You are on page 1of 28

C8 CISCNING

WHY SHOULD YOU CARE?


Everyone has PCBs in their blood and these are particular harmIul to pregnant woman and their babies. PCBs are manmade chemicals
thought to be responsible Ior health issues that include neurological disorders, high blood pressure, lower IQ and poor short-term
memory (active memory), hormonal disruption, suppressed immune system, cancer, liver disease, skin irritations, Parkinson`s
Disease, ADHD, heart disease, thyroid disease and diabetes. Numerous studies have linked liver disease and liver cancer to PCB
exposure indicating that the liver may be the primary organ targeted by PCBs.
Proven and Probable Carcinogens.
The National Toxicology has conIirmed that some PCBs are carcinogens. They are classiIied as probable human carcinogens by the
EPA, the International Agency Ior Research on Cancer (IARC), National Cancer Institute, World Health Organization, and the
Agency Ior Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). A Iew studies oI workers indicate PCBs were associated with speciIic
kinds oI cancer in humans, such as cancer oI the liver and biliary tract. PCBs also have been shown to mimic the action oI estrogen in
breast cancer cells and can enhance breast cancer development.



Sources and Occurrence
PCBS are a group oI over 200 Iire-resistant, chlorine containing, man-made, toxic chemicals. They were used Irom the 1920`s
to the 1970`s primarily in electrical transIormers, capacitors and hydraulic equipment to prevent Iires when the equipment
became heated. They were also used as sealants (Ior caulking in schools and commercial buildings). PCBs are persistent
organic pollutants and have entered the environment through both use and disposal. In 1972, Monsanto, (the only US
manuIacturer) restricted sales and prohibited their use in plasticizers, carbonless copy paper, paints, inks, Iluorescent lighting
ballasts and adhesives.
The US Congress banned their manuIacture in 1979, but unIortunately this resulted in many exemptions Ior their continued
use. By that time more than 600,000 tons oI PCBs had been produced in the US and nearly 1.5 million tons distributed
globally. Fears that these exemptions would someday be liIted led to many hundreds oI thousands oI pounds oI PCBs being
illegally dumped in the environment across the US in the 1980`s and 1990`s. Many millions oI pounds oI PCBs continued to
be manuIactured or exported overseas until production was banned globally by the UN Stockholm Convention on Persistent
Organic Pollutants in 2001. Control oI these chemicals has been hampered by the complexities oI their Iormulation. According
to Monsanto, the industrial mixtures commonly contained 30-70 PCBs but could contain up to 99 or almost no PCBs. The
toxicity oI the compounds depends largely on the amount oI chlorine in the Iormulations and the unintentional additions oI
dioxin like chemicals, the most toxic chemicals known.


Properties

PCBs are classiIied by the UN as persistent organic pollutants (POPS) and have
entered the environment through both use and disposal. This means that they are
highly stable and break down extremely slowly in the environment. They have low
water solubility but are very soluble in Iat, solvents and oils which allows them to
concentrate in Iatty tissues oI humans and animals. PCBs can readily penetrate the
skin, and seep through PVC (polyvinyl chloride), and latex (natural rubber) gloves
and clothing. Their destruction by chemical, thermal, and biochemical processes is
extremely diIIicult, and presents the risk oI generating extremely toxic dioxin-like
compounds and Iurans through partial oxidation.

Pollution History

In Japan in 1968, over 600 pounds oI PCB-contaminated rice bran oil was used as chicken Ieed, resulting in a mass poisoning, known
as Yush disease, in over 14,000 people. Common symptoms included dermal and ocular lesions, irregular menstrual cycles and a
lowered immune response. Other symptoms included Iatigue, headache, cough, and unusual skin sores. Additionally, in children, there
were reports oI poor cognitive development. In February to March 1968, Iarmers started reporting that their poultry were dying due to
apparent diIIiculty in breathing and altogether 400,000 birds died.

An almost identical case occurred in Taiwan in 1979. Again, rice oil had been heated by Iilaments that leaked. On this occasion, the
condition there was known as Yu-cheng disease. Similar symptoms and eIIects oI the PCBs were shown, especially in children.

SYMPTOMS
Acute
The most commonly observed health eIIects in people exposed to extremely high levels oI PCBs are skin conditions, such as
chloracne and rashes. Studies in workers exposed to PCBs have shown changes in blood and urine that may indicate liver
damage.
Chronic
Known health issues include neurological disorders, high blood pressure, lower IQ and poor short-term memory (active
memory), hormonal disruption, suppressed immune system, cancer, liver disease, skin Irritations, Parkinson`s Disease, ADHD,
heart disease, thyroid disease and diabetes. Numerous studies have linked liver disease and liver cancer to PCB exposure
indicating that the liver may be the primary organ targeted by PCBs.
A June 2011 Canadian scoping review, 'Early Exposures to Ha:ardous Chemicals/Pollution and Associations with Chronic
Disease Iound that PCBs were also associated with cardiovascular disease, obesity, endocrine disruption, developmental
neurotoxicity, asthma (respiratory disease). Studies oI high exposure cases show an association between Alzheimer`s Disease
and adult exposure to PCBs. Also epidemiological data indicate an association between Parkinson`s Disease and women`s
occupational exposure to PCBs. The President`s Cancer Panel reviewed PCB suspected causal links to Breast Cancer and Non-
Hodgkin Lymphoma.


Diagnosis
Tests exist to measure levels oI PCBs in your blood, body Iat, and breast milk, but these can be expensive and are not routinely
conducted. Most people normally have low levels oI PCBs in their body because nearly everyone has been environmentally
exposed to PCBs. The tests can show iI your PCB levels are elevated, which would indicate past exposure to above-normal
levels oI PCBs, but cannot determine when or how long you were exposed or whether you will develop health eIIects.

Treatments
There are no known treatments Ior PCB exposure and no proven way to reduce the accumulated body burden.
Risks
The best way to reduce the risks oI PCB poisoning is to reduce the amount oI contact with these chemicals. Individuals can be
exposed to PCBs through breathing in contaminated air, consuming contaminated Iood, and by skin contact with old electrical
equipment that contain PCBs. To avoid eating contaminated Iood it is helpIul to know that the main dietary sources oI PCBs
are Iish (especially sportIish caught in contaminated lakes or rivers), meat, and dairy products. PCB`s bioaccumulate so it is
better to avoid some Ioods at the top oI the Iood chain such as predatory Iish or scavenging animals.Once exposed, some PCBs
may change to other chemicals inside the body. These chemicals or unchanged PCBs can be excreted in Ieces or may remain in
a person's body Iat or other organs Ior months. PCBs may also collect in milk Iat and be transmitted to inIants through breast-
Ieeding.
Many buildings with known high PCB dangers have been evacuated and shut down. In many states, including CaliIornia, laws
require any building with such dangers to be sealed and locked, with large warning signs on every entrance point indicating a
PCB presence and also a notice to indicate the presence oI chemicals known to cause cancer, health problems or reproductive
harm.
.
Until a saIe solution can be well established, many oI these buildings remain undemolished and sealed. Some Iorms oI
containment other than building closure and lockdown are below.

Health Effects

According to the EPA PCB website, 'PCBs have been demonstrated to cause cancer, as well as a variety oI other adverse health
eIIects on the immune system, reproductive system, nervous system, and endocrine system.Studies oI PCB workers Iound increases
in rare liver cancers and malignant melanoma. The presence oI cancer in the same target organ (liver) Iollowing exposures to PCBs
both in animals and in humans and the Iinding oI liver cancers and malignant melanomas across multiple human studies adds weight
to the conclusion that PCBs are probable human carcinogens.It is very important to note that the composition oI PCB mixtures
changes Iollowing their release into the environment. The types oI PCBs that tend to bioaccumulate in Iish and other animals and bind
to sediments happen to be the most carcinogenic components oI PCB mixtures. As a result, people who ingest PCB-contaminated Iish
or other animal products and contact PCB-contaminated sediment may be exposed to PCB mixtures that are even more toxic than the
PCB mixtures contacted by workers and released into the environment. Toxic eIIects such as endocrine disruption and neurotoxicity
are also associated with other compounds within the group.
Much oI the PCB overall assessment in the press is outdated since they rely on the Monsanto 1995 Materials SaIety Data Sheet, the
1997 EPA Iris Risk Assessment and the 2000 ATSDR Toxic ProIile. In the Iollowing section we will attempt to update the known
health eIIects Irom reliable, peer-reviewed studies in the past decade. In particular, associations between PCB level in women and
diseases have not been Iully incorporated in the risk models.
PCBs also have shown toxic and mutagenic eIIects by interIering with hormones in the body. PCBs, depending on the speciIic
congener, have been shown to both inhibit and imitate estradiol, the main sex hormone in Iemales. Imitation oI the estrogen compound
can Ieed estrogen-dependent breast cancer cells, and possibly cause other cancers, such as uterine or cervical. Inhibition oI estradiol
can lead to serious developmental problems Ior both males and Iemales, including sexual, skeletal, and mental development issues. In
2007, a study oI woman in the National Health and Nutrition survey showed that PCBS in woman were strongly associated with
rheumatoid arthritis and weakly associated with osteoarthritis in women. They were also shown to have an impact on thyroid Iunction
in women.
In 2009, a study in Taiwan showed an association between Type 2 Diabetes and PCB levels in women. The risk oI Diabetes was Iound
to be between two to Iive times greater nearly 25 years aIter PCB exposure.

Studies in Alabama Iound that residents near a Monsanto Iactory with PCB pollution in Anniston had PCBs in their blood Iour times
the national average showed an association between PCB levels and High Blood Pressure. They also had an increased risk oI Diabetes
which was two to Iour times higher than the national average.
http://www.naturalnews.com/025426PCBriskexposure.html#ixzz1bIcsYcnQ
In 2011, an Oakland CaliIornia study on PCB exposure in mothers and time to pregnancy in daughters was published in Reproductive
Toxicology. They recorded time to pregnancy (TTP) in nearly 300 daughters about 30 years later. Some PCB congeners in mother's
serum were associated with longer TTP and some were associated shorter TTP. Probability oI pregnancy Iell by 38 and inIertility
was higher (30 not pregnant aIter 13 cycles versus 11 not pregnant aIter 13 cycles) among women whose mothers had a higher
proportion oI PCB congeners associated with longer TTP. This study demonstrates, Ior the Iirst time, that developmental exposure to
PCBs may disrupt pregnancy in humans. The researchers concluded that in utero exposure to some PCB congeners may impact human
reproduction, either by increasing or decreasing time to pregnancy.

EORAPHIC DISTRIBUTION
Massachusetts

PittsIield, in western Massachusetts, was
home to the General Electric (GE)
transIormer and capacitor divisions, and
electrical generating equipment built and
repaired in PittsIield powered the electrical
utility grid throughout the nation. PCB-
contaminated oil routinely migrated Irom
GE`s 254-acre (1.03 km2) industrial plant
located in the very center oI the city to the
surrounding groundwater, nearby Silver
Lake, and to the Housatonic River, which
Ilows through Massachusetts, Connecticut,
and down to Long Island Sound.
PCB-containing solid material was widely
used as Iill, including oxbows oI the
Housatonic River. In the 1940s, GE
launched a giveaway program in which
locals could receive PCB-contaminated material to use as Iill. The recipients were required to sign a letter stating they were receiving
clean Iill and releasing GE Ior any subsequent problems. Beginning in 1997, the Massachusetts Department oI Environmental
Protection began evaluating over 700 suspect properties. As oI 2010, over 250 properties had been Iound to have dangerous
concentrations oI PCBs in soil, and 180 properties had had contaminated soil removed.
New BedIord Harbor, which is a listed SuperIund site, contains some oI the highest sediment concentrations (as high as 100,000 ppm)
in the marine sediments. Concentrations oI PCBs in excess oI 50 ppm are considered hazardous wastes.

New York
Between approximately 1947 and 1977, GE released up to 1.3 million pounds oI PCBs into the
Hudson River. The PCBs came Irom the company's two capacitor manuIacturing plants at
Hudson Falls and Fort Edward in New York State.
In 1976, because oI concern over continuing high levels oI PCBs in local Iish and other aquatic
organisms, and the unacceptable risk to the health oI consumers oI such Iish, the NYSDEC
banned all Iishing in the upper Hudson River, as well as commercial Iishing oI striped bass and
several other species in the lower Hudson River, and also issued advisories restricting the
consumption oI Iish caught within a 20-mile (30 km) long segment oI the Hudson River Irom
Hudson Falls to Troy.
There have been many programs oI remediation work to reduce the PCB pollution. In 1984,
approximately 200 miles (320 km) oI the Hudson River was designated a SuperIund site, and
attempts to clean up the upper Hudson River began, including the removal in 1977-8 oI
180,000 cubic yards oI contaminated river sediments near Fort Edward. In 1991, Iurther PCB
pollution was Iound at Bakers Falls, near the Iormer GE Hudson Falls Iactory, and a program
oI remediation was started. In August 1995, a 40-mile (64 km) reach oI the upper Hudson was
reopened to Iishing, but only on a catch-and-release basis. Removal oI contaminated soil Irom
Rogers Island was completed in December, 1999. In 2002, EPA announced a Iurther 2,650,000
cubic yards oI contaminated sediments in the upper Hudson River would be removed.

CASE STUDY - ARCO HASTINS ON HUDSON SUPERFUND



The BP/ARCO Harbor at Hastings site is located on
approximately 26 acres on the eastern shore of the Hudson
River in the Village of Hastings-on-Hudson, Westchester
County. From 1919 to 1977 the site was owned and operated by
the Anaconda Wire and Cable Company Ior the manuIacture oI
copper wire, lead covered cable, high voltage cable and insulated
wire. Beginning in the late-1930's, PCB (Aroclor) mixtures were
used to impregnate paper- and asbestos-wrapped cable beIore the
outer sheathing was applied.

The site is listed as a Class '2 site in the State Registry oI Inactive
Hazardous Waste Sites (list oI State SuperIund sites). A Class 2 site
represents a signiIicant threat to public health or the environment;
action is required.

The site consists oI Iill material which is in close contact with
groundwater and surIace water. Groundwater is approximately 2 to
8 Ieet below ground surIace and is inIluenced by tidal variation.
The shoreline shows signs oI historical erosion due to storm events
and wave action. Parts oI the site have been Ilooded during larger
storms.


Between 1976 and 1989, several geotechnical and environmental investigations were conducted at the site which involved soil
sampling and analysis. These investigations revealed the presence oI PCBs, petroleum hydrocarbons and metal contaminants in
surIace and subsurIace soils. These contaminants were also Iound in groundwater beneath the site at levels exceeding water quality
standards.

The maximum detection Iound in the northwest area oI the unit was 381,000 ppm (38) PCB in a sample taken between 12 and 14
Ieet. In one location adjacent to the Hudson River, the liquid Iorm oI the elastic matrix was Iound, pooled in a depression in the
surIace oI the Marine Silt Unit at a depth oI approximately 35 Ieet. In some locations, the depth oI contamination approaches 40 Ieet.
North Carolina
One oI the largest PCB "spills" in American history occurred in the summer oI 1978 when 31,000 gallons oI PCB-contaminated oil
were criminally and deliberately sprayed in 3-Ioot (0.91 m) swaths along the roadsides oI some 240 miles (390 km) oI North Carolina
highway shoulders in 14 counties and at the Fort Bragg Army Base. The crime, known as "the midnight dumpings," lasted nearly 2
weeks, as drivers oI a black-painted tanker truck drove down one side oI rural Piedmont highways spraying their noxious liquid and
then up the other side the Iollowing night. The perpetrators were eventually caught and jailed Ior a period.
The rationale Ior the midnight dumpings, according to the state's logic, was that new EPA regulations were going to make disposing oI
PCBs more expensive, and companies might try to save money by disposing oI toxic chemicals illegally; thereIore, there was a
pressing need to build convenient and aIIordable toxic waste landIills in North Carolina.
Indiana
From the late 1950s through 1977, Westinghouse Electric used PCBs in the manuIacture oI capacitors in its Bloomington, Indiana
plant. Reject capacitors were hauled and dumped in area salvage yards and landIills, including Bennett's Dump, Neal's LandIill and
Lemon Lane LandIill. Workers also dumped PCB oil down factory drains, which contaminated the city sewage treatment plant.
The City oI Bloomington gave away the sludge to area Iarmers and gardeners, creating anywhere Irom 200 to 2000 sites, which
remain unaddressed. Over 2 million pounds of PCBs were estimated to have been dumped in Monroe and Owen counties.
Although Iederal and state authorities have been working on the sites' environmental remediation, many areas remain contaminated.
Concerns have been raised regarding the removal oI PCBs Irom the karst limestone topography, and regarding the possible disposal
options. To date, the Westinghouse Bloomington PCB SuperIund site case does not have a Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study
(RI/FS) and Record oI Decision (ROD), although Westinghouse signed a US Department oI Justice Consent Decree in 1985.|25| The
1985 consent decree required Westinghouse to construct an incinerator that would incinerate PCB-contaminated materials. Due to
public opposition to the incinerator, however, the State oI Indiana passed a number oI laws that delayed and blocked its construction.
The parties to the consent decree began to explore alternative remedies in 1994 Ior six oI the main PCB contaminated sites.

On 15 February 2008, Monroe County approved a plan to clean up the three remaining contaminated sites in the City oI Bloomington,
at a cost oI $9.6 million to CBS Corp., the successor oI Westinghouse.

The reat Lakes

Much oI the Great Lakes area is still heavily polluted with PCBs, despite extensive remediation work. Locally-caught Iresh water Iish
and shellIish are contaminated with PCBs, and their consumption is restricted. From 1959 to 1971, Waukegan Harbor in Illinois, on
Lake Michigan, was contaminated with PCBs discharged by the Outboard Marine Corporation.
South Carolina

From 1955 until 1977, the Sangamo Weston plant in Pickens, SC, used PCBs to manuIacture capacitors, and dumped 400,000 pounds
oI PCB contaminated wastewater into the Twelve Mile Creek. In 1990, the EPA declared the 228 acres (0.92 km2) site oI the
capacitor plant, it's landIills and the polluted watershed, which stretches nearly 1,000 acres (4.0 km2) downstream to Lake Hartwell as
a SuperIund site. Two dams on the Twelve Mile Creek are to be removed and on Feb. 22, 2011 the Iirst oI two dams began to be
dismantled. Some contaminated sediment is being removed Irom the site and hauled away, while other sediment is pumped into a
series oI settling ponds. The company responsible Ior the clean-up has already paid $65 million. The removal oI the dams is expected
to add an additional $22 million to that total


California

PCB INVESTIATIONS CONDUCTED BY THE ATSDR IN CALIF.


CaliIornia Map Showing PCB SuperIund Sites and Risk oI Liver Disease in Males

PCB INVESTIATIONS CONDUCTED BY THE ATSDR



CaliIornia Map Showing PCB SuperIund Sites and Risk oI Liver & Gallbladder Cancer in Males

CASE STUDY- KETTLEMAN HILLS, CA


The Kettleman Hills Hazardous Waste Facility is a large (1,600 acre) hazardous and municipal solid
waste disposal Iacility operated by Waste Management, Inc.in Kings County, CA. The Iacility
handles the treatment, storage and disposal oI PCBs, hazardous and non-hazardous waste. The
Kettleman Hills LandIill is the only landfill in California federally regulated to handle PCBs,
and is just one of ten PCB regulated landfills in the country. In 2009, the Iacility applied Ior and
was given a permit Ior expansion.
During a series oI 2010 inspections, EPA investigators Iound that CWM improperly managed PCBs at the Iacility. Further analysis
revealed spills next to the Iacility`s PCB Storage and Flushing Building. Samples taken by EPA and CWM in and around the building
detected PCBs at elevated levels ranging Irom 2.1 parts per million (ppm) up to 440 ppm. These levels are above the regulatory
limit of 1 ppm and, in soil, demonstrate that PCBs were improperly disposed of in violation of federal law. The U.S. EPA in 2010
fined Chemical Waste Management, Inc. (CWM) more than $300,000 for failure to properly manage PCBs at its Kettleman
Hills Hazardous Waste Landfill.
In October 2011 a Kettleman City update stated 'In the December 2010 report, nvestigation of Birth Defects and Community
Exposures in Kettleman City, CA, the CaliIornia Environmental Protection Agency (Cal/EPA) and the CaliIornia Department oI Public
Health (CDPH) committed to providing the Kettleman City community an update on Iollow-up activities. The investigation in 2010
did not Iind a speciIic cause or exposure to chemicals in Kettleman City`s environment that could explain why 11 children were born
with birth defects between 2007 and 2010 to mothers who lived in the community during their pregnancies.

One possible explanation Ior the Iailure to Iind a cause could be that there are so many sources oI pollution in Kettleman Hills that it is
nearly impossible to determine a single cause and eIIect relationship. These causes include drinking water, pesticide and hydrocarbon
or produced water pollution.

Drinking Water Project
The Kettleman City Community Services District (KCCSD) has an existing drinking water source that exceeds saIe drinking water
standards Ior arsenic and benzene. The current KCCSD water treatment system removes benzene, but not arsenic. Arsenic occurs
naturally in the soil and is found in a number of drinking water sources in California; some (as is the case in Kettleman City)
at levels exceeding the drinking water standard. The Iederal standard is 10 micrograms oI arsenic per liter oI water. In a public notice
issued to residents on January 29, 2010, the District reported that the average arsenic concentration Irom these wells during the 4th

Quarter oI 2009 ranged from 12.7 to 16.1 micrograms per liter. For several years, the Kings County government has been working
with the District to secure Iunding to construct a water treatment plant that would be supplied by the CaliIornia Aqueduct.

Pesticides
Chlordane contamination was Iound in the soil at one home. Chlordane, Iormerly used to control termites but now a banned pesticide,
was Iound at elevated concentrations in some oI the soil samples at one residence during the Cal/EPA investigation. The most likely
source of the chlordane was a past application to prevent a termite infestation. The chlordane in this one yard did not pose a
threat to the community, but merited Iurther attention.

While the investigation conducted by Cal/EPA and CDPH did not Iind pesticide exposure to be a likely cause oI the birth deIects,
Cal/EPA`s modeling analysis estimated that airborne levels of three pesticides - MITC, chlorpyrifos and diazinon -
were elevated on several days between 2006 and 2009. Similar elevated levels oI these pesticides have also occurred in other
agricultural areas oI CaliIornia. Cal/EPA concluded that the risk oI toxic eIIects Irom pesticide exposures in Kettleman City is
probably lower than in other Central Valley towns where pesticide use is greater. Further air and soil testing has been recommended.
The agency apparently did not consider close proximity to a major oil Iield as a signiIicant risk. ThereIore we will undertake our own
evaluation.

The Kettleman North Dome Oil Field is a large oil and gas Iield in Kings and Fresno
Counties, CaliIornia. Discovered in 1928, it is IiIteenth largest Iield in the state by total
ultimate oil recovery, and oI the top twenty oil Iields it is the closest to exhaustion, with
less than one-halI oI one percent oI its total original oil remaining in place. North Dome
itselI is one oI the longest oI the CaliIornia oil Iields; only Midway-Sunset is longer. Its
long axis, northwest to southeast, is approximately 14 miles (23 km), and it is almost
three miles (5 km) across at its widest point. The total productive area oI the Kettleman
Hills North Dome is 13,700 acres (55 km2.)

Production Irom Kettleman peaked in 1936, with over 29 million barrels pumped during
that year, making it one of the most productive fields in the United States. In 2006, the
latest year Ior which data was available, production was a mere 128,000 barrels, even
with the modern technologies available. Produced water that year exceeded 350,000
barrels. At that time the Iield had produced nearly 500 million barrels oI oil. Based on
cumulative water production in CaliIornia districts, it is reasonable to assume that the
Iield has produced between 1.5 to 5 billion barrels oI oilIield water.


J.P. Oil Company, Inc., oI LaIayette, Louisiana, took over operation oI the entire Kettleman Hills North Dome Oil Field in 1997, but
as oI 2008 the oil Iield was run by Chevron Corporation.


Alabama

PCBs (manuIactured through most oI the 20th century) originating Irom Monsanto Chemical Company in Anniston, Alabama were
dumped into Snow Creek, which then spread to Choccolocco Creek, then Logan Martin Lake. In the early 2000s, class action lawsuits
(led, in at least one case, by the late Johnnie Cochran) were settled by local land owners, including those on Logan Martin Lake, and
Lay Reservoir (downstream on the Coosa River), Ior the PCB pollution.

In 2002, an investigation by 60 minutes revealed Anniston, Alabama had been among the
most toxic cities in the country. The source oI local contamination was a Monsanto chemical
Iactory, which closed years ago. The EPA description oI the site reads in part:

The Anniston PCB site consists oI residential, commercial, and public properties located in
and around Anniston, Calhoun County, Alabama that contain or may contain hazardous
substances; including polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) impacted media. The Site is not listed
on the NPL, but is considered to be a NPL-caliber site. Solutia Inc.'s Anniston plant
encompasses approximately 70 acres oI land and is located about 1 mile west oI downtown
Anniston, Alabama. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were produced at the plant Irom 1929
until 1971.
Location Map oI Anniston, Al

The plant was the source of thousands of pounds a year of potentially deadly polychlorinated biphenyls, or PCBs. For nearly
Iorty years, unIiltered and untreated PCB waste was discharged directly into streams or dumped in landIills around town. Monsanto
employees also carried the chemical, sold under the brand name Aroclor, home on their work clothes.

Starting in 1929, the Swann Chemical Co. plant in Anniston became the first site in the world to make PCBs, an industrial coolant
most widely used in the manuIacture oI electrical equipment. Monsanto Industrial Chemicals Co. bought the plant in 1935, and
continued to dump PCBs into the creek without question until the late 1960s, when the environmental eIIects oI the chemical became
widely known. Monsanto was the only US manufacturer of PCBs, producing about 1.5 billion pounds in Anniston and Sauget,
IL. PCB production in Sauget was stopped in 1977, two years beIore PCB production was oIIicially banned by the government.
In 1969, the Anniston plant was discharging about 250 pounds of PCBs into Snow Creek a day, according to Monsanto records


Alabama Map oI PCB SuperIund Sites and Liver Disease in Males (Dark Blue High Liver Disease Risk)

Anniston residents Iiled class action suits against Monsanto Company Ior knowingly dumping PCBs in west Anniston. The table
below identiIies the disease complaints oI the local residents.


ANNISTON ALABAMA SELF-REPORTED HEALTH CONCERNS



Regulations
Following reports oI leaks and seeps Irom supposedly sealed electrical equipment, the
EPA began a reassessment oI use authorizations and extended the public comment
period to August 2010. The oIIicial Notice oI Proposed Rulemaking is not projected to
be published until April 2013. Contrary to many press reports, the EPA has continued to
allow exemptions to the usage ban and in April 2010 listed the Iollowing exceptions Ior
use in a non-enclosed manner:

Electrical transIormers.
Railroad transIormers.
Mining equipment.
Heat transIer systems.
Hydraulic systems.
Electromagnets.
Switches.
Voltage regulators.
Electrical capacitors.
Circuit breakers.
Reclosers.
Liquid-Iilled cable.
RectiIiers.

Clearly, just about any use oI PCBs that a company wants to name is still legal, even though PCBs were supposedly banned in the US
more than three decades ago. This could in part account Ior why the entire global population continues to have PCBs in their blood.



Things to Avoid

1. Children should be told not play with old appliances, electrical equipment, or transIormers, since they may contain
PCBs.

2. Children should be discouraged Irom playing in the dirt near hazardous waste sites and in areas where there was a
transIormer Iire.

3. Children should also be discouraged Irom eating dirt and putting dirty hands, toys or other objects in their mouths, and should
wash hands Irequently.

4. II you are exposed to PCBs in the workplace it is possible to carry them home on your clothes, body, or tools. II this is the
case, you should shower and change clothing beIore leaving work, and your work clothes should be kept separate Irom other
clothes and laundered separately.







.
Recommendations

.Initially it may seem as though PCBS are everywhere and there is not much we can do about it. However, since virtually all oI the
sources in the environment are known, we know exactly where to look. How can you determine iI YOU have been poisoned? The
state won`t tell you your individual exposure because they generally only report county data. You will have to prepare a personalized
toxic exposure proIile.

While minute amounts oI PCBs are present in the air we breathe and the water we drink, it is not equally dangerous everywhere in the
U.S. You need to know the current distances and pollution directions from the major PCB sources of your residence and
workplaces. If you are in the pollution path from one of the 340 PCB Superfund sites, consider having your water and soil
tested for PCB contamination. You also need to know the history of your PCB exposure from your past residences all the way
back to your gestation period during your mother`s pregnancy.
How can you use all oI this inIormation? Determining the types and amounts oI toxic exposures can aid in chronic disease diagnosis
since some chemicals have been associated with certain diseases. It can also help your doctor to better determine treatment options. It
can help to anticipate chronic disease symptoms and their stages oI progression. It will help your lawyer assign blame and determine
liability. Most importantly, it will help you to avoid possible future PCB exposures (especially during pregnancy).
Only a personalized environmental health profile showing your specific residences relative to the Superfund sites can provide
security. If this reveals potential high PCB exposure or if you develop symptoms consistent with PCB poisoning consider
having your body burden tested. Tell your doctors if you have reason to believe that you have been exposed to high PCBs over
a long period and have them closely monitor early symptoms of PCB related diseases.

Only a complete customized toxic profile oI previous, current and potential exposures to PCBs in the environment can minimize
acute symptoms and chronic disease complications. Exposure to PCBs may decrease lifespan and have health eIIects in the long
term. Death rates from a variety of causes have been found to be higher in people with extremely high PCB levels in the blood,
these include cancer, liver and heart disease, and general death rates from all causes. Early testing and detection can maximize
the opportunities for a correct diagnosis and provide your doctor with more treatment options. Ultimately, this is the best way
to reduce the impacts of chronic diseases from PCB exposure and improve chances for favorable outcomes.
In the end, limiting current and future exposures to PCBs is the best strategy. Only early detection and treatment of PCB-
related diseases can significantly lower your chance of developing certain chronic diseases and reduce risks from prolonged
PCB exposure.