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4500 Criminal Justice Administration 8.29.2011 Monday 1839 Boston 1st police American Police dept.

, day shift only 1845 New York police dept, had both day and night shift we give up rights and liberties in exchange for public safety, we pay police through taxes. Beginning of public/ municipal organizations- how to hire train, select peoplebeginning of profession 6 parts of profession 1) organized body of knowledge (things everyone in profession must know) 2) ongoing advancement of knowledge 3) Code of ethics 4) standards for people to join 5) professional organization (national organization of chief of police, state standards- TECLOSE) 6) minimum/ ideal level of service Sir Robert Peel Father of modern policing 1929-London Metropolitan Police Act1,000 officers, 6 divisions, 12 police reforms 12 reforms 1) police must be stable, efficient, and military in appearance and organization (quazi-military) 2) government must control law enforcement 3) absence of crime proves police effectiveness (disproven) 4) essential to put out crime news, descriptions of criminals 5) law enforcement works shifts, specific location, deployment by time and area 6) temper: a quiet, determined manner has more effect than violent action 7) good appearance will lead to increase of respect 8) find and train right people for job, selection, standards 9) form public security (badge number) to hold officers accountable 10) headquarters must be central and accessible 11) hire on probationary basis 12) keeping records 1920s-30s August Volmer Father of professional law enforcement chief of police at Burkley in 1909, introduced military model for all law enforcement idea of organization dedicated to training of law enforcement, TECLOSE, POST- 1st in 1959 1920S-30S Prohibition, 18th amendment ratified in 1919, congress passed Volstead Act giving prohibition statutory authority, gave rise to organized crime, gangs, mobs; Volstead Act repealed in 1931, 21st amendment passed in 1933

Klu Klux Klan resurged in 20s and 30s, some of the fervent members were part of law enforcement FBI formed National Police Academyin 1935- where officers of command learn management training USC, UC Burkley, Michigan State began first academic police program police science 1950s Red Scare Sen. Mcarthy televised congressional hearings looking for communists Advancement in cars and road systems Television brought news home Homework: When did Bureau of Investigation start? When did it become FBI? Due Wednesday 8.31.2011 Wednesday 1960s- Civil Rights Era Hiring Requirements: 1) Background Check 2) Polygraph/ VSA (voice stress analyzer, not in use anymore) 3) Psychological Exams 4) Interviews 5) Medical 6) Academy 1970s- Research, 1972 1st reference service NCJRS; 1973 RAND experiment- team policing, end of 2-man patrol car 1977 PERF Police Executive Research Forum, high end evaluation research 1980s 1) COPS (community oriented policing) 2) Private Agencies 3) Investigation/ Forensics 4) Terrorism Justice System Process not a vertical hierarchy, not horizontal, not a network (info isn't shared both ways) Its a non-system- made up from 3 parts: police, courts, corrections all competing for budget with each other resulting in system fragmentation Homework- 1973 RAND experiment police & time detectives DUE Friday 9.2.2011 Friday Definition of Organization- group collective, identifiable boundaries, internal structure, engage in activities, common goals Administration is a process- at the top there is CEO, COO, President, Chairman of the Board, Commissioner, Chief/ Sheriff Different Organizations- Mutual Benefit Unions ex. Police Labor Unions Business Organization ex. GM, IBM Service Organization ex. Community Hospital, providing a service not selling a product

Commonweal Organization ex. Not for profit organization, paid for by the people we supply service to Management- sergeants lieutenants Organizational Theory- design structure, how it interacts with society, the behavior of people in the organization scientific management 1900-1940s human relations management 1930-1970 systems management 1965-present bureaucratic management 1975 Scientific Management- (Frederick Taylor- Father 1895) Management needed to know/ understand their people, first to apply science to workplace, Pennsylvania steel mill was tested, principle that there is a best way to do everything (still used in assembly line factories- piecemeal production) emphasis on efficiency and productivity Human Relations Management- finding a way to get workers to be productive with the minimal amount of reward, workers are trying to get reward with minimal amount of effort Systems Management- combination of scientific & human relations with a concentration on leadership to make workers more productive Bureaucratic Management- (Max Weber, Father of Sociology) everyone has to work together for common goal to achieve best productivity with best morale 1) rules and routines- standards of activity; standardization uniformity predictability 2) division of labor- everyone needs to know own job and have authority to do job 3) hierarchy of authority- rank tructure 4) expertise 5) rules- written regulations 2 major criticisms to bureaucratic system- very inflexible; tends to stifle individual talent, creativity, awareness 9.7.2011 Wednesday Communication Chain of command; authority goes from top to bottom, commissioner, Captains (salary), lieutenant, sergeant, officers (hourly pay) 2 types of communication: upward and lateral Barriers to communication: different codes, superiors neglect, accents, poor speakers, poor listeners, relationships, situational, different clientele knowledge, cultural issues

Passive listening- needs attentive, active listening, and empathetic listening time issue, conditioned not to hear, judgement call, lack of understanding, lack of clarity, look for meaning behind words, nonverbal communication, proper time and place Benefits- leader stand points: more informed decisions, increase loyalty, increase morale Leadership theories TQL- Total Quality Leadership- everyone is involved in meeting the expectations of customers Internal alignment- understanding the goals and big pictures and the part they play External alignment- realistic goals for department and achieving those goals, continuous improvement 9.9.2011 Friday Trait Theory- (leaders born not made) traits- adaptable, social alertness, ambition, assertive but cooperative, decisive, dependable, dominant, energetic, confident, high stress tolerance, willing to take responsibility Skills- clever, creative, conceptually skilled, diplomatic and tactful, good speakers, knowledgeable, organized, persuasive Leadership Styles- Autocratic Democratic Laisse Faire Hands- off Contingency Theory- X Leaders, Y Leaders Situational Leadership Theory- (Robert Katz) Technical Skills- knowing the job inside and out, industry, agency Human Relationship Skills- what motivates and how to motivates, group think and perform Conceptual Skills- ability to understand big picture, to envision down the road 9.12.2011 Monday Robert Katz Skill SetTechnical Human Relations Conceptual Bureaucratic system of leaders- Climbers: one who only cares about climbing promotional ladder Conservers- takes credit but nowhere to be found when things go bad Zealots- specific passionate interests Advocates- fair equitable Elton Mayo- motivational Hawthorne Effect- peoples behavior will change if they know they are being

observed Rate Busters- Shows everyone up Underproducer Squealers Officious Intrinsic/ Extrinsic Maslov- Self, Ego, Social, Safety/ Protect, Survival McGreagor- X Leaders- not people person, believes in punishment, rewards system, lazy, proud, rewards, told what to do, avoid responsibility Y Leaders- needs to work, smart, creative, looks for responsibility Herzberg Likhir- maintananze/ Haggar, proportions, motivations Intrinsic, Extrinsic 9.14.2011 Wednesday 4 main reasons for burnout (depression, fatigue) better known as hitting the wall, they migt have accomplished what they tried to accomplish; outside commitment is demanding Solved- Sabatical (leave of absence), give them a new challenge, offer things like daycare, counseling, intervention Chapter 3 Police Organization over 60% of officers work for agencies 25 people or less hiring process application physical agility test oral interview psychological/ polygraph Background Check- 1 month, over 1 year education 83% only have highschool degree Agencies City- PD (chiefs are hired/ appointed by city council 3-5yrs. County- sheriffs are elected, maintain Jail, patrol, counts crime lab coroners offfice State- DPS, troopers elite DPS 100 Rangers Federal- FBI, DEA, US Marshal, Secret Service, ATF, over 60 agencies Private- receiving funding, not controlled by any government agency 9.16.2011 Friday Police Chiefs- Hiring process Hiring from within, advantage is knowing the person, disadvantage is cronyismrewarding those who support you, disadvantage is same thinking within the department, no new ideas

Chapter 4 Roles and Personnel Police Chief Roles 1) Interpersonal- figurehead, leadership role, liaison 2) Informational- inspection role disseminate information 3) Decision Maker- entrepreneur, handling disputes 4) Resources- manages budget, negotiator Middle Management- Captain, Lieutenant (Watch Commander) the Lt. Is the last shift rank Frontline Supervisors- Sergeants- supervisor/ cop, lots of responsibility as supervisor without too much more pay Supervisor Study- Robin and Angle Types of Supervisors 1) Traditional- (law enforcement oriented) majority, stat happy, reward/ punishment style 2) Innovative- (community oriented policing) most effective for this model, coach, mentor 3) Supportive- great relationship with guys they supervise but not with management, get walked over 4) Active Supervisors- (involved) in the field, knows what the force is facing personally Nowickey 12 Traits for Police Officers- Book 1) Enthusiasm- belief, contagious vigor 2) Good communication skills- speaking and listening, communicate to all economic classes 3) Good judgment- wisdom and analytical ability 4) Sense of humor- coping 5) Creativity 6) Self-motivation 7) Knowing the job and the system- understanding roles 8) Ego- self-confidence 9) Courage 10) Understanding Discretion- enforcing spirit of law, not letter 11) Tenacity- focus 12) Thirst for knowledge Strategy- COPS (community oriented policing) first strategy was POP/ Team Now we have COPPS (community oriented/ problem solving)

Comstat- New York PD started it, middle management made personally responsible SARA model- Scanning, Analysis, Response, Assessment 9.19.2011 Monday 4 Main Problems with Policing Corruption 1st- Gratuities- Serpico Knapp Commission- Grass Eater, Meat Eater 2nd- Bribes- money or services 3rd- Crimes- stealing shakedowns, coercion 4th- Internal Corruption- NYPD Rampart Scandal- crash unit Effects of Corruption- 1) image, report of law enforcement/ department goes down, 2) morale tanks, 3) public disgust 4) paranoia 5) Department reacts with Ethics classes Use of Force- Continuum- escalation of force Force- when officer faces credible threat and uses enough force to control/ contain Verbal- command presence Physical- (can cause injury) throws, pins, handcuffs Injurious- (can be lethal) tazer, baton, mace Deadly Force 9.21.2011 Wednesday Police Liability (general)- sanction applied when you violate rules and sanctions 5 Types of Administrative Corrections a) Reprimanded b) Suspended, Demoted, transferred c) leave of absence d) Fired Federal and Civil Repercussions Federal- 1) violating someones rights (US Code Title 42 USC 1983) 2) While on duty 2 Types of Damages- Punitive, Compensatory; can be fined, sent to jail 2 Defenses- acted in good faith, probable cause State Civil- Tort, violation of state code Pursuits- highest level of concern for police chiefs, happen all the time, collateral damage Is suspect an imminent threat to public safety?

2 Car Model- main pursuit car, 2nd car calls it, supervisor trails How to stop pursuit- box car, pit maneuver, spike strips 9.23.2011 Friday Racial Profiling Legal- when stopping people who accurately match the description Illegal- Officer stops based on the race of driver or passengers alone Administration- needs to collect data on every stop that every officer makes StressBiological Stress- flight or fight syndrome Psychological Stress- seeing/ smelling dead people; family demands Physical Stress- late night stress, partner doesn't get along Stress Results in 3 major problems- alcoholism, drug use, suicide Suicide By Cop- suicidal people who use cops as means- they absolutely refuse to negotiate, recent homicide of loved one, demand to be killed, deadline, diagnosed with terminal disease Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)- after being involved in shooting a mandatory days off are required, handling disasters, watching partner die, accidental death, domestic violence Vicarious Liability- supervisor is charged with negligence at a state and federal level 5 Negligent Actsnegligent training negligent hiring negligent assignments negligent retention negligent supervision Study Guide Exam 1 Chapters 1 & 2 Definitions Organization- a consciously coordinated (management) social entity (people interacting), with a relative identifiable boundary (organization's goals and public served), that functions on a relatively continuous basis to achieve a common goal or set of goals. Bureaucracy- an organization with specialized functions, adherence to fixed rules, and a hierarchy of authority

Administration- the process by which a group of people is organized and directed toward achieving the group's objective Profession

Listening Types Barriers

Communication Types Barriers

Trait, Style, and Contingency Theories Theory X, Theory Y Managers and Styles Styles of Leadership Hawthorne Effect

Volstead Act Robert Peel August Vollmer Max Weber Frederick Taylor Herzberg Blake and Mouton McGregor

Themes of Policing (60s, 80s, etc.) Leadership Skills Set Managerial Grid (Handout) Situational Leadership (Handout)

Police agencies (federal, state, local) Roles of police CEOs, middle management and frontline supervisors Traits of good police officers (Nowicki) Current dominant police strategy SARA Model 4 police issues (force, profiling, pursuits, corruption) Types of corruption The Force Continuum Types of police liability Federal Criminal Federal Civil State Criminal State Civil Administrative Types of administrative liability Reprimands (written/verbal) Suspension/demotion/transfer Leave of absence Firing


Use of Force Racial Profiling

Types of police stress Major results of police stress Suicide by Cop indicators

4 cases that authorized less than unanimous juries

JOHNSON v. LOUISIANA, 406 U.S. 356 (1972)

considered the constitutionality of state laws that permitted criminal defendants to be convicted by less-than-unanimous votes.

Apodaca v. Oregon The Oregon constitution permitted non unanimous jury verdicts in certain criminal cases
Ballew v Georgia criminal juries of just five person violated the Sixth Amendment rights of defendants. Burch v. Louisiana the Court found Louisiana's law that allowed criminal convictions on 5 to 1 votes by a six-person jury violated the Sixth Amendment right. If a jury is to be as small as six the verdict has to be unanimous.