise direction. The closed orientable surface M
g
of genus g ≥ 1 is (homeomorphic
to) the quotient space P
4g
/R where R is the equivalence relation that makes the identifications
a
1
b
1
a
−1
1
b
−1
1
a
g
b
g
a
−1
g
b
−1
g
on the perimeter and no identifications in the interior of the polygon. See
[8, p 452] for the case g = 2. Are any of these surfaces homeomorphic to each other? [8, Thm 77.5]
(9) [8, p 452] Let P
2g
be a regular 2g-gon with edges labeled a
1
, a
1
, . . . , a
g
, a
g
in counter-clockwise
direction. The closed non-orientable surface N
g
of genus g ≥ 1 is the quotient space P
2g
/R where R is
the equivalence relation that makes the identifications a
2
1
a
2
g
on the perimeter and no identifications
in the interior of the polygon. For g = 1 we get the projective plane RP
2
and for g = 2 we get the
Klein Bottle [8, Ex 74.3].
2.85. Example. (The adjunction space) [8, Ex 35.8] [5, p 93] [10, Chp 1, Exercise B p 56] Consider
the set-up X A
?
_ i
¸
f

Y consisting of a space X and a continuous map f : A → Y defined on the
closed subspace A ⊂ X. Let R be the smallest equivalence relation on X H Y such that aRf(a) for all
a ∈ A; the equivalence classes of R are ¦a¦ H f(a) for a ∈ A, ¦x¦ for x ∈ X − A, and f
−1
(y) H ¦y¦ for
y ∈ Y . The adjunction space is the quotient space
X ∪
f
Y = X HY/R
for the equivalence relation R. Let f : X → X ∪
f
Y be the map X → X H Y → X ∪
f
Y and let
i : Y → X ∪
f
Y be the map Y → X HY → X ∪
f
Y . These two continuous maps agree on A in the sense
that f ◦ i = i ◦ f and the adjunction space is the universal space with this property. For any other space
Z receiving maps X → Z ← Y that agree on A there exists a unique continuous map X ∪
f
Y → Z such
7. THE QUOTIENT TOPOLOGY 41
that the diagram
A
_

i

f

Y
i

X
f

X ∪
f
Y
∃!

Z
commutes. The map i : Y → X ∪
f
Y is closed, for closed sets B ⊂ Y ⊂ X H Y have closed saturations
f
−1
(B)HB. Since i is injective it is an embedding; its image is a closed subspace of X∪
f
Y homeomorphic
to Y . The map f[X −A: X −A → X ∪
f
Y is open, for open sets U ⊂ X − A ⊂ X H Y have open
saturations U H ∅. Since f[X − A is also injective, it is an embedding; its image is an open subspace of
X ∪
f
Y homeomorphic to X − A. The quotient map X H Y → X ∪
f
Y is closed if the map f is closed
for then also closed subsets B ⊂ X ⊂ X H Y have closed saturations B ∪ f
−1
f(B ∩ A) H f(A ∩ B). We
shall later see [8, Ex 35.8] that X ∪
f
Y is normal when X and Y are normal.
Only few topological properties are preserved by quotient maps. The reason is that surjective open
maps and surjective closed maps are quotient maps so that any property invariant under quotient maps
must also be invariant under both open and closed maps.
As we saw in 2.84.(6) the quotient space of a Hausdorff space need not be Hausdorff, not even T
1
. In
general, the quotient space X/R is T
1
if and only if all equivalence classes are closed sets. (For instance,
if X and Y are T
1
then also the adjunction space X ∪
f
Y is T
1
.) The quotient space X/R is Hausdorff if
and only if any two distinct equivalence classes are contained in disjoint open saturated sets. We record
an easy criterion for Hausdorfness even though you may not yet know the meaning of all the terms.
2.86. Proposition. If X is regular and A ⊂ X is closed then the quotient space X/A is Hausdorff.
The product of two quotient maps need not be a quotient map [2, I.¸5.3] in general but here is an
important case where it actually is the case.
2.87. Theorem. Let p: A → B and q : C → D be quotient maps. If B and C are locally compact
Hausdorff spaces (2.170) then p q : AC → B D is a quotient map.
Proof. Using Lemma 2.88 below we see that the map p q is the composition
AC
p×1

B C
1×q

B D
of two quotient maps and therefore itself a quotient map.
2.88. Lemma (Whitehead Theorem). [5, 3.3.17] Let p: X → Y be a quotient map and Z a locally
compact space. Then
p 1: X Z → Y Z
is a quotient map.
Proof. Let A ⊂ X Z. We must show: (p 1)
−1
(A) is open =⇒ A is open. This means that for
any point (x, y) ∈ (p 1)
−1
(A) we must find a saturated neighborhood U of x and a neighborhood V of
y such that U V ⊂ (p 1)
−1
(A).
Since (p1)
−1
(A) is open in the product topology there is a neighborhood U
1
of x and a neighborhood
V of y such that U
1
V ⊂ (p 1)
−1
(A). Since Y is locally compact Hausdorff we may assume (2.170)
that V is compact and U
1
V ⊂ (p1)
−1
(A). Note that also p
−1
(pU
1
) V is contained in (p1)
−1
(A).
The tube lemma 2.143 says that each point of p
−1
(pU
1
) has a neighborhood such that the product of
this neighborhood with V is contained in the open set (p 1)
−1
(A). Let U
2
be the union of these
neighborhoods. Then p
−1
(pU
1
) ⊂ U
2
and U
2
V ⊂ (p 1)
−1
(A). Continuing inductively we find open
sets U
1
⊂ U
2
⊂ ⊂ U
i
⊂ U
i+1
⊂ such that p
−1
(pU
i
) ⊂ U
i+1
and U
i+1
V ⊂ (p 1)
−1
(A). The
open set U =

U
i
is saturated because U ⊂ p
−1
(pU) =

p
−1
(pU
i
) ⊂

U
i+1
= U. Thus also U V is
saturated and U V ⊂

U
i
V ⊂ (p 1)
−1
(A).
For instance, if p: X → Z is a quotient map, then also p 1: X [0, 1] → Z [0, 1] is a quotient
map. This is important for homotopy theory.
42 2. TOPOLOGICAL SPACES AND CONTINUOUS MAPS
8. Metric topologies
If X is a set with a metric d: X X → [0, ∞) the collection ¦B
d
(x, ε) [ x ∈ X, ε > 0¦ of balls
B
d
(x, ε) = ¦y ∈ X [ d(x, y) < ε¦ is a basis for the metric topology T
d
induced by d.
2.89. Definition. A metric space is the topological space associated to a metric set. A topological
space is metrizable if the topology is induced by some metric on X.
Hausdorff dimension, fractals, or chaos are examples of metric, rather than topological, concepts.
2.90. Theorem (Continuity in the metric world). Let f : X → Y be a map between metric spaces
with metrics d
X
and d
Y
, respectively. The following conditions are equivalent:
(1) f is continuous
(2) ∀x ∈ X∀ε > 0∃δ > 0∀y ∈ X: d
X
(x, y) < δ ⇒ d
Y
(f(x), f(y)) < ε
(3) ∀x ∈ X∀ε > 0∃δ > 0: f(B
X
(x, δ)) ⊂ B
Y
(f(x), ε)
Proof. Essentially [8, Ex 18.1].
2.91. Proposition (Comparison of metric topologies). Let d and d

be metrics on X and T
d
, T
d
the
associated metric topologies. Then
T
d
⊂ T
d
⇐⇒ ∀x ∈ X∀ε > 0∃δ > 0: B
d
(x, δ) ⊂ B
d
(x, ε)
Proof. T
d
⊂ T
d
if and only if the identity map (X, T
d
) → (X, T
d
) is continuous [8, Ex 18.3] .
2.92. Lemma (Standard bounded metric). Let d be a metric on X. Then d

(x, y) = min¦d(x, y), 1¦
is a bounded metric on X (called the standard bounded metric corresponding to d) that induce the same
topology on X as d.
Proof. Either use the above proposition or use that for any metric the collection of balls of radius
< 1 is a basis for the metric topology. These bases are the same for the two metrics.
2.93. Theorem (Hereditary properties of metrizable spaces). Any subspace of a metrizable space is
a metrizable. Any countable product of metrizable spaces is metrizable.
Proof. See [8, Ex 21.1] for the first assertion. To prove the second assertion, let X
n
, n ∈ Z
+
, be a
countable collection of metric spaces. We may assume that each X
n
has diameter at most 1 (2.92). Put
d((x
n
), (y
n
)) = sup¦
1
n
d
n
(x
n
, y
n
) [ n ∈ Z
+
¦
for points (x
n
) and (y
n
) of

X
n
and convince yourself that d is a metric. The idea here is that
1
n
d
n
(x
n
, y
n
) ≤
1
n
becomes small when n becomes large. For any ε > 0
d((x
n
), (y
n
)) ≤ ε ⇐⇒ ∀n ≤ N:
1
n
d
n
(x
n
, y
n
) ≤ ε
where N is such that Nε > 1.
The claim is that the metric toplogy coincides with the product topology on

X
n
. We need to
show that the metric topology enjoys the two properties that characterizes the product topology (2.64).
First, the projection maps π
n
:

X
n
→ X
n
are continuous because d(x, y) < ε =⇒ d
n
(x, y) < nε (2.90).
Second, let f : X →

X
n
be a map such that X
f
−→

X
n
π
n
−−→ X
n
is continuous for all n. Given x ∈ X
and ε > 0, there exist neighborhoods U
n
of x such that d
n

n
f(x), π
n
f(y)) < nε for all y ∈ U
n
. Then
d(f(x), f(y)) < ε for all y ∈ U
1
∩. . . ∩U
N
where Nε > 1 (remember that all the spaces X
n
have diameter
at most 1). This shows that f : X →

X
n
is continuous.
2.94. The first countability axiom. Which topological spaces are metrizable? To address this
question we need to build up an arsenal of metrizable and non-metrizable spaces and to identify properties
that are common to all metrizable spaces. Here are the first such properties: All metric spaces are
Hausdorff and first countable.
2.95. Definition (Neighborhood basis). A neighborhood basis at x ∈ X is a collection of neighbor-
hoods of x such that any neighborhood of x contains a member of the collection.
2.96. Definition (First countable spaces). Let X be a space and x a point in X. We say that X has
a countable basis at x if there is a countable neighborhood basis at x. X is first countable if all points of
X have a countable neighborhood basis.
All metrizable spaces are first countable since ¦B(x, 1/n) [ n ∈ Z
+
¦ is a countable neighborhood
basis at x.
8. METRIC TOPOLOGIES 43
2.97. Proposition (Hereditary properties of first countable spaces). [8, Thm 30.2] Any subspace of
a first countable space is first countable. Any countable product of first countable spaces is first countable.
Proof. The first assertion is immediate. Let

X
n
be a countable product of first countable spaces.
Let (x
n
) be a point of

X
n
. Let B
n
be countable basis at x
n
∈ X
n
. The collection of all products

U
n
where U
n
∈ B
n
for finitely many n and U
n
= X
n
for all other n is then a countable (1.41) basis at
(x
n
).
2.98. Example. (1) R is first countable because it is a metric space.
(2) R

is first countable. The collection of half-open intervals [a, b) where b > a is rational is a
countable basis of neighborhoods at the point a. Is R

metrizable? (3.3) [8, Ex 30.6]
(3) Is R
K
first countable? Is it metrizable?
(4) The ordered space S

= [0, Ω] (1.52) is not first countable at Ω but it is first countable at any
other point. Let ¦U
n
¦ be any countable collection of neighborhoods of Ω. Choose a
n
< Ω such that
(a
n
, Ω] ⊂ U
n
and chose a such that a
n
< a < Ω for all n. This is possible because the countable set
¦a
n
¦ ⊂ [0, Ω) of left end-points has an upper bound in [0, Ω) (1.52.(2)). Then (a, Ω] is a neighborhood
of Ω that does not contain any of the U
n
because it does not even contain any of the intervals (a
n
, Ω].
The section S

, however, is first countable: ¦1¦ = [1, 2) is open so S

has a finite basis at the first
element 1. For any other element, α > 1, we can use the countable collection of neighborhoods of the
form (β, α] for β < α (2.31.(5)). Is S

metrizable? (2.164)[8, Exmp 3 p 181, Ex 30.7].
(5) R
J
is not first countable at any point when J is uncountable: Let ¦U
n
¦
n∈Z
+
be any countable
collection of neighborhoods of, say, the point (0)
j∈J
of R
J
. I claim that there is a neighborhood that
does not contain any of the U
n
. This is because there is an index j
0
∈ J such that π
j
0
(U
n
) = R for
all n. Indeed, the set of js for which this is not true
¦j ∈ J [ ∃n ∈ Z
+
: π
j
(U
n
) ,= R¦ =
_
n∈Z
+
¦j ∈ J [ π
j
(U
n
) ,= R¦
is a countable union of finite sets, hence countable (1.41.(3)). Then the neighborhood π
−1
j
0
(R−¦1¦)
of (0)
j∈J
does not contain any of the neighborhoods U
n
in the countable collection. (R
J
does not
even satisfy the sequence lemma (2.100.(1)) [8, Exmp 2 p 133].)
(6) The closed (2.84.(4)) quotient map R → R/Z takes the first countable space R to a space that is
not first countable [5, 1.4.17] at the point corresponding to Z. This can be seen by a kind of diagonal
argument: Let ¦U
n
¦
n∈Z
be any countable collection of open neighborhoods of Z ⊂ R. Let U be the
open neighborhood of Z such that U ∩(n, n+1), n ∈ Z, equals U
n
∩(n, n+1) with one point deleted.
Then U does not contain any of the U
n
.
(7) The quotient map p:

n∈Z
+
S
1

_
n∈Z
+
S
1
is closed (2.84.(4)). The domain

n∈Z
+
S
1
= Z
+

S
1
⊂ R R
2
is first countable (2.97) but the image
_
n∈Z
+
S
1
(2.84.(7)) is not: Let ¦U
n
¦
n∈Z
+
be
any collection of saturated neighborhoods of Z
+
¦1¦. The saturated neighborhood U which at level
n equals U
n
with one point deleted (cf Cantor’s diagonal argument (1.43)) does not contain any of
the U
n
. It follows (2.97) that
_
n∈Z
+
S
1
does not embed in R
2
nor in any other first countable space.
For instance, the universal property of quotient spaces (2.82) gives a factorization
(2.99)

n∈Z
+
S
1
f

p

K
K
K
K
K
K
K
K
K
K

n∈Z
+
S
1
_
n∈Z
+
S
1
f

s
s
s
s
s
s
s
s
s
s
of the continuous map f such that π
m
(f[¦n¦ S
1
) is the identity function when m = n and the
constant function when m ,= n. The induced map f is an injective continuous map. It can not be an
embedding for the countable product

S
1
of circles is first countable (2.97). The topology on
_
S
1
is finer than the subspace topology inherited from

S
1
.
These examples show that the uncountable product of first countable (even metric) spaces and the
quotient of a first countable space may fail to be first countable (2.98.(5), 2.98.(7)). Some linearly ordered
spaces are first countable, some are not (2.98.(1), 2.98.(4)).
In a first countable (eg metric) space X, the points of the closure of any A ⊂ X can be approached
by sequences from A in the sense that they are precisely the limit points of convergent sequences in A.
This is not true in general (2.98.(4)).
2.100. Lemma. Let X be a topological space.
44 2. TOPOLOGICAL SPACES AND CONTINUOUS MAPS
(1) (The sequence lemma) Let A ⊂ X be a subspace and x a point of X. Then
x is the limit of a sequence of points from A =⇒ x ∈ A
The converse holds if X is first countable.
(2) (Continuous map preserve convergent sequences) Let f : X → Y be a map of X into a space Y .
Then
f is continuous =⇒ f(x
n
) → f(x) whenever x
n
→ x for any sequence x
n
in X
The converse holds if X is first countable.
Proof. (1) The direction =⇒ is clear. Conversely, suppose that x ∈ A. Let U
n
be a countable basis
at x. We may assume that U
1
⊃ U
2
⊃ ⊃ U
n
⊃ U
n+1
⊃ as we may replace U
n
by U
1
∩ . . . ∩ U
n
.
For each n choose a point x
n
∈ A ∩ U
n
. We claim that the sequence (x
n
) converges to x. Let U be any
neighborhood of x. Then U
n
⊂ U for some n so that x
m
∈ U
m
⊂ U
n
⊂ U for m ≥ n.
(2) The direction =⇒ is clear. Conversely, suppose that f(x
n
) → f(x) whenever x
n
→ x. We want to
show that f is continuous, ie (2.51.(6)) that f(A) ⊂ f(A) for any A ⊂ X. Let x ∈ A. Since X is first
countable, there is by (1) a sequence of points a
n
∈ A converging to x. By hypothesis, the sequence
f(a
n
) ∈ f(A) converges to f(x). Thus f(x) ∈ f(A) by (1) again.
We say that X satisfies the sequence lemma
1
if for any A ⊂ X and for any x ∈ A there is a sequence
of points in A converging to x.
To summarize:
X is metrizable =⇒ X is 1st countable =⇒ X satisfies the sequence lemma (is Frech´et)
Examples show that neither of these arrows reverse.
The largest element Ω is a limit point of [0, Ω) but it is not the limit of any sequence in [0, Ω) as any
such sequence has an upper bound in [0, Ω) (1.52.(2)). Thus [0, Ω] does not satisfy the sequence lemma.
Hence it is not 1st countable and not metrizable.
2.101. The uniform metric. Let Y be a metric space with a bounded metric d and let J be a set.
We shall discuss uniform convergence which is a metric, not a topological, concept.
2.102. Definition. [8, pp 124, 266] The uniform metric on Y
J
=

j∈J
Y = map(J, Y ) is the metric
given by d(f, g) = sup¦j ∈ J [ d(f(j), g(j))¦.
It is easy to see that this is indeed a metric.
2.103. Theorem. On R
J
we have: product topology ⊂ uniform topology ⊂ box topology
Proof. Omitted.
The elements of Y
J
are functions f : J → Y . Note that a sequence of functions f
n
: J → Y converges
in the uniform metric to the function f : J → Y if and only if
∀ε > 0∃N > 0∀j ∈ J∀n ∈ Z
+
: n > N =⇒ d(f
n
(j), f(j)) < ε
We say that the sequence of functions f
n
: J → Y converges uniformly to the function f : J → Y .
2.104. Theorem (Uniform limit theorem). (Cf [8, Thm 43.6]) Suppose that J is a topological space
and that Y is a metric space. The uniform limit of any sequence (f
n
) of continuous functions f
n
: J → Y
is continuous.
Proof. Well-known.
1
Aka a Frech´et space
9. CONNECTED SPACES 45
9. Connected spaces
2.105. Definition. The topological space X is connected if it is not the union X = X
0
∪ X
1
of two
disjoint open non-empty subsets X
0
and X
1
.
Two subsets A and B of a space X are separated if A∩B = ∅ = A∩B. This means that the two sets
are disjoint and neither contains a limit point of the other. Two disjoint open (closed) sets are separated.
If C ⊂ A and D ⊂ B and A and B are separated, then C and D are separated. A separation of X
consists of two separated non-empty subsets A and B with union X = A∪ B.
2.106. Theorem. The following are equivalent:
(1) X is connected
(2) The only clopen (closed and open) subsets of X are ∅ and X
(3) X has no separations
(4) Every continuous map X → ¦0, 1¦ to the discrete space ¦0, 1¦ is constant.
Proof. We show that the negated statements are equivalent.
(1) =⇒ (2): Suppose that X = U
1
∪U
2
where U
1
and U
1
are disjoint, open, and non-empty. Then U
1
is an open, closed, non-empty, proper subset of X.
(2) =⇒ (3): If C is a closed, open, nonempty, proper subset of X then X = C∪(X−C) is a separation
of X.
(3) =⇒ (4): Suppose that X = A ∪ B where A and B are separated. Then A ⊂ A, for A does not
meet B, so A is closed. The map f : X → ¦0, 1¦ given by f(A) = 0 and f(B) = 1 is continuous since all
closed subsets of the co-domain have closed pre-images.
(4) =⇒ (1): Let f : X → ¦0, 1¦ be a surjective continuous map. Then X = f
−1
(0) ∪ f
−1
(1) is the
union of two disjoint non-empty open subsets.
2.107. Theorem. If X is connected, then f(X) is connected for any continuous map f : X → Y .
Proof. We use the equivalence of (1) and (4) in Theorem 2.106. Let f : X → Y be a continuous
map. If f(X) is not connected, there is a non-constant continuous map f(X) → ¦0, 1¦ and hence a
non-constant continuous map X → ¦0, 1¦. So X is not connected.
2.108. Example. (1) R−¦0¦ = R

∪R
+
is not connected for it is the union of two disjoint open
non-empty subsets.
(2) We shall later prove that R is connected (2.119) and that the connected subsets of R are precisely
the intervals, rays, R, and ∅.
(3) R

is not connected for [a, b) is a closed and open subset whenever a < b (2.31.(4)). In fact, any
subset Y of R

containing at least two points a < b is disconnected as Y ∩ [a, b) is closed and open
but not equal to ∅ or Y . (R

is totally disconnected.)
(4) R
K
is connected [8, Ex 27.3].
(5) Q is totally disconnected (and not discrete): Let Y be any subspace of Q containing at least two
points a < b. Choose an irrational number t between a and b. Then Y ∩ (t, ∞) = Y ∩ [t, ∞) is an
open, closed, non-empty, proper subset of Y .
(6) Particular point topologies (2.2.(3)) are connected.
A subspace of X is said to be connected if it is connected in the subspace topology. A subspace of a
connected space need obviously not be connected. So how can we tell if a subspace is connected?
2.109. Lemma. Let Y ⊂ X be a subspace. Then
Y is connected ⇐⇒ Y is not the union of two separated non-empty subsets of X
Proof. Suppose that Y = Y
1
∪ Y
2
is the union of two subspaces. Observe that
(2.110) Y
1
and Y
2
are separated in Y ⇐⇒ Y
1
and Y
2
are separated in X
because Cl
Y
(Y
1
) ∩Y
2
2.35.(2)
= Y
1
∩Y ∩Y
2
= Y
1
∩Y
2
. The lemma now follows immediately from 2.106, the
equivalence of (1) and (3).
2.111. Corollary. Suppose that Y ⊂ X is a connected subspace. For every pair A and B of
separated subsets of X such that Y ⊂ A∪ B we have either Y ⊂ A or Y ⊂ B.
Proof. The subsets Y ∩ A and Y ∩ B are separated (since the bigger sets A and B are separated)
with union Y . By 2.109, one of them must be empty, Y ∩ A = ∅, say, so that Y ⊂ B.
46 2. TOPOLOGICAL SPACES AND CONTINUOUS MAPS
2.112. Corollary. The closure of any connected subspace is connected. Indeed, if C ⊂ Y ⊂ C and
C is connected, then Y is connected.
Proof. Let f : Y → ¦0, 1¦ be a continuous map. Then f(C) is a single point since C is connected.
Moereover, f(y) = f(C) for all y ∈ Y since otherwise we could separate y and C by disjoint open sets.
Thus f is constant.
2.113. Theorem. Let ¦Y
j
[ j ∈ J¦ be a set of connected subspaces of the space X. Suppose that there
is an index j
0
∈ J such that Y
j
and Y
j
0
are not separated for any j ∈ J. Then the union

j∈J
Y
j
is
connected.
Proof. Let f :

j∈J
Y
j
→ ¦0, 1¦ be a continuous map. The image f(Y
j
) of Y
j
is a single point for
each j ∈ J since Y
j
is connected. In fact, f(Y
j
) = f(Y
j
0
) as otherwise we could separate Y
j
and Y
j
0
by
disjoint open sets. Thus f is constant.
2.114. Corollary. The union of a collection of connected subspaces with a point in common is
connected.
Proof. Apply 2.113 with any of the subspaces as Y
j
0
.
2.115. Corollary. Suppose that for any two points in X there is a connected subspace containing
both of them. Then X is connected.
Proof. Let x
0
be some fixed point of X. For each point x ∈ X, let C
x
be a connected subspace
containing x
0
and x. Then X =

C
x
is connected as

C
x
,= ∅ (2.114).
2.116. Theorem. Products of connected spaces are connected.
Proof. We prove first that the product X Y of two connected spaces X and Y is connected. In
fact, for any two points (x
1
, y
1
) and (x
2
, y
2
) the subspace X ¦y
1
¦ ∪ ¦x
2
¦ Y contains the two points
and this subspace is connected since (2.114) it is the union of two connected subspaces with a point in
common. Thus X Y is connected by Corollary 2.115.
Next, induction shows that the product of finitely many connected spaces is connected.
Finally [8, Ex 23.10], consider an arbitrary product

X
j
of connected spaces X
j
, j ∈ J. Choose
(1.28) a point x
j
in each of the spaces X
j
(assuming that all the spaces of the product are non-empty).
For every finite subset F of J let C
F


X
j
be the product of the subspaces X
j
if j ∈ F and ¦x
j
¦
if j ,∈ F. Since C
F
is connected for each finite subset F and these subsets have the point (x
j
)
j∈J
in
common, the union

F∈F
C
F
, where T is the collection of all finite subsets of J, is connected (2.114).
This union is not all of

X
j
but its closure is, so

F∈F
C
F
=

j∈J
X
j
is connected (2.112).
2.117. Connected subspaces of linearly ordered spaces. We determine the connected subsets
of R, or, more generally, of any linear continuum.
Recall that a subset C of a linearly ordered set X is convex if a, b ∈ C =⇒ [a, b] ⊂ C. Connected
subspaces are convex. But are convex subspaces connected? Not always: The convex subset [0, 1] is not
connected in Z but it is connected in R.
2.118. Lemma. Suppose that X is a linear continuum (1.15). Then
¦connected subsets of X¦ = ¦convex subsets of X¦
The inclusion ⊂ holds in any linearly ordered space.
Proof. Suppose first that X is any linearly ordered space and let C ⊂ X a subspace that is not
convex. Then there exist points a < x < b in X such that a and b are in C and x is outside C. Since
C ⊂ (−∞, x) ∪ (x, +∞) is contained in the union of two separated subsets and meet both of them, C is
not connected (2.111).
Let now X be a linear continuum and C a convex subset of X. We claim that C is connected. Pick
a fixed point a ∈ C and note that C is a union of closed intervals with a as one of their end-points.
Therefore it suffices (2.114) to prove the claim in case C = [a, b] is a closed interval. Suppose that
[a, b] = A∪B is the union of two disjoint relative open nonempty subsets A. We may assume that b ∈ B.
The sets A and B are closed and open in [a, b]. As the closed interval [a, b] is closed in X (2.13), A and
B are also closed in X (2.35). The nonempty bounded set A has a least upper bound, c = sup A. Now,
c ≤ b since b is an upper bound and c ∈ A since A is closed in X. (The least upper bound of any bounded
set always belongs to the closure of the set since otherwise it wouldn’t be the least upper bound.) So
c < b (for b ,∈ A) and A ⊂ [a, b). But A is also open in [a, b] and in the subspace [a, b) (which has the
9. CONNECTED SPACES 47
subspace topology which is the order topology (2.27)). This contradicts c ∈ A for no element of an open
subset A of [a, b) can be an upper bound for A: For any point d ∈ A there exists an open interval (x, y)
around d such that [a, b) ∩(x, y) ⊂ A and since [d, y) ,= ∅, d is not an upper bound for A. (In short, c ∈ A
since A is closed in X and c ,∈ A since A is open in [a, b).) This is a contradiction and therefore A must
be empty.
The inclusion ⊃ does not hold for all linearly ordered spaces as for instance Z
+
is convex but not
connected (there are gaps).
In particular, the connected subsets of R are precisely the convex subsets which are ∅, R, and all
intervals (bounded or unbounded, closed, open or halfopen).
We shall now identify the linearly ordered spaces that are connected.
2.119. Theorem. [2, Ex 7 p 382, Prop 1 p 336] Let X be a linearly ordered space. Then
X is connected in the order topology ⇐⇒ X is a linear continuum
The connected subsets of a linear continuum X are: X, ∅, intervals and rays.
Proof. =⇒: [8, Ex 24.4] [5, Problem 6.3.2] [2, Ex 7 p 382]. Suppose that X is a linearly ordered
set that is not a linear continuum. Then there are nonempty, proper, clopen subsets of X:
• If (x, y) = ∅ for some points x < y then (−∞, x] = (∞, y) is clopen and ,= ∅, X.
• If A ⊂ X is a nonempty subset bounded from above which has no least upper bound then the
set of upper bounds B =

a∈A
[a, ∞) =

b∈B
(b, ∞) is clopen and ,= ∅, X.
Therefore X is not connected (2.106).
⇐=: Assume X is a linear continuum. From 2.118 we know that the the connected and the convex
subsets of X are the same. In particular, the linear continuum X, certainly convex in itself, is connected
in the order topology. Let C be a nonempty convex subset of X. We look at two cases:
• C is neither bounded from above nor below. Let x be any point of X. Since x is neither a lower
nor an upper bound for C there exist a, b ∈ C so that a < x < b. Then x ∈ C by convexity.
Thus C = X.
• C is bounded from above but not from below. Let c = sup C be its least upper bound. Then
C ⊂ (−∞, c]. Let x < c be any point. Since x is neither a lower nor an upper bound for C
there exist a, b ∈ C so that a < x < b. Then x ∈ C by convexity. Thus (∞, c) ⊂ C ⊂ (−∞, c]
and C is either (−∞, c) or (−∞, c].
The arguments are similar for the other cases. Recall that X also has the greatest lower bound property
[8, Ex 3.13].
The real line R, the ordered square I
2
o
(2.15.(7)), the (ordinary) (half) line [1, ω) = Z
+
[0, 1)
(1.49.(6)), and the long (half) line [0, Ω) [0, 1) (1.52) [8, Ex 24.6, 24.12] are examples of linear continua.
2.120. Theorem. [Intermediate Value Theorem] Let f : X → Y be a continuous map of a connected
topological space X to a linearly ordered space Y . Then f(X) is convex. If Y is a linear continuum,
f(X) is an interval (bounded or unbounded, closed, half-open, or open)
Proof. X connected
(2.107)
=⇒ f(X) connected
(2.119)
=⇒ f(X) convex. For subsets of a linear continuum
we know (2.119) that connected = convex = interval.
Any linearly ordered space containing two consecutive points, two points a and b with (a, b) = ∅ is
not connected as X = (−∞, b) ∪ (a, +∞) is the union of two disjoint open sets.
Any well-ordered set X containing at least two points is totally disconnected in the order topology.
For if C ⊂ X contains a < b then a ,∈ C ∩(a, b] ÷ b is closed and open in C since (a, b] is closed and open
in X.
2.121. Path connected spaces. Path connectedness is a stronger property than connectedness.
2.122. Definition. The topological space X is path connected if for any two points x
0
and x
1
in X
there is a continuous map (a path) f : [0, 1] → X with f(0) = x
0
and f(1) = x
1
.
The image under a continuous map of a path connected space is path connected, cf 2.107. Any
product of path connected spaces is path connected [8, Ex 24.8], cf 2.113.
2.123. Example. The punctured euclidian plane R
n
−¦0¦ is path connected when n ≥ 2 since any
two points can be joined by a path of broken lines. Thus also the (n−1)-sphere S
n−1
, which is the image
of R
n
−¦0¦ under the continuous map x → x/[x[, is path connected for (n −1) ≥ 1.
48 2. TOPOLOGICAL SPACES AND CONTINUOUS MAPS
Since the unit interval I is connected (2.119), all paths f(I) are also connected (2.107) so all path
connected spaces are, as unions of paths emanating from one fixed point, connected (2.115). The converse
is not true, not all connected spaces are path connected.
2.124. Example. (1) (Topologist’s sine curve) Let S be the graph of the function sin(1/x), 0 <
x ≤ 1, considered as a subspace of the plane R
2
. The (closed) topologist’s sine curve is the subspace
S = S ∪ (¦0¦ [−1, 1]) of the plane. It follows from 2.107 and 2.112 that S is connected. We shall
soon see that S is not path connected (2.133.(2)).
(2) The ordered square I
2
o
(2.15.(7)) is connected since it is a linear continuum [8, Ex 3.15] but it is
not path connected. For suppose that f : [0, 1] → I
2
o
is a path from the smallest element (the lower
left corner) f(0) = 0 0 to the largest element (the upper right corner) f(1) = 1 1. Then f is
surjective for the image contains (2.120) the interval [0 0, 1 1] = I
2
o
. But this is impossible since
the ordered square I
2
o
contains uncountably many open disjoint subsets (eg x(0, 1) = (x0, x1),
0 ≤ x ≤ 1) but [0, 1] does not contain uncountably many open disjoint subsets (choose a rational
number in each of them).
(3) R
K
(2.11) is connected but not path-connected space [8, Ex 27.3].
(4) The Stone–
ˇ
Cech compactification βR of R is connected but not path-connected [8, Ex 38.9].
2.125. Components and path components. The relations on X defined by
x ∼ y ⇔ There is a connected subset C ⊂ X such that x ∈ C and y ∈ C
x
p
∼ y ⇔ There is a path in X between x and y
are equivalence relations. Check transitivity! (You may need the Glueing lemma (2.53.(5)).)
2.126. Definition. The components of X are the equivalence classes of the first equivalence relation.
The path components of X are the equivalence classes of the second equivalence relation
The component containing the point x ∈ X is, by definition, the union of all connected subspaces
containing x. The path component of the point x ∈ X consists, by definition, of all points with a path
to x.
2.127. Theorem. (1) The components are connected closed disjoint subsets with union X. Any
connected subset of X is contained in precisely one of the components.
(2) If X =

C
α
, where the C
α
are connected subspaces such that for all α ,= β there is a separation
A∪ B of X with C
α
⊂ A and C
β
⊂ B, then the C
α
are the components of X.
(3) The path components of X are path connected disjoint subsets with union X. Any path connected
subset is contained in precisely one of the path components.
(4) The path components are connected. The components are unions of path components.
Proof. (1) The components form a partition of X since they are equivalence classes (1.11). The
components are connected by the definition of the relation ∼ and 2.115. All the points of a connected
subset are equivalent so they are contained in the same equivalence class. In particular (2.115), C ⊂ C
for any component C so C is closed.
(2) Since each C
α
is connected, it is contained in precisely one component (2.127.(1)). Could there be
two of the C
α
s, say C
α
and C
β
, inside one component, say C? No: Choose a separation X = A∪B such
that C
α
⊂ A and C
β
⊂ B. Then C ⊂ X = A∪B and C meets both A and B which is impossible (2.111).
(3) The path components are path-connected by their very definition. All path-connected spaces are
connected, so each path-component is contained in precisely one component. Thus the components are
unions of path-components.
If X has only finitely many components the components are closed and open. If X = C
1
∪ ∪ C
n
where the finitely many subspaces C
i
are connected and separated then the C
i
are the components of X.
The path components can be closed, open, closed and open, or neither closed nor open. However, for
locally connected spaces (2.129) components and path components coincide (2.131).
2.128. Locally connected and locally path connected spaces.
2.129. Definition. The space X is locally (path) connected at the point x if every neighborhood of
x contains a (path) connected neighborhood of x. The space X is locally (path) connected if it is locally
(path) connected at each of its points.
Thus a space is locally (path) connected iff it has a basis of (path) connected subsets.
Consider this table
9. CONNECTED SPACES 49
R R−¦0¦ S Q
Connected YES NO YES NO
Locally connected YES YES NO NO
before you draw any conclusions about the relationship between connected and locally connected spaces.
Note in particular that a space can be connected (even path connected (2.133)) and not locally connected.
On the positive side, note that open subsets of locally (path) connected spaces are locally (path)
connected and that quotient spaces of locally connected spaces are locally connected (2.132).
2.130. Proposition. The space X is locally (path) connected if and only if open subsets have open
(path) components (open in X or, what is the same (2.24), open in the open set). In a locally (path-)
connected space the (path-) components are clopen.
Proof. Assume that X is locally connected and let U be an open subset. Consider a component,
C, of U. The claim is that C is open. Let x be a point in C. Choose a connected neighborhood V of x
such that V ⊂ U. Since V is connected and intersects C, V ⊂ C (2.127). This shows that C is open. In
particular, the components (of the open set X) are open and, since they form a partition, also closed.
Conversely, assume that open subsets have open components. Let x be a point of X and U a neigh-
borhood of x. Let C be the component of U containing x. Then C is an open connected neighborhood
of x contained in U.
It follows for instance that the open subsets of R are unions of at most countably many open
intervals. For any open set is the union of its components which are open, since R is locally connected,
and connected, so they are open intervals. Since each of the open intervals contains a rational number,
there are at most countably many components. Any closed subset of R is the complement to a union of
at most countably many open intervals.
2.131. Theorem. In a locally path-connected space the path-components and the components are the
same.
Proof. Suppose that X is locally path-connected. Each path-component P is contained (2.127) in
a unique component, C. Since C is connected and P is clopen (2.130), P = C (2.106).
For instance, the components and the path components of a locally Euclidean space, such as a
manifold, are the same. A locally path-connected space is path-connected if and only if it is connected.
2.132. Proposition. [8, Ex 25.8] [2, I.¸11.6] Locally (path) connected spaces have locally (path)
connected quotient spaces.
Proof. Let X be a locally connected space and p: X → Y a quotient map. Let V be a subset
of Y and C a component of V . Then p
−1
(C) is a union of components of p
−1
(V ) because continuous
maps preserve connectedness (2.107). If V is open in Y , p
−1
(V ) is open in X, and since X is locally
connected it follows (2.130) that p
−1
(C) is open in X. This means (2.74) that C is open in Y . Since thus
open subsets of Y have open components, Y is locally connected (2.130). (The same proof applies with
‘connected’ replaced by ‘path connected’.)
2.133. Example. (1) The comb space X = ([0, 1] ¦0¦) ∪ ((¦0¦ ∪ ¦1/n [ n ∈ Z
+
¦) [0, 1]) ⊂ R
2
is clearly path connected but it is not locally connected for (2.131) the open set U = X −[0, 1] ¦0¦
has a component (use (2.127.(2)) to identify the components) that is not open. (The same is true for
any (small) neighborhood of (0, 1/2).) See [8, Ex 25.5] for a similar example.
(2) The closed topologist’s sine curve S is not locally connected: Let U be a small neighborhood
(well, not too big) around (0, 1/2). Then U has a component that is not open. For instance, U =
S −([0, 1] ¦0¦ has a component (2.127.(2)), ¦0¦(0, 1] that is not open (no neighborhood of (0, ±
1
2
)
is disjoint from S). It follows (2.132, 2.141.(2)) that S is not path-connected for it can not be a
quotient space of the locally connected compact space [0, 1]. In fact, S has two path-components:
S = S ∩ (R
+
R), which is open and not closed for its closure is S, and ¦0¦ [0, 1], which is closed
and not open for S is not closed. Since there are two path components and one component, S is not
locally path connected (2.131). (The Warsaw circle, the union of S with an arc from one end of S to
[0, 1]) is an example of a path connected not locally connected space, so is the next example.)
(3) The space X =

C
n
(2.41.(2)) is even path connected but still not locally connected for the
component R
+
¦0¦ of the open set X −¦(0, 0)¦ (use (2.127.(2)) to identify the components) is not
open (any neighborhood of (1, 0) contains points from the circles). Alternatively, X is not locally
connected since any small neighborhood of (1, 0) has a separation.
50 2. TOPOLOGICAL SPACES AND CONTINUOUS MAPS
(4) Any linear continuum is locally connected since the basis for the topology consists of connected
sets (2.119). It need not be locally path connected [8, Ex 25.3].
(5) The (generalized) Jordan curve theorem says that R
n
−h(S
n−1
) has two path-components for any
embedding h: S
n−1
→ R
n
of an (n−1)-sphere into R
n
, n ≥ 1. This is usually proved using algebraic
topology.
Figure 1. The Warsaw circle
10. COMPACT SPACES 51
10. Compact spaces
2.135. Definition. A topological space X is compact if it satisfies one of the following two equivalent
conditions:
(1) Every collection of open subsets whose union is X contains a finite subcollection whose union
is X.
(2) Every collection of closed subsets whose intersection is ∅ contains a finite subcollection whose
intersection is ∅.
A collection of open subsets whose union is the whole space is called an open covering. Thus a space
is compact if any open covering contains a finite open covering.
Any finite space is compact as there are only finitely many open subsets. Any compact discrete
space is finite. The real line R is not compact as the open covering ¦(−n, n) [ n ∈ Z
+
¦ has no finite
subcovering.
How can we recognize the compact subspaces of a given topological space?
2.136. Proposition. Let Y be a subspace of X. The following are equivalent:
(1) Y is compact
(2) Every collection of open subsets of X whose union contains Y contains a finite subcollection
whose union contains Y
(3) Every collection of closed subsets of X whose intersection is disjoint from Y contains a finite
subcollection whose intersection is disjoint from Y
Proof. (1) =⇒ (2): Let ¦U
j
[ j ∈ J¦ be a collection of open subsets of X such that Y ⊂

U
j
.
Then ¦Y ∩ U
j
[ j ∈ J¦ is an open covering of Y . Since Y is compact, Y =

j∈J

Y ∩ U
j
for some finite
index set J

⊂ J. This means that Y ⊂

j∈J

U
j
.
(2) =⇒ (1): Let ¦V
j
[ j ∈ J¦ be an open covering of Y . Then V
j
= Y ∩ U
j
for some open set
U
j
⊂ X and Y ⊂

j∈J
U
j
. By assumption, Y ⊂

j∈J

U
j
for some finite index set J

⊂ J. Therefore
Y = Y ∩

j∈J

U
j
=

j∈J

Y ∩ U
j
=

j∈J

V
j
. This shows that Y is compact.
(2) ⇐⇒ (3): Clear from DeMorgan’s laws.
2.137. Theorem. Closed subspaces of compact spaces are compact.
Proof. Suppose that X is a compact space and Y ⊂ X a closed subset. Let F
j
, j ∈ J, be a
collection of closed subsets of X such that Y ∩

j∈J
F
j
=

j∈J
Y ∩ F
j
= ∅. By compactness of X,
∅ =

j∈J

Y ∩ F
j
= Y ∩

j∈J

F
j
for some finite index set J

⊂ J. Thus Y is compact by 2.136.
2.138. Theorem. If X is compact, then f(X) is compact for any continuous map f : X → Y .
Proof. Let U
j
, j ∈ j, be a collection of open subsets of Y that cover the image f(X). Then
X =

j∈J
f
−1
(U
j
) is an open covering of X. Since X is compact, X =

j∈J

f
−1
(U
j
) for some finite
index set J

⊂ J. Then f(X) = f
_
j∈J

f
−1
(U
j
)
_
=

j∈J

ff
−1
(U
j
) ⊂

j∈J

U
j
. This shows that f(X)
is compact (2.135).
Compact subspaces of Hausdorff spaces behave to some extent like points.
2.139. Theorem. (1) Compact subspaces of Hausdorff spaces are closed.
(2) Any two disjoint compact subspaces of a Hausdorff space can be separated by disjoint open sets.
Proof. Let L and K be two disjoint compact subspaces of X. Consider first the special case where
L = ¦x
0
¦ is a point. For each point x ∈ K, the Hausdorff property implies that there are disjoint open
sets U
x
, V
x
such that and x ∈ U
x
and x
0
∈ V
x
. Since K is compact (2.136), K ⊂ U
x
1
∪ . . . ∪ U
x
t
for
finitely many points x
1
, . . . , x
t
∈ K. Set U = U
x
1
∪ . . . ∪ U
x
t
and V = V
x
1
∩ . . . ∩ V
x
t
. The existence of
V alone says that K is closed.
Assume next that L is any compact subspace of X. We have just seen that for each point y ∈ L
there are disjoint open sets U
y
⊃ K and V
y
÷ y. By compactness, L is covered by finitely many of the
V
y
. Then K is contained in the intersection of the corresponding finitely many U
y
.
2.140. Corollary. Let X be a compact Hausdorff space.
(1) ¦compact subspaces of X¦ = ¦closed subspaces of X¦
(2) If A and B are disjoint closed sets in X then there exist disjoint open sets U, V such that A ⊂ U
and B ⊂ V .
52 2. TOPOLOGICAL SPACES AND CONTINUOUS MAPS
Proof. (1) ⊂ is 2.139 and ⊃ is 2.137.
(2) Let A and B be disjoint closed subsets of X. Then A and B are compact as just shown. Now apply
2.139.
2.141. Lemma (Closed Map Lemma). Suppose that X is a compact space, Y is a Hausdorff space,
and f : X → Y is a continuous map.
(1) f is closed (2.69).
(2) If f is surjective, it is a closed quotient map (2.76).
(3) If f is injective, it is an embedding (2.58).
(4) If f is bijective, it is a homeomorphism (2.55).
Proof. Let f : X → Y be a continuous map of a compact space X into a Hausdorff space Y .
(1) We have
C is closed in X
2.137
=⇒ C is compact
2.138
=⇒ f(C) is compact
2.139
=⇒ f(C) is closed in Y
which shows that f is a closed map.
(2) Every closed continuous surjective map is a closed quotient map (2.78).
(3) Every closed continuous injective map is an embedding (2.59).
(4) Every closed bijective continuous map is a homeomorphism (2.78.(3)).

2.142. Corollary. If f : X → Y is continuous and X is compact and locally connected and Y is
Hausdorff, then f(X) is compact and locally connected.
Proof. We know (2.141) that f : X → f(X) is a (closed) quotient map. The quotient image of a
locally connected space is locally connected (2.132).
2.143. Lemma (The Tube Lemma). Let X and Y be topological spaces where Y is compact. Let x
0
be a point of X. For any neighborhood N ⊂ X Y of the slice ¦x
0
¦ Y there is a neighborhood U of x
0
such that ¦x
0
¦ Y ⊂ U Y ⊂ N.
Proof. For each point y ∈ Y there is a product neighborhood such that x
0
y ⊂ U
y
V
y
⊂ N.
Since Y is compact, there are finitely many points y
1
, . . . , y
k
∈ Y such that Y = V
1
∪ . . . ∪ V
k
where
V
i
= V
y
i
. Put U = U
1
∩ . . . ∩ U
k
.
2.144. Theorem. (Cf 2.149) The product of finitely many compact spaces is compact.
Proof. We show that the product XY of two compact spaces X and Y is compact. The theorem
in its general form follows by induction. Suppose that A
j
, j ∈ J, is an open covering of X Y . We
show that there is a finite subcovering. For each point x ∈ X, the slice ¦x¦ Y , homeomorphic to Y ,
is compact and therefore ¦x¦ Y ⊂

j∈J
x
A
j
for some finite index set J
x
⊂ J (2.136). Thanks to the
tube lemma (2.143) we know that the open set

j∈J
x
A
j
actually contains a whole tube U
x
Y for some
neighborhood U
x
of x. By compactness, X = U
x
1
∪ . . . ∪ U
x
k
can be covered by finitely many of the
neighborhoods U
x
. Now
X Y =
_
_
1≤i≤k
U
x
i
_
Y =
_
1≤i≤k
(U
x
i
Y ) =
_
1≤i≤k
_
j∈J
x
i
A
j
=
_
j∈
S
1≤i≤k
J
x
i
A
j
where

1≤i≤k
J
x
i
⊂ J is finite (1.34).
Here are two small lemmas that are used quite often.
2.145. Lemma (Criterion for noncompactness). If X contains an infinite closed discrete subspace,
then X is not compact.
Proof. Any closed subspace of a compact space is compact (2.137). A discrete and compact space
is finite.
2.146. Lemma (Intersection of a nested sequence of compact sets). [8, Ex 28.5] [5, 3.10.2] Let C
1

C
2
⊃ ⊃ C
n
⊃ be a descending sequence of closed nonempty subsets of a compact space. Then

C
n
,= ∅.
Proof. If

C
n
= ∅ then C
n
= ∅ for some n ∈ Z
+
by 2.135.(2).
2.147. Theorem. [Cf [8, Ex 27.5]] A nonempty compact Hausdorff space without isolated points
(2.39) is uncountable.
10. COMPACT SPACES 53
Proof. Let x
n
be a sequence of points in X. It suffices (1.39) to show that ¦x
n
[ n ∈ Z
+
¦ , = X.
Since X is Hausdorff and has no isolated points there is a descending sequence
V
1
⊃ V
2
⊃ ⊃ V
n−1
⊃ V
n

of nonempty open sets such that x
n
,∈ V
n
for all n. These are constructed recursively. Put V
0
= X.
Suppose that V
n−1
has been constructed for some n ∈ Z
+
. Since x
n
is not isolated, ¦x
n
¦ , = V
n−1
. Choose
a point y
n
∈ V
n−1
distinct from x
n
and choose disjoint (separated) open sets U
n
⊂ X, V
n
⊂ V
n−1
such
that x
n
∈ U
n
and y
n
∈ V
n
. Then U
n
∩ V
n
= ∅ so x
n
,∈ V
n
.
By construction, the intersection

V
n
contains none of the points ¦x
n
¦ of the sequence and by
compactness (2.146),

V
n
,= ∅. Thus X contains a point that is not in the sequence.
The Alexandroff compactification (2.167) ωZ
+
= K = K∪¦0¦, where K is as in 2.11, is a countable
compact Hausdorff space with isolated points.
Is it true that a connected Hausdorff space is uncountable?
2.148. Example. (1) The (unreduced) suspension of the space X is the quotient space
SX = [0, 1] X/(¦0¦ X, ¦1¦ X)
What is the suspension of the n-sphere S
n
? Define f : [0, 1] S
n
→ S
n+1
to be the (continuous)
map that takes (t, x), t ∈ [0, 1], to the geodesic path from the north pole (0, 1) ∈ S
n+1
, through the
equatorial point (x, 0) ∈ S
n
⊂ S
n+1
, to the south pole (0, −1) ∈ S
n+1
. (Coordinates in R
n+2
=
R
n+1
R.) By the universal property of quotient spaces there is an induced continuous and bijective
map f : SS
n
→ S
n+1
. Since SS
n
is compact (as a quotient of a product of two compact spaces) and
S
n+1
is Hausdorff (as a subspace of a Hausdorff space), f is a homeomorphism (2.141). We often
write SS
n
= S
n+1
, n ≥ 0, where the equality sign stands for ‘is homeomorphic to’.
(2) Every injective continuous map S
1
→ R
2
is an embedding. Can you find an injective continuous
map R
1
→ R
2
that is not an embedding?
(3) Alexander’s horned sphere [7, Example 2B.2] is a wild embedding of the 2-sphere S
2
in R
3
such
that the unbounded component of the complement R
3
− S
2
(2.133.(5)) contains non-contractible
loops. It may be easier instead to consider Alexander’s horned disc [3, p 232]. (The horned sphere is
obtained by cutting out a disc of the standard sphere and replacing it a horned disc.)
(4) Let X be a Hausdorff space and
X
0
⊂ X
1
⊂ ⊂ X
n−1
⊂ X
n
⊂ ⊂ X
an ascending sequence of closed subspaces. Assume that the topology on X is coherent with this
filtration in the sense that
A is closed ⇐⇒ A∩ X
n
is closed for all n
holds for all subsets A of X. Then any compact subspace C of X is contained in a finite stage of the
filtration. To see this, choose a point t
n
∈ C ∩(X
n
−X
n−1
) for all n ∈ Z
+
for which this intersection
is nonempty. Let T = ¦t
n
¦ be the set of these points. We want to prove that T is finite. Certainly,
T ∩ X
n
is finite, hence closed in the Hausdorff space X
n
for all n ≥ 0. Therefore T is closed. In
fact, any subset of T is closed by the same argument and thus T is discrete. But any closed discrete
subspace of the compact space C is finite (2.145).
2.149. Theorem (Tychonoff theorem). The product

j∈J
X
j
of any collection (X
j
)
j∈J
of compact
spaces is compact.
Proof. Put X =

j∈J
X
j
. Let us say that a collection of subsets of X is an FIP-collection (finite
intersection property) if any finite subcollection has nonempty intersection. We must (2.135.(2)) show
/ is FIP =⇒

A∈A
A ,= ∅
holds for any collection / of subsets of X.
So let / be a FIP-collection of subsets of X. Somehow we must find a point x in

A∈A
A.
Step 1. The FIP-collection / is contained in a maximal FIP-collection.
The set (supercollection?) A of FIP-collections containing / is a strictly partially ordered by strict
inclusion. Any linearly ordered subset (subsupercollection?) B ⊂ A has an upper bound, namely the
FIP-collection

B =

B∈B
B containing /. Now Zorn’s lemma (1.56) says that A has maximal elements.
We can therefore assume that / is a maximal FIP-collection.
54 2. TOPOLOGICAL SPACES AND CONTINUOUS MAPS
Step 2. Maximality of / implies
(2.150) A
1
, . . . , A
k
∈ / =⇒ A
1
∩ ∩ A
k
∈ /
and for any subset A
0
⊂ X we have
(2.151) ∀A ∈ /: A
0
∩ A ,= ∅ =⇒ A
0
∈ /
To prove (2.150), note that the collection /∪ ¦A
1
∩ ∩ A
k
¦ is FIP, hence equals / by maximality. To
prove (2.151), note that the collection /∪¦A
0
¦ is FIP: Let A
1
, . . . , A
k
∈ /. By (2.150), A
1
∩ ∩A
k
∈ /
so A
1
∩ ∩ A
k
∩ A ,= ∅ by assumption.
Step 3. ¦π
j
(A) [ A ∈ /¦ is FIP for all j ∈ J.
π
j
(A
1
) ∩ ∩ π
j
(A
k
) ⊃ π
j
(A
1
∩ ∩ A
j
) ,= ∅ for any finite collection of sets A
1
, . . . , A
k
∈ /.
Since X
j
is compact and ¦π
j
(A) [ A ∈ /¦ is an FIP collection of closed subsets of X
j
, the intersection

A∈A
π
j
(A) ⊂ X
j
is nonempty (2.135.(2)). Choose a point x
j


π
j
(A) for each j ∈ J and put
x = (x
j
) ∈ X.
Step 3. x ∈

A∈A
A.
The point is that π
−1
j
(U
j
) ∈ / for any neighborhood U
j
of x
j
. This follows from (2.151) since π
−1
j
(U
j
) ∩
A ,= ∅, or equivalently, U
j
∩π
j
(A) ,= ∅, for any A ∈ / as x
j
∈ π
j
(A). Since / has the FIP it follows that
π
−1
j
1
(U
j
1
) ∩ ∩ π
−1
j
k
(U
j
k
) ∩ A ,= ∅ whenever U
j
i
are neighborhoods of the finitely many points x
j
i
∈ X
j
i
and A ∈ /. Thus x ∈ A for all A in the collection /; in other words x ∈

A∈A
A.
2.152. Compact subspaces of linearly ordered spaces. We show first that any compact sub-
space of a linearly ordered space is contained in a closed interval.
2.153. Lemma. Let X be a linearly ordered space and ∅ , = C ⊂ X a nonempty compact subspace.
Then C ⊂ [m, M] for some elements m, M ∈ C.
Proof. The claim is that C has a smallest and a largest element. The proof is by contradiction.
Assume that C has no largest element. Then C ⊂

c∈C
(−∞, c) as there for any a ∈ C is a c ∈ C such
that a < c. By compactness
C ⊂ (−∞, c
1
) ∪ ∪ (−∞, c
k
) ⊂ (−∞, c)
where c = max¦c
1
, . . . , c
k
¦ is the largest (1.50) of the finitely many elements c
1
, . . . , c
k
∈ C. But this is
a contradiction as c ∈ C and c ,∈ (∞, c).
We now show that the eg the unit interval [0, 1] is compact in R. Note that the unit interval [0, 1]
is not compact in R−¦
1
2
¦. (The intersection all the closed subspaces [−
1
n
+
1
2
,
1
n
+
1
2
] ⊂ [0, 1], n ≥ 2, is
empty but the intersection of finitely many of them is not empty.) The reason for this difference is that
R, but not R−¦
1
2
¦ (1.16.(6)), has the least upper bound property (1.15).
2.154. Theorem. Let X be a linearly ordered space with the least upper bound property. Then every
closed interval [a, b] in X is compact.
Proof. Let [a, b] ⊂ X be a closed interval and / and open covering of [a, b] (with the subspace
topology which is the order topology (2.27)). We must show that [a, b] is covered by finitely many of the
sets from the collection /. The set
C = ¦x ∈ [a, b] [ [a, x] can be covered by finitely many members of /¦
is nonempty (a ∈ C) and bounded from above (by b). Let c = sup C be the least upper bound of C.
Then a ≤ c ≤ b. We would like to show that c = b.
Step 1 If x ∈ C and x < b then C ∩ (x, b] ,= ∅.
Proof of Step 1. Suppose first that x has an immediate successor y > x. We can not have x < b < y
for then y would not be an immediate successor. So x < y ≤ b. Clearly [a, y] = [a, x] ∪ ¦y¦ can be
covered by finitely many members of /. Suppose next that x has no immediate successor. Choose an
open set A ∈ / containing x. Since A is open in [a, b] and contains x < b, A contains an interval of the
form [x, d) for some d ≤ b. Since d is not an immediate successor of x there is a point y ∈ (x, d). Now
[a, y] ⊂ [a, x] ∪ [x, d) ⊂ [a, x] ∪ A can be covered by finitely sets from /.
Step 2 c ∈ C.
Proof of Step 2. The claim is that [a, c] can be covered by finitely many members of /. From Step 1 we
have that C contains elements > a so the upper bound c is also > a. Choose A ∈ / such that c ∈ A.
Since A is open in [a, b] and a < c, A contains an interval of the form (d, c] for some d where a ≤ d.
Since d is not an uppe bound for C, there are points from C in (d, c]. Let y be such a point. Now
[a, c] = [a, y] ∪ (d, c] ⊂ [a, y] ∪ A can be covered by finitely many sets from /.
10. COMPACT SPACES 55
Step 3 c = b.
Proof of Step 3. By Step 2, c ∈ C. But then c = b for Step 1 says that if c < b, then c can not be an
upper bound.
For instance, the ordered square I
2
o
= [00, 11], Z
+
= [1, ∞], and S

= [1, Ω] are compact linearly
ordered spaces [8, Ex 10.1]. More importantly, since the linearly ordered space R has the least upper
bound property, we get that all closed intervals in R are compact.
See [8, Ex 27.1] for the converse.
2.155. Corollary. Let X be a linearly ordered space and ∅ , = C ⊂ X a nonempty subspace. Then
C is compact and connected =⇒ C is a closed interval
The converse holds when X is a linear continuum.
Proof. Since C is compact, C ⊂ [m, M] for some m, M ∈ C (2.153) and [m, M] ⊂ C because C is
connected, hence convex (2.118). In a a linear continuum every closed interval is compact (2.154) and
connected (2.118).
In particular, the compact and connected subsets of the linear continuum R are precisely the closed
intervals.
2.156. Theorem (Heine–Borel). A subset C of the euclidean space R
n
is compact if and only if it is
closed and bounded in the euclidean metric.
Proof. Let C ⊂ R
n
be compact. Since C is compact and ¦(−R, R)
n
[ R > 0¦ an open covering of
R
n
, there is an R > 0 such that C ⊂ [−R, R]
n
. Thus C is bounded. Compact subspaces of Hausdorff
spaces are closed (2.139), so C is closed.
Conversely, if C is closed and bounded then C is a closed subset of [−R, R]
n
for some R > 0.
But [−R, R]
n
is compact (2.155, 2.144) and closed subsets of compact spaces are compact (2.137); in
particular, C is compact.
Can you now answer question 2.60.(10)?
2.157. Theorem (Extreme Value theorem). Let f : X → Y be a continuous map of a nonempty
topological space X into a linearly ordered space Y .
(1) If X is compact then there exist m, M ∈ X such that f(X) ⊂ [f(m), f(M)].
(2) If X is compact and connected then there exist m, M ∈ X such that f(X) = [f(m), f(M)].
Proof. (1) Since the image f(X) is compact (2.138) we can apply (2.153).
(2) Since the image f(X) is compact (2.138) and connected (2.107) we can apply (2.155).
2.158. Compactness in metric spaces. Since any open covering of compact space contains a
finite subcovering we see that any open covering of a compact metric space contains a subcovering of
open sets of size bounded from below. This observation is expressed in the Lebesgue lemma.
2.159. Lemma (Lebesgue lemma). Let X be a compact metric space. For any open covering of X
there exists a positive number δ > 0 (the Lebesgue number of the open covering) such that any subset of
X with diameter < δ is contained in one of the open sets in the covering.
Proof. Cover X by finitely many open balls, X = B(x
1
, δ
1
) ∪ B(x
2
, δ
2
) ∪ ∪ B(x
k
, δ
k
), such that
each double radius ball B(x
i
, 2δ
i
) is contained in one of the open sets of the covering. Let δ be any
positive number smaller than all the δ
i
. Then any subset of diameter < δ is contained in one of the
balls B(x
i
, 2δ
i
) and therefore in one of the open sets from the covering. (Let A ⊂ X be a subset with
diam(A) < δ. Choose any point a in A. Then a is in one of the open balls B(x
i
, δ
i
). For any point
b ∈ A, the distance d(b, x
i
) ≤ d(b, a) + d(a, x
i
) < δ + δ
i
< 2δ
i
which means that the point b is contained
in B(x
i
, 2δ
i
).)
The open covering of R consisting of the open intervals (−1, 1) and (x−1/[x[, x+1/[x[) for all x ∈ R
with [x[ > 1 does not have a Lebesgue number.
2.160. Definition. A map f : X → Y between metric spaces is uniformly continuous if for all ε > 0
there is a δ > 0 such that d
Y
(f(x
1
), f(x
2
)) < ε whenever d
X
(x
1
, x
2
) < δ:
∀ε > 0∃δ > 0∀x
1
, x
2
∈ X: d
X
(x
1
, x
2
) < δ ⇒ d
Y
(f(x
1
), f(x
2
)) < ε
2.161. Theorem (Uniform continuity theorem). Let f : X → Y be a continuous map between metric
spaces. If X is compact, then f is uniformly continuous.
56 2. TOPOLOGICAL SPACES AND CONTINUOUS MAPS
Proof. Given ε > 0. Let δ be the Lebesgue number of the open covering ¦f
−1
B(y,
1
2
ε) [ y ∈ Y ¦.
Then we have for all x
1
, x
2
∈ X
d
X
(x
1
, x
2
) < δ =⇒ diam¦x
1
, x
2
¦ < δ
=⇒ ∃y ∈ Y : ¦x
1
, x
2
¦ ⊂ f
−1
B(y,
1
2
ε)
=⇒ ∃y ∈ Y : ¦f(x
1
), f(x
2
)¦ ⊂ B(y,
1
2
ε)
=⇒ d
Y
(f(x
1
), f(x
2
)) < ε

2.159. Limit point compactness and sequential compactness.
2.162. Definition. A space X is
(1) limit point compact if any infinite subset of X has a limit point
(2) sequentially compact if any sequence in X has a convergent subsequence.
In other words, a space is limit point compact if it contains no infinite closed discrete subspaces
(2.40).
We shall not say much about these other forms of compactness (see [5, ¸3.10] for a more thorough
discussion).
2.163. Theorem. (Cf [8, Ex 28.4, Ex 35.3]) For any topological space X we have
X is compact =⇒ X is limit point compact
1st countable + T
1
=⇒ X is sequentially compact
All three forms of compactness are equivalent for a metrizable space.
Proof. X is compact =⇒ X is limit point compact: A subset with no limit points is closed and
discrete (2.40), hence finite (2.145).
X is limit point compact, 1st countable and T
1
=⇒ X is sequentially compact: Let (x
n
) be a sequence
in X. Consider the set A = ¦x
n
[ n ∈ Z
+
¦ of points in the sequenec. If A is finite there is a constant
subsequence (1.34.(3)). If A is infinite, A has a limit point x by hypothesis. If X is 1st countable, there
is a countable nested countable basis, U
1
⊃ U
2
⊃ , at x just as in the proof of (2.100). Since x is a
limit point, there is a sequence element x
n
1
∈ U
1
. Suppose that we have found n
1
< < n
k
such that
x
n
i
∈ U
i
. Since x is a limit point and X is T
1
, there are infinitely many points from A in U
k+1
(2.48). In
particular, there is n
k+1
< n
k
such that x
n
k+1
is in U
k+1
. The subsequence x
n
k
converges to x.
X is sequentially compact and metrizable =⇒ X compact: This is more complicated (but should also be
well-known from your experience with metric spaces) so we skip the proof.
2.164. Example. (1) The well-ordered space S

of all countable ordinals is limit point compact
and sequentially compact but it is not compact. S

is not compact (2.153) for it is a linearly ordered
space with no greatest element [8, Ex 10.6]. On the other hand, any countably infinite subset of S

is contained in a compact subset (1.52.(2), 2.154). Therefore (2.163) any countably infinite subset,
indeed any infinite subset (2.40), has a limit point and any sequence has a convergent subsequence.
(Alternatively, use that S

is first countable (2.98.(4)).) It follows (2.163) that S

is not metrizable.
(2) The Stone–
ˇ
Cech compactification (3.37) βZ
+
of the positive integers is compact but it is not limit
point compact as the sequence (n)
n∈Z
+
has no convergent subsequence. Indeed, no point of the
remainder βZ
+
− Z
+
is the limit of a sequence in Z
+
[8, Ex 38.9]. (It follows that βZ
+
is not first
countable and not metrizable).
11. LOCALLY COMPACT SPACES AND THE ALEXANDROFF COMPACTIFICATION 57
11. Locally compact spaces and the Alexandroff compactification
2.165. Definition. A space X is locally compact at the point x ∈ X if x lies in the interior of some
compact subset of X. A space is locally compact if it is locally compact at each of its points.
This means that X is locally compact at the point x if x ∈ U ⊂ C where U is an open and C a
compact subset of X.
Compact spaces are locally compact (U = X = C). The real line R (more generally, R
n
) is locally
compact but not compact. All linearly ordered spaces (2.13) with the least upper bound property are
locally compact. The space Q ⊂ R of rational numbers is not locally compact [8, Ex 29.1].
2.166. Definition. A compactification of the space X is an embedding c: X → cX of X into a
compact Hausdorff space cX such that c(X) is dense in cX.
The only compactification of a compact space X is X itself as X is closed and dense in cX.
Let X be a locally compact Hausdorff space. Let ωX = X ∪ ¦ω¦ denote the union of X with a set
consisting of a single point ω. The collection
T = ¦U [ U ⊂ X open¦ ∪ ¦ωX −C [ C ⊂ X compact¦
is a topology on ωX: It is easy to see that finite intersections and arbitrary unions of open sets of the
first (second) kind are again open of the first (second) kind. It follows that T is closed under arbitrary
unions. It is also closed under finite intersections since U ∩(ωX−C) = U −C is open in X (2.139). And
ωX = ωX −∅ and ∅ are open.
If X is compact, then ωX is X with an added isolated point. The next theorem describes ωX in the
more interesting case when X is not compact.
2.167. Theorem (Alexandroff). Let X be a locally compact but not compact Hausdorff space.
(1) The map X → ωX is a compactification missing one point.
(2) If c: X → cX is another compactification of X then there is a unique closed quotient map
c: cX → ωX = cX/(cX −X) such that the diagram
X
c
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|

C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
cX
c

ωX
commutes.
Proof. We must verify the following points:
The subspace topology on X is the topology on X: The subspace topology X ∩ T is clearly the original
topology on X.
X is dense in ωX: The intersection of X and some neighborhood of ω has the form X − C where C is
compact. Since X is assumed non-compact, X −C is not empty.
ωX is Hausdorff: Let x
1
and x
2
be two distinct points in ωX. If both points are in X then there are
disjoint open sets U
1
, U
2
⊂ X ⊂ ωX containing x
1
and x
2
, respectively. If x
1
∈ X and x
2
= ω, choose an
open set U and a compact set C in X such that x ∈ U ⊂ C. Then U ÷ x and ωX − C ÷ ω are disjoint
open sets in ωX.
ωX is compact: Let ¦U
j
¦
j∈J
be any open covering of ωX. At least one of these open sets contains ω. If
ω ∈ U
k
, k ∈ J, then U
k
= (X −C) ∪ ¦ω¦ for some compact set C ⊂ X. There is a finite set K ⊂ J such
that ¦U
j
¦
j∈K
covers C. Then ¦U
j
¦
j∈K∪{k}
is a finite open covering of ωX = X ∪ ¦ω¦.
Let now c: X → cX be another compactification X. Define c: cX → ωX by c(x) = x for all x ∈ X
and c(cX − X) = ω. We check that c is continuous. For any open set U ⊂ X ⊂ ωX, c
−1
(U) is
open in X and hence (2.24.(2)) in cX since X is open in cX (2.168). For any compact set C ⊂ X,
c
−1
(ωX − C) = cX − C is open in cX since the compact set C is closed in the Hausdorff space cX
(2.140.(1)). This shows that c is continuous. By construction, c is surjective and hence (2.141) a closed
quotient map by the Closed Map Lemma (2.141).
The theorem says that ωX = cX/(cX −X) where cX is any compactification of X. In particular, if
cX consists of X and one extra point then the map c is a bijective quotient map, ie a homeomorphism
(3). The space ωX is called the Alexandroff compactification or the one-point compactification of X.
2.168. Lemma. Any locally compact and dense subspace of a Hausdorff space is open.
58 2. TOPOLOGICAL SPACES AND CONTINUOUS MAPS
Proof. Suppose that Y is Hausdorff and that the subspace X ⊂ Y is locally compact and dense.
Let x ∈ X. Since X is locally compact Hausdorff the point x has a neighborhood X ∩ U, where U is
open in Y , such that its relative closure
Cl
X
(X ∩ U)
2.35
= X ∩ X ∩ U
2.37
= X ∩ U
is compact and hence closed in the Hausdorff space Y (2.139). But no part of U can stick outside X ∩U
for since U −(X ∩ U) is open
U −(X ∩ U) ,= ∅
X dense
=⇒ (X ∩ U) −(X ∩ U) ,= ∅
which is absurd. Thus we must have U ⊂ X ∩ U, in particular, U ⊂ X. This shows that X is open.
2.169. Example. (1) The n-sphere S
n
= ωR
n
is the Alexandroff compactification of the locally
compact Hausdorff space R
n
for there is (2.60.(8)) a homeomorphism of R
n
onto the complement of
a point in S
n
.
(2) The real projective plane is the Alexandroff compactification of the M¨obius band. More generally,
real projective n-space RP
n
= ωMB
n
is the Alexandroff compactification of the n-dimensional M¨obius
band MB
n
(2.83) which is a locally compact Hausdorff space (indeed a manifold (3.40)).
(3) Let X be a linearly ordered space with the least upper bound property and let [a, b) be a half-
open interval in the locally compact space X. Then ω[a, b) = [a, b]. For instance the Alexandroff
compactifications of the half-open intervals [0, 1) ⊂ R, Z
+
= [1, ω) ⊂ Z
+
Z
+
, and S

= [1, Ω) ⊂ S

are [0, 1], [1, ω], [1, Ω] = S

, respectively.
(4) The Alexandroff compactification of a countable union of disjoint copies of the real line
ω
_

n∈Z
+
R
_
= ω(Z
+
R)
2.172.(4)
= ωZ
+
∧ S
1
=
_
n∈Z
+
C
1/n
is the Hawaiian Earring (2.41.(2)) (which is compact by the Heine-Borel theorem (2.156)).
(5) The Warsaw circle W (which compact by the Heine-Borel theorem (2.156)) (2.133.(2)) is a com-
pactification of R and the quotient space W/(W −R) = ωR = S
1
.
2.170. Corollary (Characterization of locally compact Hausdorff spaces). For a Hausdorff space
X the following conditions are equivalent:
(1) X is locally compact
(2) X is homeomorphic to an open subset of a compact space
(3) For any point x ∈ X and any neighborhood U of x there is an open set V such that x ∈ V ⊂
V ⊂ U and V is compact.
Proof. (1) =⇒ (2): The locally compact Hausdorff space X is homeomorphic to the open subspace
ωX −¦ω¦ of the compact Hausdorff space ωX (2.167).
(2) =⇒ (3): Suppose that Y is a compact Hausdorff space and that X ⊂ Y is an open subset. X is
Hausdorff since subspaces of Hausdorff spaces are Hausdorff (2.47). Let x be a point of X and U ⊂ X
a neighborhood of x in X. Then U is open also in Y (2.24) so that the complement Y − U is closed
and compact (2.137) in the compact space Y . In the Hausdorff space Y we can separate (2.140.(2)) the
disjoint closed subspaces ¦x¦ and Y −U by disjoint open sets, V ÷ x and W ⊃ Y −U or Y −W ⊂ U. As
V is disjoint from W it is contained in the closed subset Y − W and then also V ⊂ Y − W ⊂ U. Here,
V is compact as a closed subspace of the compact space Y (2.137). Note (2.35) that the closure of V in
X equals the closure of V in Y because V , the closure of V in Y , is contained in U and X.
(3) =⇒ (1): Let x be a point of X. By property (3) with U = X there is an open set V such that
x ∈ V ⊂ V ⊂ X and V is compact. Thus X is locally compact at x.
2.171. Corollary. (1) Closed subsets of locally compact spaces are locally compact.
(2) Open or closed subsets of locally compact Hausdorff spaces are locally compact Hausdorff.
Proof. (1) Let X be a locally compact space and A ⊂ X a closed subspace. We use the definition
(2.165) directly to show that A is locally compact. Let a ∈ A. There are subsets a ∈ U ⊂ C ⊂ X such
that U is open and C is compact. Then A∩ U ⊂ A∩ C where A∩ U is a neighborhood in A and C ∩ A
is compact as a closed subset of the compact set C (2.137).
(2) If X is locally compact Hausdorff and A ⊂ X open, it is immediate from 2.170.(2) that A is locally
compact Hausdorff.
11. LOCALLY COMPACT SPACES AND THE ALEXANDROFF COMPACTIFICATION 59
An arbitrary subspace of a locally compact Hausdorff space need not be locally compact (2.172.(1)).
The product of finitely many locally compact spaces is locally compact but an arbitrary product of locally
compact spaces need not be locally compact [8, Ex 29.2]; for instance Z
ω
+
is not locally compact. The
image of a locally compact space under an open continuous [8, 29.3] or a perfect map [8, Ex 31.7] [5,
3.7.21] is locally compact but the image under a general continuous map of a locally compact space need
not be locally compact; indeed, the quotient of a locally compact space need not be locally compact
(2.172.(2)) [5, 3.3.16].
2.172. Example. (1)

n∈Z
+
C
n
⊂ R
2
(2.41.(2)) is not locally compact at the origin: Any neigh-
borhood of 0 0 contains a countably infinite closed discrete subspace so it can not be contained in
any compact subspace (2.145).
(2) The quotient space R/Z (2.98.(6)) is not locally compact at the point corresponding to Z: Any
neighborhood of this point contains an infinite closed discrete subspace so it can not be contained in
any compact subspace (2.145).
(3) In diagram (2.99), the space

S
1
is locally compact but not compact,

S
1
is compact, and
_
S
1
is not locally compact (at the one point common to all the circles).
(4) (Wedge sums and smash products) A pointed space is a topological space together with one of its
points, called the base point. The wedge sum of two pointed disjoint spaces (X, x
0
) and (Y, y
0
) is the
quotient space
X ∨ Y = (X HY )/(¦x
0
¦ ∪ ¦y
0
¦)
obtained from the disjoint union of X and Y (2.21) by identifying the two base points. Let f : X ∪ Y → X Y
be the continuous map given by f(x) = (x, y
0
), x ∈ X, and f(y) = (x
0
, y), y ∈ Y . The image
f(X ∪ Y ) = X ¦y
0
¦ ∪ ¦x
0
¦ Y = π
−1
2
(¦y
0
¦) ∪ π
−1
1
(¦x
0
¦) is closed when X and Y are T
1
–spaces.
In fact, f is a closed map for if C ⊂ X is closed then f(C) = ¦(x, y
0
) [ x ∈ C¦ = π
−1
1
(C) ∩ π
−1
2
(¦y
0
¦)
is also closed. Thus f is a quotient map onto its image and its factorization f as in the commutative
diagram (2.82.(2))
X ∪ Y

I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
f

X Y
X ∨ Y
f
¸
u
u
u
u
u
u
u
u
u
is an embedding. We can therefore identify X ∨ Y and X ¦y
0
¦ ∪ ¦x
0
¦ Y . The smash product of
the pointed spaces (X, x
0
) and (Y, y
0
) is defined to be
X ∧ Y = (X Y )/(X ∨ Y ) = X Y/(X ¦y
0
¦ ∪ ¦x
0
¦ Y )
the quotient of the product space X Y by the closed subspace X ∨ Y (−∨ = ∧).
If A ⊂ X and B ⊂ Y are closed subspaces, the universal property of quotient maps (2.82.(2))
produces a continuous bijection g such that the diagram
X Y

R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
g
X
×g
Y

X/AY/B
g
X/A×Y/B

X/A∧ Y/B
(X Y )/(X B ∪ AY )
g

k
k
k
k
k
k
k
k
k
k
k
k
k
k
k
commutes. However, g may not be a homeomorphism since the product g
X
g
Y
of the two closed
quotient maps g
X
: X → X/A and g
Y
: Y → Y/B may not be a quotient map. But if X and Y are
locally compact Hausdorff spaces then g
X
g
Y
is quotient (2.87) so that g is a homeomorphism (2.79,
2.82.(3), 2.78.(3)) and
(2.173) (X Y )/(X B ∪ AY ) = X/A∧ Y/B
in this case.
(5) The torus S
1
S
1
is a compactification of RR with remainder S
1
∨ S
1
.
(6) (The Alexandroff compactification of a product space) If X and Y are locally compact Hausdorff
spaces the map X Y → ωX ωY → ωX ∧ ωY is an embedding. This follows from (2.81, 2.78.(3))
when we note that the first map embeds X Y into an open saturated subset of ωX ωY (2.61).
The universal property of the Alexandroff compactification (2.167) implies that
(2.174) ω(X Y ) = ωX ∧ ωY
60 2. TOPOLOGICAL SPACES AND CONTINUOUS MAPS
for any two locally compact Hausdorff spaces X and Y . In particular,
S
m
∧ S
n
= ωR
m
∧ ωR
n
(2.174)
= ω(R
m
R
n
) = ωR
m+n
= S
m+n
when we view the spheres as Alexandroff compactifications of euclidean spaces.
(7) The n–sphere S
n
is (homeomorphic to) the quotient space I/∂I. Hence
S
n
= S
1
∧ . . . ∧ S
1
= I/∂I ∧ . . . ∧ I/∂I = I
n
/∂I
n
by (2.173) and the formula (Exam June 2003) for the boundary of the product of two sets.
(8) (The p-adic integers.) Let p be a prime number. The product ring


n=1
Z/p
n
Z of all the residue
(discrete topological) rings Z/p
n
Z, 0 < n < ∞, is compact according to the Tychonoff theorem
(2.149). The subring, called the p-adic integers,
Z
p
= ¦(a
n
) [ ∀n: a
n
≡ a
n+1
mod p
n
¦ ⊂

n=1
Z/p
n
Z
is closed and therefore also compact (2.137). Indeed, the sets ¦(a
n
)

n=1
[ a
i
≡ a
j
mod p
i
¦ are closed
(and open) whenever 0 < i < j because the projection maps are continuous (2.64). The diagonal ring
homomorphism
Z

−→ Z
p

n=1
Z/p
n
Z, ∆(a) = (a mod p
n
)

n=1
embeds the ring of integers into Z
p
. By the definition of the product topology (2.16), ∆Z is dense
in Z
p
in that any neighborhood of a point in Z
p
contains a point from Z. Thus Z
p
= ∆Z is a
compact topological ring containing the integers as a dense subring and the map ∆: Z → Z
p
is a
compactification (2.166) of the discrete space Z. As a ring, Z
p
is quite different from Z. For instance,
the integer 1−p is invertible in Z
p
with inverse (1−p)
−1
= (1, 1+p, 1+p+p
2
, . . .) =


n=0
p
n
. Actually,
any x = (x
1
, x
2
, . . .) ∈ Z
p
with nonzero reduction mod p is invertible because any x
n
∈ Z/p
n
Z with
nonzero reduction mod p is invertible [9, Prop 2, p 12].
Some mathematicians prefer to include Hausdorffness in the definition of (local) compactness. What
we call a (locally) compact Hausdorff space they simply call a (locally) compact space; what we call a
(locally) compact space they call a (locally) quasicompact space.
CHAPTER 3
Regular and normal spaces
1. Countability Axioms
Let us recall the basic question: Which topological spaces are metrizable? In order to further analyze
this question we shall look at a few more properties of topological spaces.
We have already encountered the first countability axiom. There are three more axioms using the
term ’countable’. Here are the four countability axioms.
3.1. Definition. A topological space
• that has a countable neighborhood basis at each of its points is called a first countable space
• that has a countable basis is called a second countable space
• that contains a countable dense subset is said to contain a countable dense subset
1
• in which every open covering has a countable subcovering is called a Lindel¨of space
A subset A ⊂ X is dense if A = X, that is if every nonempty open subset contains a point from A.
Any second countable space is first countable. Any subspace of a (first) second countable space is
(first) second countable. A countable product of (first) second countable spaces is (first) second countable
(2.97). Quotient spaces of first coountable spaces need not be first countable (2.98.(7)).
The real line R is second countable for the open intervals (a, b) with rational end-points form a
countable basis for the topology. R

is first but not second countable (3.8).
Metric spaces are first countable but not necessarily second countable [8, Example 2 p 190].
Any compact space is Lindel¨of. Any closed subset of a Lindel¨of space is Lindel¨of [8, Ex 30.9] (with
a proof that is similar to that of 2.137). A product of two Lindel¨of spaces need not be Lindel¨of (3.9).
The next result implies that R, in fact any subset of the 2nd countable space R, is Lindel¨of.
3.2. Theorem. Let X be a topological space. Then
X has a countable dense subset X is 2nd countable
¸.

X is Lindel¨of
X is 1st countable
If X is metrizable, the three conditions of the top line equivalent.
Proof. Suppose first that X is second countable and let B be a countable basis for the topology.
X has a countable dense subset: Pick a point b
B
∈ B in each basis set B ∈ B. Then ¦b
B
[ B ∈ B¦ is
countable (1.41.(2)) and dense.
X is Lindel¨of: Let | be an open covering of X. For each basis set B ∈ B which is contained in some open
set from the collection |, pick any U
B
∈ | such that B ⊂ U
B
. Then the at most countable collection
¦U
B
¦ of these open sets from | is an open covering: Let x be any point in X. Since x is contained in a
member U of | and every open set is a union of basis sets, we have x ∈ B ⊂ U for some basis set B ∈ B.
But then x ∈ B ⊂ U
B
.
Any metric space with a countable dense subset is 2nd countable: Let X be a metric space with a count-
able dense subset A ⊂ X. Then the collection ¦B(a, r) [ a ∈ A, r ∈ Q
+
¦ of balls centered at
points in A and with a rational radius is a countable (1.41.(4)) basis for the topology: It suffices
to show that for any open ball B(x, ε) in X and any y ∈ B(x, ε) there are a ∈ A and r ∈ Q
+
such that y ∈ B(a, r) ⊂ B(x, ε). Let r be a positive rational number such that 2r + d(x, y) < ε
and let a ∈ A ∩ B(y, r). Then y ∈ B(a, r), of course, and B(a, r) ⊂ B(x, ε) for if d(a, z) < r then
d(x, z) ≤ d(x, y) +d(y, z) ≤ d(x, y) +d(y, a) +d(a, z) < d(x, y) + 2r < ε.
Any metric Lindel¨of space is 2nd countable: Let X be a metric Lindel¨of space. For each positive rational
number r, let A
r
be a countable subset of X such that X =

a∈A
r
B(a, r). Then A =

r∈Q
+
A
r
is a
1
Or to be separable
61
62 3. REGULAR AND NORMAL SPACES
dense countable (1.41.(3)) subset: For any open ball B(x, ε) and any positive rational r < ε there is an
a ∈ A
r
such that x ∈ B(a, r). Then a ∈ B(x, r) ⊂ B(x, ε).
3.3. Example. The ordered square I
2
o
is compact (2.154) and therefore Lindel¨of but it is not second
countable since it contains uncountably many disjoint open sets (x 0, x 1), x ∈ I. Thus I
2
o
is not
metrizable [8, Ex 30.6].
2. Separation Axioms
3.4. Definition. A space X is called a
• T
1
-space if points ¦x¦ are closed in X
• T
2
-space or a Hausdorff space if for any pair of distinct points x, y ∈ X there exist disjoint open
sets U, V ⊂ X such that x ∈ U and y ∈ V
• T
3
-space or a regular space if points are closed and for any point x ∈ X and any closed set
B ⊂ X not containing x there exist disjoint open sets U, V ⊂ X such that x ∈ U and B ⊂ V
• T
4
-space or a normal space if points are closed and for every par of disjoint closed sets A, B ⊂ X
there exist disjoint open sets U, V ⊂ X such that A ⊂ U and B ⊂ V .
We have the following sequence of implications
X is normal =⇒ X is regular =⇒ X is Hausdorff =⇒ X is T
1
where none of the arrows reverse (3.9, 3.10, [8, Ex 22.6]).
3.5. Lemma. Let X be a T
1
-space. Then
(1) X is regular ⇐⇒ For every point x ∈ X and every neighborhood U of x there exists an open
set V such that x ∈ V ⊂ V ⊂ U.
(2) X is normal ⇐⇒ For every closed set A and every neighborhood U of A there is an open set
V such that A ⊂ V ⊂ V ⊂ U.
Proof. Let B = X −U.
3.6. Theorem. (Cf 2.47) Any subspace of a regular space is regular. Any product of regular spaces
is regular.
Proof. Let X be a regular space and Y ⊂ X a subset. Then Y is Hausdorff (2.47)). Consider a
point y ∈ Y and a and a closed set B ⊂ X such that y ,∈ Y ∩B. Then y ,∈ B and since Y is regular there
exist disjoint open sets U and V such that y ∈ U and B ⊂ V . The relatively open sets U ∩Y and V ∩Y
are disjoint and they contain y and B ∩ Y , respectively.
Let X =

X
j
be the Cartesian product of regular space X
j
, j ∈ J. Then X is Hausdorff (2.47)). We
use 3.5.(1) to show that X is regular. Let x = (x
j
) be a point in X and U =

U
j
a basis neighborhood
of x. Put V
j
= X
j
whenever U
j
= X
j
. Otherwise, choose V
j
such that x
j
∈ V
j
⊂ V
j
⊂ U
j
. Then
V =

V
j
is a neighborhood of x in the product topology and (2.66) V =

V
j

U
j
= U. Thus X is
regular.
3.7. Theorem. [8, Ex 32.1] A closed subspace of a normal space is normal.
Proof. Quite similar to the proof (3.6) that a subspace of a regular space is regular.
An arbitraty subspace of a normal space need not be normal (3.32) and the product of two normal
spaces need not be normal ((3.9),[8, Example 2 p 203], [5, 2.3.36]).
3.8. Example (Sorgenfrey’s half-open interval topology). The half-open intervals [a, b) form a basis
for the space R

(2.11, 2.31.(4), 2.98.(2), 2.108.(3)).
R

is 1st countable: At the point x the collection of open sets of the form [x, b) where b > x is
rational, is a countable local basis at x.
R

is not 2nd countable: Let B be any basis for the topology. For each point x choose a member
B
x
of B such that x ∈ B
x
⊂ [x, x + 1). The map R → B: x → B
x
is injective for if B
x
= B
y
then x = inf B
x
= inf B
y
= y.
R

has a countable dense subset: Q is dense since any (basis) open set in R

contains rational
points.
2. SEPARATION AXIOMS 63
R

is Lindel¨of: It suffices (!) to show that any open covering by basis open sets contains a
countable subcovering, ie that if R =

j∈J
[a
j
, b
j
) is covered by a collection of right half-open
intervals [a
j
, b
j
) then R is actually already covered by countably many of these intervals. (Note
that this is true had the intervals been open as R is Lindel¨of.) Write
R =
_
j∈J
(a
j
, b
j
) ∪
_
R−
_
j∈J
(a
j
, b
j
)
_
as the (disjoint) union of the corresponding open intervals and the complement of this union.
The first set can be covered by countably many of the intervals (a
j
, b
j
) for any subset of R (with
the standard topology) is 2nd countable and hence Lindel¨of (3.2). Also the second set can be
covered by countably many of the intervals (a
j
, b
j
) simply because it is countable: The second
set
R−
_
j∈J
(a
j
, b
j
) =
_
j∈J
[a
j
, b
j
) −
_
j∈J
(a
j
, b
j
) = ¦a
k
[ ∀j ∈ J : a
k
,∈ (a
j
, b
j

consists of some of the left end-points of the intervals. The open intervals (a
k
, b
k
) are disjoint for
a
k
in this set. But there is only room for countably many open disjoint intervals in R (choose
a rational point in each of them) so there are at most countaly many left end-dpoints a
k
in the
second set.
R

is normal: Let A, B ⊂ R

be disjoint closed sets. For each point a ∈ A ⊂ R − B there
is an x
a
∈ R such that [a, x
a
) ⊂ R − B. Let U
A
=

a∈A
[a, x
a
). Define U
B
=

b∈B
[b, x
b
)
similarly. Then U
A
and U
B
are open sets containing A and B, respectively. If U
A
∩ U
B
,= ∅
then [a, x
a
) ∩ [b, x
b
) ,= ∅ for some a ∈ A, b ∈ B. Say a < b; then b ∈ [a, x
a
) ⊂ R−B which is a
contradiction So U
A
and U
B
are disjoint. (R

is even completely normal [8, Ex 32.6] by this
argument.)
Since R

has a dense countable subset and is not second countable (3.8) it is not metrizable (3.2).
3.9. Example (Sorgenfrey’s half-open square topology). The half-open rectangles [a, b) [c, d) form
a basis (2.18) for the product topology R

R

. The anti-diagonal L = ¦(x, −x) [ x ∈ R¦ is a closed
(clear!) discrete (L ∩ [x, ∞) [−x, ∞) = ¦(x, −x)¦) subspace of the same cardinality as R. Q Q is a
countable dense subspace.
R

R

is not Lindel¨of: A Lindel¨of space can not contain an uncountable closed discrete sub-
space (cf 2.145, [8, Ex 30.9]).
R

R

is not normal: A normal space with a countable dense subset can not contain a closed
discrete subspace of the same cardinality as R [5, 2.1.10]. (Let X be a space with a countable
dense subset. Since any continuous map of X into a Hausdorff space is determined by its
values on a dense subspace [8, Ex 18.13], the set of continuous maps X → R has at most the
cardinality of R
Z
=

Z
R. Let X be any normal space and L a closed discrete subspace. The
Tietze extension theorem (3.15) says that any map L → R extends to continuous map X → R.
Thus the set of continuous maps X → R has at least the cardinality of R
L
. If L and R have the
same cardinality, R
L
= R
R
=

R
R which is greater (1.42) than the cardinality of

Z
R.) See
[8, Ex 31.9] for a concrete example of two disjoint closed subspaces that can not be separated
by open sets.
R

R

is (completely) regular: since it is the product (3.30) of two (compeletely) regular
(3.28) (even normal (3.8)) spaces.
Example 3.8 shows that the arrows of Theorem 3.2 do not reverse. Example 3.9 shows that the
product of two normal spaces need not be normal, that the product of two Lindel¨of spaces need not be
Lindel¨of, and provides an example of a (completely) regular space that is not normal.
3.10. Example (A Hausdorff space that is not regular). The open intervals plus the sets (a, b) −K
where K = ¦
1
n
[ n ∈ Z
+
¦ form a basis for the topology R
K
(2.11, 2.124.(3)). This is a Hausdorff topology
on R since it is finer than the standard topology. But R
K
is not regular. The set K is closed and 0 ,∈ K.
Suppose that U ÷ 0 and V ⊃ K are disjoint open sets. We may choose U to be a basis open set. Then U
must be of the form U = (a, b) −K for the other basis sets containing 0 intersect K. Let k be a point in
(a, b) ∩ K (which is nonempty). Since k is in the open set V , there is a basis open set containing k and
contained in V ; it must be of the form (c, d). But U ∩V ⊃ ((a, b) −K) ∩(c, d) and ((a, b) −K) ∩(c, d) ,= ∅
for cardinality reasons. This is a contradiction
64 3. REGULAR AND NORMAL SPACES
3. Normal spaces
Normal spaces can be characterized in two ways.
3.11. Corollary. Let X be a T
1
-space. Then the following conditions are equivalent:
(1) X is normal: For any pair of disjoint closed sets A, B ⊂ X there exist disjoint open sets
U, V ⊂ X such that A ⊂ U and B ⊂ V .
(2) (Urysohn’s characterization of normality) For any pair of disjoint closed sets A, B ⊂ X there
exists a continuous function f : X → [0, 1] such that f(A) = 0 and f(B) = 1.
(3) (Tietze’s characterization of normality) For any closed subset A of X and any continuous func-
tion f : A → [0, 1] there exists a continuous function F : X → [0, 1] such that F[A = f.
The proof relies on Urysohn’s lemma (3.12) and Tietze’s extension theorem (3.15).
3.12. Theorem (Urysohn lemma). Let X be a normal space and let A and B be disjoint closed subsets
of X. Then there exists a continuous function (a Urysohn function) f : X → [0, 1] such that f(a) = 0 for
a ∈ A and f(b) = 1 for b ∈ B.
Proof. We shall recursively define open sets U
r
⊂ X for all r ∈ Q∩[0, 1] such that (make a drawing!)
(3.13) r < s =⇒ A ⊂ U
0
⊂ U
r
⊂ U
r
⊂ U
s
⊂ U
s
⊂ U
1
⊂ X −B
To begin, let U
1
be any open set such that A ⊂ U
1
⊂ X − B, for instance U
1
= X − B. By normality
(3.5.(2)) there is an open set U
0
such that A ⊂ U
0
⊂ U
0
⊂ U
1
. To proceed, arrange the elements of
Q∩ [0, 1] into a sequence
Q∩ [0, 1] = ¦r
0
= 0, r
1
= 1, r
2
, r
3
, r
4
, . . .¦
such that the first two elements are r
0
= 0 and r
1
= 1. Assume that the open sets U
r
i
satisfying condition
(3.13) have been defined for i ≤ n, where n ≥ 1. We shall now define U
r
n+1
. Suppose that if we put the
numbers r
0
, r
1
, . . . , r
n
, r
n+1
in order
0 = r
0
< < r

< r
n+1
< r
m
< < r
1
= 1
the immediate predecessor of r
n+1
is r

and r
m
is the immediate successor. Then U
r

⊂ U
r
m
by (3.13).
By normality (3.5.(2)) there is an open set U
r
n+1
such that U
r

⊂ U
r
n+1
⊂ U
r
n+1
⊂ U
r
m
. The sets U
r
i
,
i ≤ n + 1, still satisfy (3.13).
We are now ready to define the function. Consider the function f : X → [0, 1] given by
f(x) =
_
inf¦r ∈ Q∩ [0, 1] [ x ∈ U
r
¦ x ∈ U
1
1 x ∈ X −U
1
Then f(B) = 1 by definition and f(A) = 0 since A ⊂ U
0
. But why is f continuous? It suffices (2.50) to
show that the subbasis intervals (2.13) [0, a), a > 0, and (b, 1], b < 1, have open preimages. Since
f(x) < a ⇐⇒ ∃r < a: x ∈ U
r
⇐⇒ x ∈
_
r<a
U
r
f(x) > b ⇐⇒ ∃r

> b: x ,∈ U
r
⇐⇒ ∃r > b: x ,∈ U
r
⇐⇒ x ∈
_
r>b
(X −U
r
)
the sets
f
−1
([0, a)) =
_
r<a
U
r
and f
−1
((b, 1]) =
_
r>b
(X −U
r
)
are open.
3.14. Example. Let X = R and let A = (−∞, −1] and B = [2, ∞). If we let U
r
= (−∞, r) for
r ∈ Q∩ [0, 1] then
f(x) =
_
¸
_
¸
_
0 x ≤ 0
x 0 < x < 1
1 1 ≤ x
is the Urysohn function with f(A) = 0 and f(B) = 1.
3.15. Theorem (Tietze extension theorem). Every continuous map from a closed subspace A of a
normal space X into (0, 1), [0, 1) or [0, 1] can be extended to X.
3. NORMAL SPACES 65
3.16. Lemma. Let X be a normal space and A ⊂ X a closed subspace. For r > 0 and any continuous
map f
0
: A → [−r, r] there exists a continuous map g : X → R such that
(3.17) ∀x ∈ X: [g(x)[ ≤
1
3
r and ∀a ∈ A: [f
0
(a) −g(a)[ ≤
2
3
r
Proof. Since the sets f
−1
0
([−r, −
1
3
r]) ⊂ A and f
−1
0
([
1
3
r, r]) ⊂ A are closed and disjoint in A they are
also closed and disjoint in X. Choose (3.12) a Urysohn function g : X → [−
1
3
r,
1
3
r] such that g(x) = −
1
3
r
on f
−1
0
([−r, −
1
3
r]) and g(x) =
1
3
r on f
−1
0
([
1
3
r, r]). From
f
−1
0
([−r, r]) = f
−1
0
([−r, −
1
3
r])
. ¸¸ .
g=−
1
3
r
∪f
−1
0
([−
1
3
r,
1
3
r])
. ¸¸ .
|g|≤
1
3
r
∪f
−1
0
([
1
3
r, r])
. ¸¸ .
g=
1
3
r
we see that the second inequality of (3.17) is satisfied.
Proof of 3.15. We shall first prove the theorem for functions from A to [0, 1] or rather to the
homeomorphic interval [−1, 1] which is more convenient for reasons of notation.
Given a continuous function f : A → [−1, 1]. We have just seen (3.16) that there exists a continuous
real function g
1
: X → R such that
∀x ∈ X: [g
1
(x)[ ≤
1
3
and ∀a ∈ A: [f(a) −g
1
(a)[ ≤
2
3
Now Lemma 3.16 applied to the function f − g
1
on A says that there exists a continuous real function
g
2
: X → R such that
∀x ∈ X: [g
2
(x)[ ≤
1
3
2
3
and ∀a ∈ A: [f(a) −(g
1
(a) +g
2
(a))[ ≤
_
2
3
_
2
Proceeding this way we recursively (1.24) define a sequence g
1
, g
2
, of continuous real functions on X
such that
(3.18) ∀x ∈ X: [g
n
(x)[ ≤
1
3
_
2
3
_
n−1
and ∀a ∈ A: [f(a) −
n

i=1
g
i
(a)[ ≤
_
2
3
_
n
By the first inequality in (3.18), the series


n=1
g
n
(x) converges uniformly and the sum function F =


n=1
g
n
is continuous by the uniform limit theorem (2.104). By the first inequality in (3.18),
[F(x)[ ≤
1
3

n=1
_
2
3
_
n−1
=
1
3
3 = 1,
and by the second inequality in (3.18), F(a) = f(a) for all a ∈ A.
Assume now that f : A → (−1, 1) maps A into the open interval between −1 and 1. We know that
we can extend f to a continuous function F
1
: X → [−1, 1] into the closed interval between −1 and 1. We
want to modify F
1
so that it does not take the values −1 and 1 and stays the same on A. The closed sets
F
−1
1
(¦±1¦) and A are disjoint. There exists (3.12) a Urysohn function U : X → [0, 1] such that U = 0 on
F
−1
1
(¦±1¦) and U = 1 on A. Then F = U F
1
is an extension of f that maps X into (−1, 1).
A similar procedure applies to functions f : A → [−1, 1) into the half-open interval.
Proof of Corollary 3.11. The Urysohn lemma (3.12) says that (1) =⇒ (2) and the converse
is clear. The Tietze extension theorem (3.15) says that (1) =⇒ (3). Only eg (3) =⇒ (2) remains.
Assume that X is a T
1
-space with property (3). Let A, B be two disjoint closed subsets. The function
f : A∪ B → [0, 1] given by f(A) = 0 and f(B) = 1 is continuous (2.53.(5)). Let f : X → [0, 1] be a
continuous extension of f. Then f is a Urysohn function for A and B.
Many familiar classes of topological spaces are normal.
3.19. Theorem. Compact Hausdorff spaces are normal.
Proof. See 2.140.(2).
In fact, every regular Lindel¨of space is normal [8, Ex 32.4] [5, 3.8.2].
3.20. Theorem. Metrizable spaces are normal.
66 3. REGULAR AND NORMAL SPACES
Proof. Let X be a metric space with metric d and let A, B be disjoint closed sets. The continuous
function f : X → [0, 1] given by
f(x) =
d(x, A)
d(x, A) +d(x, B)
is a Urysohn function with f(A) = ¦0¦ and f(B) = ¦1¦. This shows that X is normal (3.11).
3.21. Theorem. [5, Problem 1.7.4]. Linearly ordered spaces are normal.
Proof. We shall only prove the special case that every well-ordered space is normal. The half-open
intervals (a, b], a < b, are (closed and) open (2.31.(5)). Let A and B be two disjoint closed subsets and
let a
0
denote the smallest element of X. Suppose that neither A nor B contain a
0
. For any point a ∈ A
there exists a point x
a
< a such that (x
a
, a] is disjoint from B. Similarly, for any point b ∈ B there
exists a point x
b
< b such that (x
b
, b] is disjoint from A. The proof now proceeds as the proof (3.8) for
normality of R

. Suppose next that a
0
∈ A ∪ B, say a
0
∈ A. The one-point set ¦a
0
¦ = [a
0
, a
+
0
) is open
and closed (as X is Hausdorff). By the above, we can find disjoint open sets U, V such that A−¦a
0
¦ ⊂ U
and B ⊂ V . Then A ⊂ U ∪ ¦a
0
¦ and B ⊂ V − ¦a
0
¦ where the open sets U ∪ ¦a
0
¦ and V − ¦a
0
¦ are
disjoint.
In particular, the well-ordered spaces S

and S

are normal (the latter space is even compact
Hausdorff).
4. Second countable regular spaces and the Urysohn metrization theorem
We investigate closer the class of regular spaces. We start with an embedding theorem that is used
in other contexts as well.
3.22. An embedding theorem. We discuss embeddings into product spaces.
3.23. Definition. A set ¦f
j
: X → Y
j
[ j ∈ J¦ of continuous functions is said to separate points and
closed sets if for any point x ∈ X and any closed subset C ⊂ X we have
x ,∈ C =⇒ ∃j ∈ J : f
j
(x) ,∈ f
j
(C)
3.24. Lemma. Let f : X → Y be a map that separates points and closed sets. Assume also that f is
injective (eg that X is T
1
). Then f is an embedding.
Proof. If X is T
1
, points are closed so that f separates points, ie f is injective. For any point x ∈ X
and any closed set C ⊂ X we have that
f(x) ∈ f(C)
f separates
=⇒ x ∈ C =⇒ f(x) ∈ f(C)
so we get that f(X) ∩ f(C) = f(C). But this equality says that f(C) is closed in f(X). Hence the
bijective continuous map f : X → f(X) is closed, so it is a homeomorphism.
3.25. Theorem (Diagonal embedding theorem). Let ¦f
j
: X → Y
j
[ j ∈ J¦ be a family of continuous
functions that separates points and closed sets. Assume that X is T
1
or that at least one of the functions
f
j
is injective. Then the diagonal map f = (f
j
): X →

j∈J
Y
j
is an embedding.
Proof. Also the map f separates points and closed sets because
f(x) ∈ f(C) ⇐⇒ f(x) ∈

f
j
(C)
2.66
⇐⇒ f(x) ∈

f
j
(C)
⇐⇒ ∀j ∈ J : f
j
(x) ∈ f
j
(C)
(f
j
) separates
=⇒ x ∈ C
for all points x ∈ X and all closed subsets C ⊂ X. The theorem now follows from 3.24.
In particular, if one of the functions f
j
is injective and separates points and closed sets then f = (f
j
)
is an embedding. For instance, the graph X → XY : x → (x, g(x)) is an embedding for any continuous
map g : X → Y .
4. SECOND COUNTABLE REGULAR SPACES AND THE URYSOHN METRIZATION THEOREM 67
3.26. A universal second countable regular space. We say that a space X is universal for
some property if X has this property and any space that has this property embeds into X.
3.27. Theorem (Urysohn metrization theorem). The following conditions are equivalent for a second
countable space X:
(1) X is regular
(2) X is normal
(3) X is homeomorphic to a subspace of [0, 1]
ω
(4) X is metrizable
The Hilbert cube [0, 1]
ω
is a universal second countable metrizable (or normal or regular) space.
Proof. (1) =⇒ (2): Let X be a regular space with a countable basis B. We claim that X is normal.
Let A and B be disjoint closed sets in X. By regularity (3.5.(1)), each point a ∈ A ⊂ X −B has a basis
neighborhood U
a
∈ B such that a ∈ U
a
⊂ U
a
⊂ X − B. Let U
1
, U
2
, . . . be the elements in the image of
the map A → B: a → U
a
. Then
A ⊂

_
n=1
U
n
and U
n
∩ B = ∅ for n = 1, 2 . . .
Similarly, there is a sequence V
1
, V
2
, . . . of basis open sets such that
B ⊂

_
n=1
V
n
and V
n
∩ A = ∅ for n = 1, 2 . . .
The open sets


n=1
U
n
and


n=1
V
n
may not be disjoint. Consider instead the open sets
U

1
= U
1
−V
1
V

1
= V
1
−U
1
U

2
= U
2
−(V
1
∪ V
2
) V

2
= V
2
−(U
1
∪ U
2
)
.
.
.
.
.
.
U

n
= U
n
−(V
1
∪ ∪ V
n
) V

n
= V
n
−(U
1
∪ ∪ U
n
)
Even though we have removed part of U
n
we have removed no points from A from U
n
, and we have
removed no points from B from V
n
. Therefore the open sets U

n
still cover A and the open sets V

n
still
cover B:
A ⊂

_
n=1
U

n
and B ⊂

_
n=1
V

n
and in fact these sets are disjoint:

_
n=1
U

n


_
n=1
V

n
=
_
_
m≤n
U

m
∩ V

n
_

_
_
m>n
U

m
∩ V

n
_
= ∅
because U

m
⊂ U
m
does not intersect V

n
⊂ X−U
m
if m ≤ n and U

m
⊂ X−V
n
does not intersect V

n
⊂ V
n
if m > n. (Make a drawing of U
1
, U
2
and V
1
, V
2
.)
(2) =⇒ (3): Let X be a normal space with a countable basis B. We show that there is a countable set
¦f
UV
¦ of continuous functions X → [0, 1] that separate points and closed sets. Namely, for each pair
U, V of basis open sets U, V ∈ B such that U ⊂ V , choose a Urysohn function f
UV
: X → [0, 1] (3.12)
such that f
UV
(U) = 0 and f
UV
(X − V ) = 1. Then ¦f
UV
¦ separates points and closed sets: For any
closed subset C and any point x ,∈ C, or x ∈ X − C, there are (3.5) basis open sets U, V such that
x ∈ U ⊂ U ⊂ V ⊂ X −C (choose V first). Then f
UV
(x) = 0 and f
UV
(C) = 1 so that f
UV
(x) ,∈ f
UV
(C).
According to the Diagonal embedding theorem (3.25) there is an embedding X → [0, 1]
ω
with the f
UV
as coordinate functions.
(3) =⇒ (4): [0, 1]
ω
is metrizable and any subspace of a metrizable space is metrizable. (2.93).
(4) =⇒ (1): Any metrizable space is regular, even normal (3.20).
The point is that in a second countable regular hence normal space there is a countable set of
(Urysohn) functions that separate points and closed sets. Therefore such a space embeds in the Hilbert
cube.
68 3. REGULAR AND NORMAL SPACES
We have (3.27, 3.2) the following identities
_
2nd countable
regular
_
=
_
2nd countable
normal
_
=
_
2nd countable
metrizable
_
=
_
Countable dense subset
metrizable
_
=
_
Lindel¨of
metrizable
_
=
_
Subspace of
Hilbert cube
_
between classes of topological spaces.
5. COMPLETELY REGULAR SPACES AND THE STONE–
ˇ
CECH COMPACTIFICATION 69
5. Completely regular spaces and the Stone–
ˇ
Cech compactification
There is no version of the Tietze extension theorem (3.15) for regular spaces, ie it is in general not
true that continuous functions separate closed sets and points in regular spaces. Instead we have a new
class of spaces where this is true.
3.28. Definition. A space X is completely regular if points are closed in X and for any closed
subset C of X and any point x ,∈ C there exists a continuous function f : X → [0, 1] such that f(x) = 0
and f(C) = 1.
Clearly
normal =⇒ completely regular =⇒ regular =⇒ Hausdorff =⇒ T
1
and none of these arrows reverse (3.9, [8, Ex 33.11]).
In a completely regular space there are enough continuous functions X → [0, 1] to separate points
and closed sets.
It is easy to see that any subspace of a completely regular space is completely regular [8, 33.2].
3.29. Theorem. The following conditions are equivalent for a topological space X:
(1) X is completely regular
(2) X is homeomorphic to a subspace of [0, 1]
J
for some set J
(3) X is homeomorphic to a subspace of a compact Hausdorff space
Proof. (1) =⇒ (2): If X is completely regular then the set ((X) of continuous maps X → [0, 1]
separates points and closed sets. The evaluation map
∆: X →

j∈C(X)
[0, 1], π
j
(∆(x)) = j(x), j ∈ ((X), x ∈ X,
is therefore an embedding (3.25).
(2) =⇒ (3): [0, 1]
J
is compact Hausdorff by the Tychonoff theorem (2.149).
(3) =⇒ (1): A compact Hausdorff space is normal (3.19), hence completely regular and subspaces of
completely regular spaces are completely regular.
Closed subspaces of compact Hausdorff spaces are compact Hausdorff (2.140), open subspaces are
locally compact Hausdorff (2.170), and arbitrary subspaces are completely regular (3.29).
3.30. Corollary. (Cf 2.47, 3.6) Any subspace of a completely regular space is completely regular.
Any product of completely regular spaces is completely regular.
Proof. The first part is easily proved [8, 33.2] (and we already used it above). The second part
follows from (3.29) because (2.61) the product of embeddings is an embedding.
3.31. Corollary. Any locally compact Hausdorff space is completely regular.
Proof. Locally compact Hausdorff spaces are open subspaces of compact spaces (2.170). Completely
regular spaces are subspaces of compact spaces (3.29).
3.32. Example (A normal space with a non-normal subspace). Take any completely regular but not
normal space (for instance (3.9) R

R

) and embed it into [0, 1]
J
for some set J (3.29). Then you have
an example of a normal (even compact Hausdorff) space with a non-normal subspace.
3.33. The Stone–
ˇ
Cech construction. For any topological space X let ((X) denote the set of
continuous maps j : X → I of X to the unit interval I = [0, 1] and let
∆: X →

j∈C(X)
I = map(((X), I)
be the continuous evaluation map given by ∆(x)(j) = j(x) or π
j
∆ = j for all j ∈ ((X). (The space
map(((X), I) is a kind of double-dual of X). This construction is natural: For any continuous map
f : X → Y of X into a space Y , there is an induced map ((X) ← ((Y ): f

of sets and yet an induced
continuous map (2.65)
(3.34) map(((X), I) =

j∈C(X)
I
f
∗∗
−−→

k∈C(Y )
I = map(((Y ), I)
70 3. REGULAR AND NORMAL SPACES
such that the diagram
(3.35) X
f


X

Y

Y

j∈C(X)
I
f
∗∗

π
f

k

kf

L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L

k∈C(Y )
I
π
k
.r
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
I
commutes: The lower triangle commutes by the definition of the map f
∗∗
(2.65) and then the upper
square commutes because π
k
f
∗∗

X
= π
kf

X
= kf = π
k

Y
f. Put βX = ∆(X) and define ∆: X → βX
to be the corestriction of ∆: X →

j∈C(X)
I to βX. Then βX is a compact Hausdorff space (it is a
closed subspace of the compact (2.149) Hausdorff space

I) and ∆ is, by design, a continuous map with
a dense image ∆X in βX. This construction is natural: For any continuous map f : X → Y , the induced
map f
∗∗
(3.34) takes βX into βY for
f
∗∗
(βX) = f
∗∗
(∆
X
X) ⊂ f
∗∗

X
X
(3.35)
= ∆
Y
f(X) ⊂ ∆
Y
Y = βY
and thus we obtain from (3.35) a new commutative diagram of continuous maps
(3.36) X
f


X

Y

Y

βX
βf

βY
where βf : βX → βY is the corestriction to βY of the restriction of f
∗∗
to βX. (This makes β into a
functor with a natural transformation from the identity functor from the category of topological spaces
to the category of compact Hausdorff spaces.)
The next result says that the map X → βX is the universal map from X to a compact Hausdorff
space.
3.37. Theorem (Stone–
ˇ
Cech compactification). Let X be a topological space.
(1) The map X → βX is a continuous map of X into a compact Hausdorff space.
(2) For any continuous map f : X → Y of X into a compact Hausdorff space Y there exists a unique
continuous map f : βX → Y such that the diagram
(3.38) X

B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
f

Y
βX
f
¸
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
commutes. (We say that f : X → Y factors uniquely through βX.)
(3) Suppose X → αX is a map of X to a compact Hausdorff space αX such that any map of X to
a compact Hausdorff space factors uniquely through αX. Then there exists a homeomorphism
αX → βX such that
X
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|

B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
αX


βX
commutes.
(4) If X is completely regular then X → βX is an embedding. If X is compact Hausdorff then
X → βX is a homeomorphism.
Proof. (4): Since the corestriction of an embedding is an embedding (2.61) and X →

I is an
embedding when X is completely regular (3.29), also X → βX is an embedding. If X is compact
Hausdorff, X is normal (3.19), hence completely regular, so we have just seen that ∆: X → βX is an
embedding. The image of this embedding is closed (2.141.(1)) and dense. Thus the embedding is bijective
so it is a homeomorphism.
6. MANIFOLDS 71
(1) and (2): If Y is compact Hausdorff then by item (4) ∆
Y
is a homeomorphism in diagram (3.36) and
hence f = ∆
−1
Y
◦ βf is a possibility in (3.38). It is the only possibility [8, Ex 18.13], for the image of X
is dense in βX.
(3) Let X → αX be a map to a compact Hausdorff space satisfying the above universal property. Then
there exist continuous maps αX

βX ¸ that, by uniqueness, are inverse to each other. (All universal
constructions are essentially unique.)
If X is completely regular then X → βX is a compactification (3.37.(4)) and it is called the Stone–
ˇ
Cech compactification of X. Conversely, if X has a compactification then X is homeomorphic to a
subspace of a compact space and therefore (3.29) completely regular. We state these observations in
3.39. Lemma. X has a compactification (2.166) if and only if X is completely regular.
The Stone–
ˇ
Cech compactification βX of a completely regular space X is the maximal compactification
in the sense that for any other compactification X → cX there is a closed quotient map βX → cX map
such that
X
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|

B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
βX

cX
commutes. The map βX → cX is closed by 2.141 and surjective because its image is closed and dense.
The Alexandroff compactification ωX of a noncompact locally compact Hausdorff space X is the
minimal compactification in the sense that ωX = cX/(cX−X) for any other compactification X → cX.
Indeed we saw in 2.167 that there is a closed quotient map cX → ωX, taking cX−X to ω, such that
X
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|

C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
cX

ωX
commutes. (What is the minimal compactification of a compact Hausdorff space?)
For instance, there are quotient maps
[0, 1]

Q
Q
Q
Q
Q
Q
Q
βR

p
p
p
p
p
p

O
O
O
O
O
O
O
ωR = S
1
C

l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
of compactifications of R. Here
C = ¦0¦ [−1, 1] ∪ ¦(x, sin
1
x
) [ 0 < x ≤ π
−1
¦ ∪ L
is the Warsaw circle, a compactification of R with remainder C − R = [−1, 1], which is obtained by
closing up the closed topologist’s sine curve S by (a piece-wise linear) arc from (0, 0) to (π
−1
, 0). In
particular, C/[−1, 1] = S
1
. More generally, there are quotient maps βR
n
→ [0, 1]
n
→ ωR
n
= S
n
of
compactifications of euclidean n-space R
n
.
Investigations of the Stone–
ˇ
Cech compactification of the integers βZ raise several issues of a very
fundamental nature [13, 14, 11] whose answers depend on your chosen model of set theory.
6. Manifolds
3.40. Definition. A manifold is a locally euclidean second countable Hausdorff space.
Manifolds are locally compact and locally path connected since they are locally euclidean. All locally
compact Hausdorff spaces are (completely) regular. Thus manifolds are second countable regular spaces
and hence they are normal, metrizable, Lindel¨ofand they have countable dense subsets.
The line with two zeroes is an example of a locally euclidean space that is not Hausdorff. The long
line [8, Ex 24.12] is a locally euclidean space that is not 2nd countable.
The n–sphere S
n
and the real projective n–space RP
n
(2.83) are examples of manifolds. S
n
lies
embedded in R
n+1
from birth but what about RP
n
? Does RP
n
embed in some euclidean space?
3.41. Theorem (Embeddings of compact manifolds). Any compact manifold embeds in R
N
for some
N.
72 3. REGULAR AND NORMAL SPACES
Proof. We may assume that M is connected. Let n be the dimension of M (we assume that this
is well-defined). Let B = ¦x ∈ R
n
[ [x[ ≤ 1¦ be the unit ball in R
n
. Cover M by finitely many closed
sets B
1
, . . . , B
k
such that each B
i
is homeomorphic to B and such that the interiors of the B
i
cover M.
Let f
i
: M → S
n
be the continuous map obtained by collapsing the complement to the interior of B
i
to
a point. The map f = (f
1
, . . . , f
k
): M → S
n
S
n
is injective: If x lies in the interior of B
i
then
f
i
(x) ,= f
i
(y) for all y ,= x. Since M is compact and (S
n
)
k
Hausdorff, f is an embedding. Finally, each
sphere S
n
embeds into R
n+1
so that (S
n
)
k
embeds into (R
n+1
)
k
.
In particular RP
2
(2.83) embeds into some euclidean space. Which one?
There is up to homeomorphism just one compact manifold of dimension 1, the circle. Compact
manifolds of dimension 2 are described by a number, the genus, and orientability. In particular, any simply
connected 2-dimensional compact manifold is homeomorphic to S
2
. We do not know (December 2003)
if there are any simply connected compact 3-dimensional manifolds besides S
3
(Poincar´e conjecture).
Classification of 4-dimensional compact manifolds is logically impossible.
Any manifold admits a partition of unity. We shall prove the existence in case of compact manifolds.
3.42. Theorem (Partition of unity). Let X = U
1
∪ ∪ U
k
be a finite open covering of the normal
space X. Then there exist continuous functions φ
i
: X → [0, 1], 1 ≤ i ≤ k, such that
(1) ¦φ
i
> 0¦ ⊂ U
i
(2)

k
i=1
φ
i
(x) = 1 for all x ∈ X.
Proof. We show first that there is an open covering ¦V
i
¦ of X such that V
i
⊂ U
i
(we shrink the
sets of the covering). Since the closed set X −(U
2
∪ ∪ U
k
) is contained in the open set U
1
there is an
open set V
1
such that
X −(U
2
∪ ∪ U
k
) ⊂ V
1
⊂ V
1
⊂ U
1
by normality (3.5). Now V
1
∪U
2
∪ ∪U
k
is an open covering of X. Apply this procedure once again to
find an open set V
2
such that V
2
⊂ U
2
and V
1
∪ V
2
∪ U
3
∪ ∪ U
k
is still an open covering of X. After
finitely many steps we have an open covering ¦V
i
¦ such that V
i
⊂ U
i
for all i.
Do this one more time to obtain an open covering ¦W
i
¦ such that W
i
⊂ W
i
⊂ V
i
⊂ V
i
⊂ U
i
for
all i. Now choose a Urysohn function (3.12) ψ
i
: X → [0, 1] such that ψ
i
(W
i
) = 1 and ψ
i
(X − V
i
) = 0.
Then ¦x [ ψ
i
(x) > 0¦ ⊂ V
i
⊂ U
i
and ψ(x) =

ψ
i
(x) > 1 for any x ∈ X since x ∈ W
i
for some i.
Hence φ
i
=
ψ
i
ψ
is a well-defined continuous function on M taking values in the unit interval such that

k
i=1
φ
i
(x) =

k
i=1
ψ
i
(x)
ψ(x)
=
1
ψ(x)

k
i=1
ψ
i
(x) =
ψ(x)
ψ(x)
= 1.
CHAPTER 4
Relations between topological spaces
s
e
q
u
e
n
t
i
a
l
l
y
c
o
m
p
a
c
t
+
m
e
t
r
i
z
a
b
l
e

c
o
u
n
t
a
b
l
e
d
e
n
s
e
s
u
b
s
e
t
+
m
e
t
r
i
z
a
b
l
e

l
i
m
i
t
p
o
i
n
t
c
o
m
p
a
c
t
+
m
e
t
r
i
z
a
b
l
e

+
1
s
t
c
o
u
n
t
a
b
l
e
+
T
1
¸¸
2
n
d
c
o
u
n
t
a
b
l
e

T
h
m
3
0
.
3
¸¸
T
h
m
3
0
.
3

L
i
n
d
e
l
¨o
f
+
m
e
t
r
i
z
a
b
l
e
¸.
c
o
m
p
a
c
t

¸.
T
h
m
2
8
.
1
¸¸
l
o
c
a
l
l
y
c
o
m
p
a
c
t
1
s
t
c
o
u
n
t
a
b
l
e
T
h
m
3
0
.
1

S
e
q
u
e
n
c
e
l
m
a
c
o
m
p
a
c
t
H
a
u
s
d
o
r

¸¸

l
o
c
a
l
l
y
c
o
m
p
a
c
t
H
a
u
s
d
o
r

¸¸
E
x
2
2
.
7

m
e
t
r
i
z
a
b
l
e
¸¸
E
x
3
2
.
7

c
o
m
p
l
e
t
e
l
y
n
o
r
m
a
l

n
o
r
m
a
l
T
h
m
3
3
.
1

c
o
m
p
l
e
t
e
l
y
r
e
g
u
l
a
r

t
o
p
g
r
p
E
x
3
3
.
1
0
¸.
r
e
g
u
l
a
r
2
n
d
c
o
u
n
t
a
b
l
e
T
h
m
3
4
.
1
¸¸
w
e
l
l
-
o
r
d
e
r
e
d
t
o
p
o
l
o
g
y

E
x
2
3
.
5

o
r
d
e
r
t
o
p
o
l
o
g
y
T
h
m
3
2
.
4
¸¸
r
e
g
u
l
a
r

m
a
n
i
f
o
l
d
E
x
3
6
.
1
¸¸

J
J
J
J
J
J
J
J
J
J
J
J
J
J
J
J
J
J
J
J
J
J
J
J
J
J
J
J
J
J
J
J
J
J
J
J
J
J
J
J
J
J
J
J
J
J
t
o
t
a
l
l
y
d
i
s
c
o
n
n
e
c
t
e
d
l
i
n
e
a
r
c
o
n
t
i
n
u
u
m
¸¸
T
h
m
2
4
.
1

H
a
u
s
d
o
r

l
o
c
a
l
l
y
c
o
n
n
e
c
t
e
d
c
o
n
n
e
c
t
e
d
T
1
l
o
c
a
l
l
y
p
a
t
h
c
o
n
n
e
c
t
e
d
¸¸
p
a
t
h
c
o
n
n
e
c
t
e
d
p
.
1
5
5
¸¸
73
Bibliography
[1] Colin C. Adams, The knot book, W. H. Freeman and Company, New York, 1994, An elementary introduction to the
mathematical theory of knots. MR 94m:57007
[2] Nicolas Bourbaki, General topology. Chapters 1–4, Elements of Mathematics, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1998, Translated
from the French, Reprint of the 1989 English translation. MR 2000h:54001a
[3] Glen E. Bredon, Topology and geometry, Graduate Texts in Mathematics, vol. 139, Springer-Verlag, New York, 1993.
MR 94d:55001
[4] John P. Burgess, Book review, Notre Dame J. Formal Logic 44 (2003), no. 3, 227–251. MR MR675916 (84a:03007)
[5] Ryszard Engelking, General topology, second ed., Sigma Series in Pure Mathematics, vol. 6, Heldermann Verlag, Berlin,
1989, Translated from the Polish by the author. MR 91c:54001
[6] Ryszard Engelking and Karol Sieklucki, Topology: a geometric approach, Sigma Series in Pure Mathematics, vol. 4,
Heldermann Verlag, Berlin, 1992, Translated from the Polish original by Adam Ostaszewski. MR 94d:54001
[7] Allen Hatcher, Algebraic topology, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2002. MR 2002k:55001
[8] James R. Munkres, Topology. Second edition, Prentice-Hall Inc., Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 2000. MR 57 #4063
[9] J.-P. Serre, A course in arithmetic, Springer-Verlag, New York, 1973, Translated from the French, Graduate Texts in
Mathematics, No. 7. MR MR0344216 (49 #8956)
[10] Edwin H. Spanier, Algebraic topology, Springer-Verlag, New York, 1981, Corrected reprint. MR 83i:55001
[11] Juris Stepr¯ans, The autohomeomorphism group of the
ˇ
Cech-Stone compactification of the integers, Trans. Amer. Math.
Soc. 355 (2003), no. 10, 4223–4240 (electronic). MR 1 990 584
[12] George Tourlakis, Lectures in logic and set theory. Vol. 2, Cambridge Studies in Advanced Mathematics, vol. 83,
Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2003, Set theory. MR 2004a:03003
[13] Jan van Mill, An introduction to βω, Handbook of set-theoretic topology, North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1984, pp. 503–
567. MR 86f:54027
[14] Russell C. Walker, The Stone-
ˇ
Cech compactification, Springer-Verlag, New York, 1974, Ergebnisse der Mathematik
und ihrer Grenzgebiete, Band 83. MR 52 #1595
[15] W. Hugh Woodin, The continuum hypothesis, Part I, Notices of the American Math. Soc. 48 (2001), no. 6, 567–576.
[16] , The continuum hypothesis, Part II, Notices of the American Math. Soc. 48 (2001), no. 7, 681–690.
75

Contents
Chapter 0. Introduction Chapter 1. Sets and maps 1. Sets, functions and relations 2. The integers and the real numbers 3. Products and coproducts 4. Finite and infinite sets 5. Countable and uncountable sets 6. Well-ordered sets 7. Partially ordered sets, The Maximum Principle and Zorn’s lemma Chapter 2. Topological spaces and continuous maps 1. Topological spaces 2. Order topologies 3. The product topology 4. The subspace topology 5. Closed sets and limit points 6. Continuous functions 7. The quotient topology 8. Metric topologies 9. Connected spaces 10. Compact spaces 11. Locally compact spaces and the Alexandroff compactification Chapter 3. Regular and normal spaces 1. Countability Axioms 2. Separation Axioms 3. Normal spaces 4. Second countable regular spaces and the Urysohn metrization theorem ˇ 5. Completely regular spaces and the Stone–Cech compactification 6. Manifolds Chapter 4. Relations between topological spaces Bibliography 5 7 7 11 13 14 16 18 19 23 23 25 25 26 29 32 36 42 45 51 57 61 61 62 64 66 69 71 73 75

3

.

They should be sufficient for further studies in geometry or algebraic topology. Thanks to Michal Jablonowski and Antonio D´ Ramos for ıaz pointing out misprinst and errors in earlier versions of these notes. Comments from readers are welcome.CHAPTER 0 Introduction These notes are intended as an to introduction general topology. 5 .

.

Example. These operations satisfy A ∩ (B ∪ C) = (A ∩ B) ∪ (A ∩ C) A − (B ∪ C) = (A − B) ∩ (A − C) A ∪ (B ∩ C) = (A ∪ B) ∩ (A ∪ C) A − (B ∩ C) = (A − B) ∪ (A − C) A ∪ B = {x | x ∈ A or x ∈ B} A B = {(1. Therefore R is outside the universe. .CHAPTER 1 Sets and maps This chapter is concerned with set theory which is the basis of all mathematics. Definition. or B a superset of A.2. If A and B are sets then A ∩ B = {x | x ∈ A and x ∈ B} A × B = {(x. 1. R is not a set. P(A) = {B | B ⊂ A} is the set of all subsets of A. A set is a collection of mathematical objects. . In mathematical symbols. a) | a ∈ A} ∪ {(2. (Z stands for Zermelo. Thus R consists of everything in the universe. 1If a person says ”I am lying” – is he lying? 7 . The natural numbers 1. 2. We write a ∈ S if the set S contains the object a. if all elements of A are elements of B. Since the elements of R occupy all levels of the universe there is no level left for R to be in. Maybe it even can be said that mathematics is the science of sets. The universe of mathematical objects is stratified. functions and relations 1. The contradiction has evaporated! Axiomatic set theory is an attempt to make this precise formulating a theory based on axioms. 2.) It is not possible to prove or disprove the statement ”ZFC is consistent” within ZFC – that is within mathematics [12]. Level i > 0 consists of collections of objects from lower levels. Russel’s paradox 1 concerns the ıve formula S ∈ S. . the ZFC-axioms. . Is R ∈ R or is R ∈ R? How can we remove this contradiction? 1. 1.1. We say that A is a subset of B. for set theory. b) | b ∈ B} as well as several other rules. Sets. .}. Sets. and C for Axiom of Choice. y) | x ∈ A and y ∈ B} and A − B = {x | x ∈ A and x ∈ B} are also sets. The Russel set R = {S | S ∈ S} is the set of all sets that are not a member of itself. 3.1. We really don’t know what a set is but neither do the biologists know what life is and that doesn’t stop them from investigating it. F for Fraenkel. A set is a mathematical object that is not atomic. The sets A and B are equal if A and B have the same elements. This na¨ form of set theory unfortunately leads to paradoxes. . A ⊂ B ⇐⇒ ∀x ∈ A : x ∈ B A = B ⇐⇒ (∀x ∈ A : x ∈ B and ∀x ∈ B : x ∈ A) ⇐⇒ A ⊂ B and B ⊂ A The power set of A. 3. Level 0 of the universe consists of (possibly) some atomic objects. can be collected to form the set Z+ = {1. No object of the universe can satisfy S ∈ S for atoms do not have elements and a set and an element from that set can not be in the same level. First note that it may well happen that a set is a member of itself. The set of all infinite sets is an example.

1. X) = map((A. b. Some people like to rewrite this as map(X. Relations.27). c ∈ A .8 1. X). We say that D is reflexive and transitive. the set B is the codomain of f .4 require the Axiom of Choice (1. X). X) for all sets X. Any left inverse is surjective and any right inverse is injective. g) : (X. B). Example. Y ) → (A. B) denote the set of all maps from A to B. and B. In other words. SETS AND MAPS 1. bijective iff the equation f (a) = b has at most one solution. map(A B. We write f : A → B for the function f ⊂ A × B and think of f as a rule that to any element a ∈ A associates a unique object f (a) ∈ B. Let map(A. If f : A → B and g : B → C are maps such that cod(f ) = dom(g). map(A B. takes a space X to the pair (X. 1. B) is a pair of spaces and maps (f. We may define a relation D on Z+ by aDb if a divides b. X) × map(B. B) between pairs of spaces are defined to be pairs of maps f : X → A. • bijective if both injective and surjective. dom(f ) = A. The relation D ⊂ Z+ × Z+ has the properties that aDa for all a and aDb and bDc =⇒ aDc for all a. (A. b) ∈ f . ∆X = (X. B).5. Then f is injective ⇐⇒ f has a left inverse f is surjective ⇐⇒ f has a right inverse f is bijective ⇐⇒ f has an inverse (2) There exists a surjective map A B ⇐⇒ There exits an injective map B AC AC A Two of the statements in Proposition 1. B)). X) = map(A.9. An equivalence relation on a set A is a relation ∼⊂ A × A that is Reflexive: a ∼ a for all a ∈ A Symmetric: a ∼ b =⇒ b ∼ a for all a. (1) Let f : A → B be any map. the map f is injective.7. c. We shall here concentrate on equivalence relations and order relations. The function f is • injective or one-to-one if distinct elements of A have distinct images in B. A function from A to B is a subset f of A × B such that for all a in A there is exactly one b in B such that (a.6. A × B) = map(X. (A. • surjective or onto if all elements in B are images of elements in A. Definition. b ∈ B. if any element of B is the image of precisely one element of A. Equivalence relations. Functions. 1. at least one solution precisely one solution.5. ie a = f −1 (b) ⇐⇒ f (a) = b for all a ∈ A. So what is a function? 1. These people say that the product is right adjoint to the diagonal and the coproduct is left adjoint to the diagonal. ∆X) Here. A) × map(X.3. A. then the composition is the map g ◦ f : A → C defined by g ◦ f (a) = g(f (a)). The diagonal. Equality is a typical equivalence relation. A relation R on the set A is a subset R ⊂ A × A. A × B) = map(∆X. g : Y → B. Let A and B be two sets. Definition.4. cod(f ) = B.1. Here is the general definition. Definition. for all b ∈ B. Then map(X. surjective. There are many types of relations. If f : A → B is bijective then the inverse f −1 : B → A is the map that to b ∈ B associates the unique solution to the equation f (a) = b. b. 1. Proposition. 1. 1. The set A is the domain of f . Functions or maps are fundamental to all of mathematics. b ∈ A Transitive: a ∼ b and b ∼ c =⇒ a ∼ c for all a.2.

a set of nonempty. The intersection of all equivalence relations containing a given relation R is called the equivalence relation generated by R. Declare any two elements of A to be equivalent and any element outside A to be equivalent only to itself. a1 ∼ a2 ⇐⇒ f (a1 ) = f (a2 ) is an equivalence relation on A. SETS. (2) is symmetry.1. Conversely. then a ∼ c ∼ b so a ∼ b and [a] = [b] by (2). The corestriction f : A/f → f (A) of f is a bijection between the set of fibres A/f and the image f (A). (1) Equality is an equivalence relation. (1) is reflexivity. 1. The canonical map R2 → R2 / ∼ takes a point to the circle on which it lies.11. [1]. How would you define f ? 1. This lemma implies that the set A/ ∼⊂ P(A) is a partition of A. A map f : A → B is said to respect the equivalence relation ∼ if a1 ∼ a2 =⇒ f (a1 ) = f (a2 ) for all a1 .10. (2) a mod b mod n is an equivalence relation on Z. [n − 1]}. The canonical map A → A/f takes a point to the fibre in which it lies. (4) If f : A → B is any function. (6) [Ex 3. given any partition of A we define an equivalence relation by declaring a and b to be equivalent if they lie in the same subset of the partition. . One writes X/A for the set of equivalence classes. (3) x ∼ y ⇐⇒ |x| = |y| is an equivalence relation in the plane R2 . The equivalence class [a] = f −1 (f (a)) ⊂ A is the fibre over f (a) ∈ B. disjoint subsets of A whose union is all of A. .5] (Equivalence relation generated by a relation) The intersection of any family of equivalence relations is an equivalence relation. a2 ∈ A (f is constant on each equivalence class). . Then (1) a ∈ [a] (2) [a] = [b] ⇐⇒ a ∼ b (3) If [a] ∩ [b] = ∅ then [a] = [b] Proof. There is a canonical map [ ] : A → A/ ∼ onto the set A/ ∼= {[a] | a ∈ A} ⊂ P(A) of equivalence classes that takes the element a ∈ A to the equivalence class [a] ∈ A/ ∼ containing a. The equivalence class [a] = {a} contains just one element. Example. we write A/f for the set of equivalence classes.2] (Restriction) Let X be a set and A ⊂ X a subset. This is an equivalence relation. Lemma. FUNCTIONS AND RELATIONS 9 The equivalence class containing a ∈ A is the subset [a] = {b ∈ A | a ∼ b} of all elements of A that are equivalent to a. Any map f : A → B can be factored f / AB =B BB {{ BB { B {{ B [ ] B! ! = {{ f A/f def def as the composition of a surjection followed by an injection. (3) is transitivity: If c ∈ [a] ∩ [b]. The canonical map [ ] : A → A/ ∼ respects the equivalence relation and it is the universal example of such a map: Any map f : A → B that respects the equivalence relation factors uniquely through A/ ∼ in the sense that there is a unique map f such that the diagram /B AA AA }> } AA }} AA }} ∃!f [ ] } A/ ∼ f commutes. . Let ∼ be an equivalence relation on a set A. The equivalence class [a] = a + nZ consists of all integers congruent to a modn and the set of equivalence classes is Z/nZ = {[0]. The equivalence class [x] is a circle centered at the origin and R2 / ∼ is the collection of all circles centered at the origin. . We conclude that an equivalence relation is essentially the same thing as a partition. The equivalence classes are A and {x} for x ∈ X − A. (5) [Ex 3.

The element m is a smallest element of B if m ∈ B and m ≤ b for all b ∈ B. The dictionary order on Z+ ×[0. 1. An order isomorphism is a bijective order preserving map. (So. What are the intervals (1 × 2. n) has (a. a2 ∈ A. max b∈B (−∞. <) × (A. <) represent different order types. y) = ∅ for all x < y. <) has the least upper bound property but it is not a linear continuum as (1.15. b) = {x ∈ A | a < x < b}. <) × (B. <) and (B. 2) = ∅. In the dictionary order on [0. min b∈B [b. b]. [0. [1 × 2. • M is a largest element of B if M ∈ B and b ≤ M for all b ∈ B. 1]? (3) We now consider two subsets of R×R. An ordered set (A. b) = ∅ then a is the immediate predecessor of b. An order preserving map f : A → B is always injective. ∞) so it is a linear continuum. (−∞. b] etc. The set of upper bounds is b∈B [b. 1) has a smallest element and (0. 1) has the same order type as [1. Here is the general definition. SETS AND MAPS 1. The sub-ordered set (Z+ . <) and (B. <) have the same order type. (a. Definition. Thus Z+ ×[0. <) be an ordered set and B ⊂ A a subset. it is called the least upper bound for B and denoted sup B. (−∞. (A. n+1) as its immediate successor so it is not a linear continuum. Definition. 1) have the same order type.2. 1) and [0. A linear order on the set A is a relation <⊂ A × A that is Comparable: If a = b then a < b or b < a for all a. b]. We denote the largest element (if it exists) by max B and the smallest element (if it exists) by min B. 1)×Z+ do not have the same order type. If also (x. <) is a linear continuum as we all learn in kindergarten. ∞). <) has the least upper bound property if any nonempty subset of A that has an upper bound has a least upper bound.10 1. <) and (B. • M is an upper bound for B if M ∈ A and b ≤ M for all b ∈ B. Definition. Example.16. [a. then (A. what did that sentence mean?) What about orders on A B.13. b. Let (A. it is called the greatest lower bound for B and denoted inf B. 1) doesn’t. If there exists an order isomorphism f : A → B. 3 × 2] and (1 × 2. <) be linearly ordered sets. Also the product of two linearly ordered set is a linearly ordered set. B) or P(A)? What are the invariant properties of ordered sets? In a linearly ordered set (A. (2) R × R has a linear dictionary order. If (a. A ∪ B. The usual order relation < on Z or R is an example of a linear order. and b the immediate successor of a. An order preserving map is a map f : A → B such that a1 < a2 =⇒ f (a1 ) < f (a2 ) for all a1 . 3 × 4]? Is R × R a linear continuum? Is [0. The dictionary order on A × B is the linear order given by (a1 . b1 ) < (a2 . 1) have distinct order types for [0. (1) R and (0. (Hey. If the set of lower bounds has a largest element. in general. 1. 1] × [0. 1. 1) and [0. b2 ) ⇐⇒ (a1 < a2 ) or (a1 = a2 and b1 < b2 ) The restriction of a dictionary order to a product subspace is the dictionary order of the restricted linear orders. • If the set of upper bounds has a smallest element. Let (A. c ∈ A What are the right maps between ordered sets? 1. b] = {x ∈ A | x ≤ b} def and similarly for other types of intervals. then we say that (A.14. <) and (B.) (4) (R. 1 × 3). 1) have the same order type as we all can find an explicit order isomorphism between them. <) be linearly ordered sets. b]. 1) and (0. b ∈ A Nonreflexive: a < a for no a ∈ A Transitive: a < b and b < c =⇒ a < c for all a. {−1} ∪ (0. <) it makes sense to define intervals such as (a. ∞) and the set of lower bounds is b∈B (−∞. How can we make new ordered sets out of old ordered sets? Well. This is no surprise since the dictionary order is not symmetric in the two variables. b].12. 1. any subset of a linearly ordered set is a linearly ordered set in the obvious way using the restriction of the order relation. Definition. <) is a linear continuum.5. 1) × Z+ each element (a. The element m is a lower bound for B if m ∈ A and m ≤ b for all b ∈ B. Linear Orders. . map(A. Let (A.

THE INTEGERS AND THE REAL NUMBERS 11 (5) (−1. write Sn = {x ∈ Z+ | x < n} for the set of positive integers smaller than n (the section below n). Theorem (General Induction Principle).19) to show that J is inductive. of course. (R. <) is an ordered field. ∞). Z+ has no upper bound in R: For any real number there is a natural number which is greater. Proof. Definition. we need a lemma. It is enough (1. 1) be an upper bound. for instance R itself and [1. Suppose that n ∈ J. − 3 . 1. There are inductive subsets of R. Let A ⊂ Z+ be any nonempty subset. 1.21). J is inductive so J contains the smallest inductive set. For any n ∈ Z+ . <) is a linear continuum (1. 1. Before the proof. Theorem. Theorem (Archimedean Principle). Since b − 1 is not an upper bound (it is smaller than the least upper bound). and then min(A ∩ Sn ) is the smallest element of A. 1 ∈ J for the trivial reason that there are no nonempty subsets of S1 = ∅. We conclude that sup B lies in (−1. We have that 1 ∈ Z+ and Z+ ⊂ [1. (Induction Principle) Let J be a subset of Z+ such that 1 ∈ J and ∀n ∈ Z+ : n ∈ J =⇒ n + 1 ∈ J Then J = Z+ . 1. any nonempty subset of Sn has a smallest element. 1. 1) has the least upper bound property: Let B be any bounded from above subset of (−1. Proof of Theorem 1. − 2 . The integers and the real numbers We shall assume that the real numbers R exists with all the usual properties: (R. in R.} is bounded from above (by say 100) but the set of upper bounds (0. Let J ⊂ Z+ be the set of integers for which the lemma is true. In fact. If A consists of n alone.15). ·. ·) is a field. 2. Definition. Then n ∈ J and Sn ⊂ J (for n is the smallest element not in J meaning that all elements smaller than n are in J). We show the contrapositive. .21. Then n + 1 is also an integer (Z+ is inductive) and n + 1 > b. A subset A ⊂ R is inductive if 1 ∈ A and a ∈ A =⇒ a + 1 ∈ A. then n = min A is the smallest element of A. . . Proof. Thus J does not satisfy the hypothesis of the theorem. +. Let b = sup Z+ be the least upper bound (R has the least upper bound property). 1) and so it is also a least upper bound in (−1. ∞) because [1. 1. 1 1 (6) R − {0} does not have the least upper bound property as the subset B = {−1. (R. so there is a least upper bound. there is a positive integer n ∈ Z+ such that n > b − 1. The intersection A ∩ Sn is nonempty for some n. What about Z+ ? 1. 1) and let M ∈ (−1. We assume the opposite and derive a contradiction. any convex subset of a linear continuum is a linear continuum. This is also the smallest element of A. Consider the smallest element n = min(Z+ − J) outside J.2. A contains integers < n. +. Note that S1 = ∅ and Sn+1 = Sn ∪{n}.20. Let J be a subset of Z+ such that ∀n ∈ Z+ : Sn ⊂ J =⇒ n ∈ J Then J = Z+ . . Lemma.19. Any nonempty subset of Z+ has a smallest element. Suppose that Z+ is bounded from above. Proof. Now sup B is the smallest upper bound so that sup B ≤ M < −1.22. Proof. For each n ∈ Z+ . ∞) is inductive so 1 = min Z+ is the smallest element of Z+ .18. so it has a smallest element (1. Z+ is the intersection of all inductive subsets of R. ∞) has no smallest element. Then B is also bounded from above in R.23.17. Thus n + 1 ∈ J. Z+ . Theorem. 1).20. Let J be a proper subset of Z+ . This contradicts that b is an upper bound for Z+ . If not. sup B. Consider a nonempty subset A of Sn+1 .

For any set B and any function ρ: {map(Sn . This follows from the Induction Principle. Here is an example of a recursive definition from computer programing fibo := func< n | n le 2 select 1 else Self(n-1) + Self(n-2) >. .12 1.24. Theorem (Principle of Recursive Definitions). Proof. Ex 8. of the Fibonacci function. SETS AND MAPS 1. but we shall not go into details. It is usually considered bad taste to define h in terms of h but the Principle of Recursive Definition is a permit to do exactly that in certain situations. Mathematicians (sometimes) prefer instead to apply the Principle of Recursive Definitions to the map 1 n<2 f ρ(Sn − Z+ ) = → f (n − 1) + f (n − 2) n > 2 Recursive functions can be computed by Turing machines. B) | n ∈ Z+ } → B there exists a unique function h : Z+ → B such that h(n) = ρ(h|Sn ) for all n ∈ Z+ . See [8.8].

the intersection. 1} = map(J.  Even though we shall not specify our (ZF) axioms for set theory. n} then we also write A1 ∪ · · · ∪ An . and j∈J A = J × A.e. 1}ω = map(Z+ . .26. . The coproduct 3. respectively. The elements of An are all n-tuples (a1 .1. We often denote the set f (j) by Aj and the whole indexed family by {Aj }j∈J . . the set of all functions x : Z+ → A. . j∈J Aj ) = j∈J map(X. PRODUCTS AND COPRODUCTS j∈J 13 Aj 6 j∈J Aj ⊂ J × j∈J Aj J Figure 1.3. Definition. Products and coproducts 1. A1 ∩ · · · ∩ An ∩ · · · . all sequences (x1 .25. i. . . a) for all j ∈ J. These maps are used in establishing the identities map(X. 2 1. an index set J. : j∈J Aj → j∈J Aj (codiagonal) If the index set J = Sn+1 = {1. let us mention just one axiom which •  has a kind of contended status since some of its consequences are counter-intuitive. and a surjective function f : J → A. . (3) There is a bijection (which one?) between {0. Y ) for any sets X and Y . a) ∈ J × j∈J Aj | a ∈ Aj } Aj h There are natural maps πj : j∈J Aj → Aj → Aj (projection) ι j : Aj → j∈J Aj (injection) Q given by πj (x) = x(j) and ιj (a) = (j. A). Y ) = j∈J map(Aj .) of elements from A. We define the union. (2) If the set A = {A} consists of just one set A then j∈J A = A = j∈J A. . A1 × · · · × An × · · · A1 ··· An × · · · for j∈Z+ Aj . 1}) and P(Z+ ). If also Aj = A for all j we write Aω for the product j∈Z+ A. . . {0. (1) S1 ∪ S2 ∪ · · · ∪ Sn · · · = n∈Z+ Sn = Z+ . Example. . j∈Z+ Aj . map( j∈J Aj . . j∈Sn+1 Aj . an ) of elements from A. j∈j j∈j Aj = {a | a ∈ Aj for at least one j ∈ J} Aj = j∈J j∈J Aj = {x ∈ map(J. A1 ∩ · · · ∩ An . Aj ). If also and Aj = A for all j ∈ Sn+1 we write An for the product j∈Sn+1 A. there is a bijection (which one) between the product j∈J {0. j∈Sn+1 Aj j∈Sn+1 Aj . An indexed family of sets consists of a set A of sets.  • • n  2ω is the formal set within set theory corresponding to the na¨ set Z [12. and the coproduct of the indexed family as Aj = {a | a ∈ Aj for all j ∈ J}. 1}) and the power set P(J). j∈Z+ Aj . j∈Z+ Aj . . Any set A of sets can be made into an indexed family of sets by using the identity map A → A as the indexing function. respectively. More generally. . j∈J A = map(J.5] ıve + . This gives in particular maps ∆: j∈J Aj → j∈J Aj (diagonal). {0. . V. xn . j∈J Aj ) | ∀j ∈ J : x(j) ∈ Aj } {(j. the product. If the index set J = Z+ then we also write A1 ∪ · · · ∪ An ∪ · · · . A1 × · · · × An A1 ··· An for j∈Sn+1 Aj .

(2) =⇒ (3): Define c to be J → Aj − → Aj where the first map is a right inverse to the function Aj → J taking Aj to j for all j ∈ J. (2) If n = 1. Then there exists (1. of course.8]. Proof. If the ZF axioms of set theory are consistent. You may take or leave AC without penalty. Theorem. there exists a function c : J → j∈J Aj (a choice function) such that c(j) ∈ Aj for all j ∈ J. we can assume that n + 1 ∈ B so that B is a subset of Sn+1 . Thm B. Cohen) are consistent theories [12. (3) =⇒ (1): Let A be a nonempty set of nonempty sets. A. Proof. Assume the assertion is true for some n ∈ Z+ . but often used. [3. we can assume that f (n + 1) = n + 1.28.28. 1. then both ZF+AC (G¨del 1938) and ZF+¬AC (Fraenkel o and Mostowsski. the AC does not determine the set C uniquely. By permuting the elements of B and Sn+1+1 if necessary. (1) If n = 1. Lemma. there exists a set C ⊂ A∈A A such that C ∩ A contains exactly one element for all A ∈ A.18] The following statements are equivalent: (1) The Axiom of Choice (2) Any surjective map has a right inverse. Definition. (1) It is impossible to map B onto Sn+1 . the product is the set of choice functions. case. SETS AND MAPS 1. (Just like you may take or leave Euclid’s axiom on parallels depending on what kind of geometry you like to do.27. j∈J (3) ⇐⇒ (4): By definition. . Consider a proper subset B of Sn+1+1 . Let A be any nonempty set and P (A) = P(A) − {∅} the set of nonempty subsets of A. But that is impossible by induction hypothesis. Define the right inverse g : B → A by {g(b)} = C ∩ f −1 (b) where C ⊂ A = b∈B f −1 (b) is a set such that C ∩ f −1 (b) contains exactly one point for each b ∈ B.14 1. then S2 = {1} and B = ∅ so S1 ∼ B. Finite and infinite sets 1. Axiom (Axiom of Choice (AC)). (3) For any nonempty indexed family of (not necessarily disjoint) nonempty sets. (2) Sm+1 ∼ B for some m < n. {Aj }j∈J . Put C = c(A) where c : A → A∈A A is a choice function.2. By permuting the elements of Sn+1+1 if necessary. then the Axiom of Choice is a permit to work with a function that to every nonempty subset of R associates an element of that subset. Suppose that there exists a surjection f : B → Sn+1+1 . j∈J Aj c: J → 6 • • • • • • • • j∈J Aj J Figure 2. Both statements are proved by induction.) We shall here include AC and work within ZFC (ZF + AC). then B ∼ Sn+1 . B is a proper subset of Sn+1 and then Sm+1 ∼ B for some m < n < n + 1 by induction hypothesis. Then B − f −1 (n + 1) is a proper subset of Sn+1 which is mapped onto Sn+1 by f . 1.30. Otherwise. Consider a proper subset B of Sn+1+1 . A choice function Here is a special. (4) j∈J Aj = ∅ for any nonempty indexed family of nonempty sets. Unlike the other axioms of set theory. For any nonempty set of nonempty disjoint sets. How would you write down such a function? 4. Let n ∈ Z+ and let B be a proper subset of Sn+1 . (The choice function selects an element in each nonempty subset of A.29.) If A is the set R of real numbers. Assume it is true for some n ∈ Z+ . A set A is finite if Sn+1 ∼ A for some n ∈ Z+ . We write X ∼ Y if there is a bijection between the two sets X and Y .(3)) a choice function c : P (A) → A such that c(B) ∈ B for any nonempty B ⊂ A. (1) =⇒ (2): Let f : A → B be a surjective map. IV. then S2 = {1} and B = ∅ so the assertion is true in this case. If B = Sn+1 . A set is infinite if it is not finite.

But we have just seen that all subsets finite sets are finite. . Are all sets finite? No! 1. (1) Proved already in 1. . . But it is immediate that Sm+n+1 ∼ Sm+1 Sn+1 . (1) Subsets of finite sets are finite. then m = n. (3) Finite unions of finite sets are finite. . Let A be a set. Let A be a set. That is not possible. (4) =⇒ (1): This is 1. .34. |B| ≤ |A|.(2) (2) =⇒ (4): We view Z+ as a subset of A. The following statements are equivalent (1) A is finite (2) There exists a surjection Sn+1 → A for some n ∈ Z+ (3) There exists an injection A → Sn+1 for some n ∈ Z+ Proof. (2) ⇐⇒ (3): 1. (1) =⇒ (2): Let c : P (A) → A be a choice function. The following are equivalent: (1) A is infinite (2) There exists an injective map Z+ → A (3) There exists a surjective map A → Z+ (4) A is in bijection with a proper subset of itself Proof. . it is true for all finite sets. (3) To see that the union of two finite sets is finite. . 1. it is enough to show Sm+1 Sn+1 is finite (for the union of any two finite sets is an image of this set). . . Then A = (A − Z+ ) ∪ Z+ is in bijection with the proper subset A − {1} = (A − Z+ ) ∪ (Z+ − {1}). Theorem (Characterization of finite sets). then there exists a bijection between A and a subset of Sn+1 .31. An are finitely many finite sets. . Induction now shows that A1 ∪ · · · ∪ An is finite when A1 . Let A be a finite set.(2) (3) =⇒ (1): If there exists an injection A → Sn+1 .32) |B| < |A| ⇐⇒ B A which is often called the ‘pidgeon-hole principle’.35.33. (2) Sn+1 A B. (1) Suppose that m = n. Proof.4. Induction now shows that A1 × · · · × An is finite when A1 . and (1.4. 1. Proof.24) to ρ(Sn − Z+ ) = c(A − f (Sn )). (2) ⇐⇒ (3): 1. → f . (4) Let A and B be finite. . But then Sm+1 is a proper subset of Sn+1 which can be mapped onto Sn+1 . Proof. . . Theorem (Characterization of infinite sets). (1) If Sm+1 ∼ A ∼ Sn+1 . . Here we applied the Principle of Recursive Definitions (1.4. An are finitely many finite sets. We may then assume that m < n. . i>1 Then h is injective (if i < j then h(j) ∈ A − {h(1). Define h : Z+ → A recursively by h(1) = c(A) h(i) = c(A − {h(1). (2) Since this is true for the model finite set Sn+1 . . We also learned that if B ⊂ A then B is finite.36. We have just learned that if A is finite then Sn+1 ∼ A for a unique n ∈ Z+ . . (2) Any subset of A is finite. . FINITE AND INFINITE SETS 15 1. Corollary. . There is a surjective map of the proper subset Z+ − {1} onto Z+ . it is finite. Corollary (Hereditary properties of finite sets). . h(j − 1)} so h(i) = h(j)). This n is called the cardinality of A and it is denoted cardA or |A|. Z+ is infinite. 1. Since A × B = a∈A B is the union of finitely many finite sets.30. h(i − 1)}). (1) =⇒ (2): There even exists a bijection Sn+1 → A. Corollary. (4) Finite Cartesian products of finite sets are finite.31. (2) Images of finite sets are finite. h(i).

It is uncountable if it is not countable. . .) By definition of m. then h(i) = min(C − {h(1). 1. (2) Z+ A B. the theorem is true. Note also that again we use 1. . and therefore h(m) = min(C − {h(1). . . Note that C − {h(1). (1) A subset of a countable set is countable (2) The image of a countable set is countable. . or c ∈ C − {h(1). . SETS AND MAPS 5. h(i − 1). .39. 1. Let C ⊂ Z+ be an infinite set of positive integers.31). . h(i − 1)} C − {h(1). h(i − 1)}). so we assume that A is countably infinite. so c ∈ {h(1). Theorem (Characterization of countable sets). We must find a positive integer m such that c = h(m).20.4. . . (1) =⇒ (2): Clear. . . . It is enough to show that Aj is countable.38. . Here we applied the Principle of Recursive Definitions (1. Since A is assumed to infinite. .37. Define a function h : Z+ → C recursively (1. The map f : Z+ × Z+ → Z+ given by f (m. h(i − 1)} is nonempty since C is infinite (1. . .40. . h(m) ≥ c and h(n) ≥ c ⇒ n ≥ m The last of these two properties is equivalent to n < m ⇒ h(n) < c.(2) (3) =⇒ (1): We may as well assume that A ⊂ Z+ . p 228] f . Example. Z+ is obviously infinitely countable. (3) Let {Aj }j∈J be an indexed family of sets where J is countable and each set Aj is countable. Corollary (Hereditary properties of countable sets). (3) A countable union of countable sets is countable (assuming AC). . . Lemma. . h(m − 1)}. h(i − 1). . . . . .16 1. h(m − 1)}) ≤ c by definition of h. . c − 1} = Sc (1. is surjective. . The following statements are equivalent (1) A is countable (2) There exists a surjection Z+ → A (3) There exists an injection A → Z+ Proof. h(m − 1)}. . . i>1 using 1. R is a countable union of countable sets [12.33). Let A be a set. Thus h(m) = c. We claim that h is bijective. . Any subset of Z+ is either finite or countably infinite (in bijection with Z+ ). . .20. We leave the case where the index set J is finite as an exercise 3In set theory without AC. n) = m n . . .3 (4) A finite product of countable sets is countable. h is order preserving: If i < j.24) by h(1) = min C h(i) = min(C − {h(1). Definition. h(j − 1)}) = h(j) because C − {h(1). The map g : Z+ × Z+ → Q+ given by g(m. → 1. Thus Z+ × Z+ and Q+ are infinitely countable. . . h(j − 1)}. . . Proof. Our only hope is m = min{n ∈ Z+ | h(n) ≥ c} (Note that this has a meaning since the set {n ∈ Z+ | h(n) ≥ c} is nonempty as we can not inject the infinite set Z+ into the finite set {1. . (2) ⇐⇒ (3): 1. n) = 2m 3n is injective by uniqueness of prime factorizations.24) to ρ(Sn − C) = min(C − f (Sn )).41. It is countable if it is finite or countably infinite. h is surjective: Let c ∈ C. . . . . . A set C is countably infinite if Z+ ∼ C.38. . Countable and uncountable sets 1. If A is finite. Proof. 1. . We show (the stronger statement) that C has the order type of Z+ . A is countably infinite by Lemma 1. (1) B A Z+ . h(i − 1)}) < min(C − {h(1).

An are countable. Because if this set were of the form g(b) for some b ∈ A.38) that any subset of Z+ is either finite or in bijection with Z+ . (1) There is no injective map P(A) → A (2) There is no surjective map A → P(A) Proof. Corollary. Then {a ∈ A | a ∈ g(a)} ∈ P(A) is not in the image of g. . (4) If A and B are countable. We have seen (1. . Choose (!) for each n ∈ Z+ an injective map fn : An → Z+ . so is A × B = a∈A B as we have just seen. Conjecture (Cantor’s Continuum Hypothesis. {0. if you do. Let g : A → P(A) be any function. You may think that a countable product of countable sets is countable or indeed that all sets are finite or countable – but that’s false.42. Now use induction to show that if A1 . (Cantor’s diagonal argument. The set P(Z+ ) = map(Z+ .8] (due to Hausdorff) somewhere [15. 1}) = n∈Z+ {0.) It is a general fact (1. Let A be any set. VII. the AC becomes a theorem. then we’d have b ∈ g(b) ⇐⇒ b ∈ g(b) 1. Look up the generalized continuum hypothesis (GCH) [Ex 11. Thus it suffices to show (2). COUNTABLE AND UNCOUNTABLE SETS 17 and consider only the case where J is infinite. It is not customary to assume the GCH. Any subset of R is either countable or in bijection with R. CH). so is A1 × · · · × An .44.4. What about subsets of R? 1.40) so An is countable.5. Theorem.26] [4]. 1} = {0. 16]. Our axioms are not o adequate to settle the CH.4. CH is independent of the ZFC axioms for set theory in that if ZFC is consistent then both ZFC+CH (G¨del 1950) and ZFC+¬CH (Cohen 1963) are consistent theories [12. .(2)) that (1) ⇐⇒ (2). 1. 1}ω is uncountable. Then we have injective maps ‘ An − − −→ fn Z+ = Z+ × Z+ − − → Z+ −− (1. Then we may as well assume that J = Z+ . . . Russel’s paradox also exploits Cantor’s diagonal argument.43.

) > · · · . 1. Proposition (Hereditary properties of well-ordered sets). <) have a smallest element and we have used this property in quite a few places so there is reason to suspect that this is an important property in general. x) < (j. . (And any element (but the smallest) has an immediate predecessor?) A well-ordered set can not contain an infinite descending chain x1 > x2 > · · · .4]. . . in fact.8].) > (0. Any element a ∈ A (but the largest element. 1. Formally identical to the proof of 1. An is well-ordered. Sα (A) = Sα = (−∞. <) is a well-ordered set. Any well-ordered set has a smallest element. The finite products Zn = Z+ × Z+ · · · × Z+ are + well-ordered (1. For any set B and any function ρ: {map(Sα . (1) The positive integers (Z+ . Example. . (3) The product of any finite family of well-ordered sets is well-ordered. Let (A. 1.47.(1)).(3)). 1. This is the reason for the following definition. 1. 0. 1. .22) Let (A. 0. .) > (0. 1}ω is not well-ordered for it contains the infinite descending chain (1.18 1.48. def 1.22. j ∈ J and x ∈ Ai . if there is one) in a well-ordered set has an immediate successor a+ . The subset of predecessors of α. Proof. a linearly ordered set is well-ordered if and only if it does not contain a copy of the negative integers Z− [Ex 10. (1) Clear. y) ⇐⇒ i < j or (i = j and x < y) and convince yourself that this is a well-ordering.45.48. −1 If C a nonempty subset of A × B then min C = (c1 . . . The induction principle and the principle of recursive definitions apply not only to Z+ but to any well-ordered set.49. (1) A subset of a well-ordered set is well-ordered. 0. . Well-ordered sets We have seen that all nonempty subsets of (Z+ . Let (A. . <) be a well-ordered set and J ⊂ A a subset such that ∀α ∈ A : Sα ⊂ J =⇒ α ∈ J Then J = A. <) be a well-ordered set and α an element of A. B) | α ∈ A} → B there exists a unique function h : A → B such that h(α) = ρ(h|Sα ) for all α ∈ A. min π2 (C ∩ π1 (c1 ))) where c1 = min π1 (C) is the smallest element of C. Proof. (4) The product Sn+1 × Z+ is well-ordered (1. (3) Any section Sn+1 = {1. n} of Z+ is well-ordered (1. Theorem (Principle of Transfinite Recursive Definitions). You may think of well-ordered sets as some kind of generalized versions of Z+ . <) be a well-ordered set.48. SETS AND MAPS 6. . 0. . Theorem (Principle of Transfinite Induction). (2) The coproduct of any well-ordered family of well-ordered sets is well-ordered [Ex 10. .48. define (i. . <) well-ordered then A × B = a∈A B is well-ordered. . Definition. 0. (Cf 1. (3) If (A. 0. y ∈ Aj .46. . <) and (B. (2) Let J be a well-ordered set and {Aj }j∈J a family of well-ordered sets indexed by J. 0.(3)). . (2) Z and R are not well-ordered sets. the smallest successor. (5) The infinite product {0. . Now use induction to show that the product A1 × · · · × An of finitely many well-ordered sets A1 . For i. α) = {a ∈ A | a < α} is called the section of A by α. A set A with a linear order < is well-ordered if any nonempty subset has a smallest element. 2.

in particular. 1. (Zermelo 1904) Any set can be well-ordered. ω) = Z+ is countably infinite but any other section is finite. ω) is infinite. See [Ex 10. . 24. Ω] with a smallest element.(6)) Take any uncountable well-ordered set A (1. 1}ω . A strict partial order on a set A is a non-reflexive and transitive relation (1) a a holds for no a ∈ A (2) a b and b c implies a c. This well-ordered set satisfies (1) and (2).e countable uncountable {x ∈ SΩ | x is not an upper bound for C} = {x ∈ SΩ | ∃c ∈ C : x < c} = c∈C Sc SΩ This set of not upper bounds is countable for it is a countable union of countable sets (1.6] for further properties of SΩ . and a largest element. S ω has the same order type as the interval [1 × 1.3]? Draw pictures of examples of well-ordered sets. Now A has at least one uncountable section. What happens if we replace Z+ by SΩ [Ex 24.4] Any finite linearly ordered set A of cardinality n has the order type of (Sn+1 . (Cf 1. Any finite subset A of [1. 0. ω) has an upper bound because the set of non-upper bounds {x ∈ [1. that is Ω = min{α ∈ A | Sα is uncountable}. ω) | ∃a ∈ A : x < a} = a∈A Sa is finite (1. Call the result A again.49).50. it is well-ordered and it has a largest element. There exists a well-ordered set S Ω = [0. Which of these well-ordereds have the same order type [Ex 10.49. Append a greatest element to A.(5)). R and {0. i>1 Then h is order preserving. the minimal uncountable well-ordered set. We can classify completely all finite well-ordered sets. Ω. The Maximum Principle and Zorn’s lemma If we do not insist on comparability in our order relation (Definition 1. Put S Ω = [0. [Ex 6. ∞) ⊂ R.51). Is there an uncountable well-ordered set? Our examples.41. Sα = [0. Theorem (Well-ordering theorem). Partially ordered sets.53. ω] = Z+ {ω} is well-ordered (1. (2) Any countable subset of SΩ = [0. Can you find an explicit order preserving bijection Sm+1 × Sn+1 → Sm+n+1 ? So there is just one order type of a given finite cardinality n. <).) 1. such that: (1) The section SΩ = [0. . Ω) by Ω is uncountable but any other section. There are many countably infinite well-ordered sets (1.(6) again. It has ω as its largest element. Theorem (Finite order types). Definition. Proof. Let C be a countable subset of SΩ = [0. PARTIALLY ORDERED SETS. Ω). Ω) Proof. i.(3)) but [1. ⊂ A×A: .49. Let Ω be the smallest element of A such that the section by this element is uncountable. h is injective and hence bijective (by the pigeon hole principle (1. See [SupplExI : 8] for an explicit construction of a well-ordered uncountable set.6.32)) since the two sets have the same cardinality. We want to show that it has an upper bound. (It may help to look at 1.12) we obtain a partial order: 1. .34.7.49. We consider the set of elements of SΩ that are not upper bounds. Define h : Sn+1 → A recursively by h(1) = min A and h(i) = min(A − {h(1). In particular. so the set of not upper bounds is a proper subset. We focus on the minimal criminal.52. . But SΩ is uncountable.48. The section Sω = [1.12]? 7. Recall that the ordered set Z+ × [0.(2). is countable. Ω) has an upper bound in SΩ = [0.49. 1) is a linear continuum of the same order type as [1. of uncountable sets are not well-ordered (1. THE MAXIMUM PRINCIPLE AND ZORN’S LEMMA 19 (6) The set S ω = [1.(2)). Z+ is the wellordered set of all finite (nonzero) order types and SΩ is the well-ordered set of all countable (nonzero) order types. h(i − 1)}. 1. 1.(4)). 2 × 1] in Z+ × Z+ . α) for α < Ω. Lemma.51. Ω] where 0 is the smallest element of A.

1.47) to the function ρ(Sα − {0. <) be a poset. For instance. ∀a ∈ A : m a =⇒ m = a • m is an upper bound for B ⊂ A if all elements of B precedes or equals m. Theorem (Zorn’s lemma). x m for all x ∈ H. i. Zermelo’s Well-ordering theorem. apply the Principle of Transfinite Recursion (1. Recall that a basis for a vector space over a field is a maximal independent subset and that a maximal ideal in a ring is a maximal proper ideal.) We shall later use Zorn’s lemma to prove Tychonoff’s theorem (2. As a special case. Suppose that all linearly ordered subsets of A have upper bounds. ) be a set with a strict partial order and m an element of A. We may as well assume that the poset is Z+ with some partial order . Let H ⊂ A be a maximal linearly ordered subset. Theorem (Hausdorff’s Maximum Principle). By maximality of H. Proof. The Axiom of Choice. Any proper ideal of a ring is contained in a maximal ideal. Definition. and Tychonoff’s theorem are equivalent. we may assume that H is maximal. and there can be no element in A greater than m. f 0 1 f −1 (0) ∪ {α} is a linearly ordered subset of A otherwise . The element A51.51). Let (A. 1} recursively by h(1) = 0 and h(i) = 0 1 {j < i|h(j) = 0} ∪ {i} is linearly ordered wrt otherwise for i > 0.54. According to Hausdorff’s Maximum Principle. In fact. For the proof in the general case. 1.56. Then x m d for all elements of H so H ∪ {d} is linearly ordered. We shall only consider the case where the linearly ordered subset is empty where the statement is that any poset contains maximal linearly ordered subsets. let (A. 1}. is an upper bound for the set {A33. 1}) = → and get a function h : A → {0. Here are two typical applications.58. namely its union. Theorem. Here is an example of a finite poset: / ? /7 A44OOO A31?O  oo7A23OOOOO oo? ?O?OOO OOO ?? OOO  OOO ooooo  ooo OOO ?? OOO  O ooo oOO  OOO o o O OOO ??  OOO ooo ooo OOO o o ??  OO' O' O'  ooo ooo ? /A22O /A41O /  ? A11OOO ??O OOO  OOO oo7 oo7A52 oo7A32O?OOO  ?? OOO OO oooo OOO oooo oo ?? OO ?? O O OOOooo Ooo ? O o o ??  OOo  ooOOOOO ooo OOOOO  oooo OOOOO  ??? OOOOO ?? oo  OOO oo ooo OO? ooo OO' oo OO'  ??  ' ooo ' ?? /A21O /A43 /A51 /A34 7 7 A12OOO OOO ?? ooo7 OOO ooo ooo OOO ooo o ?o OOO OOo ooo?? ooo OOO ?? oooOOOO ooo ooo OOO oo oo ?? ooooo OOO O' oooo ooo ' /  o /A33o A42 A24 1. for any element a of A there is a maximal element m of A such that a m. Then H = h−1 (0) is a maximal linearly ordered subset. well-order A (1. Proof. m must be in H. H has an upper bound m. We do not require that any two elements can be compared. Define h : Z+ → {0. but not the element A452. Any linearly independent subset of a vector space is contained in a basis.20 1. In the above example. Theorem. it is good idea to read as ”is contained in”). (Suppose that m d for some d.55. In particular. Let (A. for short) is a set with a strict partial order. Apply Zorn’s lemma to the poset of independent subsets of the vector space. By hypothesis. contradicting maximality of H. Zorn’s lemma. <) be a poset. 1. the elements A51 and A52 are maximal because they have no successors. Any linearly ordered set of independent subsets has an upper bound. • m is maximal if it has no successors. suppose that the poset is infinitely countable. Then any linearly ordered subset is bounded from above by a maximal element. ∀b ∈ B : b m. Hausdorff’s maximum principle.e. SETS AND MAPS A partially ordered set (a poset. power sets are strictly partially ordered by strict inclusion (in fact. A42} 1. Any linearly ordered subset of a poset is contained in a maximal linearly ordered subset.57. Proof.149) that a product of compact spaces is compact.

THE MAXIMUM PRINCIPLE AND ZORN’S LEMMA 21 Proof. Definition. Any linearly ordered set of proper ideals has an upper bound. PARTIALLY ORDERED SETS. A relation on A is said to be a partial order precisely when it is symmetric (that is a a for all a in A). The poset of subgroups of the alternating group A5 .7. Other authors prefer to work with partial orders instead of strict partial orders.57) we see that R and R2 are isomorphic as vector spaces over Q. As a corollary of (1. > SubgroupLattice(AlternatingGroup(5)). and anti-symmetric (that is a b and b a implies a = b). Let A be a set. 1. namely its union. Partially ordered set of subgroup classes ---------------------------------------------[1] --[2] [3] [4] --[5] [6] [7] --[8] --[9] Order 1 Order 2 Order 3 Order 5 Order 4 Order 6 Order 10 Order 12 Length 1 Length 15 Length 10 Length 6 Length 5 Length 10 Length 6 Length 5 Maximal Subgroups: Maximal Subgroups: 1 Maximal Subgroups: 1 Maximal Subgroups: 1 Maximal Subgroups: 2 Maximal Subgroups: 2 3 Maximal Subgroups: 2 4 Maximal Subgroups: 3 5 Order 60 Length 1 Maximal Subgroups: 6 7 8 Table 1. Apply Zorn’s lemma to the poset of proper ideals. transitive (that is a b and b c implies a c).59.

.

CHAPTER 2

Topological spaces and continuous maps
1. Topological spaces What does it mean that a map f : X → Y between two sets is continuous? To answer this question, and much more, we equip sets with topologies. 2.1. Definition. Let X be a set. A topology on X is a set T ⊂ P(X) of subsets of X, called open sets, such that (1) ∅ and X are open (2) The intersection of finitely many open sets is open (3) Any union of open sets is open A topological space is a set X together with a topology T on X. 2.2. Example (Examples of topologies). (1) In the trivial topology T = {∅, X}, only two subsets are open. (2) In the discrete topology T = P(X), all subsets are open. (3) In the particular point topology, the open sets are ∅, X and all subsets containing a particular point x ∈ X. For instance, the Sierpinski space is the set X = {0, 1} with the particular point topology for the point 0. The open sets are T = {∅, {0}, X}. (4) In the finite complement topology (or cofinite topology), the open sets are ∅ and X and all subsets with a finite complement. (5) The standard topology on the real line R is T = {unions of open intervals}. (6) More generally, suppose that (X, d) is a metric space. The open r-ball centered at x ∈ X is the set Bd (x, r) = {y ∈ X | d(x, y) < r} of points within distance r > 0 from x. The metric topology on X is the collection Td = {unions of open balls}. The open sets of the topological space (X, Td ) and the open sets in the metric space (X, d) are the same. (See §.8 for more on metric topologies.) The Sierpinski topology and the finite complement topology on an infinite set are not metric topologies. Topologies on X are partially ordered by inclusion. For instance, the finite complement topology (2.2.(4)) on R is contained in the standard topology (2.2.(5), and the indiscrete topology (2.2.(1)) on {0, 1} is contained in the Sierpinski topology (2.2.(3)) is contained in the discrete topology (2.2.(2)). 2.3. Definition (Comparison of topologies). Let T and T be two topologies on X. T is finer than T T is coarser than T ⇐⇒ T ⊃ T
def

The finest topology is the topology with the most opens sets, the coarsest topology is the one with fewest open sets. (Think of sandpaper!) The discrete topology is finer and the indiscrete topology coarser than any other topology: P(X) ⊃ T ⊃ {∅, X}. Of course, two topologies may also be incomparable. 2.4. Definition. A neighborhood of a point x ∈ X is an open set containing x. A neighborhood of a set A ⊂ X is an open set containing A. 2.5. Subbasis and basis for a topology. In a metric topology (2.2.(6)) the open sets are unions of balls. This is a special case of a topology basis. Remember that, in a metric topology, any point is contained in an open ball and the intersection of two open balls is a union of open balls. 2.6. Definition (Basis and subbasis). A topology basis is a set B ⊂ P(X) of subsets of X, called basis sets, such that (1) Any point of X lies in a basis set, ie X = B. (2) The intersection of any two basis sets is a union of basis sets. A topology subbasis is a set S ⊂ P(X) of subsets of X, called subbasis sets, such that
23

24

2. TOPOLOGICAL SPACES AND CONTINUOUS MAPS

(1) Any point of X lies in a subasis set, ie X = If B is a topology basis then the set of subsets of X

S

TB = {unions of basis sets} is called the topology generated by B. Note that TB is a topology, the coarsests topology in which the basis sets are open. If S is a topology subbasis then the set of subsets of X TS = {unions of finite intersections of subbasis sets} is called the topology generated by S. Note that TS is a topology, the coarsests topology in which the subbasis sets are open. (Use the distributive laws [§1] for ∪ and ∩.) The set (2.7) BS = {Finite intersections of S-sets} is a topology basis generating the same topology as the subbasis: TBS = TS . A topology is a topology basis is a topology subbasis. Given a topology T and a topology basis B, we say that B a basis for T if B generates T , ie TB = T . Given a topology T and a topology subbasis S, we say that S a subbasis for T if S generates T , ie TS = T . 2.8. Proposition (Finding a (sub)basis for a given topology). The topology basis B is a basis for the topology T if and only if (1) the basis sets are open, and, (2) all open sets are unions of basis sets The subbasis S is a subbasis for the topology T if and only if (1) the subbasis sets are open, and, (2) all open sets are unions of finite intersections of subbasis sets 2.9. Example. (1) The set of all open rays S = {(−∞, b) | b ∈ R} ∪ {(a, +∞) | a ∈ R} is a subbasis and the set B = {(a, b) | a, b ∈ R, a < b} of all open intervals is a basis for the standard topology on R (2.2.(5)). (2) The set of all open balls is a basis for the metric topology on a metric space (2.2.(6)). How can we compare topologies given by bases? How can we tell if two bases, or a subbasis and a basis, generate the same topology? (Two topologies, bases or subbases are said to be equivalent if they generate the same topology.) 2.10. Lemma (Comparison). Let B and B be two bases and S a subbasis. (1) TB ⊂ TB ⇐⇒ B ⊂ TB ⇐⇒ All B-sets are open in TB (2) All B-sets are open in TB TB = TB ⇐⇒ All B -sets are open in TB (3) TB = TS ⇐⇒ All B-sets are open in TS All S-sets are open in TB

Proof. (1) is obvious since TB is the coarsest topology containing B. Item (2) is immediate from (1). Item (3) is proved in the same way since TB = TS iff TB ⊂ TS and TB ⊃ TS iff B ⊂ TS and TB ⊃ S. 2.11. Example. [Topologies on R] We consider three topologies on R: R: The standard topology with basis the open intervals (a, b). R : The right half-open interval topology with basis the right half-open intervals [a, b). 1 1 RK : The K-topology with basis {(a, b)} ∪ {(a, b) − K} where K = {1, 2 , 1 , 4 , . . .}. 3 The right half-open interval topology is strictly finer than the standard topology because any open interval is a union of half-open intervals but not conversely (2.10) ((a, b) = a<x<b [x, b), and [0, 1) is open in R but not in R; an open interval containing 0 is not a subset of [0, 1)). The K-topology is strictly finer than the standard topology because its basis contains the standard basis and R − K is open in RK but not in R (an open interval containing 0 is not a subset of R − K). The topologies R and RK are not comparable [Ex 13.6].

3. THE PRODUCT TOPOLOGY

25

2.12. Example. (1) In a metric space, the set B = {B(x, r) | x ∈ X, r > 0} of open balls is (by 1 definition) a basis for the metric topology Td . The collection of open balls of radius n , n ∈ Z+ , is an equivalent topology basis for Td . (2) The collection of rectangular regions (a1 , b1 )×(a2 , b2 ) in the plane R2 is a topology basis equivalent to the standard basis of open balls B(a, r) = {x ∈ R2 | |x − a| < r}. you can always put a ball inside a rectangle and a rectangle inside a ball. (3) Let f : X → Y be any map. If T is a topology on Y with basis B or subbasis S , then the pull-back f −1 (T ) is a topology, the initial topology for f , on X with basis f −1 (B) and subbasis f −1 (S). (4) More generally, let X be a set, {Yj } a collection of topological spaces, and fj : X → Yj , j ∈ J, a set −1 of maps. Let Tj be the topology on Yj , Bj a basis and Sj a subbasis for all j ∈ J. Then fj (Tj ), −1 −1 fj (Bj ), fj (Sj ) are equivalent subbases on X. The topology they generate is called the initial topology for the maps fj , j ∈ J. 2. Order topologies We associate a topological space to any linearly ordered set and obtain a large supply of examples of topological spaces. You may view the topological space as a means to study the ordered set, to find invariants, or you may view this construction as a provider of interesting examples of topological spaces. Let (X, <) be a linearly ordered set containing at least two points. The open rays in X are the subsets (−∞, b) = {x ∈ X | x < b}, (a, +∞) = {x ∈ X | a < x} of X. The set S< of all open rays is clearly a subbasis (2.8) for a topology on X (just as in 2.9). 2.13. Definition. The order topology T< on the linearly ordered set X is the topology generated by all open rays. A linearly ordered space is a linearly ordered set with the order topology. The open intervals in X are the subsets of the form (a, b) = (−∞, b) ∩ (a, +∞) = {x ∈ X | a < x < b}, a, b ∈ X, a < b.

2.14. Lemma (Basis for the order topology). Let (X, <) be a linearly ordered set. (1) The union of all open rays and all open intervals is a basis for the order topology T< . (2) If X has no smallest and no largest element, then the set {(a, b) | a, b ∈ X, a < b} of all open intervals is a basis for the order topology. Proof. We noted in (2.7) that BS< = {Finite intersections of S-sets} = S ∪ {(a, b) | a, b ∈ X, a < b} is a basis for the topology generated by the subbasis S< . If X has a smallest element a0 then (−∞, b) = [a0 , b) is open. If X has no smallest element, then the open ray (−∞, b) = a<c (a, c) is a union of open intervals and we do not need this open ray in the basis. Similar remarks apply to the greatest element when it exists. 2.15. Example. (1) The order topology on the ordered set (R, <) is the standard topology (2.9). (2) The order topology on the ordered set R2 has as basis the collection of all open intervals (a1 × a2 , b1 × b2 ). An equivalent basis (2.10) consists of the open intervals (a × b1 , a × b2 ). The order topology R2 is strictly finer than the metric topology R2 . < d (3) The order topology on Z+ is the discrete topology because (−∞, n) ∩ (∞, n + 1) = {n} is open. (4) The order topology on Z+ × Z+ is not discrete. Any open set that contains the element 2 × 1 also contains elements from {1} × Z+ . Thus the set {1 × 2} is not open. (5) The order topology on Z × Z is discrete. (6) Is the order topology on SΩ discrete? 2 (7) I 2 = [0, 1]2 with the order topology is denoted Io and called the ordered square. The open sets 2 containing the point x × y ∈ Io look quite different depending on whether y ∈ {0, 1} or 0 < y < 1. 3. The product topology Let (Xj )j∈J be an indexed family of topological spaces. Let πk : map. An open cylinder is a subset of the product space of the form
−1 πk (Uk ), −1 πk (Uk ) j∈J

Xj → Xk be the projection

Uk ⊂ Xk open,

k ∈ J.

−1 The set consists of the points (xj ) ∈ Xj with kth coordinate in Uk . Alternatively, πk (Uk ) consists of all choice functions c : J → j∈J Uj such that c(k) ∈ Uk (Figure 2).

equivalently.14. <) are linearly ordered sets.10. +∞) = {a} × (b. Let X = X1 × X2 × · · · Xk be a finite Cartesian product. Corollary. with basis (2. (X. Proof. This means that U⊂ Xj is open ⇐⇒ ι−1 (U ) is open for all j ∈ J j j∈J Alternatively. 2.20. 2. closed closed It is immediate that T⊂ is indeed a topology. Then the order topology (X × Y )< = Xd × Y< where Xd is X with the discrete topology. Let (X. see 2. <) and (Y.(4)–(5)).16. and the order topology of the product dictionary order. .15. A open open subset V ⊂ Y is relative to Y if it is in T⊂ . 4. On the other hand. The subspace topology on Y is the topology T⊂ = Y ∩ T = {Y ∩ U | U ∈ T }. 2. we now have two topologies on the Cartesian product X × Y : The product topology of the order topologies. Then B1 ×· · ·×Bk is a basis for the product topology on X1 × · · · × Xk .15. the order topology (R × R. b). T< ) which is the standard topology. Compare it to the basis of 2. Products of linearly ordered spaces.21.22. T< ) (which is discrete) (2.(4). k. T< ) × (R. The coproduct topology.19. T ) be a topological space and Y ⊂ X a subset. The product topology is the coarsest topology making all the projection maps πj : continuous. The equations (−∞. .15. T< ). . On the other hand.18) and {x} × (c.(2). 2. Corollary (Cf [Ex 16. When (X. <) and (Y. Lemma. j ∈ J. Proof. T< ). It is difficult to imagine any general relation between them since X< × Y< is essentially symmetric in X and Y whereas the dictionary order has no such symmetry. As an example where this is not the case we have already seen 2 Z+ × Z+ and Io (2.17.26 2. . The subspace topology Let (X. T< ) is coarser than the product topology (Z+ . j = 1. a × b) = {x} × Y ∪ {a} × (−∞. d) is a basis for = Xd × Y< (2. T< ) × (Y. These two topologies are in general not identical or even comparable. d) = (x × c.18. We make Y into a topological space. Suppose that Y does not have a largest or a smallest element. . 2.9]. The corollary shows that the order topology on X × Y does not yield anything new in case the second factor is unbounded in both directions.(1)–(2) and [Ex 16. Definition.15.9]).(7)). (X × Y.3) is the finest topology making all the inclusion maps ιj : Xj → Xj . Note that B1 × · · · × Bk is indeed a basis.7) BQ = { j∈J Uj | Uj ⊂ Xj open and Uj = Xj for all but finitely many j ∈ J} Xj → Xj . <) be two linearly ordered sets. x × d) is open in the order topology since it is an open interval. 2.17 using 2. This becomes particularly simple when we consider finite products. . . . T< ) is finer than the product topology (R. 2. 2. the open sets of the coproduct Xj are the coproducts Uj of open set Uj ⊂ Xj . +∞) ∪ {x} × Y x>a show that the order topology is coarser than the product of the discrete and the order topology. The collection B = {U1 × U2 × · · · × Uk | U1 open in X1 . continuous. Suppose that Bj is a basis for the topology on Xj . x<a (a × b. TOPOLOGICAL SPACES AND CONTINUOUS MAPS 2. Uk open in Xk } of all products of open sets is a basis for the product topology. But even when X = Y there does not seem to be a general pattern: The order topology (Z+ ×Z+ . The coproduct topology on the coproduct Xj (Chapter 1. the sets {x} × (c. . T< )×(Z+ . The product topology on SQ = j∈J j∈J Xj is the topology with subbasis −1 {πj (Uj ) | Uj ⊂ Xj open} consisting of all open cylinders or. This topology is finer than X< × Y< . U2 open in X2 . j ∈ J. Definition.

2] Uk ⊂ Xk open −1 −1 πk (Yk ) ∩ πk (Uk ) = ( −1 Yj ) ∩ πk (Uk ). if Y is closed. This is 2. Similarly. If b is a lower bound for Y . <) is a linearly ordered set and Y ⊂ X a subset we now have two topologies on Y . S< ⊂ S⊂ .12. Example. 2. 1]. Then A open in Y ⇐⇒ A = Y ∩ U for some open U ⊂ X ⇐⇒ A open in X in that A = A ∩ Y . ∞) | a ∈ Y } and the subspace topology on Y has subbasis S⊂ = {Y ∩ (−∞. −1 {πk (Uk )} = Uk ⊂ Xk open. The subspace topology that product topology of the subspace topologies on Yj .(3) applied to the inclusion map A → X. Subspaces of linearly ordered spaces. Lemma. and if b is an upper bound for Y . The order topology on Y is coarser than the subspace topology Y in general.26. Theorem. The next theorem says that the subspace and the product space operations commute. See 2. Note that these two topologies are not the same when X = R and Y = [0. b) | b ∈ X} ∪ {Y ∩ (a. Lemma.28. 2 × 1] is a convex subset of Z+ × Z+ . 2.25. −1 These two subbases are identical for πk (Yk ∩ Uk ) = 2. Assume that A ⊂ Y ⊂ X. Proof. The point is that • Any open ray in Y is the intersection of Y with an open ray in X • The intersection of Y with an open ray in X need not be an open ray in Y However. 1) ∪ {2} ⊂ R: In the subspace topology {2} is open in Y but {2} is not open in the order topology because Y has the order type of [0. if Y happens to be convex then open rays in Y are precisely Y intersected with open rays in X. Proof. THE SUBSPACE TOPOLOGY 27 2. . Let Yj ⊂ Xj . then Y ∩ S = {Y ∩ U | U ∈ S} is a subbasis for the subspace topology Y ∩T. If Y is convex and b ∈ X − Y then b is either a lower or an upper bound for Y as we cannot have y1 < b < y2 for two points y1 and y2 of Y . 2. When (X. then Y ∩ (−∞.24. Therefore also S⊂ ⊂ T< so that in fact T< = T⊂ . The order topology on Y has subbasis S< = {Y ∩ (−∞. If Y is convex. [8. <) be a linearly ordered set and Y ⊂ X a subset. (1) This is the definition of the subspace topology. ∞) | a ∈ X} Clearly. then Y ∩ B = {Y ∩ U | U ∈ B} is a basis for the subspace topology Y ∩ T . j ∈ J. Yj has subbasis SQ Yj = k∈J −1 {πk (Yk ∩ Uk )}.27. b) = Y . If B is a basis for T . b) | b ∈ Y } ∪ {Y ∩ (a. Ex 2. The subspace topology (2. the two topologies on Y are identical. so the order topology on Y is coarser than the subspace topology in general.4. (1) S 2×1 = 1 × Z+ ∪ {2 × 1} = [1 × 1. (2) Suppose that Y is open and that A ⊂ Y . b) = ∅. Lemma (Y< ⊂ Y ∩ X< ).28 for more examples. Then open open (1) A is in Y ⇐⇒ A = Y ∩ U for some set U in X closed closed open open open (2) If Y is then: A is in Y ⇐⇒ A is in X closed closed closed Proof. Let (X. The lemma says that an open subset of an open subset is open and that a closed subset of a closed subset is closed. The subspace topology on Yj ∩ SQ Xj = and the product topology on Yj ∩ k∈j Yj inherits from Xj is the Yj has subbasis { k∈J −1 Yj ∩ πk (Uk )}.15.23. Proof. We can view Y as a subspace of the topological space X< with the order topology or we can view Y as a sub-ordered set of X and give Y the order topology. If S is a subbasis for T . 2.(4)) is the same as the order topology. then Y ∩ (−∞.

(7)): The set 1 1 [0. 2 2 (4) Consider X = R and Y = (0. 1] = ([0. ] × [0. the reason seems to be that Q does not have a greatest nor a smallest element.15. is strictly finer than Io (2.14) containing 2 × 1 also contains points with first coordinate > 1 . the subspace topology on [0. But it isn’t! The reason is that (0. Again. 1) does not have a greatest nor a smallest element (2. TOPOLOGICAL SPACES AND CONTINUOUS MAPS (2) The subset Z+ × Z+ is not convex in Z × Z so we expect the subspace topology to be strictly finer than the order topology. 1]2 with order topologies. Y is not convex so we expect the subspace topology to be strictly finer than the order topology. 1)2 with order topologies.(4)–(5)). Y is not convex so we expect the subspace topology to be strictly finer than the order topology. 1]d × [0. 1] × [0. Indeed. the subspace topology that Z+ × Z+ inherits from the discrete space Z × Z is discrete but the order topology is not discrete (2. . (5) The subset Q of the linearly ordered set R is not convex but nevertheless the subspace topology inherited from R is the order topology.20). 1]. 1]2 . Indeed. (3) Consider X = R2 and Y = [0. × 2) 2 2 is open in the subspace topology on Y but it is not open in the order topology on Y as any basis open 1 set (2.15. which 2 is [0.28 2. 1]) ∩ (−∞.

1 (3) K = {1. and A is open iff A◦ = A (7) A is closed. Closure. 1] ∪ (2. (Here. (5) Let X be a well-ordered set (§6). b] = (∞.33. 1] and (2. Sets of the form (a. b] or [a. . and V (Si ) = V ( Si ).} is not closed in R but it is closed in RK (2. Cl A = and the boundary of A is ∂A = A − A◦ . the closure of A is the intersection of all closed sets containing A. ∞). and [a. The zero ideal is a prime ideal if R is a domain. All sets that are (open) closed in the standard topology R are also (open) closed in the finer topology R . V (S1 ) ∪ V (S2 ) = V (S1 S2 ). ∞) are open (since they are open in standard topology) and not closed. ∞) = [a+ . (We adopt the convention that R itself is not a prime ideal.) For any subset S of R let V (S) = {a ∈ Spec(R) | a ⊃ S} be the set of prime ideals containing S. Thus the closed sets are intersections of the closed sets V (r) = {a ∈ Spec(R) | a r}. (1) [a. and boundary. 0 = n ∈ Z. 1 . b] are neither open nor closed. ∞) ∩ (−∞. We consider the largest open set contained in A and the smallest closed set containing A. Definition. b] is closed in R.30. are the closed sets for a topology. b] are closed and open. ∞) and (a. [a.5. b) is neither closed nor open. 3) of X are both closed and open (they are clopen) as subsets of X. Sets of the form (−∞.11). (A ∪ B)◦ ⊃ A◦ ∪ B ◦ . b+ denotes b if b is the largest element and the immediate successor of b if b is not the largest element.2. Lemma. 2. a) = R − [a. interior. 2. Conversely. it is the largest open set contained in A. it is the smallest closed set containing A. The closed sets of Spec(C[X]) = {(0)} ∪ {(X − a) | a ∈ C} are intersections of the closed sets V (0) = Spec(Z) and V (P ) = {a ∈ C | P (a) = 0} consisting of the roots of the complex polynomial 0 = P ∈ C[X]. consisting of the prime divisors of n. 3). x) = R − (−∞. b] are closed (since they are closed in the standard topology) and not open since they are not unions of basis sets. b] = (a. Then (1) x ∈ A◦ ⇐⇒ There exists a neighborhood U of x such that U ⊂ A (2) X − A = (X − A)◦ and X − A◦ = X − A (3) x ∈ A ⇐⇒ U ∩ A = ∅ for all neighborhoods U of x (4) x ∈ ∂A ⇐⇒ U ∩ A = ∅ and U ∩ (X − A) = ∅ for all neighborhoods U of x (5) A◦ ⊂ A ⊂ A (6) A◦ is open. The Zariski topology on Spec(R) is the topology where the closed sets are the sets V (S) for S ⊂ R. and A is closed iff A = A (8) (A ∩ B)◦ = A◦ ∩ B ◦ .34. ∞) = a<x [a. 3 (4) R is (2. The subsets [0. . (2) Let X = [0. Int A ⊂ Int B (9) A ⊂ B =⇒ Cl A ⊂ Cl B {C ⊃ A | C closed} = A. Sets of the form (a. Let A.) (6) Let R be a ring and Spec(R) the set of prime ideals of R. Closed sets and limit points 2. A ∪ B = A ∪ B. Example. b+ ) = X − (b. b) ∩ [a. any set of subsets of X with these properties. 2.31.32. A subset of a topological space is closed if its complement is open. CLOSED SETS AND LIMIT POINTS 29 5. ∞) = X − (−∞.29. (−∞. A ∩ B ⊂ A ∩ B. 2. sets of the form (a. 2. Int A = {U ⊂ A | U open} = A◦ . The subspace topology on C ⊂ Spec(C[X]) is the finite complement topology (2. . . a]. Proposition (Properties of interior and closure). B ⊂ X and let x ∈ X. Spec(R) = V (0). [a. r ∈ R. ∞). The closed subsets of a topological space X have these properties: (1) ∅ and X are closed (2) The union of finitely many closed sets is closed (3) Any intersection of closed sets is closed.11) the set of real numbers equipped with the topology generated by the basis sets [a. The interior of A is the union of all open sets contained in A. Then ∅ = V (1). b) = (−∞. In the order topology (§2). a) are both open and closed. The closed sets of Spec(Z) = {0} ∪ {p | p > 0 is prime} are intersections of the closed sets V (0) = Spec(Z) and V (n) = {p | p|n}. R is both closed and open. b) of right half-open intervals. Sets of the form (−∞. 2 . a) = x<a [x. Definition.(4)).

1. The third assertion is just a reformulation of the first one. x ∈ A ⇐⇒ x ∈ X − A ⇐⇒ x ∈ (X − A)◦ ⇐⇒ x has a neighborhood disjoint from A. Definition. isolated points). if every open subset of X contains a point of A. Proof. Proposition. or. equivalently. (3) If Y is closed. also A ⊂ Y so that ClY (A) = Y ∩ A = A. Let A be a subset of X and A the set of limit points of A. (2) The set ClY (A) is the intersection of all relatively closed sets containing A. But this says that x is in the closure of A ∩ U . 1The set of limit points of A is sometimes denotes Ad and called the derived set of A .30 2. since X − A = (X − A)◦ . 1) ⊂ [0. Let A be a dense and U an open subset of X. Definition (Limit points. 2. These two sets are equal if Y is open but they are distinct in general (consider A = [0. Equivalently. Then A ∩ U = U . A subset A ⊂ X is said to be dense if A = X. C closed} = Y ∩ A by a direct computation. Y ∩ Int(A) ⊂ IntY (A) for Y ∩ Int(A) is a relatively open set contained in A. The relatively closed sets are the sets of the form Y ∩ C where C is closed in X. Proposition (Closure with respect to subspace). (3) As Y is closed and A ⊂ Y .24. Let V be any neighborhood of x.36. Proof.40. TOPOLOGICAL SPACES AND CONTINUOUS MAPS (10) X = A◦ ∪ ∂A ∪ (X − A) is a disjoint union.39. A point x ∈ X is a limit point of A if U ∩(A−{x}) = ∅ for all neighborhoods U of x. 2. Limit points and isolated points. C closed} = Y ∩ {C | C ⊃ A. 2. consider a point x ∈ U . The second claim follows from: X −A=X − {C ⊃ A | C closed} = {X − C ⊂ X − A | X − C open} = {U ⊂ X − A | U open} = (X − A)◦ or one can simply say that X − A is the largest open subset of X − A since A is the smallest closed superset of A. and a ∈ A is an isolated point of A iff {a} is open in A. Let X be a topological space and A a subset of X. (1) This is 2. The set of limit points1 of A is denoted A . x ∈ X is a limit point of A iff x ∈ A − {x}. Proposition. The first assertion is clear as A◦ is the union of the open sets contained in A. The inclusion A ∩ U ⊂ U is general. This means that ClY (A) = {Y ∩ C | C ⊃ A.37. Proof. 2.38. Then V ∩ (A ∩ U ) = (V ∩ U ) ∩ A is not empty since V ∩ U is a neighborhood of x and A is dense. Then (1) A is closed in Y ⇐⇒ A = Y ∩ C for some closed set C in X (2) ClY (A) = Y ∩ A. For the other inclusion. The remaining facts are easily proved. If A ⊂ Y ⊂ X.35. Let A ⊂ Y ⊂ X. then ClY (A) = A. A point a ∈ A is an isolated point if a has a neighborhood that intersects A only in {a}. 2. 1] = Y ). These two concepts are almost each others opposite: x is not a limit point of A ⇐⇒ x has a neighborhood U such that U ∩ (A ∪ {x}) = {x} ⇐⇒ x is an isolated point of A ∪ {x} 2. Then A ∪ A = A and A ∩ A = {a ∈ A | a is not an isolated point of A} so that A ⊃ A ⇐⇒ A is closed A ⊂ A ⇐⇒ A has no isolated points A ∩ A = ∅ ⇐⇒ A is discrete A = ∅ ⇐⇒ A is closed and discrete If B ⊂ A then B ⊂ A .

b] = (−∞. n∈Z+ Cn = (R × {0}) ∪ n∈Z+ Cn The first set of decreasing circles (known as the Hawaiian Earring [8. CLOSED SETS AND LIMIT POINTS 31 Proof. Example. Cl Int Q = ∅. n ∈ Z+ . in particular. Convergence. (2) Let Cr ⊂ R2 be the circle with center (0. Therefore the closure of an interval of the form [a. 0. Cofinite topologies are T1 by construction and not T2 when the space has infinitely many points. A − A = {x ∈ X − A | all neighborhoods of x meet A} ⊂ A ⊂ A.46. 2. b) = [a. Otherwise. 3. · · · converges to any 1 point.45. (1) Q = R = R − Q (R − Q contains (Q − {0}) 2). Theorem.2. If A ∩ A = ∅ then all all points of A are isolated so that the subspace A has the discrete topology. Hausdorffness is hereditary and also passes to product spaces. In RK . is the set of non-isolated points of A.2. b]. b]. be a sequence of points in X. 2. 1 (3) The set of limit points of K = { n | n ∈ Z+ } is {0} in R and R and ∅ in RK .(6)). Let xn . Suppose that X is T1 . Let A be a subset of and x a point in X.5. 17. Then x is a limit point ⇐⇒ All neighborhoods of x intersect A in infinitely many points . 2. · · · converges to 0 and to 1. b− ] is closed so that [a. Ω] (1. Int Cl Q = R. b]. In the Sierpinski space X = {0. All Hausdorff spaces are T1 . the sequence n does not converge. r) and radius r > 0. This shows that A ∪ A = A. We have A = ∅ ⇐⇒ A ⊃ A . Theorem. The sequence xn converges to the point x ∈ X if for any neighborhood U of x there exists some N such that xn ∈ U for all n > N .41. the sequence 0. All linearly ordered [Ex 17.(4)). If a sequence converges in some topology on X it also converges in any coarser topology but not necessarily in a finer topology.48. b). Any product of Hausdorff spaces is Hausdorff. Exmp 1 p 436]) is closed because it is also the intersection of a collection (which collection?) of closed sets. b) = [a. ie a map Z+ → X.44. b] are closed because their complements X − [a. the sequence n converges to ω (and to no other point). 2. Closed intervals [a. 2. b) or [a. √ 2. A property of a topological space is said to be (weakly) hereditary if any (closed) subspace of a space with the property also has the property. Can you find a sequence in the ordered space [0. so that A = A ∪ (A − A) ⊂ A ∪ A .12] Any subset of a Hausdorff space is Hausdorff. but does not converge in R . such that x1 ∈ U1 and x2 ∈ U2 . Then C1/n = n∈Z+ n∈Z+ C1/n . X is T1 iff all finite subsets are closed. b) is either [a. Example. A ∩ A = ∅ ⇐⇒ A is closed and discrete. [Ex 17.43. A sequence in a Hausdorff space can not converge to two distinct points. R and RK are Hausdorff because the topologies are finer than the standard Hausdorff topology R. is not empty. b) ∩ (c. U1 and U2 . Definition (Separation Axioms). the sequence 1. A topological space X is a T2 -space (or a Hausdorff space) if there are enough open sets to separate points: For any two distinct points x1 = x2 in X there exist disjoint open sets. b] for some c < b and [a.10] or metric spaces are Hausdorff. b) = [a. a) ∪ (b. A ∩ A = A − (A − A ). Particular point topologies are not T1 (on spaces with more than one point). ω] = Z+ {ω} (1. and that all points in the closure of A that are not in A are limit points.42. the Hausdorff property.52) that converges to Ω? 2. In the ordered space [1. If b has an immediate predecessor b− then [a. b] because any neighborhood of b contains an interval of the form (c. 2. Theorem (Hereditary properties of Hausdorff spaces). In R with the finite complement topology (2. A topological space is T1 -space if points are closed: For any two distinct points x1 = x2 in X there exists an open set U such that x1 ∈ U and x2 ∈ U . It is clear that all limit points of A are in A. From the above discussion we have that the set of limit points in A. b] or (c. 1 The sequence − n converges to 0 in R and RK . which equals [a. 1} (2.49.47.13). so that A ∪ A ⊂ A. in R and R it converges to 0 (and to no other point). 2. ∞) are open.11. [a. and the T1 -axiom.(3)). (4) Let X be a linearly ordered space (2. Definition. R is Hausdorff.

2.31.(4))). but not continuous RK → RK (K is closed in RK but f −1 (K) is not closed (2. Continuous functions Let f : X → Y be a map between two topological spaces. b) is closed and open in R (2.31.32 2. =⇒: Assume that x is a limit point and let U be a neighborhood of x. A ⊂ f −1 (f (A)) ⊂ f −1 (f (A)) (3) =⇒ (6): =⇒ A ⊂ f −1 (f (A)) ⇐⇒ f (A) ⊂ f (A). b) and value 0 outside [a. (5) The function f (x) = −x is continuous R → R. clearly. (3) If X and Y have the particular point topologies (2. (6) Since [a.(6)). The finer the topology in Y and the coarser the topology in X are.2. Remove this point from U .44)) and not continuous R → R ([0.(4)) the map 1[a. δ) ⊂ B(f (x). 6.31. (3) ⇐⇒ (5): Similar to (2) ⇐⇒ (4). TOPOLOGICAL SPACES AND CONTINUOUS MAPS Proof. then.52. Theorem.b) : R → {0.(2)) or Y has the trivial topology (2.51. Example (Examples of continuous maps). and (3) are equivalent. ∞) is open in R but f −1 ([0. Since points are closed.(4)) then f : X → Y is continuous if and only if f has finite fibres. (1) The identity function is continuous. Then U contains a point a1 of A different from x. Theorem. with value 1 on [a.(3)) then f : X → Y is continuous if and only if f preserves the particular points. ε). 1}. . Proof. (1) If X and Y and Y have metric topologies (2. ⇐=: If all neighborhoods of x intersect A in infinitely many points.(1)) then any map f : X → Y is continuous.2. (7) Any ring homomorphism R → S induces a map Spec(S) → Spec(R) taking any prime ideal x ⊂ S to the prime ideal f −1 x ⊂ R.49. In this way we recursively find a whole sequence of distinct points in U ∩ A.53. 0] is not open (2. is continuous. The map f : X → Y is continuous if all open subsets of Y have open preimages in X: V open in Y =⇒ f −1 (V ) open in X If TX is the topology on X and TY is the topology on Y then (2. Definition. f −1 (B ◦ ) open (4) =⇒ (2): Let B be any open set in Y .50) f is continuous ⇐⇒ f −1 (TY ) ⊂ TX ⇐⇒ f −1 (BY ) ⊂ TX ⇐⇒ f −1 (SY ) ⊂ TX where BY is a basis and SY a subbasis for TY . U − {a1 } is a new neighborhood of x.(1). The following are equivalent: (1) f is continuous (2) The preimage of any open set in Y is open in X: V open in Y =⇒ f −1 (V ) open in X (3) The preimage of any closed set in Y is closed in X: C closed in Y =⇒ f −1 (C) closed in X (4) f −1 (B ◦ ) ⊂ (f −1 (B))◦ for any B ⊂ Y (5) f −1 (B) ⊂ f −1 (B) for any B ⊂ Y (6) f (A) ⊂ f (A) for any A ⊂ X (7) For any point x ∈ X and any neighborhood V ⊂ Y of f (x) there is a neighborhood U ⊂ X of x such that f (U ) ⊂ V . f −1 (B ◦ ) ⊂ f −1 (B) (2) =⇒ (4): =⇒ f −1 (B ◦ ) ⊂ (f −1 (B))◦ . (4) If X and Y have finite complement topologies (2. they also intersect A in a point that is not x.2.(6)) then f : X → Y is continuous if and only if for all x ∈ X and all ε > 0 there is a δ > 0 so that f B(x. Then f −1 (B) = f −1 (B ◦ ) ⊂ (f −1 (B))◦ ⊂ f −1 (B) so f −1 (B) is open since it equals its own interior. This new neighborhood of x contains a point a2 of A different from x and a1 . 2. b). the more difficult is it for f : X → Y to be continuous. f −1 (f (A)) is closed (6) =⇒ (5): f (f −1 (B)) ⊂ f (f −1 (B)) (6) f (f −1 (B))⊂B B=B ◦ (4) ⊂ B 2. 2. 2. Let f : X → Y be a map between two topological spaces. It is easy to see that (7). (2) The composition of two continuous functions is continuous. This map is continuous because it takes Zariski closed set to Zariski closed sets (2.(2).2. ∞)) = (−∞. (2) If X has the discrete topology (2.

64 below. One of the central problems in topology is to decide if two given spaces are homeomorphic. m.57. A bijection f : X → Y induces a bijection between subsets of X and subsets of Y . Choose a neighborhood U of a and finitely many sets B1 .54. let us consider the case where B is a locally finite closed covering (or just a closed covering so that any point in X has a neighborhood that is contained in a finite union of sets from B.55. . Most of these observations are easy to check. m for otherwise we just replace U by U − Bi . Now U ∩ U1 ∩ · · · ∩ Um is an open neighborhood of a and U ∩ U1 ∩ · · · ∩ Um ⊂ (B1 ∪ · · · ∪ Bm ) ∩ (U1 ∩ · · · ∩ Um ) ⊂ (B1 ∩ U1 ) ∪ · · · ∪ (Bm ∩ Um ) ⊂ A This shows that A is open. and f : X → Y an injective map.50) f . The embedding topology on X (for the map f ) is the collection f −1 (TY ) = {f −1 (V ) | V ⊂ Y open} of subsets of X. Proof. . . Let X be a set. . The embedding topology is the coarsest topology on X such that f : X → Y is continuous. We now extend the subspace topology (2.6. . Proof. 2. The =⇒-part of (4) uses 2. Let a be a point in A. . The subspace topology for A ⊂ X is the embedding topology for the inclusion map A → X. . Homeomorphisms and embeddings. and f : X → Y a map taking values in B.22) to a slightly more general situation. Proposition (Characterization of the embedding topology). and it is a homeomorphism if and only if this bijection restricts to a bijection Open (or closed) subsets of X o f U →f (U ) −1 / Open (or closed) subsets of Y (V )←V between open (or closed) subsets of X and open (or closed) subsets of Y . CONTINUOUS FUNCTIONS 33 (3) Let B be a subspace of Y . Then f : X → Y is continuous =⇒ f |A : A → Y is continuous f : X → Y is continuous ⇐⇒ B|f : X → B is continuous (4) Let fj : Xj → Yj . 2. A bijective continuous map f : X → Y is a homeomorphism if its inverse is continuous. We claim that A is open. This is because A − X is continuous ⇐⇒ g −1 (TX ) ⊂ TA ⇐⇒ g −1 (f −1 TY ) ⊂ TA ⇐⇒ → (f g)−1 (TY ) ⊂ TA ⇐⇒ A − X − Y is continuous → → by definition of the embedding topology. 2. Then fj : Xj → Yj is continuous ⇐⇒ fj : Xj → Yj is continuous for all j ∈ J (restriction) (corestriction) (5) (Glueing lemma) Let B be a covering of X. (2) for any map A → X into X. Suppose either that X is covered by the interiors of the sets in B or that B is a locally finite closed covering. We may assume that a ∈ Bi for all i = 1. In (5). be an indexed set of maps. A → X is continuous ⇐⇒ A → X − Y is continuous → The embedding topology is the only topology on X with these two properties. . A a subspace of X. . . 2. Since A ∩ Bi is open in Bi there is an open set Ui such that A ∩ Bi = Ui ∩ Bi for all i = 1. (The covering B is locally finite if any point in X has a neighborhood that intersects only finitely many of the sets from B. Definition (Embedding topology). j ∈ J.) Then f |B : B → Y is continuous for all B in B =⇒ f : X → Y is continuous for any map f : X → Y . g f g (2. . Then (1) X → Y is continuous and.56. . The identity map of X is a homeomorphism whenever X is equipped with a topology with these two properties. Suppose that X has the embedding topology for the map f : X → Y . Bm ∈ B such that a ∈ U ⊂ B1 ∪ · · · ∪ Bm . Y a topological space. Suppose that A ∩ B is open in B for all B ∈ B. Definition (Homeomorphism).

1 (6) The spaces [1 × 1. (1) The map f (x) = 3x + 1 is a homeomorphism R → R. (8) Rn embeds into S n via stereographic projection. are equivalent if there exists a homeomorphism h of R3 such that h(K0 ) = K1 . Any injective map f : X → Y induces a bijection between subsets of X and subsets of f (X). But (g ◦ f )−1 = f −1 g −1 W where g −1 W is open in Y since g is continuous. (2) for any map f : X → j∈J Yj into the product space we have X− → j∈J f Yj the product topology. Lemma. see (3. 2. the injective map f : X → Y is an embedding if and only if the bijective corestriction f (X)|f : X → f (X) is a homeomorphism. the codomain has no isolated points). use that an embedding is a homeomorphism followed by an inclusion map. K0 : S 1 → R3 and K1 : S 1 → R3 . and it is an embedding if and only if this bijection restricts to a bijection (2. Two knots. 2. f (x)) is an embedding. . 1 ) is not open in S 1 . Since g ◦ f is an embedding. To prove he second implication. Give (1) the projections πj : Yj → Yj are continuous.25) for a generalization. The inclusion A → X of a subspace is an embedding. An injective continuous map f : X → Y is an embedding if the topology on X is the embedding topology for f .61. Let U ⊂ X be open.34 2. 2 (4) Find an example of an injective continuous map R → R2 that is not an embedding.59) Open (or closed) subsets of X o U →f (U ) f −1 (V )←V / Open (or closed) subsets of f (X) between open (or closed) subsets of X and open (or closed) subsets of f (X). Any open (closed) continuous injective map is an embedding. 2. Definition (Embedding). For any continuous map f : X → Y . The image of the open set [0. Theorem (Characterization of the product topology).41. (9) R2 embeds in R3 . In case of homeomorphisms there is a continuous inverse in both cases. If the maps fj : Xj → Yj are homeomorphisms (embeddings) then the product map fj : Xj → Yj is a homeomorphism (embedding).60. 2. and. Maps into products. Then Yj is continuous ⇐⇒ ∀j ∈ J : X − → j∈J f Yj − Yj is continuous → πj The product topology is the only topology on the product set with these two properties. The fundamental problem of knot theory [1] is to classify knots up to equivalence. Then f and g are embeddings =⇒ g ◦ f is an embedding =⇒ f is an embedding Proof.) (10) Are the spaces Cn and C1/n of 2. There is an easy test for when a map into a product space is continuous. Lemma (Composition of embeddings). Let X f /Y g / Z be continuous maps. (3) The map [0. TOPOLOGICAL SPACES AND CONTINUOUS MAPS 2. the map X → X × Y : x → (x. 2 × 1] ⊂ Z+ × Z+ and K = { n | n ∈ Z+ } ⊂ R are homeomorphic. In case of embeddings. t) is an embedding. Alternatively.(2) homeomorphic? (11) A knot is in embedding of S 1 in R3 (or S 3 ). note first that f is an injective continuous map. Example. This shows that f is an embedding.63. There does not exist any continuous surjection in the other direction. 1] is continuous but not a homeomorphism (the domain has an isolated point. ie TX = f −1 TY . (7) The map R → R × R : t → (t.64. Proof. (5) The obvious bijection [0.62. 1) → S 1 : t → (cos(2πt). (2) The identity map R → R is bijective and continuous but not a homeomorphism.58. If f : X → Y is a homeomorphism (embedding) then the corestriction of the restriction f (A)|f |A : A → f (A) (B|f |A : A → B) is a homeomorphism (embedding) for any subset A of X (and any subset B of Y containing f (A)). An embedding is a homeomorphism followed by an inclusion. sin(2πt)) is continuous and bijective but not a homemorphism. Does R3 imbed in R2 ? (See notes on algebraic topology for the answer. 2. 1) ∪ {2} → [0. U = (g ◦ f )−1 W for some open W ⊂ Z.

16) we have: (xj ) ∈ −1 Aj ⇐⇒ ∀k ∈ J : πk (Uk ) ∩ Aj = ∅ for all neighborhoods Uk of xk ⇐⇒ ∀k ∈ J : Uk ∩ Ak = ∅ for all neighborhoods Uk of xk ⇐⇒ ∀k ∈ J : xk ∈ Ak ⇐⇒ (xj ) ∈ (2) Aj ◦ Aj Aj ◦ ⊂ A◦ because πj is an open map (2. 2.16). Xj → Yj is continuous ⇐⇒ fj : Xj → Yj is continuous for all j ∈ J Let fj : Xj → Yj .) 2.57 is that in both cases we use an initial topology. 2. Then the identity map between these two copies is a homeomorphism.64 and 2.66. Suppose that J and K are sets and that (Xj )j∈J and (Yk )k∈K are indexed families of topological spaces.6. because A◦ is open and contained in j It follows that a product of closed sets is closed. Theorem. (1) (2) Aj = Aj . j Xj . Equip one copy with the product topology and the other copy with some topology that has the two properties of the theorem.68. ◦ Aj ⊂ A◦ and equality holds if Aj = Xj for all but finitely many j ∈ J. Let f : f: j∈J j∈J Xj → Y be a map out of a coproduct space. Let TX be the topology on X and Tj the topology on Yj . If j Aj = Xj for all but finitely many j ∈ J then Aj . be an indexed set of maps. Since SQ = j∈J −1 πj (Tj ) is a subbasis for the product topology Proof. Example.67. We now show that the product topology is the unique topology with these properties. Then there is a unique map between product spaces such that k∈K πg(j) Yk / j∈J Xj πj Yg(j)  fj  / Xj commutes and this map of product spaces is continuous by 2.50) −1 πj (Tj )) ⊂ TX ⇐⇒ j∈J −1 f −1 (πj (Tj )) ⊂ TX ⇐⇒ ∀j ∈ J : (πj ◦ f )−1 (Tj ) ⊂ TX ⇐⇒ ∀j ∈ J : πj ◦ f is continuous by definition of continuity (2. j ∈ J. (1) Let (xj ) be a point of on Xj (2. The reason for the great similarity between 2. Take two copies of the product set j∈J Xj .64. (Whereas a product of open sets need not be open in the product topology. Then j∈J Aj is a subspace of j∈J Xj .50). Therefore f: X → j∈J j∈J Yj is continuous ⇐⇒ f −1 ( j∈J (2. CONTINUOUS FUNCTIONS 35 −1 πj (Tj ) is a Proof. Then SQ = subbasis for the product topology on j∈J Yj (2. Theorem.71) so that πj j A◦ ⊂ j Aj ◦ ⊂ A◦ for all j ∈ J. Let (Xj )j∈J be an indexed family of topological spaces with subspaces Aj ⊂ Xj .65. 2. Then Xj → Y is continuous ⇐⇒ f ◦ ιj : Xj → Y is continuous for all j ∈ J j∈J where ιj : Xj → fj : Xj is the inclusion map. Given a map g : J → K between index sets and an indexed family of continuous maps (fj : Yg(j) → Xj )j∈J . Then . Maps out of coproducts.

2. TOPOLOGICAL SPACES AND CONTINUOUS MAPS 7.70. Let X be a topological space. The map f : X → Y is U open closed open closed if for all U ⊂ X we have: open closed in Y in X =⇒ f (U ) The restriction (2. A bijective continuous map that is open or closed is a homeomorphism. 2. Thus the product of two closed maps (the identity map of R and the constant map R → ∗) need not be closed. See Solution June 04 (Problem 1) and Solution Jan 05 (Problem 1).143 to see this. Open and closed maps. The implications U is open in A =⇒ U open in X =⇒ f (U ) open in Y =⇒ f (U ) open in f (A) show that f |A : A → f (A) is open. (Use 2. 2. 2. Suppose that f : X → Y is an open map and A ⊂ X an open subset. Let U be an open subset of A. y) ∈ R × R | xy = 1} is closed but π1 (H) = R − {0} is not closed. It is not open for f ([−1.74. (A is open in X) (f is open) Proof.16) for the product topology into the topology on Xj . Y a set.4] with respect to the map p. closed surjective maps. But first we consider open and closed maps. The projection map πj : Xj → Xj is open.75. Quotient maps are continuous surjective maps that generalize both continuous.71). The quotient topology on Y is the collection {V ⊂ Y | p−1 (V ) is open in X} of subsets of Y . Suppose that Y has the quotient topology with respect to the map p : X → Y . 2. The map πj takes the basis BQ (2.71. Let f : X → Y be a continuous map. The quotient topology In this section we will look at the quotient space construction. (1) f is open if and only if f −1 (B ◦ ) = f −1 (B)◦ for all B ⊂ Y .1. The quotient topology is sometimes called the final topology [2. However. Definition (Quotient topology).141. [2.§5] Let X and Y be topological spaces and f : X → Y a map. and. 2. Lemma (Characterization of open or closed continuous maps). −1/2)) = {0} is not open. Proof.73. Definition. (2) f is closed if and only if f (A) = f (A) for all A ⊂ X Proof.69. and p : X → Y a surjective map. 2.5] The restriction of an open (or closed) map f : X → Y to an open (closed) subspace A ⊂ X is an open (closed) map f (A)|f |A : A → f (A) or f |A : A → Y . 1] given by  0 −1 ≤ x ≤ 0  f (x) = x 0 ≤ x ≤ 1   1 1≤x≤2 is continuous and closed (2.§2. Proposition (Projections are open). 2. . open surjective maps and continuous.(1)). Then (1) p : X → Y is continuous. It is closed if Y is compact. 2. Lemma (Characterization of the quotient topology). 2] → [0. [8.36 2. I. I. Example.) The projection map π1 : R × R → R is not closed for H = {(x. (2) The map f : [−1. (1) The projection π1 : X × Y → X is continuous and open (2. Quotient topologies and quotient maps. Ex 22. Proposition. 2.80) of an open (or closed) map to an arbitrary subspace need not be open (closed).72.

This shows that f is quotient. 2. Then we get p−1 (C) is closed ⇐⇒ X − p−1 (C) is open ⇐⇒ p−1 (Y − C) is open ⇐⇒ Y − C is open ⇐⇒ C is closed for all C ⊂ Y . This shows that the two conditions of (2) are equivalent.77. (3) A bijective continuous map is a quotient map if and only if it is a homeomorphism. Corollary. For a surjective map p : X → Y the following are equivalent: (1) p : X → Y is a quotient map (2) For all V ⊂ Y we have: p−1 (V ) is open closed in X ⇐⇒ V is open closed open in Y . 2. Condition (1) and condition (2) with the word “open” are clearly equivalent.58) are dual concepts. and it is a quotient map if and only if this bijection restricts to a bijection Saturated open (closed) subsets of X o p U →p(U ) −1 (V )←V / Open (closed) subsets of Y between open (or closed) subsets of Y and open (or closed) saturated subsets of X. A surjective continuous map p : X → Y is a quotient map if the topology on Y is the quotient topology. If we give Y some topology with these two properties then the identity map between the two topologies is a homeomorphism. (1) Any open closed Proof. f open f is continuous =⇒ f −1 (V ) is open .76.78. Definition (Quotient map). Proposition. Proof. The saturation of A ⊂ X is the union f −1 f (A) = y∈f (A) f −1 (y) of all fibres that meet A. THE QUOTIENT TOPOLOGY 37 (2) for any map g : Y → Z out of Y Y − Z is continuous ⇐⇒ X − Y − Z is continuous → → → The quotient topology is the only topology on Y with these two properties. The content of (3) is just a reformulation of (2). A surjective map p : X → Y induces a bijection between subsets of Y and saturated subsets of X. (1) Let f : X → Y be an open map.7. closed open sets to open sets closed p g g g p g (3) p : X → Y is continuous and maps saturated Proof. The quotient topology is the finest topology on Y such that p : X → Y is continuous. Suppose now that: p−1 (V ) is open ⇐⇒ V is open. This means that the surjective map p : X → Y is a quotient map if and only if for all V ⊂ Y : p−1 (V ) is open in X ⇐⇒ V is open in Y Quotient maps and embeddings (2. Subsets A of X of the form A = p−1 (B) = y∈B p−1 (y) for some subset B of Y are called saturated subsets of X. A is saturated if and only if A = f −1 f (A). They are the subsets that are unions of fibres f −1 (y). open continuous surjective map is a quotient map. This is because Y − Z is continuous ⇐⇒ g −1 (TZ ) ⊂ TY ⇐⇒ p−1 g −1 (TZ ) ⊂ TX → ⇐⇒ (gp)−1 (TZ ) ⊂ TX ⇐⇒ X − Y − Z is continuous → → by definition of the quotient topology. y ∈ Y . closed open open (2) A quotient map f : X → Y is if and only if all sets A ⊂ X have closed closed −1 saturations f f (A). 2. Then f −1 (V ) is open =⇒ f f −1 (V ) is open ⇐⇒ V is open for all V ⊂ Y .

We call X/R with the quotient topology for the quotient space of the equivalence relation R.38 2. Theorem (The universal property of quotient spaces). but it is not a quotient map (2. A typical situation is when R is an equivalence relation on the space X and X → X/R is the map that takes a point to its equivalence class. 0)} but π1 ({(0.73. The restriction-corestriction of a quotient map p : X → Y to an open (or closed) saturated subspace A ⊂ X is a quotient map p(A)|p|A : A → p(A). 0)} is open and saturated in H ∪ {(0. f / Y g / Z be continuous maps.79. even bijective. Let X Then f and g are quotient =⇒ g ◦ f is quotient =⇒ g is quotient Proof. suppose that X − Y − Z is a quotient map.69) ⇐⇒ f −1 f (A) is open in X for all open sets A ⊂ X which is the claim. Then the last map g is surjective and f continuous g ◦ f quotient g −1 (V ) is open in Y =⇒ (g ◦ f )−1 (V ) is open in X =⇒ V is open in Z for any set V ⊂ Z. Corollary (Composition of quotient maps). (Similar to the proof of 2. 2. Ex 10 p 135] and there are (non-identity) quotient maps that are both open and closed (2. that is if x1 Rx2 =⇒ f (x1 ) = f (x2 ). (p−1 (B) is open) (p is quotient) f g .70. Next. The quotient map X → X/R respects the equivalence relation R and it is the universal example of such a map. continuous. any subset of X is saturated.(1)) open. Ex 3 p 128].) The claim is that B|p|p−1 (B) : p−1 (B) → B is quotient. Ex 22. The first assertion is a tautology: Assume that f and g are quotient. 2.77) for it is not a homeomorphism: {(0. and surjective so it is a quotient map. (3) If f : X → Y is a bijective. Proposition.76) (2.83) [2.82. TOPOLOGICAL SPACES AND CONTINUOUS MAPS (2) Suppose that f : X → Y is quotient.80. Then (g ◦ f )−1 (V ) open in X ⇐⇒ f −1 g −1 (V ) open in X f is quotient =⇒ g −1 (V ) open in Y g is quotient =⇒ V open in Z → → for any set V ⊂ Y . Thus the restriction of a quotient map need not be a quotient map in general. On the positive side we have 2. We shall often say that X/R is the space obtained by identifying equivalent points of X. 0)}) = {0} is not open. 2. and if f is also quotient. (1) The projection map π1 : R × R → R is (2. A set of equivalence classes is an open subset of X/R if and only if the union of equivalence classes is an open subset of X: V ⊂ X/R is open ⇐⇒ [x]∈V [x] ⊂ X is open. A continuous map f : X → Y respects the equivalence relation R if equivalent points have identical images. (The case where B is closed is similar. then it determines a bijection between the open (saturated) subsets of X and open subsets of Y . Proof.) Let p : X → Y be a quotient map and B ⊂ Y an open set. The restriction π1 |H ∪ {(0. (1) The map p : X → X/R respects the equivalence relation R. 0)} is continuous and surjective. So f is a homeomorphism.3] [2.81. For any U ⊂ B the implications p−1 (U ) open in p−1 (B) =⇒ p−1 (U ) open in X =⇒ U is open in Y =⇒ U is open in B show that B|p|p−1 (B) : p−1 (B) → B is quotient. Example. Let R be an equivalence relation on the space X and let f : X → Y be a continuous map. There are quotient maps that are neither open nor closed [8. Then f is open ⇐⇒ f (A) is open in Y for all open sets A ⊂ X (2.

The points in the orbit space are orbits of points in X and the open subsets are orbits of open subsets of X. it is also closed. 2. Consider the equivalence relation corresponding to the partition X = y∈Y f −1 (y) of X into fibres f −1 (y). 2. Elements of RP n can be thought of as lines through the origin of Rn+1 . If f exists then clearly f respects R. Example (Orbit spaces for group actions). A set of lines is open if the set of intersection points with the unit sphere is open. In particular.(3). Then f has a canonical decomposition X − X/f − f (X) → Y → → − p f ι .75 and it is the only possibility. t) → (−x.) Conversely. −t) of the group with two elements. the topology on the quotient space X/f is finer than the topology on Y because the quotient topology is the maximal topology so that the projection map is continuous. S} between the cylinder over S n−1 and S n with two points removed induces a homeomorphism between MBn and RP n with one point removed. The rest follows from 2. The induced map f : X/f → Y is a continuous bijection but in general not a homeomorphism. x ∈ S n . The bijective continuous map f : X/f → Y is a homeomorphism if and only if f is quotient (2. −1) \(S n−1 × R) for the action o (x. GA is closed.84. If A is open. (2) More generally. (1) Let f : X → Y be any surjective continuous map. The homeomorphism S n−1 × R → / MBn induced by the the maps S n−1 o RP n−1 o S n − {N. Conversely. if f factors through X/R then f respects R.82). GA is open as a union of open sets.7. let G × X → X be the action of a discrete group G on a space X. THE QUOTIENT TOPOLOGY 39 (2) If the continuous map f : X → Y respects R then there exists a unique continuous map f : X/R → Y such that f /Y XA > AA }} AA }} AA } p A }} f X/R commutes. The theorem says that there is a bijective correspondence Continuous maps X → Y that respect R o taking quotient maps to quotient maps. The saturation of any subset A of X is the orbit GA = g∈G gA of A. This can sometimes be used to show that X/f is Hausdorff if Y is Hausdorff. all quotient maps have (up to homeomorphism) the form X → X/R for some equivalence relation R on X. Instead. Give the orbit space G\X the quotient topology and let pG : X → G\X be the quotient map.83. Let X/f denote the quotient space.79: f is quotient ⇐⇒ pf is quotient ⇐⇒ f is quotient.78) the saturation ±U of an open (closed) set U ⊂ S n is open (closed) because x → −x is a homeomorphism. Example. (3) If f exists then: f is quotient ⇐⇒ f is quotient Proof. and if G is finite. (3) The n-dimensional M¨bius band is the orbit space MBn = (−1.78). Thus X/f is the set of fibres equipped with the quotient topology. (2) Let f : X → Y be any surjective continuous map. (Take n = 2 to get the standard M¨bius band. The quotient map p : S n → RP n is both open and closed since (2. 2. y ∈ Y .) o The (n − 1)-dimensional real projective space RP n−1 is a retract of MBn as there are continuous maps / S n−1 × R . By constuction. if f respects R then we can define f [x] = f (x) and this map is continuous by 2. (We say that f factors uniquely through X/R. (3) Let f : X → Y be any continuous map.78. Thus the quotient map pG is always open (2. (1) Real projective n-space RP n is the quotient space of S n by the equivalence relation with equivalence classes {±x}. if A is closed and G is finite. Note that f is bijective. the map f respects this equivalence relation so there is a unique continuous map f such that the diagram f / XC =Y CC {{ CC { CC {{ C! {{ f { X/f f →f g◦p←g / Continuous maps X/R → Y commutes.

1] to (cos(2πt). Are any of these surfaces homeomorphic to each other? [8. The quotient map p : X → X/(A1 .78) closed sets A ⊂ X have closed saturations A∪ Ai ∩A=∅ Ai . b1 . sin( π )) is not closed as it does not contain 2 2 all its limit points. p 452] Let P2g be a regular 2g-gon with edges labeled a1 . Thm 77. . (Actually (2. . (If you can’t see this now. The closed non-orientable surface Ng of genus g ≥ 1 is the quotient space P2g /R where R is the equivalence relation that makes the identifications a2 · · · a2 on the perimeter and no identifications g 1 in the interior of the polygon. f is not a quotient map (2. (5) The standard map f : [0.(1)).53. the unit disc. . Ak a finite collection of closed subsets. . The restriction p|X −(A1 ∪· · ·∪Ak ) : X −(A1 ∪· · ·∪Ak ) → X/(A1 . 1}.(2)) that takes Z+ ×{1} to the point common to all the circles. ag . . Ak )−{p(A1 ). . known as the countable wedge of circles n∈Z+ S 1 [8.77) for the image of the closed saturated set consisting of the points n×(cos( π ).82).70). g is not a quotient map for the image of the closed saturated set Z+ × {−1} is not closed as it does not contain all its limit points.) (8) [8. However. This map is continuous because its restriction to each of the open sets {n} × S 1 is continuous (2. Let R be the smallest equivalence relation on X Y such that aRf (a) for all a ∈ A. b1 . is the set of vectors of length ≤ 1. Lemma 71. . the equivalence classes of R are {a} f (a) for a ∈ A. .4]. In case of just one closed subspace A ⊂ X. 1]/{0.8] [5. bg in counter-clockwise direction. . is not homeomorphic to any subspace of the plane. . (The adjunction space) [8. . a1 . . sin(2πt)) is quotient because it is continuous and closed. Example.140.) The induced map [0.41. .3]. Ak together with the sets {x} for x ∈ A1 ∪ A2 ∪ · · · ∪ Ak . .53. . The closed orientable surface Mg of genus g ≥ 1 is (homeomorphic to) the quotient space P4g /R where R is the equivalence relation that makes the identifications a1 b1 a−1 b−1 · · · ag bg a−1 b−1 on the perimeter and no identifications in the interior of the polygon. The induced bijective continuous map f : Z+ ×S 1 /Z+ ×{1} → Cn is therefore not a homeomorphism. . A2 . p 452] for the case g = 2. . The quotient space X/(A1 .5] (9) [8. (4) Let X be a topological space and A1 . . and ι is an inclusion map. This map is continuous because its restriction to each of the open sets {n}×S 1 is continuous (2. Ex 74. Chp 1. Ex 35. For any other space Z receiving maps X → Z ← Y that agree on A there exists a unique continuous map X ∪f Y → Z such . Ak ) if and only if it sends each of the sets Ai ⊂ X to a point in Y (2. See g g 1 1 [8. . a1 . . {x} for x ∈ X − A. . There is an obvious continuous surjective map g : Z+ S 1 = Z+ × S 1 → C1/n (2. bg . . . . .85. .(5)). p 93] [10. 1] → S 1 that takes t ∈ [0. . A continuous map f : X → Y factors through the quotient space X/(A1 . we will prove it later (2. The adjunction space is the quotient space X ∪f Y = X Y /R for the equivalence relation R. Ak ) is closed because (2. 1} → S 1 is a homeomorphism. . p 451] Let P4g be a regular 4g-gon and with edges labeled a1 . 2. p(Ak )} to the complement of A1 ∪ · · · ∪ Ak is a homeomorphism (2. Consider the equivalence relation where the equivalence classes are the sets A1 . ag . Exercise B p 56] Consider f i ?_ / Y consisting of a space X and a continuous map f : A → Y defined on the the set-up X o A closed subspace A ⊂ X. . ag in counter-clockwise direction.41. . . . These two continuous maps agree on A in the sense that f ◦ i = i ◦ f and the adjunction space is the universal space with this property.(7)). f is a continuous bijection. the quotient space Z+ × S 1 /Z+ × {1}. Let f : X → X ∪f Y be the map X → X Y → X ∪f Y and let i : Y → X ∪f Y be the map Y → X Y → X ∪f Y . . . For g = 1 we get the projective plane RP 2 and for g = 2 we get the Klein Bottle [8.40 2.(2)) that takes Z+ × {1} to the point common to all the circles. and f −1 (y) {y} for y ∈ Y . However.(5). the standard map Dn /S n−1 → S n is a homeomorphism where Dn ⊂ Rn . . (6) Let R be the equivalence relation “zero or not zero” on R.98. Ak ) is obtained from X by identifying each of the sets Ai to the point p(Ai ). The induced bijective continuous map g : Z+ × S 1 /Z+ × {1} → C1/n is therefore not a homeomorphism either. the quotient space is denoted X/A. More generally. . TOPOLOGICAL SPACES AND CONTINUOUS MAPS where p is a quotient map. A2 . The quotient space R/R is homeomorphic to Sierpinski space {0. ag . (7) There is an obvious continuous surjective map f : Z+ S 1 = Z+ × S 1 → Cn (2.

for closed sets B ⊂ Y ⊂ X Y have closed saturations f −1 (B) B. Since Y is locally compact Hausdorff we may assume (2. its image is a closed subspace of X ∪f Y homeomorphic to Y . Proposition.87. if X and Y are T1 then also the adjunction space X ∪f Y is T1 .7. In general. 2.3. Then p−1 (pU1 ) ⊂ U2 and U2 × V ⊂ (p × 1)−1 (A). The tube lemma 2. The product of two quotient maps need not be a quotient map [2. if p : X → Z is a quotient map. its image is an open subspace of X ∪f Y homeomorphic to X − A. The quotient map X Y → X ∪f Y is closed if the map f is closed for then also closed subsets B ⊂ X ⊂ X Y have closed saturations B ∪ f −1 f (B ∩ A) f (A ∩ B). 2. This is important for homotopy theory. If X is regular and A ⊂ X is closed then the quotient space X/A is Hausdorff. Proof. Theorem. Ex 35.170) then p × q : A × C → B × D is a quotient map.) The quotient space X/R is Hausdorff if and only if any two distinct equivalence classes are contained in disjoint open saturated sets. 1] is a quotient map. y) ∈ (p × 1)−1 (A) we must find a saturated neighborhood U of x and a neighborhood V of y such that U × V ⊂ (p × 1)−1 (A).§5. Then p × 1: X × Z → Y × Z is a quotient map. Since (p×1)−1 (A) is open in the product topology there is a neighborhood U1 of x and a neighborhood V of y such that U1 × V ⊂ (p × 1)−1 (A). We shall later see [8. Note that also p−1 (pU1 ) × V is contained in (p × 1)−1 (A). the quotient space X/R is T1 if and only if all equivalence classes are closed sets.84. Continuing inductively we find open sets U1 ⊂ U2 ⊂ · · · ⊂ Ui ⊂ Ui+1 ⊂ · · · such that p−1 (pUi ) ⊂ Ui+1 and Ui+1 × V ⊂ (p × 1)−1 (A).  Z commutes. For instance. Only few topological properties are preserved by quotient maps. Let p : A → B and q : C → D be quotient maps. then also p × 1 : X × [0.86.17] Let p : X → Y be a quotient map and Z a locally compact space.88. We must show: (p × 1)−1 (A) is open =⇒ A is open. The map f |X − A : X − A → X ∪f Y is open. Let U2 be the union of these neighborhoods. [5. not even T1 . Since i is injective it is an embedding. for open sets U ⊂ X − A ⊂ X Y have open saturations U ∅. The map i : Y → X ∪f Y is closed.143 says that each point of p−1 (pU1 ) has a neighborhood such that the product of this neighborhood with V is contained in the open set (p × 1)−1 (A). Using Lemma 2. I.88 below we see that the map p × q is the composition A×C p×1 /B × C 1×q /B × D of two quotient maps and therefore itself a quotient map. . it is an embedding. 3. As we saw in 2.3] in general but here is an important case where it actually is the case. This means that for any point (x. THE QUOTIENT TOPOLOGY 41 that the diagram A _  X i f f /Y  / X ∪f Y ∃! i #. If B and C are locally compact Hausdorff spaces (2. 2. (For instance. We record an easy criterion for Hausdorfness even though you may not yet know the meaning of all the terms. Proof.8] that X ∪f Y is normal when X and Y are normal.170) that V is compact and U1 × V ⊂ (p × 1)−1 (A). Since f |X − A is also injective. The open set U = Ui is saturated because U ⊂ p−1 (pU ) = p−1 (pUi ) ⊂ Ui+1 = U . 1] → Z × [0. Thus also U × V is saturated and U × V ⊂ Ui × V ⊂ (p × 1)−1 (A). The reason is that surjective open maps and surjective closed maps are quotient maps so that any property invariant under quotient maps must also be invariant under both open and closed maps. Let A ⊂ X × Z.(6) the quotient space of a Hausdorff space need not be Hausdorff. Lemma (Whitehead Theorem).

rather than topological. Definition (Neighborhood basis). Proof. Lemma (Standard bounded metric). Ex 18. Ex 21. concepts. f (y)) < ε for all y ∈ U1 ∩ . be a countable collection of metric spaces. πn f (y)) < nε for all y ∈ Un . y) < ε =⇒ dn (x. Any subspace of a metrizable space is a metrizable. Proposition (Comparison of metric topologies). Let X be a space and x a point in X. 1/n) | n ∈ Z+ } is a countable neighborhood basis at x. ε) Proof.3] . Theorem (Hereditary properties of metrizable spaces). The following conditions are equivalent: (1) f is continuous (2) ∀x ∈ X∀ε > 0∃δ > 0∀y ∈ X : dX (x. X is first countable if all points of X have a countable neighborhood basis. y).91. Hausdorff dimension. (yn )) = sup{ dn (xn . Then d(f (x).94. Td the associated metric topologies. ε) Proof. The first countability axiom. y) < nε (2. let f : X → Xn be a map such that X − → Xn −→ Xn is continuous for all n. 2. Which topological spaces are metrizable? To address this question we need to build up an arsenal of metrizable and non-metrizable spaces and to identify properties that are common to all metrizable spaces. (yn )) ≤ ε ⇐⇒ ∀n ≤ N : 1 dn (xn . there exist neighborhoods Un of x such that dn (πn f (x). Td ) → (X. Ex 18. y) < ε} is a basis for the metric topology Td induced by d. Metric topologies If X is a set with a metric d : X × X → [0. Definition. respectively. n Second.42 2. Either use the above proposition or use that for any metric the collection of balls of radius < 1 is a basis for the metric topology. . 2. Let d and d be metrics on X and Td . All metrizable spaces are first countable since {B(x.90. Here are the first such properties: All metric spaces are Hausdorff and first countable. ∩ UN where N ε > 1 (remember that all the spaces Xn have diameter at most 1). A metric space is the topological space associated to a metric set. f π 2. A topological space is metrizable if the topology is induced by some metric on X. TOPOLOGICAL SPACES AND CONTINUOUS MAPS 8.92). Definition (First countable spaces). These bases are the same for the two metrics. fractals. Any countable product of metrizable spaces is metrizable. We say that X has a countable basis at x if there is a countable neighborhood basis at x. let Xn . To prove the second assertion. the projection maps πn : Xn → Xn are continuous because d(x. 2. The idea here is that 1 1 n dn (xn . We may assume that each Xn has diameter at most 1 (2. Essentially [8. y) = min{d(x.93. or chaos are examples of metric. n ∈ Z+ . y) < δ ⇒ dY (f (x). See [8. Then d (x. ε) | x ∈ X. We need to show that the metric topology enjoys the two properties that characterizes the product topology (2. ∞) the collection {Bd (x. A neighborhood basis at x ∈ X is a collection of neighborhoods of x such that any neighborhood of x contains a member of the collection. 2.92. Given x ∈ X − and ε > 0. The claim is that the metric toplogy coincides with the product topology on Xn . ε > 0} of balls Bd (x. δ)) ⊂ BY (f (x). Theorem (Continuity in the metric world). First. f (y)) < ε (3) ∀x ∈ X∀ε > 0∃δ > 0 : f (BX (x.90). ε) = {y ∈ X | d(x. yn ) ≤ ε n where N is such that N ε > 1. Td ⊂ Td if and only if the identity map (X.1] for the first assertion. 2. Then Td ⊂ Td ⇐⇒ ∀x ∈ X∀ε > 0∃δ > 0 : Bd (x. 2. δ) ⊂ Bd (x. . . Td ) is continuous [8.64). yn ) | n ∈ Z+ } n for points (xn ) and (yn ) of Xn and convince yourself that d is a metric. yn ) ≤ n becomes small when n becomes large. Proof. Let d be a metric on X. 2. 1} is a bounded metric on X (called the standard bounded metric corresponding to d) that induce the same topology on X as d.1].96. Let f : X → Y be a map between metric spaces with metrics dX and dY . Put 1 d((xn ).89.95. For any ε > 0 d((xn ). This shows that f : X → Xn is continuous.

I claim that there is a neighborhood that does not contain any of the Un .43)) does not contain any of the Un .) (6) The closed (2.2] Any subspace of a first countable space is first countable.84. 2. 2. 2. 1. The first assertion is immediate. (1) R is first countable because it is a metric space.84. 2) is open so SΩ has a finite basis at the first element 1. (RJ does not even satisfy the sequence lemma (2. Then the neighborhood πj0 (R − {1}) of (0)j∈J does not contain any of the neighborhoods Un in the countable collection. Exmp 2 p 133]. Some linearly ordered spaces are first countable. It can not be an embedding for the countable product S 1 of circles is first countable (2. It follows (2. hence countable (1.(7)).(4)). The domain n∈Z+ S 1 = Z+ × S 1 ⊂ R × R2 is first countable (2. n + 1). Then (a.(5)).164)[8. This is not true in general (2.98.7].84. This is possible because the countable set {an } ⊂ [0. α] for β < α (2.41) basis at (xn ).98. This can be seen by a kind of diagonal argument: Let {Un }n∈Z be any countable collection of open neighborhoods of Z ⊂ R. the point (0)j∈J of RJ .41.3) [8.100. b) where b > a is rational is a countable basis of neighborhoods at the point a. Let {Un } be any countable collection of neighborhoods of Ω. Ω] (1. The collection of half-open intervals [a. is first countable: {1} = [1. Ω) (1. Example. The saturated neighborhood U which at level n equals Un with one point deleted (cf Cantor’s diagonal argument (1.82) gives a factorization {j ∈ J | πj (Un ) = R} (2.52. The induced map f is an injective continuous map.(4)). . α > 1. we can use the countable collection of neighborhoods of the form (β. (7) The quotient map p : n∈Z+ S 1 → n∈Z+ S 1 is closed (2. Let X be a topological space. This is because there is an index j0 ∈ J such that πj0 (Un ) = R for all n. Ex 30. 2.98.98. Ω] ⊂ Un and chose a such that an < a < Ω for all n. Then U does not contain any of the Un . Thm 30. Is R metrizable? (3. [8.(7)) is not: Let {Un }n∈Z+ be any collection of saturated neighborhoods of Z+ × {1}.31.(4)) quotient map R → R/Z takes the first countable space R to a space that is not first countable [5. Ω] is a neighborhood of Ω that does not contain any of the Un because it does not even contain any of the intervals (an .(2)).97) that n∈Z+ S 1 does not embed in R2 nor in any other first countable space. Is SΩ metrizable? (2.4.52) is not first countable at Ω but it is first countable at any other point. Indeed.97) but the image n∈Z+ S 1 (2.(3)). Let U be the open neighborhood of Z such that U ∩ (n. Ω]. Ex 30. Ω) of left end-points has an upper bound in [0. These examples show that the uncountable product of first countable (even metric) spaces and the quotient of a first countable space may fail to be first countable (2.100. (2) R is first countable.97).(5). the set of js for which this is not true {j ∈ J | ∃n ∈ Z+ : πj (Un ) = R} = n∈Z+ −1 is a countable union of finite sets.99) n∈Z+ S1 KKK KKK K p KKK % f 9 n∈Z+ sss s sss sss f 1 n∈Z+ S / S1 of the continuous map f such that πm (f |{n} × S 1 ) is the identity function when m = n and the constant function when m = n. Choose an < Ω such that (an .(4)). n + 1) with one point deleted. Proof.98. METRIC TOPOLOGIES 43 2. Let Xn be a countable product of first countable spaces.8. Let (xn ) be a point of Xn . The collection of all products Un where Un ∈ Bn for finitely many n and Un = Xn for all other n is then a countable (1. however.(1)) [8. Lemma. For instance. (5) RJ is not first countable at any point when J is uncountable: Let {Un }n∈Z+ be any countable collection of neighborhoods of. some are not (2. the universal property of quotient spaces (2. In a first countable (eg metric) space X. Exmp 3 p 181. equals Un ∩ (n. n ∈ Z. say. The section SΩ . Let Bn be countable basis at xn ∈ Xn .98.(1).97. The topology on S 1 is finer than the subspace topology inherited from S 1 . Any countable product of first countable spaces is first countable. For any other element. the points of the closure of any A ⊂ X can be approached by sequences from A in the sense that they are precisely the limit points of convergent sequences in A.6] (3) Is RK first countable? Is it metrizable? (4) The ordered space S Ω = [0. Proposition (Hereditary properties of first countable spaces).17] at the point corresponding to Z.

Ω) but it is not the limit of any sequence in [0.103. Theorem. Ω) as any such sequence has an upper bound in [0.(2)).(6)) that f (A) ⊂ f (A) for any A ⊂ X. Conversely. concept.51. 2. The uniform metric. The largest element Ω is a limit point of [0. ∩ Un .52. 2.44 2. Ω) (1. By hypothesis. We shall discuss uniform convergence which is a metric. Then Un ⊂ U for some n so that xm ∈ Um ⊂ Un ⊂ U for m ≥ n. For each n choose a point xn ∈ A ∩ Un . g) = sup{j ∈ J | d(f (j). ie (2. On RJ we have: product topology ⊂ uniform topology ⊂ box topology Proof. Conversely. there is by (1) a sequence of points an ∈ A converging to x. Then x is the limit of a sequence of points from A =⇒ x ∈ A The converse holds if X is first countable. Let Y be a metric space with a bounded metric d and let J be a set. Proof. 266] The uniform metric on Y J = given by d(f. We want to show that f is continuous. [8. f (j)) < ε We say that the sequence of functions fn : J → Y converges uniformly to the function f : J → Y . suppose that f (xn ) → f (x) whenever xn → x. The elements of Y J are functions f : J → Y . Y ) is the metric 1Aka a Frech´t space e .6]) Suppose that J is a topological space and that Y is a metric space. Omitted. Hence it is not 1st countable and not metrizable. Thus [0. Proof. g(j))}. We claim that the sequence (xn ) converges to x. To summarize: X is metrizable =⇒ X is 1st countable =⇒ X satisfies the sequence lemma (is Frech´t) e Examples show that neither of these arrows reverse.104. not a topological. Note that a sequence of functions fn : J → Y converges in the uniform metric to the function f : J → Y if and only if ∀ε > 0∃N > 0∀j ∈ J∀n ∈ Z+ : n > N =⇒ d(fn (j). . Then f is continuous =⇒ f (xn ) → f (x) whenever xn → x for any sequence xn in X The converse holds if X is first countable. Let U be any neighborhood of x. It is easy to see that this is indeed a metric.101. Let Un be a countable basis at x. . Well-known. Theorem (Uniform limit theorem). (1) The direction =⇒ is clear. (2) The direction =⇒ is clear. pp 124.102. Let x ∈ A. Thus f (x) ∈ f (A) by (1) again. Thm 43. suppose that x ∈ A. Ω] does not satisfy the sequence lemma. TOPOLOGICAL SPACES AND CONTINUOUS MAPS (1) (The sequence lemma) Let A ⊂ X be a subspace and x a point of X. The uniform limit of any sequence (fn ) of continuous functions fn : J → Y is continuous. We may assume that U1 ⊃ U2 ⊃ · · · ⊃ Un ⊃ Un+1 ⊃ · · · as we may replace Un by U1 ∩ . (Cf [8. j∈J Y = map(J. (2) (Continuous map preserve convergent sequences) Let f : X → Y be a map of X into a space Y . the sequence f (an ) ∈ f (A) converges to f (x). Since X is first countable. 2. Definition. 2. We say that X satisfies the sequence lemma1 if for any A ⊂ X and for any x ∈ A there is a sequence of points in A converging to x.

Proof. . We use the equivalence of (1) and (4) in Theorem 2. The following are equivalent: (1) X is connected (2) The only clopen (closed and open) subsets of X are ∅ and X (3) X has no separations (4) Every continuous map X → {0. R. there is a non-constant continuous map f (X) → {0. Suppose that Y ⊂ X is a connected subspace. so A is closed. ¬(1) =⇒ ¬(2): Suppose that X = U1 ∪ U2 where U1 and U1 are disjoint. Ex 27. CONNECTED SPACES 45 9. non-empty. A separation of X consists of two separated non-empty subsets A and B with union X = A ∪ B. Y ∩ A = ∅. ¬(2) =⇒ ¬(3): If C is a closed. nonempty. The subsets Y ∩ A and Y ∩ B are separated (since the bigger sets A and B are separated) with union Y . open. Connected spaces 2. the equivalence of (1) and (3). A subspace of X is said to be connected if it is connected in the subspace topology. say.9. rays. Let f : X → Y be a continuous map. Suppose that Y = Y1 ∪ Y2 is the union of two subspaces. By 2. Then Y ∩ (t. This means that the two sets are disjoint and neither contains a limit point of the other. If X is connected.35. ∞) is an open. In fact. A subspace of a connected space need obviously not be connected. The lemma now follows immediately from 2. We show that the negated statements are equivalent.(4)). ∞) = Y ∩ [t. 1} is constant. Then X = f −1 (0) ∪ f −1 (1) is the union of two disjoint non-empty open subsets. one of them must be empty. (2) We shall later prove that R is connected (2. for A does not meet B. b) is a closed and open subset whenever a < b (2. closed. and non-empty.108. 1} be a surjective continuous map.110) Y1 and Y2 are separated in Y ⇐⇒ Y1 and Y2 are separated in X 2. 1} to the discrete space {0. (5) Q is totally disconnected (and not discrete): Let Y be any subspace of Q containing at least two points a < b. The topological space X is connected if it is not the union X = X0 ∪ X1 of two disjoint open non-empty subsets X0 and X1 . 2. ¬(3) =⇒ ¬(4): Suppose that X = A ∪ B where A and B are separated.(2) because ClY (Y1 ) ∩ Y2 = Y1 ∩ Y ∩ Y2 = Y1 ∩ Y2 . proper subset of Y . 1} and hence a non-constant continuous map X → {0. Corollary. Two disjoint open (closed) sets are separated. So X is not connected.119) and that the connected subsets of R are precisely the intervals.106. If f (X) is not connected. 2. Example. then f (X) is connected for any continuous map f : X → Y . 1}. closed.109.109. then C and D are separated. (R is totally disconnected. Observe that (2.111. Then A ⊂ A. open. proper subset of X. Lemma. (6) Particular point topologies (2. 2.(3)) are connected. (1) R − {0} = R− ∪ R+ is not connected for it is the union of two disjoint open non-empty subsets. so that Y ⊂ B. Then U1 is an open. Two subsets A and B of a space X are separated if A ∩ B = ∅ = A ∩ B. Proof.31. non-empty. Let Y ⊂ X be a subspace. ¬(4) =⇒ ¬(1): Let f : X → {0.106. Theorem. 2. If C ⊂ A and D ⊂ B and A and B are separated. Then Y is connected ⇐⇒ Y is not the union of two separated non-empty subsets of X Proof. The map f : X → {0. proper subset of X then X = C ∪(X −C) is a separation of X. For every pair A and B of separated subsets of X such that Y ⊂ A ∪ B we have either Y ⊂ A or Y ⊂ B. Definition.3]. So how can we tell if a subspace is connected? 2.107. Theorem.105.2. (3) R is not connected for [a.106. Choose an irrational number t between a and b. any subset Y of R containing at least two points a < b is disconnected as Y ∩ [a. b) is closed and open but not equal to ∅ or Y .) (4) RK is connected [8. and ∅. Proof. 1} given by f (A) = 0 and f (B) = 1 is continuous since all closed subsets of the co-domain have closed pre-images.

This union is not all of Xj but its closure is. where F is the collection of all finite subsets of J. Corollary. 2. Let {Yj | j ∈ J} be a set of connected subspaces of the space X. b).113.114. For every finite subset F of J let CF ⊂ Xj be the product of the subspaces Xj if j ∈ F and {xj } if j ∈ F . Then {connected subsets of X} = {convex subsets of X} The inclusion ⊂ holds in any linearly ordered space. f (Yj ) = f (Yj0 ) as otherwise we could separate Yj and Yj0 by disjoint open sets. so F ∈F CF = j∈J Xj is connected (2. Suppose that X is a linear continuum (1. 2. Connected subspaces of linearly ordered spaces.115. The nonempty bounded set A has a least upper bound. Let now X be a linear continuum and C a convex subset of X.114).35).117. For each point x ∈ X.15). As the closed interval [a.46 2. b] and in the subspace [a.28) a point xj in each of the spaces Xj (assuming that all the spaces of the product are non-empty). Proof. 1} be a continuous map. Moereover. In fact. Indeed. 1} be a continuous map. Theorem. Let f : Y → {0. Then the union j∈J Yj is connected. Corollary. Next. Apply 2.13). 2. c = sup A. if C ⊂ Y ⊂ C and C is connected.114) to prove the claim in case C = [a. Thus f is constant. y1 ) and (x2 . consider an arbitrary product Xj of connected spaces Xj . Corollary.115.114) it is the union of two connected subspaces with a point in common. x) ∪ (x. c ≤ b since b is an upper bound and c ∈ A since A is closed in X. Proof. We claim that C is connected. 2. b]. The sets A and B are closed and open in [a. (The least upper bound of any bounded set always belongs to the closure of the set since otherwise it wouldn’t be the least upper bound. Let x0 be some fixed point of X. C is not connected (2. TOPOLOGICAL SPACES AND CONTINUOUS MAPS 2. Since C ⊂ (−∞. Then there exist points a < x < b in X such that a and b are in C and x is outside C. b] is a closed interval. Then f (C) is a single point since C is connected. is connected (2. let Cx be a connected subspace containing x0 and x. Let f : j∈J Yj → {0. Lemma.116. b) (which has the . induction shows that the product of finitely many connected spaces is connected. b ∈ C =⇒ [a. Since CF is connected for each finite subset F and these subsets have the point (xj )j∈J in common. Then X is connected. Now.113 with any of the subspaces as Yj0 . b] is closed in X (2.10]. then Y is connected. for any two points (x1 . We determine the connected subsets of R. Proof. Suppose that there is an index j0 ∈ J such that Yj and Yj0 are not separated for any j ∈ J. But A is also open in [a. But are convex subspaces connected? Not always: The convex subset [0. Thus f is constant. f (y) = f (C) for all y ∈ Y since otherwise we could separate y and C by disjoint open sets. 1] is not connected in Z but it is connected in R. The image f (Yj ) of Yj is a single point for each j ∈ J since Yj is connected. Proof. b] = A ∪ B is the union of two disjoint relative open nonempty subsets A. We prove first that the product X × Y of two connected spaces X and Y is connected. Theorem. 2. The union of a collection of connected subspaces with a point in common is connected. Suppose that for any two points in X there is a connected subspace containing both of them. 2. The closure of any connected subspace is connected. Thus X × Y is connected by Corollary 2. Ex 23. Suppose first that X is any linearly ordered space and let C ⊂ X a subspace that is not convex. more generally. Then X = Cx is connected as Cx = ∅ (2.) So c < b (for b ∈ A) and A ⊂ [a. Proof. or.118. y2 ) the subspace X × {y1 } ∪ {x2 } × Y contains the two points and this subspace is connected since (2. Finally [8. of any linear continuum. We may assume that b ∈ B.112. j ∈ J. b] ⊂ C.114). Products of connected spaces are connected. Pick a fixed point a ∈ C and note that C is a union of closed intervals with a as one of their end-points.112). In fact. the union F ∈F CF . Recall that a subset C of a linearly ordered set X is convex if a.111). Therefore it suffices (2. +∞) is contained in the union of two separated subsets and meet both of them. A and B are also closed in X (2. Connected subspaces are convex. Proof. Suppose that [a. Choose (1.

49.121. c] and C is either (−∞. c]. 2. [Intermediate Value Theorem] Let f : X → Y be a continuous map of a connected topological space X to a linearly ordered space Y . Theorem. The topological space X is path connected if for any two points x0 and x1 in X there is a continuous map (a path) f : [0. +∞) is the union of two disjoint open sets. • If A ⊂ X is a nonempty subset bounded from above which has no least upper bound then the set of upper bounds B = a∈A [a. Ex 7 p 382]. (In short. Any linearly ordered space containing two consecutive points.2] [2.106).4] [5. Then C ⊂ (−∞. and the long (half) line [0. ∅. b). (2.(6)). c) or (−∞. Let x be any point of X. If Y is a linear continuum. X. intervals and rays.107) (2. 2. Thus also the (n − 1)-sphere S n−1 . Proof. Let x < c be any point. Then x ∈ C by convexity. Therefore X is not connected (2. ω) = Z+ × [0. Example. In particular. b) = ∅ is not connected as X = (−∞.119. c) ⊂ C ⊂ (−∞.9. In particular. Let c = sup C be its least upper bound. We look at two cases: • C is neither bounded from above nor below. This contradicts c ∈ A for no element of an open subset A of [a. The arguments are similar for the other cases. 1) (1. 2. The image under a continuous map of a path connected space is path connected. the (ordinary) (half) line [1. y) ⊂ A and since [d. and all intervals (bounded or unbounded. Thus C = X. Prop 1 p 336] Let X be a linearly ordered space.120. 1) (1. closed. CONNECTED SPACES 47 subspace topology which is the order topology (2.122. [2. 1] → X with f (0) = x0 and f (1) = x1 . b] b is closed and open in C since (a. b ∈ C so that a < x < b.119) that connected = convex = interval. X connected =⇒ f (X) connected =⇒ f (X) convex. Any well-ordered set X containing at least two points is totally disconnected in the order topology. ⇐=: Assume X is a linear continuum. proper. Then x ∈ C by convexity. y) around d such that [a. y) = ∅. • C is bounded from above but not from below. Path connectedness is a stronger property than connectedness. Suppose that X is a linearly ordered set that is not a linear continuum. f (X) is an interval (bounded or unbounded. For subsets of a linear continuum we know (2. The inclusion ⊃ does not hold for all linearly ordered spaces as for instance Z+ is convex but not connected (there are gaps).119) . 2. X. b] is closed and open in X.123. Ex 24. half-open.15. For if C ⊂ X contains a < b then a ∈ C ∩ (a. R. b) can be an upper bound for A: For any point d ∈ A there exists an open interval (x. Since x is neither a lower nor an upper bound for C there exist a. b) ∩ (x. b) ∪ (a. The punctured euclidian plane Rn − {0} is path connected when n ≥ 2 since any two points can be joined by a path of broken lines. Ex 24. We shall now identify the linearly ordered spaces that are connected. the linear continuum X. Then there are nonempty. Let C be a nonempty convex subset of X. =⇒: [8. ∞) is clopen and = ∅. Definition. closed. Recall that X also has the greatest lower bound property [8.(7)).113.12] are examples of linear continua. is connected in the order topology. 24. Theorem. d is not an upper bound for A.118 we know that the the connected and the convex subsets of X are the same. ∞) = b∈B (b. cf 2. or open) Proof.27)). From 2. which is the image of Rn − {0} under the continuous map x → x/|x|. 2.) This is a contradiction and therefore A must be empty.8]. b ∈ C so that a < x < b.6. c]. cf 2. clopen subsets of X: • If (x.52) [8. c ∈ A since A is closed in X and c ∈ A since A is open in [a. x] = (∞. Problem 6. the ordered square Io (2. Any product of path connected spaces is path connected [8. is path connected for (n − 1) ≥ 1. 2 The real line R. Path connected spaces. certainly convex in itself. two points a and b with (a. the connected subsets of R are precisely the convex subsets which are ∅. Ω) × [0. Ex 7 p 382. Ex 3. Ex 24. Since x is neither a lower nor an upper bound for C there exist a. Then f (X) is convex. open or halfopen). Then X is connected in the order topology ⇐⇒ X is a linear continuum The connected subsets of a linear continuum X are: X. y) = ∅ for some points x < y then (−∞.13].107. y) is clopen and = ∅.3. Thus (∞.

The components are unions of path components. The relations on X defined by x ∼ y ⇔ There is a connected subset C ⊂ X such that x ∈ C and y ∈ C x ∼ y ⇔ There is a path in X between x and y are equivalence relations.9]. It follows from 2.126. considered as a subspace of the plane R2 . Then C ⊂ X = A ∪ B and C meets both A and B which is impossible (2. (2) Since each Cα is connected. connected (2. Thus the components are unions of path-components. Example. But this is impossible since 2 the ordered square Io contains uncountably many open disjoint subsets (eg x × (0. All the points of a connected subset are equivalent so they are contained in the same equivalence class. The converse is not true.115).129) components and path components coincide (2. 2. 2.(7)) is connected since it is a linear continuum [8. 2 (2) The ordered square Io (2. If X = C1 ∪ · · · ∪ Cn where the finitely many subspaces Ci are connected and separated then the Ci are the components of X. (2) If X = Cα . Could there be two of the Cα s.48 2.15] but it is 2 not path connected. The path components can be closed.) 2. Ex 38. The path components of X are the equivalence classes of the second equivalence relation The component containing the point x ∈ X is. The components are connected by the definition of the relation ∼ and 2. Definition. 2.115. Check transitivity! (You may need the Glueing lemma (2. Ex 27. Then f is 2 surjective for the image contains (2. 2. by definition. inside one component.131).(5)).124. Consider this table p .112 that S is connected. Locally connected and locally path connected spaces.129. say C? No: Choose a separation X = A ∪ B such that Cα ⊂ A and Cβ ⊂ B.11). (1) The components are connected closed disjoint subsets with union X. (4) The path components are connected. We shall soon see that S is not path connected (2. (1) The components form a partition of X since they are equivalence classes (1. then the Cα are the components of X. The space X is locally (path) connected at the point x if every neighborhood of x contains a (path) connected neighborhood of x. Ex 3. All path-connected spaces are connected. x × 1). the union of all connected subspaces containing x. not all connected spaces are path connected. (3) The path components are path-connected by their very definition. ˇ (4) The Stone–Cech compactification βR of R is connected but not path-connected [8. so each path-component is contained in precisely one component. of all points with a path to x.127. (1) (Topologist’s sine curve) Let S be the graph of the function sin(1/x). The (closed) topologist’s sine curve is the subspace S = S ∪ ({0} × [−1. In particular (2. for locally connected spaces (2. 2. (3) RK (2.119). closed and open. Components and path components.125. 1) = (x × 0. Theorem. Thus a space is locally (path) connected iff it has a basis of (path) connected subsets. For suppose that f : [0.120) the interval [0 × 0.111). Any path connected subset is contained in precisely one of the path components. where the Cα are connected subspaces such that for all α = β there is a separation A ∪ B of X with Cα ⊂ A and Cβ ⊂ B. by definition. If X has only finitely many components the components are closed and open. TOPOLOGICAL SPACES AND CONTINUOUS MAPS Since the unit interval I is connected (2. (3) The path components of X are path connected disjoint subsets with union X.127. 0 ≤ x ≤ 1) but [0. Proof. 1] does not contain uncountably many open disjoint subsets (choose a rational number in each of them). 1 × 1] = Io .107 and 2.133. or neither closed nor open. open. Definition. However.(2)). say Cα and Cβ . it is contained in precisely one component (2.128. 1]) of the plane.53.107) so all path connected spaces are. 0 < x ≤ 1. Any connected subset of X is contained in precisely one of the components. all paths f (I) are also connected (2. C ⊂ C for any component C so C is closed.15. The components of X are the equivalence classes of the first equivalence relation. The path component of the point x ∈ X consists. 1] → Io is a path from the smallest element (the lower left corner) f (0) = 0 × 0 to the largest element (the upper right corner) f (1) = 1 × 1. The space X is locally (path) connected if it is locally (path) connected at each of its points.(1)). as unions of paths emanating from one fixed point.11) is connected but not path-connected space [8.115).3].

) See [8. C. (The same proof applies with ‘connected’ replaced by ‘path connected’. Let x be a point in C. the union of S with an arc from one end of S to [0. ± 2 ) is disjoint from S). . Alternatively.132. 1/2). Any closed subset of R is the complement to a union of at most countably many open intervals. Theorem. Example. 2. For any open set is the union of its components which are open. I. so they are open intervals. p−1 (V ) is open in X. Since thus open subsets of Y have open components. (The Warsaw circle. For instance.132. 1] × {0} has a component (2. which is closed and not open for S is not closed. (1) The comb space X = ([0.107). Then C is an open connected neighborhood of x contained in U .127. of U . This means (2. Each path-component P is contained (2.6] Locally (path) connected spaces have locally (path) connected quotient spaces. A locally path-connected space is path-connected if and only if it is connected.127.(2)) to identify the components) is not open (any neighborhood of (1. since they form a partition.) 2.5] for a similar example. and since X is locally connected it follows (2. what is the same (2. The space X is locally (path) connected if and only if open subsets have open (path) components (open in X or. Conversely. Let V be a subset of Y and C a component of V . 0)} (use (2. and connected.131. 1]. Proposition. For instance.8] [2. On the positive side.(2)) to identify the components) that is not open. not too big) around (0. Proof. U = 1 S − ([0. Suppose that X is locally path-connected.130) that p−1 (C) is open in X. In particular.127. 0) has a separation.130.(2)) is even path connected but still not locally connected for the component R+ × {0} of the open set X − {(0. Note in particular that a space can be connected (even path connected (2. Since each of the open intervals contains a rational number.) (3) The space X = Cn (2. also closed. The claim is that C is open.130). [8.9.41. P = C (2. 0) contains points from the circles).(2)). Choose a connected neighborhood V of x such that V ⊂ U . Since there are two path components and one component.127) in a unique component. such as a manifold. Let X be a locally connected space and p : X → Y a quotient map. 2. 1] that is not open (no neighborhood of (0. Then U has a component that is not open. It follows for instance that the open subsets of R are unions of at most countably many open intervals. V ⊂ C (2. S has two path-components: S = S ∩ (R+ × R). 1]) is an example of a path connected not locally connected space. 1]. In a locally (path-) connected space the (path-) components are clopen. 2.24). Since V is connected and intersects C. Proof.127).106). In a locally path-connected space the path-components and the components are the same. C. open in the open set). 2. 1/2). 1] × {0} has a component (use (2. {0} × (0. since R is locally connected. which is open and not closed for its closure is S. S is not locally path connected (2. It follows (2. (The same is true for any (small) neighborhood of (0.131). Let C be the component of U containing x. assume that open subsets have open components. 1]) ⊂ R2 is clearly path connected but it is not locally connected for (2. Let x be a point of X and U a neighborhood of x.132). Proof. If V is open in Y .133)) and not locally connected. Ex 25. Y is locally connected (2.(2)) that S is not path-connected for it can not be a quotient space of the locally connected compact space [0. Proposition. 1] × {0}) ∪ (({0} ∪ {1/n | n ∈ Z+ }) × [0.74) that C is open in Y . This shows that C is open. Consider a component. the components (of the open set X) are open and. In fact. the components and the path components of a locally Euclidean space.131) the open set U = X − [0. Ex 25.141.130). so is the next example. Then p−1 (C) is a union of components of p−1 (V ) because continuous maps preserve connectedness (2. X is not locally connected since any small neighborhood of (1.§11. Since C is connected and P is clopen (2. are the same. note that open subsets of locally (path) connected spaces are locally (path) connected and that quotient spaces of locally connected spaces are locally connected (2. there are at most countably many components.133. and {0} × [0. Assume that X is locally connected and let U be an open subset. (2) The closed topologist’s sine curve S is not locally connected: Let U be a small neighborhood (well. CONNECTED SPACES 49 R R − {0} S Q Connected YES NO YES NO Locally connected YES YES NO NO before you draw any conclusions about the relationship between connected and locally connected spaces.

3]. The Warsaw circle . Figure 1. This is usually proved using algebraic topology. Ex 25. (5) The (generalized) Jordan curve theorem says that Rn − h(S n−1 ) has two path-components for any embedding h : S n−1 → Rn of an (n − 1)-sphere into Rn .50 2. n ≥ 1.119). It need not be locally path connected [8. TOPOLOGICAL SPACES AND CONTINUOUS MAPS (4) Any linear continuum is locally connected since the basis for the topology consists of connected sets (2.

(2) ⇐⇒ (3): Clear from DeMorgan’s laws.137. A topological space X is compact if it satisfies one of the following two equivalent conditions: (1) Every collection of open subsets whose union is X contains a finite subcollection whose union is X. X = j∈J f −1 (Uj ) for some finite −1 index set J ⊂ J. By assumption. Suppose that X is a compact space and Y ⊂ X a closed subset. Let Uj . L is covered by finitely many of the Vy . then f (X) is compact for any continuous map f : X → Y . Any compact discrete space is finite. If X is compact. Let X be a compact Hausdorff space. (1) {compact subspaces of X} = {closed subspaces of X} (2) If A and B are disjoint closed sets in X then there exist disjoint open sets U . Proof. . The existence of V alone says that K is closed. ∅ = j∈J Y ∩ Fj = Y ∩ j∈J Fj for some finite index set J ⊂ J.10. Since K is compact (2. j ∈ j. Let Fj . . . Therefore Y = Y ∩ j∈J Uj = j∈J Y ∩ Uj = j∈J Vj . Vx such that and x ∈ Ux and x0 ∈ Vx . Compact spaces 2. (1) Compact subspaces of Hausdorff spaces are closed.136. Compact subspaces of Hausdorff spaces behave to some extent like points. Consider first the special case where L = {x0 } is a point. . A collection of open subsets whose union is the whole space is called an open covering. Assume next that L is any compact subspace of X.135. Any finite space is compact as there are only finitely many open subsets.135). Thus Y is compact by 2. Then K is contained in the intersection of the corresponding finitely many Uy . This shows that Y is compact. This means that Y ⊂ j∈J Uj . Since Y is compact. . (2) Any two disjoint compact subspaces of a Hausdorff space can be separated by disjoint open sets. The real line R is not compact as the open covering {(−n. ∩ Vxt .136. . Theorem. Theorem. n) | n ∈ Z+ } has no finite subcovering. Proof. By compactness. ∪ Uxt for finitely many points x1 . Thus a space is compact if any open covering contains a finite open covering. (1) =⇒ (2): Let {Uj | j ∈ J} be a collection of open subsets of X such that Y ⊂ Uj . Then f (X) = f (Uj ) = j∈J f f −1 (Uj ) ⊂ j∈J Uj . j ∈ J.136). . COMPACT SPACES 51 10.139. Corollary. (2) Every collection of closed subsets whose intersection is ∅ contains a finite subcollection whose intersection is ∅. V such that A ⊂ U and B ⊂ V . xt ∈ K. This shows that f (X) j∈J f is compact (2. Then X = j∈J f −1 (Uj ) is an open covering of X. Let Y be a subspace of X. be a collection of closed subsets of X such that Y ∩ j∈J Fj = j∈J Y ∩ Fj = ∅. We have just seen that for each point y ∈ L there are disjoint open sets Uy ⊃ K and Vy y.138. (2) =⇒ (1): Let {Vj | j ∈ J} be an open covering of Y . The following are equivalent: (1) Y is compact (2) Every collection of open subsets of X whose union contains Y contains a finite subcollection whose union contains Y (3) Every collection of closed subsets of X whose intersection is disjoint from Y contains a finite subcollection whose intersection is disjoint from Y Proof. 2. Definition. Then Vj = Y ∩ Uj for some open set Uj ⊂ X and Y ⊂ j∈J Uj . Since X is compact. Then {Y ∩ Uj | j ∈ J} is an open covering of Y . Proof. Proposition. 2. . Set U = Ux1 ∪ . Y = j∈J Y ∩ Uj for some finite index set J ⊂ J. ∪ Uxt and V = Vx1 ∩ . Y ⊂ j∈J Uj for some finite index set J ⊂ J. Closed subspaces of compact spaces are compact.140. the Hausdorff property implies that there are disjoint open sets Ux . be a collection of open subsets of Y that cover the image f (X). . 2. K ⊂ Ux1 ∪ . For each point x ∈ K. . 2. How can we recognize the compact subspaces of a given topological space? 2. . Let L and K be two disjoint compact subspaces of X. Theorem. By compactness of X.

is an open covering of X × Y . Proof. Let x0 be a point of X. 2.141) that f : X → f (X) is a (closed) quotient map. Lemma (The Tube Lemma). Proof.149) The product of finitely many compact spaces is compact. For each point y ∈ Y there is a product neighborhood such that x0 × y ⊂ Uy × Vy ⊂ N .139 Uxi × Y = 1≤i≤k (Uxi × Y ) = 1≤i≤k j∈Jxi Aj = j∈ S 1≤i≤k Jxi Aj where 1≤i≤k Jxi ⊂ J is finite (1. 2. 3. the slice {x} × Y . (Cf 2.143) we know that the open set j∈Jx Aj actually contains a whole tube Ux × Y for some neighborhood Ux of x. We show that the product X × Y of two compact spaces X and Y is compact. Here are two small lemmas that are used quite often. homeomorphic to Y .139 and ⊃ is 2.78. Corollary. Put U = U1 ∩ . Proof. [Cf [8. 2. Lemma (Intersection of a nested sequence of compact sets). Lemma (Criterion for noncompactness). 2. Now X ×Y = 1≤i≤k 2. (4) If f is bijective.(3)). [8. .136).34).132). (1) ⊂ is 2. . .137. If f : X → Y is continuous and X is compact and locally connected and Y is Hausdorff. and f : X → Y is a continuous map. ∪ Vk where Vi = Vyi . Proof. Ex 28. Proof. Thanks to the tube lemma (2. We show that there is a finite subcovering. Suppose that Aj . .69). there are finitely many points y1 .39) is uncountable. . j ∈ J.142. yk ∈ Y such that Y = V1 ∪ . Y is a Hausdorff space. (2) Every closed continuous surjective map is a closed quotient map (2.146.5]] A nonempty compact Hausdorff space without isolated points (2.147.76). If X contains an infinite closed discrete subspace.5] [5.55).58). 2. Theorem. TOPOLOGICAL SPACES AND CONTINUOUS MAPS Proof. (1) We have C is closed in X =⇒ C is compact =⇒ f (C) is compact =⇒ f (C) is closed in Y which shows that f is a closed map.145. . Let X and Y be topological spaces where Y is compact. For any neighborhood N ⊂ X × Y of the slice {x0 } × Y there is a neighborhood U of x0 such that {x0 } × Y ⊂ U × Y ⊂ N . (3) If f is injective.59).78). it is an embedding (2.143. 2. Theorem. (4) Every closed bijective continuous map is a homeomorphism (2. (2) If f is surjective. A discrete and compact space is finite. Ex 27. We know (2. then f (X) is compact and locally connected. Let f : X → Y be a continuous map of a compact space X into a Hausdorff space Y . Then Cn = ∅. it is a homeomorphism (2.141. For each point x ∈ X. Since Y is compact.137 2. then X is not compact. By compactness.2] Let C1 ⊃ C2 ⊃ · · · ⊃ Cn ⊃ · · · be a descending sequence of closed nonempty subsets of a compact space. . Suppose that X is a compact space. Lemma (Closed Map Lemma). 2. X = Ux1 ∪ .(2). The quotient image of a locally connected space is locally connected (2. If Cn = ∅ then Cn = ∅ for some n ∈ Z+ by 2.137). Any closed subspace of a compact space is compact (2. Proof. The theorem in its general form follows by induction.135.52 2. .139. . Then A and B are compact as just shown. (3) Every closed continuous injective map is an embedding (2. .10.144. Now apply 2.138 2. is compact and therefore {x} × Y ⊂ j∈Jx Aj for some finite index set Jx ⊂ J (2. (1) f is closed (2. ∩ Uk . . (2) Let A and B be disjoint closed subsets of X. ∪ Uxk can be covered by finitely many of the neighborhoods Ux . it is a closed quotient map (2.

Somehow we must find a point x in A∈A A. So let A be a FIP-collection of subsets of X. These are constructed recursively. It may be easier instead to consider Alexander’s horned disc [3. f is a homeomorphism (2.56) says that A has maximal elements. To see this.39) to show that {xn | n ∈ Z+ } = X. choose a point tn ∈ C ∩ (Xn − Xn−1 ) for all n ∈ Z+ for which this intersection is nonempty.141).149.11. Example. Put V0 = X. 2. n ≥ 0. Theorem (Tychonoff theorem). Since xn is not isolated. j∈J Xj of any collection (Xj )j∈J of compact Proof. Certainly. 1] × S n → S n+1 to be the (continuous) map that takes (t. Suppose that Vn−1 has been constructed for some n ∈ Z+ . Let T = {tn } be the set of these points.) By the universal property of quotient spaces there is an induced continuous and bijective map f : SS n → S n+1 . Since X is Hausdorff and has no isolated points there is a descending sequence V1 ⊃ V2 ⊃ · · · ⊃ Vn−1 ⊃ Vn ⊃ · · · of nonempty open sets such that xn ∈ V n for all n.) (4) Let X be a Hausdorff space and X0 ⊂ X1 ⊂ · · · ⊂ Xn−1 ⊂ Xn ⊂ · · · ⊂ X an ascending sequence of closed subspaces. Thus X contains a point that is not in the sequence.(5)) contains non-contractible loops. p 232]. But any closed discrete subspace of the compact space C is finite (2.(2)) show A is FIP =⇒ A∈A A=∅ holds for any collection A of subsets of X. {xn } = Vn−1 . Therefore T is closed.133. {1} × X) What is the suspension of the n-sphere S n ? Define f : [0. Then Un ∩ V n = ∅ so xn ∈ V n . the intersection V n contains none of the points {xn } of the sequence and by compactness (2. is a countable compact Hausdorff space with isolated points. T ∩ Xn is finite. −1) ∈ S n+1 . namely the FIP-collection B = B∈B B containing A. . (2) Every injective continuous map S 1 → R2 is an embedding. 1]. (The horned sphere is obtained by cutting out a disc of the standard sphere and replacing it a horned disc. Choose a point yn ∈ Vn−1 distinct from xn and choose disjoint (separated) open sets Un ⊂ X. Then any compact subspace C of X is contained in a finite stage of the filtration. Example 2B. hence closed in the Hausdorff space Xn for all n ≥ 0. We can therefore assume that A is a maximal FIP-collection.145). Now Zorn’s lemma (1. The set (supercollection?) A of FIP-collections containing A is a strictly partially ordered by strict inclusion. Since SS n is compact (as a quotient of a product of two compact spaces) and S n+1 is Hausdorff (as a subspace of a Hausdorff space). The Alexandroff compactification (2. Assume that the topology on X is coherent with this filtration in the sense that A is closed ⇐⇒ A ∩ Xn is closed for all n holds for all subsets A of X.2] is a wild embedding of the 2-sphere S 2 in R3 such that the unbounded component of the complement R3 − S 2 (2. through the equatorial point (x. COMPACT SPACES 53 Proof. any subset of T is closed by the same argument and thus T is discrete. Let us say that a collection of subsets of X is an FIP-collection (finite intersection property) if any finite subcollection has nonempty intersection. where K is as in 2.10. t ∈ [0. In fact. (Coordinates in Rn+2 = Rn+1 × R. 1) ∈ S n+1 . to the geodesic path from the north pole (0. 0) ∈ S n ⊂ S n+1 .135. Put X = j∈J Xj . By construction. We want to prove that T is finite. Any linearly ordered subset (subsupercollection?) B ⊂ A has an upper bound. where the equality sign stands for ‘is homeomorphic to’. It suffices (1. The FIP-collection A is contained in a maximal FIP-collection.167) ωZ+ = K = K ∪ {0}.146). Step 1. x). 1] × X/({0} × X. We must (2. Can you find an injective continuous map R1 → R2 that is not an embedding? (3) Alexander’s horned sphere [7. We often write SS n = S n+1 . Let xn be a sequence of points in X. Vn ⊂ Vn−1 such that xn ∈ Un and yn ∈ Vn .148. V n = ∅. Is it true that a connected Hausdorff space is uncountable? 2. (1) The (unreduced) suspension of the space X is the quotient space SX = [0. to the south pole (0. The product spaces is compact.

. Step 3. Since A is open in [a. . b] ⊂ X be a closed interval and A and open covering of [a. So x < y ≤ b. b] and contains x < b. has the least upper bound property (1. . hence equals A by maximality. Suppose next that x has no immediate successor. . M ] for some elements m. or equivalently. Since Xj is compact and {πj (A) | A ∈ A} is an FIP collection of closed subsets of Xj . b] | [a. b] and a < c.153. . Let X be a linearly ordered space and ∅ = C ⊂ X a nonempty compact subspace. . The set C = {x ∈ [a. Choose an open set A ∈ A containing x. Let y be such a point. c) where c = max{c1 . . Ak ∈ A. Now [a.(6)). Since d is not an uppe bound for C. b] (with the subspace topology which is the order topology (2. Since A is open in [a. We must show that [a. Then C ⊂ c∈C (−∞. Choose A ∈ A such that c ∈ A. From Step 1 we have that C contains elements > a so the upper bound c is also > a.(2)). . c] can be covered by finitely many members of A.150). Then every closed interval [a. A contains an interval of the form [x. Compact subspaces of linearly ordered spaces. b] = ∅. . d) for some d ≤ b. Since d is not an immediate successor of x there is a point y ∈ (x. c] ⊂ [a. . This follows from (2. {πj (A) | A ∈ A} is FIP for all j ∈ J. ck } is the largest (1. Proof of Step 2. We now show that the eg the unit interval [0. Then a ≤ c ≤ b. c) as there for any a ∈ C is a c ∈ C such that a < c. . Proof. Suppose first that x has an immediate successor y > x. πj (A1 ) ∩ · · · ∩ πj (Ak ) ⊃ πj (A1 ∩ · · · ∩ Aj ) = ∅ for any finite collection of sets A1 .) The reason for this difference is that 1 R.154. We show first that any compact subspace of a linearly ordered space is contained in a closed interval. The claim is that [a.151) A1 . c]. To prove (2. . x] ∪ {y} can be covered by finitely many members of A. M ∈ C. TOPOLOGICAL SPACES AND CONTINUOUS MAPS Step 2. 2. Step 3. −1 −1 The point is that πj (Uj ) ∈ A for any neighborhood Uj of xj . . but not R − { 2 } (1. Lemma. is 2 empty but the intersection of finitely many of them is not empty. x] ∪ A can be covered by finitely sets from A. Now [a. (The intersection all the closed subspaces [− n + 1 . . .151). A1 ∩ · · · ∩ Ak ∈ A so A1 ∩ · · · ∩ Ak ∩ A = ∅ by assumption. 1] is compact in R. 2. Step 1 If x ∈ C and x < b then C ∩ (x. . in other words x ∈ A∈A A.150) (2. . . 1]. the intersection πj (A) for each j ∈ J and put A∈A πj (A) ⊂ Xj is nonempty (2. Step 2 c ∈ C. . c). y] ⊂ [a. y] ∪ A can be covered by finitely many sets from A. Theorem. x] ∪ [x. Note that the unit interval [0. d). 1] 1 1 1 1 is not compact in R − { 2 }. x] can be covered by finitely many members of A} is nonempty (a ∈ C) and bounded from above (by b). y] ∪ (d. ck ) ⊂ (−∞.15). Let X be a linearly ordered space with the least upper bound property. Ak ∈ A =⇒ A1 ∩ · · · ∩ Ak ∈ A ∀A ∈ A : A0 ∩ A = ∅ =⇒ A0 ∈ A and for any subset A0 ⊂ X we have To prove (2. Proof of Step 1. Clearly [a.150). Maximality of A implies (2. x ∈ A∈A A. 2. By (2. c] = [a. b] is covered by finitely many of the sets from the collection A. n ≥ 2. c1 ) ∪ · · · ∪ (−∞. Choose a point xj ∈ x = (xj ) ∈ X.50) of the finitely many elements c1 . note that the collection A ∪ {A0 } is FIP: Let A1 .135. note that the collection A ∪ {A1 ∩ · · · ∩ Ak } is FIP.152. there are points from C in (d. We would like to show that c = b.27)). y] = [a.151) since πj (Uj ) ∩ A = ∅. But this is a contradiction as c ∈ C and c ∈ (∞. for any A ∈ A as xj ∈ πj (A). Let [a. Then C ⊂ [m.16. Since A has the FIP it follows that −1 −1 πj1 (Uj1 ) ∩ · · · ∩ πjk (Ujk ) ∩ A = ∅ whenever Uji are neighborhoods of the finitely many points xji ∈ Xji and A ∈ A. . Thus x ∈ A for all A in the collection A. d) ⊂ [a.54 2. Proof. The claim is that C has a smallest and a largest element. . The proof is by contradiction. Let c = sup C be the least upper bound of C. We can not have x < b < y for then y would not be an immediate successor. By compactness C ⊂ (−∞. A contains an interval of the form (d. ck ∈ C. n + 2 ] ⊂ [0. Ak ∈ A. Assume that C has no largest element. c] for some d where a ≤ d. b] in X is compact. Uj ∩ πj (A) = ∅.

X = B(x1 . x2 ) < δ: ∀ε > 0∃δ > 0∀x1 . Proof.118). a) + d(a.158. C is compact. in particular. x2 ∈ X : dX (x1 . Theorem (Extreme Value theorem). so C is closed.10. Ex 27. M ∈ X such that f (X) ⊂ [f (m).144) and closed subsets of compact spaces are compact (2. c ∈ C. M ] ⊂ C because C is connected. Thus C is bounded. xi ) < δ + δi < 2δi which means that the point b is contained in B(xi . (Let A ⊂ X be a subset with diam(A) < δ. Then a is in one of the open balls B(xi .157. More importantly. 2δi ) is contained in one of the open sets of the covering. Corollary. (2) If X is compact and connected then there exist m. Theorem (Uniform continuity theorem). 2.155.155).160. (1) If X is compact then there exist m.137). 2. In a a linear continuum every closed interval is compact (2. This observation is expressed in the Lebesgue lemma. then c can not be an upper bound. In particular. Ω] are compact linearly ordered spaces [8. hence convex (2. Compactness in metric spaces.) The open covering of R consisting of the open intervals (−1.138) we can apply (2. 2δi ) and therefore in one of the open sets from the covering. If X is compact. (2) Since the image f (X) is compact (2. f (M )]. R)n | R > 0} an open covering of R . Let f : X → Y be a continuous map between metric spaces. 2.155. δ1 ) ∪ B(x2 .(10)? 2. the compact and connected subsets of the linear continuum R are precisely the closed intervals. there is an R > 0 such that C ⊂ [−R. 1) and (x − 1/|x|.107) we can apply (2. ∞]. M ∈ X such that f (X) = [f (m). f (x2 )) < ε 2. f (M )]. Let C ⊂ Rn be compact. Compact subspaces of Hausdorff spaces are closed (2. See [8. Since C is compact. Since C is compact and {(−R. For any open covering of X there exists a positive number δ > 0 (the Lebesgue number of the open covering) such that any subset of X with diameter < δ is contained in one of the open sets in the covering. 1 × 1]. 2. Let X be a linearly ordered space and ∅ = C ⊂ X a nonempty subspace. For any point b ∈ A. By Step 2. Theorem (Heine–Borel). (1) Since the image f (X) is compact (2. then f is uniformly continuous. Proof. M ∈ C (2. the ordered square Io = [0 × 0.118). since the linearly ordered space R has the least upper bound property. Cover X by finitely many open balls. A subset C of the euclidean space Rn is compact if and only if it is closed and bounded in the euclidean metric. . and S Ω = [1. the distance d(b. if C is closed and bounded then C is a closed subset of [−R.154) and connected (2. Let X be a compact metric space. Lemma (Lebesgue lemma). δ2 ) ∪ · · · ∪ B(xk . Z+ = [1.153). R]n for some R > 0. Since any open covering of compact space contains a finite subcovering we see that any open covering of a compact metric space contains a subcovering of open sets of size bounded from below.161. But then c = b for Step 1 says that if c < b. x2 ) < δ ⇒ dY (f (x1 ).1].138) and connected (2.1] for the converse. COMPACT SPACES 55 Step 3 c = b. Proof. n Can you now answer question 2.153) and [m. R]n . Choose any point a in A. M ] for some m. 2. Then C is compact and connected =⇒ C is a closed interval The converse holds when X is a linear continuum. But [−R. δi ). such that each double radius ball B(xi .159. A map f : X → Y between metric spaces is uniformly continuous if for all ε > 0 there is a δ > 0 such that dY (f (x1 ). Let δ be any positive number smaller than all the δi .139). we get that all closed intervals in R are compact. 2. C ⊂ [m. xi ) ≤ d(b. Then any subset of diameter < δ is contained in one of the balls B(xi . R]n is compact (2. Proof of Step 3. Proof. Conversely. f (x2 )) < ε whenever dX (x1 . Definition. Ex 10. Let f : X → Y be a continuous map of a nonempty topological space X into a linearly ordered space Y . δk ).60. 2δi ). 2 For instance.156. x + 1/|x|) for all x ∈ R with |x| > 1 does not have a Lebesgue number.

163) that SΩ is not metrizable.164. no point of the remainder βZ+ − Z+ is the limit of a sequence in Z+ [8.163) any countably infinite subset. A has a limit point x by hypothesis. x2 } < δ 1 =⇒ ∃y ∈ Y : {x1 . f (x2 )) < ε 2. (1) The well-ordered space SΩ of all countable ordinals is limit point compact and sequentially compact but it is not compact.(3)). If A is finite there is a constant subsequence (1. U1 ⊃ U2 ⊃ · · · . X is compact =⇒ X is limit point compact: A subset with no limit points is closed and discrete (2. use that SΩ is first countable (2. (Alternatively.98.6]. X is limit point compact. 1st countable and T1 =⇒ X is sequentially compact: Let (xn ) be a sequence in X. a space is limit point compact if it contains no infinite closed discrete subspaces (2. We shall not say much about these other forms of compactness (see [5. indeed any infinite subset (2. If A is infinite.4. Proof.145). 1 ε) | y ∈ Y }. The subsequence xnk converges to x. hence finite (2. TOPOLOGICAL SPACES AND CONTINUOUS MAPS Proof.56 2. 2. (Cf [8. 2. (It follows that βZ+ is not first countable and not metrizable).37) βZ+ of the positive integers is compact but it is not limit point compact as the sequence (n)n∈Z+ has no convergent subsequence. 2. SΩ is not compact (2. Example.40). A space X is (1) limit point compact if any infinite subset of X has a limit point (2) sequentially compact if any sequence in X has a convergent subsequence. In other words. f (x2 )} ⊂ B(y. any countably infinite subset of SΩ is contained in a compact subset (1.34. Limit point compactness and sequential compactness. 2. Let δ be the Lebesgue number of the open covering {f −1 B(y. x2 } ⊂ f −1 B(y.40). On the other hand.163.) It follows (2. Therefore (2.48).153) for it is a linearly ordered space with no greatest element [8. x2 ∈ X dX (x1 . at x just as in the proof of (2. Ex 35. there is nk+1 < nk such that xnk+1 is in Uk+1 . Indeed.159. 2 Then we have for all x1 . ε) 2 1 =⇒ ∃y ∈ Y : {f (x1 ). §3. Given ε > 0. . has a limit point and any sequence has a convergent subsequence. Suppose that we have found n1 < · · · < nk such that xni ∈ Ui .9].100).(4)). Consider the set A = {xn | n ∈ Z+ } of points in the sequenec. Theorem.3]) For any topological space X we have X is compact =⇒ X is limit point compact 1st countable + T1 =⇒ X is sequentially compact All three forms of compactness are equivalent for a metrizable space. there is a countable nested countable basis. In particular. ˇ (2) The Stone–Cech compactification (3. Since x is a limit point. If X is 1st countable. x2 ) < δ =⇒ diam{x1 . ε) 2 =⇒ dY (f (x1 ). there are infinitely many points from A in Uk+1 (2.162. Ex 10.40).154).(2). Ex 38. there is a sequence element xn1 ∈ U1 .10] for a more thorough discussion). Definition. X is sequentially compact and metrizable =⇒ X compact: This is more complicated (but should also be well-known from your experience with metric spaces) so we skip the proof.52. Since x is a limit point and X is T1 . Ex 28.

168. By construction.141) a closed quotient map by the Closed Map Lemma (2. Let now c : X → cX be another compactification X.(1)). Define c : cX → ωX by c(x) = x for all x ∈ X and c(cX − X) = ω. if cX consists of X and one extra point then the map c is a bijective quotient map. In particular. The real line R (more generally. respectively. X is dense in ωX: The intersection of X and some neighborhood of ω has the form X − C where C is compact. We must verify the following points: The subspace topology on X is the topology on X: The subspace topology X ∩ T is clearly the original topology on X. The space Q ⊂ R of rational numbers is not locally compact [8. If x1 ∈ X and x2 = ω. The collection T = {U | U ⊂ X open} ∪ {ωX − C | C ⊂ X compact} is a topology on ωX: It is easy to see that finite intersections and arbitrary unions of open sets of the first (second) kind are again open of the first (second) kind.167. Definition. Theorem (Alexandroff). Rn ) is locally compact but not compact. c is surjective and hence (2. The space ωX is called the Alexandroff compactification or the one-point compactification of X.165. k ∈ J. The only compactification of a compact space X is X itself as X is closed and dense in cX. We check that c is continuous.139). (1) The map X → ωX is a compactification missing one point.13) with the least upper bound property are locally compact.140. A compactification of the space X is an embedding c : X → cX of X into a compact Hausdorff space cX such that c(X) is dense in cX.11. For any open set U ⊂ X ⊂ ωX. If ω ∈ Uk . choose an open set U and a compact set C in X such that x ∈ U ⊂ C. This shows that c is continuous. ωX is Hausdorff: Let x1 and x2 be two distinct points in ωX. LOCALLY COMPACT SPACES AND THE ALEXANDROFF COMPACTIFICATION 57 11. Any locally compact and dense subspace of a Hausdorff space is open. Lemma. U2 ⊂ X ⊂ ωX containing x1 and x2 .166. If X is compact. And ωX = ωX − ∅ and ∅ are open. 2. Let X be a locally compact but not compact Hausdorff space. 2. A space X is locally compact at the point x ∈ X if x lies in the interior of some compact subset of X. A space is locally compact if it is locally compact at each of its points. If both points are in X then there are disjoint open sets U1 .24. Proof. At least one of these open sets contains ω. Ex 29. It is also closed under finite intersections since U ∩ (ωX − C) = U − C is open in X (2. then ωX is X with an added isolated point. Then {Uj }j∈K∪{k} is a finite open covering of ωX = X ∪ {ω}. then Uk = (X − C) ∪ {ω} for some compact set C ⊂ X. Let X be a locally compact Hausdorff space. Compact spaces are locally compact (U = X = C). The theorem says that ωX = cX/(cX − X) where cX is any compactification of X. This means that X is locally compact at the point x if x ∈ U ⊂ C where U is an open and C a compact subset of X. There is a finite set K ⊂ J such that {Uj }j∈K covers C. 2. c−1 (ωX − C) = cX − C is open in cX since the compact set C is closed in the Hausdorff space cX (2. Since X is assumed non-compact. It follows that T is closed under arbitrary unions. ωX is compact: Let {Uj }j∈J be any open covering of ωX. c−1 (U ) is open in X and hence (2. Locally compact spaces and the Alexandroff compactification 2. X − C is not empty. ie a homeomorphism (3). (2) If c : X → cX is another compactification of X then there is a unique closed quotient map c : cX → ωX = cX/(cX − X) such that the diagram | || || | c }|| XC CC CC CC C! / ωX c cX commutes.(2)) in cX since X is open in cX (2. . Then U x and ωX − C ω are disjoint open sets in ωX. All linearly ordered spaces (2. Definition.141).1]. The next theorem describes ωX in the more interesting case when X is not compact. For any compact set C ⊂ X.168). Let ωX = X ∪ {ω} denote the union of X with a set consisting of a single point ω.

Ω] = S Ω .171. (2) Open or closed subsets of locally compact Hausdorff spaces are locally compact Hausdorff. 1) ⊂ R. Here.58 2. respectively. Example.35) that the closure of V in X equals the closure of V in Y because V .24) so that the complement Y − U is closed and compact (2. [1. Let x be a point of X and U ⊂ X a neighborhood of x in X. is contained in U and X. Then A ∩ U ⊂ A ∩ C where A ∩ U is a neighborhood in A and C ∩ A is compact as a closed subset of the compact set C (2. Proof.37 R = ω(Z+ × R) 2. and SΩ = [1. (2) The real projective plane is the Alexandroff compactification of the M¨bius band. Then U is open also in Y (2.(2)) is a compactification of R and the quotient space W/(W − R) = ωR = S 1 . 1]. (4) The Alexandroff compactification of a countable union of disjoint copies of the real line ω n∈Z+ X dense 2.156)) (2. (2) =⇒ (3): Suppose that Y is a compact Hausdorff space and that X ⊂ Y is an open subset. Corollary (Characterization of locally compact Hausdorff spaces). Proof.83) which is a locally compact Hausdorff space (indeed a manifold (3. Let x ∈ X. Corollary. V x and W ⊃ Y − U or Y − W ⊂ U . [1. the closure of V in Y . (1) The n-sphere S n = ωRn is the Alexandroff compactification of the locally compact Hausdorff space Rn for there is (2. (5) The Warsaw circle W (which compact by the Heine-Borel theorem (2. U ⊂ X. There are subsets a ∈ U ⊂ C ⊂ X such that U is open and C is compact.165) directly to show that A is locally compact.35 2. where U is open in Y . More generally. Suppose that Y is Hausdorff and that the subspace X ⊂ Y is locally compact and dense.172. As V is disjoint from W it is contained in the closed subset Y − W and then also V ⊂ Y − W ⊂ U . In the Hausdorff space Y we can separate (2.156)).170. X is Hausdorff since subspaces of Hausdorff spaces are Hausdorff (2. But no part of U can stick outside X ∩ U for since U − (X ∩ U ) is open U − (X ∩ U ) = ∅ =⇒ (X ∩ U ) − (X ∩ U ) = ∅ which is absurd.169. Thus X is locally compact at x. (3) Let X be a linearly ordered space with the least upper bound property and let [a. ω) ⊂ Z+ × Z+ . Since X is locally compact Hausdorff the point x has a neighborhood X ∩ U . it is immediate from 2. V is compact as a closed subspace of the compact space Y (2. Ω) ⊂ S Ω are [0. 2. b]. in particular.170.(2)) (which is compact by the Heine-Borel theorem (2. Z+ = [1. o real projective n-space RP n = ωMBn is the Alexandroff compactification of the n-dimensional M¨bius o band MBn (2. By property (3) with U = X there is an open set V such that x ∈ V ⊂ V ⊂ X and V is compact. Let a ∈ A.133.47).137).41. 2. Note (2. (1) Let X be a locally compact space and A ⊂ X a closed subspace. For instance the Alexandroff compactifications of the half-open intervals [0.(8)) a homeomorphism of Rn onto the complement of a point in S n . Then ω[a. ω]. TOPOLOGICAL SPACES AND CONTINUOUS MAPS Proof. This shows that X is open.(4) = ωZ+ ∧ S 1 = n∈Z+ C1/n is the Hawaiian Earring (2. 2. (1) Closed subsets of locally compact spaces are locally compact. (3) =⇒ (1): Let x be a point of X. (2) If X is locally compact Hausdorff and A ⊂ X open.(2)) the disjoint closed subspaces {x} and Y − U by disjoint open sets.139). b) = [a. . Thus we must have U ⊂ X ∩ U .(2) that A is locally compact Hausdorff.40)).137) in the compact space Y . (1) =⇒ (2): The locally compact Hausdorff space X is homeomorphic to the open subspace ωX − {ω} of the compact Hausdorff space ωX (2. We use the definition (2.60.137). b) be a halfopen interval in the locally compact space X. such that its relative closure ClX (X ∩ U ) = X ∩ X ∩ U = X ∩ U is compact and hence closed in the Hausdorff space Y (2. For a Hausdorff space X the following conditions are equivalent: (1) X is locally compact (2) X is homeomorphic to an open subset of a compact space (3) For any point x ∈ X and any neighborhood U of x there is an open set V such that x ∈ V ⊂ V ⊂ U and V is compact.140.167).

172. Thus f is a quotient map onto its image and its factorization f as in the commutative diagram (2.16]. f is a closed map for if C ⊂ X is closed then f (C) = {(x. LOCALLY COMPACT SPACES AND THE ALEXANDROFF COMPACTIFICATION 59 An arbitrary subspace of a locally compact Hausdorff space need not be locally compact (2. y0 ) is defined to be X ∧ Y = (X × Y )/(X ∨ Y ) = X × Y /(X × {y0 } ∪ {x0 } × Y ) the quotient of the product space X × Y by the closed subspace X ∨ Y (× − ∨ = ∧). y0 ).(2)) f / X ×Y X ∪Y II : II uu u II uuf II uu I$ uu X ∨Y is an embedding. 2. (6) (The Alexandroff compactification of a product space) If X and Y are locally compact Hausdorff spaces the map X × Y → ωX × ωY → ωX ∧ ωY is an embedding. and f (y) = (x0 . The smash product of the pointed spaces (X. This follows from (2. 2. We can therefore identify X ∨ Y and X × {y0 } ∪ {x0 } × Y .82. Let f : X ∪ Y → X × Y be the continuous map given by f (x) = (x. (1) n∈Z+ Cn ⊂ R2 (2. (4) (Wedge sums and smash products) A pointed space is a topological space together with one of its points. y ∈ Y . The + image of a locally compact space under an open continuous [8. However. y0 ) | x ∈ C} = π1 (C) ∩ π2 ({y0 }) is also closed.(1)). 29. 3.41.(3).78. The wedge sum of two pointed disjoint spaces (X. −1 −1 In fact.79.3.87) so that g is a homeomorphism (2.172. and S 1 is not locally compact (at the one point common to all the circles). 2.21) by identifying the two base points. called the base point.(6)) is not locally compact at the point corresponding to Z: Any neighborhood of this point contains an infinite closed discrete subspace so it can not be contained in any compact subspace (2.174) ω(X × Y ) = ωX ∧ ωY . 2. x0 ) and (Y. the quotient of a locally compact space need not be locally compact (2. The universal property of the Alexandroff compactification (2.61). the universal property of quotient maps (2. (3) In diagram (2.82.11. Ex 29.82.2]. y). for instance Zω is not locally compact. Example. x ∈ X. The image −1 −1 f (X ∪ Y ) = X × {y0 } ∪ {x0 } × Y = π2 ({y0 }) ∪ π1 ({x0 }) is closed when X and Y are T1 –spaces. If A ⊂ X and B ⊂ Y are closed subspaces.99). y0 ) is the quotient space X ∨ Y = (X Y )/({x0 } ∪ {y0 }) obtained from the disjoint union of X and Y (2.78. S 1 is compact.167) implies that (2. the space S 1 is locally compact but not compact.145). But if X and Y are locally compact Hausdorff spaces then gX × gY is quotient (2.173) (X × Y )/(X × B ∪ A × Y ) = X/A ∧ Y /B in this case.7. 3. Ex 31.7] [5. g may not be a homeomorphism since the product gX × gY of the two closed quotient maps gX : X → X/A and gY : Y → Y /B may not be a quotient map.21] is locally compact but the image under a general continuous map of a locally compact space need not be locally compact.145).(3)) and (2.81.(2)) [5.(3)) when we note that the first map embeds X × Y into an open saturated subset of ωX × ωY (2. The product of finitely many locally compact spaces is locally compact but an arbitrary product of locally compact spaces need not be locally compact [8. indeed. (2) The quotient space R/Z (2.(2)) produces a continuous bijection g such that the diagram gX ×gY / X/A × Y /B X/A×Y /B / X/A ∧ Y /B X ×Y R RRR k5 RRR k kk kkg k RRR RRR kkkk R) kkkk (X × Y )/(X × B ∪ A × Y ) g commutes.98. x0 ) and (Y.(2)) is not locally compact at the origin: Any neighborhood of 0 × 0 contains a countably infinite closed discrete subspace so it can not be contained in any compact subspace (2.172.3] or a perfect map [8. (5) The torus S 1 × S 1 is a compactification of R × R with remainder S 1 ∨ S 1 .

∞ the integer 1−p is invertible in Zp with inverse (1−p)−1 = (1. Thus Zp = ∆Z is a compact topological ring containing the integers as a dense subring and the map ∆ : Z → Zp is a compactification (2. ∆Z is dense in Zp in that any neighborhood of a point in Zp contains a point from Z.64). x2 .) Let p be a prime number. . In particular. S m ∧ S n = ωRm ∧ ωRn (2. ∞ Zp = {(an ) | ∀n : an ≡ an+1 mod pn } ⊂ n=1 Z/pn Z is closed and therefore also compact (2. . As a ring. The subring.173) and the formula (Exam June 2003) for the boundary of the product of two sets. 1+p. ∧ S 1 = I/∂I ∧ .16). . the sets {(an )∞ | ai ≡ aj mod pi } are closed n=1 (and open) whenever 0 < i < j because the projection maps are continuous (2. . Prop 2. (7) The n–sphere S n is (homeomorphic to) the quotient space I/∂I.) ∈ Zp with nonzero reduction mod p is invertible because any xn ∈ Z/pn Z with nonzero reduction mod p is invertible [9. 1+p+p2 . . For instance. is compact according to the Tychonoff theorem (2. called the p-adic integers. What we call a (locally) compact Hausdorff space they simply call a (locally) compact space. .60 2. . TOPOLOGICAL SPACES AND CONTINUOUS MAPS for any two locally compact Hausdorff spaces X and Y . Actually. . ∧ I/∂I = I n /∂I n by (2. The product ring n=1 Z/pn Z of all the residue n (discrete topological) rings Z/p Z. p 12]. By the definition of the product topology (2. 0 < n < ∞. Hence S n = S 1 ∧ . Zp is quite different from Z. ∆(a) = (a mod pn )∞ n=1 embeds the ring of integers into Zp . . The diagonal ring homomorphism ∞ Z − Zp ⊂ → n=1 ∆ Z/pn Z.166) of the discrete space Z. Some mathematicians prefer to include Hausdorffness in the definition of (local) compactness. .137). ∞ (8) (The p-adic integers. Indeed.149).174) = ω(Rm × Rn ) = ωRm+n = S m+n when we view the spheres as Alexandroff compactifications of euclidean spaces. . what we call a (locally) compact space they call a (locally) quasicompact space. any x = (x1 .) = n=0 pn .

z) < d(x. of course. the three conditions of the top line equivalent. in fact any subset of the 2nd countable space R. r ∈ Q+ } of balls centered at points in A and with a rational radius is a countable (1. Any closed subset of a Lindel¨f space is Lindel¨f [8. Suppose first that X is second countable and let B be a countable basis for the topology. Countability Axioms Let us recall the basic question: Which topological spaces are metrizable? In order to further analyze this question we shall look at a few more properties of topological spaces. Any subspace of a (first) second countable space is (first) second countable. Example 2 p 190]. A topological space • that has a countable neighborhood basis at each of its points is called a first countable space • that has a countable basis is called a second countable space • that contains a countable dense subset is said to contain a countable dense subset1 • in which every open covering has a countable subcovering is called a Lindel¨f space o A subset A ⊂ X is dense if A = X. Any compact space is Lindel¨f. and B(a. a) + d(a. There are three more axioms using the term ’countable’. The real line R is second countable for the open intervals (a. Let X be a topological space. r).41. o 3. Proof. r) | a ∈ A. r). Here are the four countability axioms. Any metric space with a countable dense subset is 2nd countable: Let X be a metric space with a countable dense subset A ⊂ X. y) + d(y.2. For each basis set B ∈ B which is contained in some open o set from the collection U.1. that is if every nonempty open subset contains a point from A.41. r) ⊂ B(x.97). Then the at most countable collection {UB } of these open sets from U is an open covering: Let x be any point in X. let Ar be a countable subset of X such that X = a∈Ar B(a. Then the collection {B(a. y) + d(y.(7)). pick any UB ∈ U such that B ⊂ UB . y) + 2r < ε. ε).137). Then X has a countable dense subset ks X is 2nd countable  X is 1st countable If X is metrizable. We have already encountered the first countability axiom.9] (with o o o a proof that is similar to that of 2. A countable product of (first) second countable spaces is (first) second countable (2. ε) there are a ∈ A and r ∈ Q+ such that y ∈ B(a. z) < r then d(x. ε) in X and any y ∈ B(x. Any second countable space is first countable. A product of two Lindel¨f spaces need not be Lindel¨f (3. Metric spaces are first countable but not necessarily second countable [8. Definition.8).98. we have x ∈ B ⊂ U for some basis set B ∈ B. But then x ∈ B ⊂ UB . Then {bB | B ∈ B} is countable (1. r). Quotient spaces of first coountable spaces need not be first countable (2. z) ≤ d(x. For each positive rational o o number r.9). o o The next result implies that R.CHAPTER 3 Regular and normal spaces 1. Then A = r∈Q+ Ar is a 1Or to be separable 61 +3 X is Lindel¨f o . Ex 30. R is first but not second countable (3. Any metric Lindel¨f space is 2nd countable: Let X be a metric Lindel¨f space. 3. y) < ε and let a ∈ A ∩ B(y. ε) for if d(a. r) ⊂ B(x. is Lindel¨f. b) with rational end-points form a countable basis for the topology. Since x is contained in a member U of U and every open set is a union of basis sets. X is Lindel¨f: Let U be an open covering of X. Theorem. X has a countable dense subset: Pick a point bB ∈ B in each basis set B ∈ B.(4)) basis for the topology: It suffices to show that for any open ball B(x. Let r be a positive rational number such that 2r + d(x. Then y ∈ B(a. z) ≤ d(x.(2)) and dense.

An arbitraty subspace of a normal space need not be normal (3. 2 3. Proof. V ⊂ X such that x ∈ U and B ⊂ V • T4 -space or a normal space if points are closed and for every par of disjoint closed sets A.3.66) V = V j ⊂ Uj = U . B ⊂ X there exist disjoint open sets U. is a countable local basis at x. Consider a point y ∈ Y and a and a closed set B ⊂ X such that y ∈ Y ∩ B. x × 1). Let B = X − U . REGULAR AND NORMAL SPACES dense countable (1. Definition. 2. 2. Theorem. r) ⊂ B(x.5.(3)) subset: For any open ball B(x. Thus X is regular.6. ε) and any positive rational r < ε there is an a ∈ Ar such that x ∈ B(a. We have the following sequence of implications X is normal =⇒ X is regular =⇒ X is Hausdorff =⇒ X is T1 where none of the arrows reverse (3. 2.1] A closed subspace of a normal space is normal. Proof. 3. 3. R is 1st countable: At the point x the collection of open sets of the form [x.32) and the product of two normal spaces need not be normal ((3. The relatively open sets U ∩ Y and V ∩ Y are disjoint and they contain y and B ∩ Y . Otherwise. Separation Axioms 3.4. Thus Io is not metrizable [8.47) Any subspace of a regular space is regular.9. R has a countable dense subset: Q is dense since any (basis) open set in R contains rational points. 3.5.7.3. We use 3. Then a ∈ B(x. Ex 30.(2). (2) X is normal ⇐⇒ For every closed set A and every neighborhood U of A there is an open set V such that A ⊂ V ⊂ V ⊂ U . A space X is called a • T1 -space if points {x} are closed in X • T2 -space or a Hausdorff space if for any pair of distinct points x.6]). Proof. [8. . Then (1) X is regular ⇐⇒ For every point x ∈ X and every neighborhood U of x there exists an open set V such that x ∈ V ⊂ V ⊂ U . For each point x choose a member Bx of B such that x ∈ Bx ⊂ [x. Lemma. V ⊂ X such that A ⊂ U and B ⊂ V . Example (Sorgenfrey’s half-open interval topology). R is not 2nd countable: Let B be any basis for the topology. V ⊂ X such that x ∈ U and y ∈ V • T3 -space or a regular space if points are closed and for any point x ∈ X and any closed set B ⊂ X not containing x there exist disjoint open sets U. Example 2 p 203].6]. (Cf 2. ε). The map R → B : x → Bx is injective for if Bx = By then x = inf Bx = inf By = y. Then X is Hausdorff (2. Then V = Vj is a neighborhood of x in the product topology and (2. 2. The half-open intervals [a. Any product of regular spaces is regular. Then Y is Hausdorff (2. Example. Quite similar to the proof (3.62 3.98. x ∈ I.[8. 3. choose Vj such that xj ∈ Vj ⊂ V j ⊂ Uj . b) where b > x is rational. Ex 32.47)). Let X be a T1 -space. Then y ∈ B and since Y is regular there exist disjoint open sets U and V such that y ∈ U and B ⊂ V . Let x = (xj ) be a point in X and U = Uj a basis neighborhood of x.36]). respectively. The ordered square Io is compact (2. Let X = Xj be the Cartesian product of regular space Xj .10.6) that a subspace of a regular space is regular.108. 2.8.(1) to show that X is regular. Theorem.9). 3. b) form a basis for the space R (2. x + 1).(4). Ex 22. [5. r). y ∈ X there exist disjoint open sets U.47)). Let X be a regular space and Y ⊂ X a subset.41.(3)).31. [8. j ∈ J.154) and therefore Lindel¨f but it is not second o 2 countable since it contains uncountably many disjoint open sets (x × 0.11. Put Vj = Xj whenever Uj = Xj .

d) form a basis (2.) See [8. Also the second set can be o covered by countably many of the intervals (aj . This is a contradiction .145. it must be of the form (c. xa ) ⊂ R − B which is a contradiction So UA and UB are disjoint. If UA ∩ UB = ∅ then [a.13]. bj )} consists of some of the left end-points of the intervals. bk ) are disjoint for ak in this set.(3)). (R is even completely normal [8. RL = RR = R R which is greater (1. The anti-diagonal L = {(x.30) of two (compeletely) regular (3. 2. R × R is not Lindel¨f: A Lindel¨f space can not contain an uncountable closed discrete subo o space (cf 2. xb ) similarly. Example 3. Then U must be of the form U = (a. If L and R have the same cardinality. Say a < b. bj ) ∪ R − j∈J (aj . there is a basis open set containing k and contained in V . Ex 32. b) − K for the other basis sets containing 0 intersect K. The set K is closed and 0 ∈ K. xa ). For each point a ∈ A ⊂ R − B there is an xa ∈ R such that [a. b ∈ B. that the product of two Lindel¨f spaces need not be o Lindel¨f. xa ) ∩ [b.8 shows that the arrows of Theorem 3.8)) spaces. We may choose U to be a basis open set.10. b) − K) ∩ (c. Example (Sorgenfrey’s half-open square topology). Ex 30. Ex 31. Then UA and UB are open sets containing A and B.9] for a concrete example of two disjoint closed subspaces that can not be separated by open sets.18) for the product topology R × R .2). Thus the set of continuous maps X → R has at least the cardinality of RL . then b ∈ [a. Ex 18. bj ) for any subset of R (with the standard topology) is 2nd countable and hence Lindel¨f (3. R is normal: Let A. Q × Q is a countable dense subspace. b) × [c. Suppose that U 0 and V ⊃ K are disjoint open sets.1. The Tietze extension theorem (3.2. ie that if R = j∈J [aj .42) than the cardinality of Z R. Let X be any normal space and L a closed discrete subspace. The first set can be covered by countably many of the intervals (aj . Since any continuous map of X into a Hausdorff space is determined by its values on a dense subspace [8.124. d) = ∅ for cardinality reasons. The open intervals plus the sets (a. 3. bj ) simply because it is countable: The second set R− j∈J (aj . d) and ((a. bj ) = j∈J [aj . But U ∩ V ⊃ ((a. the set of continuous maps X → R has at most the cardinality of RZ = Z R.11.2 do not reverse.6] by this argument. But RK is not regular. (Let X be a space with a countable dense subset. Define UB = b∈B [b. Let UA = a∈A [a. 2. and provides an example of a (completely) regular space that is not normal. −x)}) subspace of the same cardinality as R. (Note that this is true had the intervals been open as R is Lindel¨f. xa ) ⊂ R − B. Let k be a point in (a.) Write o R= j∈J (aj . −x) | x ∈ R} is a closed (clear!) discrete (L ∩ [x. b) − K) ∩ (c. This is a Hausdorff topology on R since it is finer than the standard topology.2).10].15) says that any map L → R extends to continuous map X → R. Example 3. bj ) is covered by a collection of right half-open intervals [aj . The open intervals (ak .9]). bj ) then R is actually already covered by countably many of these intervals. b) − K 1 where K = { n | n ∈ Z+ } form a basis for the topology RK (2. bj ) as the (disjoint) union of the corresponding open intervals and the complement of this union.9. d). The half-open rectangles [a. ∞) = {(x. b) ∩ K (which is nonempty). ∞) × [−x.9 shows that the product of two normal spaces need not be normal. bj ) − j∈J (aj . Example (A Hausdorff space that is not regular).28) (even normal (3. R × R is (completely) regular: since it is the product (3. SEPARATION AXIOMS 63 R is Lindel¨f: It suffices (!) to show that any open covering by basis open sets contains a o countable subcovering. Since k is in the open set V . B ⊂ R be disjoint closed sets. xb ) = ∅ for some a ∈ A. respectively. R × R is not normal: A normal space with a countable dense subset can not contain a closed discrete subspace of the same cardinality as R [5. o 3.8) it is not metrizable (3. But there is only room for countably many open disjoint intervals in R (choose a rational point in each of them) so there are at most countaly many left end-dpoints ak in the second set.) Since R has a dense countable subset and is not second countable (3. [8. bj ) = {ak | ∀j ∈ J : ak ∈ (aj .

B ⊂ X there exists a continuous function f : X → [0. The proof relies on Urysohn’s lemma (3. a > 0. have open preimages. Corollary. We shall recursively define open sets Ur ⊂ X for all r ∈ Q∩[0.13) have been defined for i ≤ n. r1 = 1.5.} such that the first two elements are r0 = 0 and r1 = 1. . 1]. . Let X be a normal space and let A and B be disjoint closed subsets of X.14. rn . 1] there exists a continuous function F : X → [0.(2)) there is an open set U0 such that A ⊂ U0 ⊂ U 0 ⊂ U1 . (3) (Tietze’s characterization of normality) For any closed subset A of X and any continuous function f : A → [0. 1] can be extended to X. By normality (3. . where n ≥ 1. a)) = r<a Ur and f −1 ((b. 1] into a sequence Q ∩ [0. Let X = R and let A = (−∞. 1] given by f (x) = inf{r ∈ Q ∩ [0. .12) and Tietze’s extension theorem (3. still satisfy (3.5. We are now ready to define the function. 1] such that (make a drawing!) (3. 1) or [0. .13) r < s =⇒ A ⊂ U0 ⊂ Ur ⊂ U r ⊂ Us ⊂ U s ⊂ U1 ⊂ X − B To begin. REGULAR AND NORMAL SPACES 3. r1 . r4 . let U1 be any open set such that A ⊂ U1 ⊂ X − B.13). r) for r ∈ Q ∩ [0. 1] = {r0 = 0. Every continuous map from a closed subspace A of a normal space X into (0. The sets Uri . 3. Normal spaces Normal spaces can be characterized in two ways. 3. b < 1. 1] such that f (A) = 0 and f (B) = 1.13) [0. for instance U1 = X − B. −1] and B = [2.12. . Then there exists a continuous function (a Urysohn function) f : X → [0. r3 . Proof. r2 . Assume that the open sets Uri satisfying condition (3. (2) (Urysohn’s characterization of normality) For any pair of disjoint closed sets A. Suppose that if we put the numbers r0 . Since f (x) < a ⇐⇒ ∃r < a : x ∈ Ur ⇐⇒ x ∈ r<a Ur (X − U r ) r>b f (x) > b ⇐⇒ ∃r > b : x ∈ Ur ⇐⇒ ∃r > b : x ∈ U r ⇐⇒ x ∈ the sets f −1 ([0. 3. a). B ⊂ X there exist disjoint open sets U.11. arrange the elements of Q ∩ [0.(2)) there is an open set Urn+1 such that U r ⊂ Urn+1 ⊂ U rn+1 ⊂ Urm . Consider the function f : X → [0. By normality (3. To proceed. 3. 1]) = (X − U r ) r>b are open. [0. Then U r ⊂ Urm by (3. Theorem (Tietze extension theorem). Let X be a T1 -space. i ≤ n + 1.15).13). . Example. Theorem (Urysohn lemma). rn+1 in order 0 = r0 < · · · < r < rn+1 < rm < · · · < r1 = 1 the immediate predecessor of rn+1 is r and rm is the immediate successor. If we let Ur = (−∞. 1] | x ∈ Ur } 1 x ∈ U1 x ∈ X − U1 Then f (B) = 1 by definition and f (A) = 0 since A ⊂ U0 . 1). Then the following conditions are equivalent: (1) X is normal: For any pair of disjoint closed sets A. 1] such that F |A = f . But why is f continuous? It suffices (2.64 3. ∞). . 1] such that f (a) = 0 for a ∈ A and f (b) = 1 for b ∈ B.50) to show that the subbasis intervals (2. and (b.15. We shall now define Urn+1 . V ⊂ X such that A ⊂ U and B ⊂ V . 1] then  0 x ≤ 0  f (x) = x 0 < x < 1   1 1≤x is the Urysohn function with f (A) = 0 and f (B) = 1.

18). The Urysohn lemma (3. F (a) = f (a) for all a ∈ A. 1] such that U = 0 on −1 F1 ({±1}) and U = 1 on A. − 1 r]) ⊂ A and f0 ([ 1 r. For r > 0 and any continuous map f0 : A → [−r. r]) = f0 ([−r. Then f is a Urysohn function for A and B. 1) into the half-open interval. n=1 |F (x)| ≤ 1 3 n=1 2 3 n−1 = 1 · 3 = 1. The function f : A ∪ B → [0. 1] or rather to the homeomorphic interval [−1. r]).20. Let f : X → [0. . r]) ∪ f0 ([ r. See 2.12) a Urysohn function g : X → [− 3 r. Theorem. 1] be a continuous extension of f . o 3. There exists (3.2]. Theorem. Since the sets f0 ([−r. 1) maps A into the open interval between −1 and 1. the series converges uniformly and the sum function F = ∞ gn is continuous by the uniform limit theorem (2.17) is satisfied. We have just seen (3.(2). Assume that X is a T1 -space with property (3). Proof of Corollary 3. r]) 3 3 3 3 g=− 1 r 3 |g|≤ 1 r 3 1 g= 3 r we see that the second inequality of (3. Compact Hausdorff spaces are normal.15) says that (1) =⇒ (3).(5)). 1] given by f (A) = 0 and f (B) = 1 is continuous (2. In fact. Proof.16 applied to the function f − g1 on A says that there exists a continuous real function g2 : X → R such that ∀x ∈ X : |g1 (x)| ≤ ∀x ∈ X : |g2 (x)| ≤ 12 33 and ∀a ∈ A : |f (a) − (g1 (a) + g2 (a))| ≤ 2 3 2 Proceeding this way we recursively (1. We know that we can extend f to a continuous function F1 : X → [−1. − 3 r]) and g(x) = 3 r on f0 ([ 3 r. r] there exists a continuous map g : X → R such that (3.16) that there exists a continuous real function g1 : X → R such that 1 2 and ∀a ∈ A : |f (a) − g1 (a)| ≤ 3 3 Now Lemma 3. Many familiar classes of topological spaces are normal.3. 1).104). 1 r] such that g(x) = − 1 r 3 3 −1 1 −1 1 1 on f0 ([−r. Metrizable spaces are normal. Lemma. r]) ⊂ A are closed and disjoint in A they are 3 3 1 also closed and disjoint in X.11.12) says that (1) =⇒ (2) and the converse is clear. 3. B be two disjoint closed subsets. We shall first prove the theorem for functions from A to [0. Given a continuous function f : A → [−1. Proof of 3. The closed sets −1 F1 ({±1}) and A are disjoint. Assume now that f : A → (−1.17) ∀x ∈ X : |g(x)| ≤ 1 r 3 and ∀a ∈ A : |f0 (a) − g(a)| ≤ 2 r 3 −1 −1 Proof.19. We want to modify F1 so that it does not take the values −1 and 1 and stays the same on A. The Tietze extension theorem (3.24) define a sequence g1 . Then F = U · F1 is an extension of f that maps X into (−1. A similar procedure applies to functions f : A → [−1. Let A.15. NORMAL SPACES 65 3. 1].53.18).18) ∀x ∈ X : |gn (x)| ≤ 1 3 2 3 n−1 n and ∀a ∈ A : |f (a) − i=1 ∞ n=1 gn (x) ∞ gi (a)| ≤ 2 3 n By the first inequality in (3. By the first inequality in (3. 3. 1] which is more convenient for reasons of notation. every regular Lindel¨f space is normal [8.140.18). 3 and by the second inequality in (3. g2 . From 1 1 1 −1 −1 −1 −1 1 f0 ([−r. 1] into the closed interval between −1 and 1.12) a Urysohn function U : X → [0. Choose (3. − r]) ∪ f0 ([− r. Let X be a normal space and A ⊂ X a closed subspace.16. Ex 32.8. Only eg (3) =⇒ (2) remains.4] [5. · · · of continuous real functions on X such that (3.

Similarly. 3. for any point b ∈ B there exists a point xb < b such that (xb . Then f is an embedding.31. [5. REGULAR AND NORMAL SPACES Proof. Lemma. Theorem.66 fj (C) ⇐⇒ ∀j ∈ J : fj (x) ∈ fj (C) (fj ) separates =⇒ x∈C for all points x ∈ X and all closed subsets C ⊂ X. Second countable regular spaces and the Urysohn metrization theorem We investigate closer the class of regular spaces. In particular. g(x)) is an embedding for any continuous map g : X → Y . Then the diagonal map f = (fj ) : X → j∈J Yj is an embedding.4]. The one-point set {a0 } = [a0 . if one of the functions fj is injective and separates points and closed sets then f = (fj ) is an embedding. A) + d(x. Suppose next that a0 ∈ A ∪ B. For any point a ∈ A there exists a point xa < a such that (xa . Also the map f separates points and closed sets because f (x) ∈ f (C) ⇐⇒ f (x) ∈ fj (C) ⇐⇒ f (x) ∈ 2. 3. We start with an embedding theorem that is used in other contexts as well. ie f is injective. We discuss embeddings into product spaces. b]. points are closed so that f separates points. Let f : X → Y be a map that separates points and closed sets.11). we can find disjoint open sets U . V such that A − {a0 } ⊂ U and B ⊂ V . b] is disjoint from A. If X is T1 . Proof. 3. are (closed and) open (2. Assume that X is T1 or that at least one of the functions fj is injective. Then A ⊂ U ∪ {a0 } and B ⊂ V − {a0 } where the open sets U ∪ {a0 } and V − {a0 } are disjoint.8) for normality of R . But this equality says that f (C) is closed in f (X).22.24. By the above. the well-ordered spaces SΩ and SΩ are normal (the latter space is even compact Hausdorff). 3. Definition. Suppose that neither A nor B contain a0 . We shall only prove the special case that every well-ordered space is normal. The proof now proceeds as the proof (3.7. Linearly ordered spaces are normal. Proof. Hence the bijective continuous map f : X → f (X) is closed. so it is a homeomorphism. the graph X → X × Y : x → (x. 4. a] is disjoint from B. say a0 ∈ A.21. A set {fj : X → Yj | j ∈ J} of continuous functions is said to separate points and closed sets if for any point x ∈ X and any closed subset C ⊂ X we have x ∈ C =⇒ ∃j ∈ J : fj (x) ∈ fj (C) 3. Let X be a metric space with metric d and let A. Proof. For instance. The continuous function f : X → [0. The theorem now follows from 3. A) d(x.23. B) is a Urysohn function with f (A) = {0} and f (B) = {1}. In particular. 1] given by f (x) = d(x. This shows that X is normal (3.24. a < b. The half-open intervals (a. Theorem (Diagonal embedding theorem). Problem 1. B be disjoint closed sets.(5)). . Let {fj : X → Yj | j ∈ J} be a family of continuous functions that separates points and closed sets. An embedding theorem. a+ ) is open 0 and closed (as X is Hausdorff). Let A and B be two disjoint closed subsets and let a0 denote the smallest element of X.66 3. Assume also that f is injective (eg that X is T1 ). For any point x ∈ X and any closed set C ⊂ X we have that f (x) ∈ f (C) f separates =⇒ x ∈ C =⇒ f (x) ∈ f (C) so we get that f (X) ∩ f (C) = f (C).25.

1]ω with the fU V as coordinate functions. . Therefore the open sets Un still cover A and the open sets Vn still cover B: ∞ ∞ A⊂ n=1 Un and B ⊂ n=1 Vn and in fact these sets are disjoint: ∞ ∞ Un ∩ n=1 n=1 Vn = m≤n Um ∩ Vn ∪ m>n Um ∩ Vn = ∅ because Um ⊂ Um does not intersect Vn ⊂ X − Um if m ≤ n and Um ⊂ X − Vn does not intersect Vn ⊂ Vn if m > n. The point is that in a second countable regular hence normal space there is a countable set of (Urysohn) functions that separate points and closed sets. (3) =⇒ (4): [0. even normal (3. V of basis open sets U. choose a Urysohn function fU V : X → [0. and we have removed no points from B from Vn . 2 . there are (3. Let A and B be disjoint closed sets in X. Then {fU V } separates points and closed sets: For any closed subset C and any point x ∈ C. Vn = Vn − (U1 ∪ · · · ∪ U n ) U1 = U1 − V 1 U2 = U2 − (V 1 ∪ V 2 ) . (4) =⇒ (1): Any metrizable space is regular. 3. Namely. .(1)).27. V such that x ∈ U ⊂ U ⊂ V ⊂ X − C (choose V first). U2 and V1 . . We show that there is a countable set {fU V } of continuous functions X → [0. of basis open sets such that ∞ B⊂ n=1 Vn and V n ∩ A = ∅ for n = 1. . (1) =⇒ (2): Let X be a regular space with a countable basis B. 1]ω is a universal second countable metrizable (or normal or regular) space. .4.20). for each pair U. Similarly. . (2. V2 . SECOND COUNTABLE REGULAR SPACES AND THE URYSOHN METRIZATION THEOREM 67 3. V2 .5) basis open sets U . A universal second countable regular space. Let U1 . Consider instead the open sets V1 = V1 − U 1 V2 = V2 − (U 1 ∪ U 2 ) . We claim that X is normal.93). . Un = Un − (V1 ∪ · · · ∪ V n ) Even though we have removed part of Un we have removed no points from A from Un . .) (2) =⇒ (3): Let X be a normal space with a countable basis B. The open sets ∞ n=1 Un and ∞ n=1 Vn may not be disjoint. We say that a space X is universal for some property if X has this property and any space that has this property embeds into X. 1]ω metrizable The Hilbert cube [0. 1]ω is metrizable and any subspace of a metrizable space is metrizable. . Then ∞ A⊂ n=1 Un and U n ∩ B = ∅ for n = 1. each point a ∈ A ⊂ X − B has a basis neighborhood Ua ∈ B such that a ∈ Ua ⊂ U a ⊂ X − B. According to the Diagonal embedding theorem (3. Therefore such a space embeds in the Hilbert cube. . By regularity (3. . Proof. 2 .26.5.25) there is an embedding X → [0. V ∈ B such that U ⊂ V . The following conditions are equivalent for a second countable space X: (1) (2) (3) (4) X X X X is is is is regular normal homeomorphic to a subspace of [0. be the elements in the image of the map A → B : a → Ua . 1] (3. . . (Make a drawing of U1 .12) such that fU V (U ) = 0 and fU V (X − V ) = 1. . 1] that separate points and closed sets. Theorem (Urysohn metrization theorem). there is a sequence V1 . or x ∈ X − C. Then fU V (x) = 0 and fU V (C) = 1 so that fU V (x) ∈ fU V (C). . U2 .

= 2nd countable metrizable = Lindel¨f o metrizable = Subspace of Hilbert cube Countable dense subset metrizable .2) the following identities 2nd countable regular = 2nd countable normal = between classes of topological spaces. 3. REGULAR AND NORMAL SPACES We have (3.68 3.27.

3.170).29) because (2. Theorem.29). 1] and let ∆: X → j∈C(X) I = map(C(X). Instead we have a new class of spaces where this is true.31.ˇ 5. 3. 3. I) be the continuous evaluation map given by ∆(x)(j) = j(x) or πj ∆ = j for all j ∈ C(X).29). (3) =⇒ (1): A compact Hausdorff space is normal (3. 3. For any topological space X let C(X) denote the set of continuous maps j : X → I of X to the unit interval I = [0. Corollary. It is easy to see that any subspace of a completely regular space is completely regular [8. The second part follows from (3. 3. Definition.170). πj (∆(x)) = j(x). j ∈ C(X). Closed subspaces of compact Hausdorff spaces are compact Hausdorff (2. Locally compact Hausdorff spaces are open subspaces of compact spaces (2.29). [8. (2) =⇒ (3): [0. Completely regular spaces are subspaces of compact spaces (3.6) Any subspace of a completely regular space is completely regular. The evaluation map ∆: X → j∈C(X) [0. 1] such that f (x) = 0 and f (C) = 1. Take any completely regular but not normal space (for instance (3. Corollary. This construction is natural: For any continuous map f : X → Y of X into a space Y . and arbitrary subspaces are completely regular (3.34) map(C(X). 1]. Proof. 33.19). 3. Any locally compact Hausdorff space is completely regular.30. I) = j∈C(X) I −→ − k∈C(Y ) f ∗∗ I = map(C(Y ). Ex 33.140). (Cf 2. hence completely regular and subspaces of completely regular spaces are completely regular.149).61) the product of embeddings is an embedding. The Stone–Cech construction. 1] to separate points and closed sets. I) . The first part is easily proved [8. 1]J is compact Hausdorff by the Tychonoff theorem (2. Then you have an example of a normal (even compact Hausdorff) space with a non-normal subspace. A space X is completely regular if points are closed in X and for any closed subset C of X and any point x ∈ C there exists a continuous function f : X → [0.29.11]). The following conditions are equivalent for a topological space X: (1) X is completely regular (2) X is homeomorphic to a subspace of [0. ˇ 3.32.25). open subspaces are locally compact Hausdorff (2.2]. x ∈ X.9.2] (and we already used it above). Clearly normal =⇒ completely regular =⇒ regular =⇒ Hausdorff =⇒ T1 and none of these arrows reverse (3. 1]J for some set J (3.15) for regular spaces.28. 33. In a completely regular space there are enough continuous functions X → [0. is therefore an embedding (3. Example (A normal space with a non-normal subspace). Proof. (1) =⇒ (2): If X is completely regular then the set C(X) of continuous maps X → [0.9) R × R ) and embed it into [0. there is an induced map C(X) ← C(Y ) : f ∗ of sets and yet an induced continuous map (2.65) (3.47. COMPLETELY REGULAR SPACES AND THE STONE–CECH COMPACTIFICATION 69 ˇ 5. I) is a kind of double-dual of X). Any product of completely regular spaces is completely regular. ie it is in general not true that continuous functions separate closed sets and points in regular spaces. (The space map(C(X). 1]J for some set J (3) X is homeomorphic to a subspace of a compact Hausdorff space Proof. 1] separates points and closed sets.33. Completely regular spaces and the Stone–Cech compactification There is no version of the Tietze extension theorem (3.

) The next result says that the map X → βX is the universal map from X to a compact Hausdorff space. (1) The map X → βX is a continuous map of X into a compact Hausdorff space. (4): Since the corestriction of an embedding is an embedding (2. X is normal (3.36) X ∆X f (3. also X → βX is an embedding.65) and then the upper square commutes because πk f ∗∗ ∆X = πkf ∆X = kf = πk ∆Y f . If X is compact Hausdorff then X → βX is a homeomorphism. Let X be a topological space. If X is compact Hausdorff.29). (4) If X is completely regular then X → βX is an embedding.) (3) Suppose X → αX is a map of X to a compact Hausdorff space αX such that any map of X to a compact Hausdorff space factors uniquely through αX. ˇ 3. (This makes β into a functor with a natural transformation from the identity functor from the category of topological spaces to the category of compact Hausdorff spaces. (We say that f : X → Y factors uniquely through βX. Proof.149) Hausdorff space I) and ∆ is.70 3.35) X ∆X f /Y  ∆Y  j∈C(X) / k∈C(Y ) I I f ∗∗ LLL r LLL rrr π πf ∗ k =πkf LLL rrr k LL rrr % yr I commutes: The lower triangle commutes by the definition of the map f ∗∗ (2.34) takes βX into βY for f ∗∗ (βX) = f ∗∗ (∆X X) ⊂ f ∗∗ ∆X X = ∆Y f (X) ⊂ ∆Y Y = βY and thus we obtain from (3. Thus the embedding is bijective so it is a homeomorphism. This construction is natural: For any continuous map f : X → Y . Put βX = ∆(X) and define ∆ : X → βX to be the corestriction of ∆ : X → j∈C(X) I to βX.(1)) and dense.19). Then there exists a homeomorphism αX → βX such that XB BB || BB | BB || | B! }|| / βX αX commutes. (2) For any continuous map f : X → Y of X into a compact Hausdorff space Y there exists a unique continuous map f : βX → Y such that the diagram (3. Theorem (Stone–Cech compactification).38) /Y XB > BB || BB || BB || B! || f βX f commutes.61) and X → I is an embedding when X is completely regular (3.37.35) /Y  / βY ∆Y  βX βf where βf : βX → βY is the corestriction to βY of the restriction of f ∗∗ to βX. Then βX is a compact Hausdorff space (it is a closed subspace of the compact (2. REGULAR AND NORMAL SPACES such that the diagram (3.35) a new commutative diagram of continuous maps (3. by design. The image of this embedding is closed (2. the induced map f ∗∗ (3.141. hence completely regular. . a continuous map with a dense image ∆X in βX. so we have just seen that ∆ : X → βX is an embedding.

1].167 that there is a closed quotient map cX → ωX. are inverse to each other. (3) Let X → αX be a map to a compact Hausdorff space satisfying the above universal property. Then / βX that.83) are examples of manifolds.166) if and only if X is completely regular. Definition. Thus manifolds are second countable regular spaces and hence they are normal. The map βX → cX is closed by 2. 1] QQQQ QQQ ppp ( ppp βR OO ωR = S 1 OOO ll5 lll OO' lll C of compactifications of R. . o The line with two zeroes is an example of a locally euclidean space that is not Hausdorff. 0) to (π −1 .) If X is completely regular then X → βX is a compactification (3. 1] ∪ {(x. for the image of X Y is dense in βX. It is the only possibility [8. sin ) | 0 < x ≤ π −1 } ∪ L x is the Warsaw circle. More generally. 1] = S 1 . which is obtained by closing up the closed topologist’s sine curve S by (a piece-wise linear) arc from (0.29) completely regular. Manifolds are locally compact and locally path connected since they are locally euclidean. The long line [8. Manifolds 3.(4)) and it is called the Stone– ˇ Cech compactification of X.38). All locally compact Hausdorff spaces are (completely) regular. by uniqueness. Indeed we saw in 2. Any compact manifold embeds in RN for some N. there are quotient maps βRn → [0. The n–sphere S n and the real projective n–space RP n (2. 1]n → ωRn = S n of compactifications of euclidean n-space Rn . taking cX − X to ω. metrizable. We state these observations in 3. Ex 24. Theorem (Embeddings of compact manifolds). X has a compactification (2. MANIFOLDS 71 (1) and (2): If Y is compact Hausdorff then by item (4) ∆Y is a homeomorphism in diagram (3. 0). there are quotient maps 8 [0. In particular. (What is the minimal compactification of a compact Hausdorff space?) For instance. Here 1 C = {0} × [−1.39. The Alexandroff compactification ωX of a noncompact locally compact Hausdorff space X is the minimal compactification in the sense that ωX = cX/(cX − X) for any other compactification X → cX.141 and surjective because its image is closed and dense.41.36) and hence f = ∆−1 ◦ βf is a possibility in (3. ˇ Investigations of the Stone–Cech compactification of the integers βZ raise several issues of a very fundamental nature [13. 11] whose answers depend on your chosen model of set theory.12] is a locally euclidean space that is not 2nd countable. S n lies embedded in Rn+1 from birth but what about RP n ? Does RP n embed in some euclidean space? 3. Lindel¨fand they have countable dense subsets. A manifold is a locally euclidean second countable Hausdorff space. 6. Conversely. a compactification of R with remainder C − R = [−1. (All universal there exist continuous maps αX o constructions are essentially unique.13].6. such that | || || | }|| XC CC CC CC C! / ωX cX commutes. if X has a compactification then X is homeomorphic to a subspace of a compact space and therefore (3. 14. Ex 18. ˇ The Stone–Cech compactification βX of a completely regular space X is the maximal compactification in the sense that for any other compactification X → cX there is a closed quotient map βX → cX map such that XB BB || BB || | BB | B }|| / cX βX commutes.40.37. C/[−1. Lemma.

and orientability. 1 ≤ i ≤ k. Theorem (Partition of unity).83) embeds into some euclidean space. Let X = U1 ∪ · · · ∪ Uk be a finite open covering of the normal space X. each sphere S n embeds into Rn+1 so that (S n )k embeds into (Rn+1 )k . f is an embedding. 1] such that ψi (W i ) = 1 and ψi (X − Vi ) = 0. fk ) : M → S n × · · · × S n is injective: If x lies in the interior of Bi then fi (x) = fi (y) for all y = x.42. . Apply this procedure once again to find an open set V2 such that V 2 ⊂ U2 and V1 ∪ V2 ∪ U3 ∪ · · · ∪ Uk is still an open covering of X. Proof. Any manifold admits a partition of unity. Let n be the dimension of M (we assume that this is well-defined). In particular RP 2 (2. Since the closed set X − (U2 ∪ · · · ∪ Uk ) is contained in the open set U1 there is an open set V1 such that X − (U2 ∪ · · · ∪ Uk ) ⊂ V1 ⊂ V 1 ⊂ U1 by normality (3. Since M is compact and (S n )k Hausdorff. e Classification of 4-dimensional compact manifolds is logically impossible. Let fi : M → S n be the continuous map obtained by collapsing the complement to the interior of Bi to a point. Finally. After finitely many steps we have an open covering {Vi } such that V i ⊂ Ui for all i. We show first that there is an open covering {Vi } of X such that V i ⊂ Ui (we shrink the sets of the covering). . Hence φi = ψi is a well-defined continuous function on M taking values in the unit interval such that ψ k i=1 φi (x) = k ψi (x) i=1 ψ(x) = 1 ψ(x) k i=1 ψi (x) = ψ(x) ψ(x) = 1. Let B = {x ∈ Rn | |x| ≤ 1} be the unit ball in Rn . Cover M by finitely many closed sets B1 . The map f = (f1 . . We do not know (December 2003) if there are any simply connected compact 3-dimensional manifolds besides S 3 (Poincar´ conjecture). . We may assume that M is connected. . We shall prove the existence in case of compact manifolds. . In particular. the genus. Compact manifolds of dimension 2 are described by a number. Now V1 ∪ U2 ∪ · · · ∪ Uk is an open covering of X. 1]. 3. such that (1) {φi > 0} ⊂ Ui k (2) i=1 φi (x) = 1 for all x ∈ X. the circle. REGULAR AND NORMAL SPACES Proof.5).12) ψi : X → [0. . Now choose a Urysohn function (3. Bk such that each Bi is homeomorphic to B and such that the interiors of the Bi cover M . Which one? There is up to homeomorphism just one compact manifold of dimension 1. any simply connected 2-dimensional compact manifold is homeomorphic to S 2 . Do this one more time to obtain an open covering {Wi } such that Wi ⊂ W i ⊂ Vi ⊂ V i ⊂ Ui for all i. . Then {x | ψi (x) > 0} ⊂ V i ⊂ Ui and ψ(x) = ψi (x) > 1 for any x ∈ X since x ∈ Wi for some i.72 3. Then there exist continuous functions φi : X → [0. .

3  1st countable KS +3 completely normal Thm 33.4 Thm 30.5 well-ordered topology CHAPTER 4 Relations between topological spaces 73 Ex 36.1  connected KS p.1 metrizable KS +3 order topology KS linear continuum Thm 24.sequentially compact KS +1st countable+T1  +metrizable countable dense subset KS Thm 28.1 +metrizable limit point compact KS o +3 Lindel¨f ks  compact KS +3 locally compact KS +3 locally compact Hausdorff Ex 22.3 +metrizable  ks 2nd countable +3 Sequence lma compact Hausdorff +metrizable Thm 30.7  +3 normal KS  regular  Hausdorff  T1  +3 completely regular ks top grp Ex 33.1 Thm 32.1 Ex 32. 155  totally disconnected manifold JJ JJJ JJJ J JJJ J JJJ J JJJ J JJJ J JJJ locally connected J JJJ KS J JJJ J JJJ J JJJ J J( locally path connected path connected .7 Thm 30.10 Thm 34.1 regular 2nd countable KS Ex 23.

.

1973. a Soc. Sigma Series in Pure Mathematics. MR 94d:54001 [7] Allen Hatcher. Elements of Mathematics. 227–251. Corrected reprint. Adams. 4223–4240 (electronic). Cambridge. Trans. vol. Chapters 1–4. Graduate Texts in Mathematics. MR 91c:54001 [6] Ryszard Engelking and Karol Sieklucki. An introduction to βω. MR 94m:57007 [2] Nicolas Bourbaki. The autohomeomorphism group of the Cech-Stone compactification of the integers. Book review. Berlin.-P. Amer. Cambridge University Press. General topology. Springer-Verlag. New York. General topology. vol. Topology. Heldermann Verlag. Handbook of set-theoretic topology. The knot book.Bibliography [1] Colin C. MR MR675916 (84a:03007) [5] Ryszard Engelking. New York. 1998. MR 52 #1595 [15] W. N. Cambridge Studies in Advanced Mathematics. 48 (2001). Cambridge. no. . Heldermann Verlag. Soc. 7. no. Formal Logic 44 (2003). New York. W. Translated from the Polish by the author. MR 57 #4063 [9] J. The continuum hypothesis.. 7. 503– 567. Notre Dame J. 3. Cambridge University Press. no. pp. Springer-Verlag. A course in arithmetic. Lectures in logic and set theory. Band 83. Ergebnisse der Mathematik und ihrer Grenzgebiete. Bredon. MR 2004a:03003 [13] Jan van Mill. No. 355 (2003). 139. New York.. 48 (2001). vol. Translated from the French. Munkres. 2003. Hugh Woodin. Sigma Series in Pure Mathematics. 2. Englewood Cliffs. MR 94d:55001 [4] John P. The Stone-Cech compactification. Springer-Verlag. MR 86f:54027 ˇ [14] Russell C.. Algebraic topology. MR 2000h:54001a [3] Glen E. MR 2002k:55001 [8] James R. North-Holland. 1993. Walker.J. 1981. Set theory. 83. Freeman and Company. Graduate Texts in Mathematics. An elementary introduction to the mathematical theory of knots. Translated from the French. Algebraic topology. Notices of the American Math. second ed. Serre. MR MR0344216 (49 #8956) [10] Edwin H. Prentice-Hall Inc. Berlin. Reprint of the 1989 English translation. Soc. 567–576. MR 1 990 584 [12] George Tourlakis. Spanier. Math. 10. 1992. Part I. Burgess. Vol. 2002. Amsterdam. Second edition. [16] 75 . Notices of the American Math. Berlin. Springer-Verlag. 6. 1994. 1974. Part II. 4. 1989. Springer-Verlag. 1984. New York. no. H. 6. 2000. 681–690. Topology: a geometric approach. Topology and geometry. Translated from the Polish original by Adam Ostaszewski. The continuum hypothesis. MR 83i:55001 ˇ [11] Juris Stepr¯ns. vol.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful