# Part I – Pipeline Alternative Hydraulic and Mechanical Analysis

1

CHAPTER 1
Pipeline Hydraulic and
Mechanical Design
Part I – Pipeline Alternative Hydraulic and Mechanical Analysis
2
1 Pipeline Hydraulic and Mechanical Design

1.1 Overview

he target of the hydraulic design is to get the
range of suitable diameters for the pipeline to
satisfy the outlet pressure and flow capacity
requirements, while the mechanical design defines
the minimum acceptable thickness for the pipeline.
This chapter discusses some of the important
concepts of gas flow study. It shows the equations
governing the compressible flow in pipes with brief
explanations for the different terms of each equation
and its physical meaning. We will go through the
diameter selection criteria for gas pipelines. The
mechanical design is based on the DNV 2000 rules
for submarine pipeline systems. Also we will discuss
the Enby Excel sheet which is a professional
mechanical design program based on the DNV 2000.
We are going to show the solution algorithm for both
hydraulic and mechanical design and the flow chart
of V.B.Net program for hydraulic and mechanical
design of gas pipelines. The chapter is concluded
with the results of V.B.Net program for the Egypt-
Cyprus pipeline. The analyses are obtained using
Imperial units.

1.2 Hydraulic Design:

As we mentioned before the target of the hydraulic
analyses is to select a suitable standard diameter that
satisfies the pipeline requirements. The major tool
used in the analysis is the energy equation which
relates the pressures at the start and end of a pipe
with the flow rate passing through the pipe and other
pipe and flow parameters.

1.2.1 The continuity equation:

Consider pipeline that transports a compressible
fluid (e.g. natural gas). For any two sections 1 and 2
along a gas flow pipe;

P = gas pressure
u = gas velocity
A = pipeline cross sectional area
ρ = gas density
The continuity equation for steady state is:

0
dt
dm
=
ρAu
2
u
2
A
2
ρ
1
u
1
A
1
ρ constant
.
m = = = =
For a constant diameter pipe:
C ρu
A
.
m
= =

Where C is a constant

1.2.2 The energy equation

The energy equation applied on gas flow between
sections 1 and 2 is in the form:

L
D
2
C f 2
2
ave
Z
2
ave
T
2
R
2
H
1
H
2
ave
P
2
M

2
2
P
2
1
P
ave
T
ave
Z R 2
M
2
u
1
u
ln
2
C
·
· ·
=
· ·
÷ · ·
+
÷ ·
· · ·
+ ·
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|

This equation is a general equation that can be used
in Imperial or S.I. units, for any size or length of
pipe, for laminar, partially turbulent or fully
turbulent flow and for low, medium or high pressure
systems.

Definition of parameters:

psia 2, and 1 sections between pressure average Pave
psia ly, respective 2 and 1 sections at pressures P2 & P1
ft/sec ly, respective 2 and 1 sections at s velocitie flow u2 & u1
=
=
=

|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
·
÷ + · =
2
P
1
P
2
P
1
P
2
P
1
P
3
2
ave
P

R 2, and 1 sections between re temperatu average Tave
R ly, respective 2 and 1 sections at res temperatu T2 & T1
=
=

2
2
T
1
T
ave
T
+
=

constant C
factor ility compressib Zave
moles) lb / (lbm weight, molecular gas M
R) moles lb / ft3 (psia ,
10.73 constant gas universal R
=
=
=
× ×
=

T
1 2
P1, u1
T1, H1
Z1, A
1

ρ
1

P
2,
u2

T2, H2
Z2, A
2

ρ
2

Part I – Pipeline Alternative Hydraulic and Mechanical Analysis
3
2
D
b
Z
b
T R π
b
P M
b
Q 4
A
.
m
C
· · · ·
· · ·
= =

Q
b
= standard flow rate, MMSCFD or MCF/HR
The standard volume is the gas volume at the
standard or base conditions (T
b
, P
b
and Z
b
) that have
the same mass of the actual gas volume. That is;
T R Z
P
Q
b
T R
b
Z
b
P
b
Q
ρ Q
b
ρ
b
Q
.
m
· ·
=
· ·
· = · =

gravity gas G
inch pipe, the of diameter inside D
1 ˜ Tb, and Pb at factor ility compressib Zb
R 520 condition, base at re temperatu Tb
psia 14.7 condition, base at pressure Pb
=
=
=
=
=

The gas gravity is the ratio between the gas
molecular weight and the air molecular weight = M /
M
air
, M
air
≈ 29 lb
m
/ lb moles
Z = compressibility factor at P
ave
and T
ave

H
1
-H
2
= the elevation change, ft
L = pipe length, ft or mile

1.2.3 Determination of the compressibility
factor:

There are two main methods for the determination of
the compressibility factor; compressibility factor
chart and the equations of state

1.2.3.1 Compressibility factor chart:

As we can see, to get the compressibility factor from
the chart we have to get the pseudo reduced pressure,
P
r
and the pseudo reduced temperature, T
r
.

C
T
ave
T
r
T
C
P
ave
P
r
P
=
=

Where,
P
C
= pseudo critical pressure
T
C
= pseudo critical temperature
The pseudocritical values for a gas mixture such as
the natural gas can be obtained with Kay's rule as
follows:
T'
C
= T
CA
. y
A
+ T
CB
. y
B
+ T
CC
. y
C
+ …
P'
C
= P
CA
. y
A
+ P
CB
. y
B
+ P
CC
. y
C
+ …
T'
C
= average pseudocritical temperature of the gas
P'
C
= average pseudocritical pressure of the gas
T
CA
, T
CB
, T
CC
,. = critical temperature of each
component
P
CA
, P
CB
, P
CC
,. = critical pressure of each component
y
A
, y
B
, y
C
,. = mole fraction of each component

The pseudo critical properties for the different gases
forming the natural gas mixture are listed in the
following table.

Part I – Pipeline Alternative Hydraulic and Mechanical Analysis
4

Part I – Pipeline Alternative Hydraulic and Mechanical Analysis
5

Compound Molecular Weight Critical Temperature(R) Critical Pressure (psia)
C1 16.043 343 666
C2 30.07 550 707
C3 44.097 666 617
iC4 58.124 734 528
nC4 58.124 765 551
iC5 72.151 829 491
nC5 72.151 845 489
nC6 86.178 913 437
nC7 100.205 972 397
nC8 114.232 1024 361
nC9 128.259 1070 332
nC10 142.286 1112 305
nC11 156.302 1150 285
nC12 170.338 1185 264
N2 28.016 227 493
CO2 44.01 548 1071
H2S 34.076 672 1300
O2 32 278 731
H2 2.016 60 188
H2O 18.015 1165 3199
Air 28.96 238 547
He 4 9 33
Where, C1 is the single carbon atom alkane, methane
CH
4
, C2 is the double carbon atom alkane, ethane,
C
2
H
6
…etc. Also "i" refers to the ISO structure while
n refers to the normal structure.

1.2.3.2 Equations of state

Several equations can be used to determine the
compressibility factor like the CNGA equation and
the Van-der Waals equation.

- CNGA equation:

( )
(
(
¸
(

¸

·
· ·
+
=
3.825
T
G 1.785
10 344400
ave
P
1
1
Z

The CNGA equation is used to determine the
compressibility factor for natural gas with 90%
methane by volume. The equation is valid when the
average gas pressure P
ave
is greater than 100 psig.
For pressures less than 100 psig, the compressibility
factor can be taken as 1.00. Note that the pressure
used in the CNGA equation is the gage pressure not
the absolute pressure.

- Van-der waals equation

( )
C
8P
C
RT
b &
C
64P
2
C
T
2
27R
a
RT b v
2
v
a
P
= =
= ÷ + |
.
|

\
|

Part I – Pipeline Alternative Hydraulic and Mechanical Analysis
6

This equation was the first attempt to correct the
ideal gas law, but its accuracy is law.

1.2.4 Flow regimes

There are two main types of flow; laminar and
turbulent flow. The regime of flow is defined by the
Reynolds number, which is a dimensionless
expression:

μ
u D ρ
e
R
· ·
=

lbm/ft.sec , viscosity fluid μ
ft/sec velocity, average fluid u
ft diameter, internal pipeline D
3
lbm/ft density, fluid ρ Where
=
=
=
=

For Reynolds numbers less than 2,000 the flow is
normally laminar or stable. When the Reynolds
number exceeds 2,000, the flow is turbulent or
unstable. In high-pressure gas transmission lines
with moderate to high flow rates, only two regimes
of flow exist: partially turbulent flow (rough pipe
flow) and fully turbulent flow (smooth pipe flow).

The transmission factor for fully turbulent flow can
be calculated from the Nikuradse equation as
follows:
|
|
.
|

\
|
· =
e
K
3.7D
10
log 4
f
1

K
e
= effective roughness, inch which is
comprised of the following terms:
K
e
= K
s
+ K
i
+ K
d

Where K
s
= surface roughness
K
i
= interfacial roughness
K
d
= roughness due to bends, welds, fittings, etc.
Usually in high-pressure gas transmission lines with
high flow rates where the flow regime is fully
turbulent and the natural gas is almost dry, the values
of K
i
and K
d
are negligible. The values of K
s
or K
e
is
important in fully turbulent flow because the laminar
sublayer, the surface roughness of the pipe plays an
important role in determining the flow and pressure
drop in the pipe.

For internally uncoated commercial pipes, the value
of K
e
is normally measured in the range of 650-750
μ inches. Erosion, corrosion, contamination and
other factors cause a yearly increase in K
e
by 30-50
μ inches. Internal coating of pipes with a material
such as epoxy/polyamide reduces the surface
roughness to within a range of 200-300 micro inches
so the pressure drop decreases and correspondingly
the compressor power. The deterioration also
decreases the rate of deterioration per year by 50-75
micro-inches for every five years.

Getting Reynolds number:
4
2
πD μ
b
Q D
b
ρ
4
2
πD μ
Q D ρ
e
R
4
2
πD
Q
u
μ
u D ρ
e
R
· ·
=
· ·
=
=
· ·
=

29G M 1,
b
Z
b
T R
b
Z
M
b
P
b
ρ
= ~
· ·
·
=

b
T R D π μ
b
P 29G
b
4Q
e
R
· · · ·
· ·
=
Once the actual Reynolds number is determined, the
flow regime can be determined from Prandtl- Von
Karman equation which defines border line between
partially and fully turbulent flow:

0.6
f
1
e
R
10
4log
f
1
÷ =
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|

Laminar
sublayer

Partially
turbulent flow
Fully turbulent
flow
10000 100000 1000000
R
e
(in Log Scale)

Border Line
Prandtl- Von
Karman Equation
Fully Turbulent
Zone
Partially Turbulent
Zone
Part I – Pipeline Alternative Hydraulic and Mechanical Analysis
7
If the actual Reynolds number is greater than the
Reynolds number obtained from Prandtl- Von
Karman Equation, the flow is fully turbulent.
Otherwise, the flow is partially turbulent.

1.2.5 Widely used steady-state flow equations

A more simplified form of the general energy
equation in Imperial units can be written as follows:

2.5
D
2
1
ave
Z
ave
GLT
E
2
2
P
2
1
P
f
1
b
P
b
T
38.744
b
Q
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ ÷
=

E = potential energy term
ave ave
2
ave
Z T
P
ΔH 0.0375G E · · =
psia 14.7 condition, base at pressure = Pb
R 520 condition, base at re temperatu = Tb
SCF/D , conditions base at rate flow gas Qb =

psia pressure, exit gas = P2
psia pressure, inlet gas = P1
ess dimensionl factor, ion transmiss =
1
f
inch diameter, inside pipeline = D
miles length, pipeline = L
ess dimensionl Tave, Pave at factor, ility compressib average = Zave
R re, temperatu average = Tave
psia pressure, average = Pave
ft change, elevation = H
ess dimensionl gravity, gas = G
A

The different flow equations differ in the value of the
transmission factor. The general form of all the
equations is:
e
D
d
ave
Z
ave
LT
c
G
E
2
2
P
2
1
P
b
b
P
b
T
a
b
Q
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
| ÷ ÷
=

Where a, b, c, d, e are constants that have different
values in each equation. The values of a, b, c, d, e for
some of the most common steady-state flow
equations are listed in the table below.

These equations are especially suitable for the design
of gas transmission lines having large diameters and
high pressures. Only Colebrook-White can be used
for both partially and fully turbulent flow regimes,
Panhandle A and AGA partially turbulent equations
are used in the partially turbulent flow regime while
the remainders are used in the fully turbulent flow
regime. For AGA partially turbulent equation, D
f
is
the drag force that compensates for the inefficiencies
due to bends, welds, fittings, etc., and has a
numerical value in the range of 0.92 to 0.97. The
Panhandle B equation is normally suitable for large-
diameter (i.e., pipes larger than NPS 24). The
Weymouth equation tends to overestimate the
pressure drop predictions, and contains a lower
degree of accuracy relative to the other equations.
Weymouth is commonly used in distribution
networks for the sake of safety in predicting pressure
drop. Both the AGA fully turbulent and the
Colebrook-White introduce the effect of the pipe
effective roughness, K
e
.

Part I – Pipeline Alternative Hydraulic and Mechanical Analysis
8
Equation
Transmission factor,
f
1

a b c d e
Panhandle
A
0.07305
e
R 6.872
435.83
1.078
8
0.853
9
0.539
4
2.618
2
AGA
Partially
Turbulent
|
|
.
|

\
|
·
F 1.4126
e
R
10
log
f
4D
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
· ·
f
1
1.4126
e
R
10
log
f
4D 38.774 1 1 0.5 2.5
Panhandle
B
01961 . 0
b
Q
16.70
|
|
.
|

\
|
·
D
G

737.02 1.02 0.961 0.51 2.53
Weymout
h
6
1
D 11.19
432.7 1 1 0.5 2.667
AGA
Fully
Turbulent
|
|
.
|

\
|
·
e
K
3.7D
10
log 4
|
|
.
|

\
|
· ·
e
K
3.7D
10
log 4 38.774 1 1 0.5 2.5
Colebrook
-White
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
·
· ÷
e
R
f
1
1.4126
D 3.7
e
K
10
log 4

|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
·
· ÷ ·
e
R
f
1
1.4126
D 3.7
e
K
10
log 4 38.774

1 1 0.5 2.5

1.2.6 Temperature profile:

Temperature is very important parameter in the
design of pipelines and related facilities.
The temperature has major effect on gas properties
and hence gas transportation in pipeline. Many gas
properties depend on temperature, such as gas
viscosity, density and specific heat. As gas
temperature increases, its viscosity increases which
results in the increase in pressure drop and hence
power loss. The temperature change in a pipeline has
three main reasons; heat transfer between gas and
surrounding, isenthalpic gas expansion due to
friction which is expressed by the Joule-Thompson
effect and isentropic gas expansion caused by
elevation change.

1.2.6.1 Heat Transfer in gas pipelines

Heat is transferred between gas and surrounding
among three stages; heat transfer by convection
between gas and pipe wall, heat transfer by
conduction through pipe wall, insulation and
concrete and heat transfer by convection and
radiation between pipe wall and surroundings.

1.2.6.1.1 Heat transfer between gas and pipe
wall:

This is held by convection, the heat transfer
coefficient can be calculated from Dittus-Boelter
equation:

( )
0.2
D
0.8
f
V
f
ρ
0.4
f
μ
pf
C
0.6
f
0.023k
f
h
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
Where
h
f
= heat transfer coefficient, Btu/hr-f
2
-R
k
f
= gas thermal conductivity, Btu/hr-ft-R
C
pf
= gas specific heat, Btu/lbm-R
μ
f
= gas dynamic viscosity, lbm/ft-hr
ρ
f
= gas density, lbm/ft
3

Concrete
coating
Conduction
Plastic
coating
Conduction
Pipe
thickness
Conduction
Gas flow
Convection
Surrounding
Convection
and
Part I – Pipeline Alternative Hydraulic and Mechanical Analysis
9
V
f
= flow velocity, ft/hr
D = internal pipe diameter, ft

This equation is suitable for turbulent flow in pipes
where, R
e
> 10,000 and Prandtl number between 0.7
and 160.
The internal heat transfer resistance, R
i
, can then be
calculated from the equation:

hr/Btu R ,
i
D L π
f
h
1
i
R ·
· · ·
=

1.2.6.1.2 Heat transfer through pipe wall,
insulation and concrete:

The heat transfer through solids occurs by
conduction, the total thermal resistance can be
calculated from the equation:
( )
c
k L 2π
ins
/D
c
D ln
ins
k L 2π
p
/D
ins
D ln
p
k L 2π
i
/D
p
D ln
s
R
· ·
+
· ·
+
· ·
=
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|

Where D
i
, D
p
, D
ins
, D
c
are the internal and external
diameters of pipe, external diameter of insulation
and external diameter of concrete respectively.
While k
p
, k
ins
and k
c
are the thermal conductivities of
pipe, insulation and concrete respectively.

1.2.6.1.3 Heat transfer between pipe and
surrounding:

Heat may be transferred between pipe wall and the
surrounding by conduction, convection and
radiation; this depends on what kind of environment
surrounds the pipe. For an above-ground or offshore
pipeline placed in a blowing fluid environment, the
heat transfer coefficient can be calculated from the
equation:

n
Pr
m
surr e,
R C
out
D
surr
k
surr
h · · · =

Where
k
surr
= thermal conductivity of the surrounding
fluid, Btu/hr-ft-R
D
out
= outer diameter of the pipeline, e.g.
concrete outer diameter, ft
R
e,surr
= Reynolds number of the surrounding fluid
C, m and n are constant that are given in the
following table. The corresponding heat resistance
can be given as follows:

hr/Btu R ,
c
πLD
surr
h
1
surr
R ·
·
=

R
e
number range C m n
< 4 0.989 0.33 1/3
< 40 0.911 0.385 1/3
< 4,000 0.683 0.466 1/3
< 40,000 0.193 0.618 1/3
> 40,000 0.027 0.805 1/3

Then, the overall heat transfer coefficient is
determined from the equation:

surr
R
s
R
i
R
UA
1
+ + =

1.2.6.2 Joule-Thompson Effect

The Joule-Thompson effect describes the
temperature loss due to the pressure drop that occurs
when gas expands in a pipeline. The Joule-
Thompson factor can either be related to the pressure
drop or pipe length as following:

L
j
ΔT
or
ΔP
j
ΔT
j =
( ) dL j
p
C m
surround
T T dA U dT
p
C m · · ·
·
+ ÷ · · = · ·
·
÷

By integration we yield:

j/a
surround
T
L a
e
j/a
surround
T
1
T
2
T ÷ +
·
+ ÷
=

T
1
= inlet gas temperature, R
T
2
= exit gas temperature, R
T
surround
= surrounding temperature, R
j = Joule-Thompson coefficient, R/ft
(sometimes R/psi)
a = constant
=
p
C m
πDU
·
·
, ft
-1

L = pipe length, ft

Notes:
1. For an underground pipeline, heat transfers
by conduction through the soil. The amount
of heat transfer through soil is calculated
using the following equation:
( )
g
T T S
soil
k q ÷ · · =
Where
q = heat transfer rate, Btu/h
k
soil
= soil thermal conductivity, Btu/h-ft-R
S = conduction shape factor for buried
pipelines, ft
Part I – Pipeline Alternative Hydraulic and Mechanical Analysis
11
T = pipe wall temperature, R
T
g
= soil (ground) temperature, R
The conduction shape factor for buried pipelines is
given as:

|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
·
=
/2 D
h
1
cosh
L 2
S
out
t

Where L = pipe length, ft
h = distance from center of pipe to the ground
surface, ft
D
out
= pipeline outer diameter, ft

2. Heat transfer by radiation from pipe to the
surroundings can be given as:
( )
4
surround
T
4
surface
T
surface
A σ ε q ÷ · · · =
Where ε = surface emissivity of the pipe
σ = Boltzman constant
= 5.67×10
-8
Btu/hr-ft
2
-R
4

A
surface
= pipe surface area, ft
2

T
surface
= pipe surface temperature, R
T
surround
=surrounding temperature, R

1.2.7 Diameter selection criteria:

The diameter selection in fluid transmission
pipelines is usually based on the fluid velocity. For
liquid transmission pipelines, the pipeline diameter is
selected such that the liquid velocity in the pipeline
ranges between 1 and 3 m/s. If the liquid velocity
exceeds 3 m/s, the pressure drop in the pipeline will
be very large, while a low velocity flow allows
precipitation of solids carried with fluid.

In gas pipelines, the gas velocity is limited by the
erosional velocity. If a fluid flows in a pipeline with
a high velocity it can cause both erosion and
vibration in the pipeline. This will reduce the life of
the pipeline. So it is always necessary to control gas
velocity in gas transmission pipelines to prevent it
from rising above the erosional velocity.

1.2.7.1 Pipeline gas velocity
b
Z
b
T
s
P
s
Z
s
T
b
P
4
2
πD
4
2
πD
A
b
Z
b
T
s
P
s
Z
s
T
b
P
s
ρ
b
ρ
b
T R
b
Z
M
b
P
b
ρ ;
s
T R
s
Z
M
s
P
s
ρ
b
ρ
b
Q
s
ρ
s
Q
A
s
Q
s
u
b
s
Q
u
· ·
· ·
=
· ·
· ·
=
· ·
·
=
· ·
·
=
· = ·
=
· =

Substitute, P
b
= 14.7 psia, T
b
= 520 R, Z
b
= 1
s
P
2
D
s
Z
s
T
b
Q
3
10 1.44
s
u
·
· ·
÷
× =
Where u
s
= gas velocity at any segment, ft/sec
Q
b
= gas flow rate at base condition, ft
3
/hr
P = pressure at any section, psia
T
s
= temperature at any section, R
D = pipeline diameter, inches

1.2.7.2 Erosional velocity

The velocity that can cause erosion to the pipeline
can be calculated from the following equation:
0.5
ρ
C
e
u =
Where, in Imperial Units,
u
e
= erosional velocity, ft/sec
ρ = gas density, lbm/ft
3

C is a constant defined as 75 < C < 150. The
recommended value for C in gas transmission lines
is C = 100.
0.5
T R Z
29G P
100
e
u
|
.
|

\
|
· ·
·
=
In the above equation:
u
e
= erosional velocity, ft/sec
G = gas gravity, dimensionless
P = pipeline minimum pressure, psia
Z = compressibility factor at the specified
pressure and temperature, dimensionless
T = flowing gas temperature, R
R = 10.73 (ft
3
× psia/lb moles × R)

The recommended value for the gas velocity in gas
transmission mainlines is normally 40% to 50% of
the erosional velocity; this means a flow velocity in
Part I – Pipeline Alternative Hydraulic and Mechanical Analysis
11
the range of 33-43 ft/sec (10-13 m/sec). This value
could be increased to 15-17 m/sec for nonmajor lines
or laterals. Note that a very low velocity ratio means
that the pipeline is very extremely large which
means a high capital cost.

Part I – Pipeline Alternative Hydraulic and Mechanical Analysis
12
2 Mechanical Design

2.1 Objectives

The objectives of this standard are:-
- Provide an international acceptable standard
of safety for submarine pipeline system by
defining minimum requirements for the
design, materials, fabrication installation,
testing, commissioning, operation & repair.
- Serve as technical reference document in
contractual matters between purchaser and
contractor; and
- Serve as guideline for designers, purchaser,
and contractors
2.2 Definitions
1. Erosion: Material loss due to repeated
impact of sand particles liquid droplets.
2. Fabrication: Activities related to the
assembly of objects with a defined
purpose. In relation to pipelines,
fabrication refers to e.g. risers, expansion
loops, bundles, reels, etc.
3. Fabrication factor: factor on the material
strength in order to compensate for
material strength reduction from cold
forming during manufacturing of line
pipe.
4. Failure: An event affecting a component or
system and causing one or both of the
following effects:
- Loss of component or system function; or
- Deterioration of functional capability to
such an extent that the safety of the
installation , personal or environmental is
significantly reduced

of material.
6. Limit state: A state beyond which the
structure no longer satisfies the
requirements. The following categories of
limit states are of relevance for pipeline
systems:
SLS= Serviceability L.S.
ULS=Ultimate L.S
FLS=Fatigue L.S
ALS= Accidental L.S
7. Ovalisation: the deviation of the perimeter from a
circle. This has the form of an elliptic section.
8. Buckling, global: Buckling mode which involves a
substantial length of the pipeline, usually several
pipe joints and deformations of the cross section;
upheaval buckling is an example thereof.

9. Buckling local: Buckling mode confined to a short
length of the pipeline causing gross changes of the
cross section; collapse, localized wall wrinkling and
kinking are examples thereof.
10. Safety class(SC): in relation to pipelines; a
concept adopted to classify the significance
of the pipe line system with respect to the
consequences of failure
11. safety class resistance factor: Partial safety
factor which transform the lower fractile
resistance to a design resistance reflecting
the safety class
12. Reliability: the probability that a component
or a system will perform its required
function without failure, under stated
conditions of operation and maintenance and
during a specified time interval

Pressure definitions
1. Pressure collapse: characteristic resistance
against external over pressure
2. Pressure design: In relation to pipelines this is
the maximum internal pressure during normal
operation, referred to a specified reference
height, to which the pipeline or pipeline section
shall be designed. The design pressure must
take account of steady flow conditions over the
full range of flow rates, as well as possible
packing and shut-in conditions, over the whole
length of the pipeline or pipeline section which
is to have a constant design pressure.
3. Pressure incidental: In relation to pipelines
this is the maximum internal pressure the pipeline
or pipeline section is designed to withstand
during any incidental operation situation, referred
to the same reference height as the design
pressure.
4. Pressure propagation: the lowest pressure
required for a propagating buckle to continue to
propagate.
5. Pressure containment : is the maximum
internal pressure causing failure

2.3 DESIGN PHILOSOPHY

2.3.1 Location class

Part I – Pipeline Alternative Hydraulic and Mechanical Analysis
13
2.3.2 Safety classes

2.3.3 Categorization of fluids

According to previews classifications in our case:-
Fluid category is: - B
Location type:- 2
- So safety class would be:- High
Loads shall be classified as follows:-
- Loads arising from the physical existence of the
pipeline system and its intended use shall be
- All functional loads which are essential for the
pipe line system, during both the construction
and the operational phase, shall be considered
- Effects from the following phenomena are the
minimum to be considered when establishing
 Wight
 External hydraulic pressure;
 Temperature of continent
 Reaction from component(flanges, clamps
etc)
 Cover (soil, rock, mattresses);
 Internal pressure during operation
 Reaction from sea floor(friction &rotational
stiffness)
 Pre-stressing
 Permanent deformation of supporting
structure
 Permanent deformations due to subsidence of
ground, both vertical and horizontal
 Possible loads due to ice bulb growth around
buried pipelines near fixed points ( in line
valves tees, fixed plants etc)
 Loads included by frequent pigging
operations
- Are defined as ;those loads on a pipeline
system which are caused by the surrounding
environment, and that are not otherwise
classified as functional or accidental loads
- Hydrodynamic loads:- are defined as flow
induced loads caused by the relative motion
between the pipe and the surrounding water.
When determining the hydrodynamic loads the
relative liquid particles velocities and
accelerations used in the calculations shall be
established, taking into account contributions
from waves, current and motions if significant.

- The following hydrodynamic loads shall be
considered but not limited
 Drag and lift forces which are in phase with
the absolute or relative water particles
velocity
 Inertia forces which are in phase with the
absolute or relative water particle
acceleration
- Loads which are imposed on a pipeline
system under abnormal conditions shall be
- Typical accidental load can be caused by:
 Vessel impact or other drifting items
(collision , grounding, sinking);
 Dropped objects;
 Mud slides
 Explosion
 Fire and heat flux
 Dragging anchors

Part I – Pipeline Alternative Hydraulic and Mechanical Analysis
14
2.4 Design Calculations
Limit states:
As minimum requirement, risers and pipelines
shall be designed against the following potential
modes of failure:
1. serviceability limit state
 Ovalisation / Ratching limit state;
 accumulated plastic strain limit state
 damage due to , or loss of, weight coating.
2. Ultimate limit state
 Bursting limit state;
 Ovalisation / Ratching limit (if causing total
failure)
 Local buckling limit state (pipe wall
buckling limit state);
 Global buckling limit state (normally for
 Unstable fracture and plastic collapse limit
state; and
 Impact
3. Fatigue limit state
4. Accidental limit state
 All limit states shall be satisfied for all
state may be different for the load
controlled condition and the displacement
controlled condition
All limit states shall be satisfied for all relevant phases
and conditions. Typical conditions to be covered in the
design are:
- Installation
- As laid
- System pressure test
- Operation and
- Shut-down

THE DESIGN WILL BE ACCORDING TO [ULS]

The design load can generally be expressed in the
following:

1. Pressure containment

High safety class during normal operation:

- Pe: External pressure
- Z : water height
- G : proportionality constant
- Pi : internal pressure
- : sea water denisity.
The pressure containment resistance, pb (t), is
given by:
The minimum between Yield limit-state & the
bursting limit-state.
 Yield limit state is

 The bursting limit-state is

- t : Wall Thickness
- D: outer Diameter
- Fy: Yield Stress to be used in design
- Fu: Tensile Strength to be used in Design

2. Collapse Pressure:-

Not to be taken < 0.005 (0.5%)

The external pressure along the pipeline shall with the
Following collapse check:

- Pc : Collapse Pressure
- P
e1
: Elastic Collapse Pressure
- E : young’s modulus ( Pipe Material)
- ΰ : Poisson’s ratio
- P
P
: Plastic Collapse Pressure
- UO: Pipe Fabrication process for welded pipes
- UOE: Pipe Fabrication process for welded pipes,
Expanded
- TRB: Three roll bending

3. Local buckling
The check is:-
m SC
b
e li
γ γ
(t) P
P P s ÷
i li
1.05P P =
w e
Z.g.ρ P =
w
µ
3
2
f
t D
2t
(t) P
y s b,
· ·
÷
=
3
2
1.15
f
t D
2t
(t) P
u
u b,
· ·
÷
=
t
D
f P P P ) P (P ) P (P
0 P e1 C
2
P
2
C e1 C
= ÷ · ÷
2
3
e1
ν 1
D
t
2E
P
÷
|
.
|

\
|
=
D
t
α f 2 P
fab y P
· · · =
1
D
D D
ovality, f
min max
0
=
÷
=
m SC
C
e
γ γ 1.1
P
P
·
s
1
t P α
ΔP
t P α
ΔP
1
M α
M
γ γ
S α
S
γ γ
2
b c
d
2
b c
d
P c
d
m SC
2
P c
d
m SC
s
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ · +
|
|
.
|

\
|
·
Part I – Pipeline Alternative Hydraulic and Mechanical Analysis
15
For Pi>Pe

For Pe>Pi

- P1d : Local design Pressure , The internal
pressure at any point in the pipeline system
for corresponding design pressure or
incidental pressure
- Sd: Design Effective Axial Force
- SF: Functional Axial Force= Residual lay
tension+
Thermal Expansion Force + Internal Pressure force
- A: Pipe steel cross section Area
- L: Residual lay tension
- S
E
: Environmental Axial Force
- Coefficient of thermal expansion
- Md : Design bending moment
- MF: Functional bending moment
- ME: Environment bending moment
- SP: Characteristic plastic axial force
resistance
- MP: plastic Moment resistance
- Design differential overpressure

4. Propagation buckling:-
The external pressure along the pipeline shall be
checked with the following Propagation check:-

Safety class resistance factor γsc
Safety class low Normal High
Pressure
containment
1.046 1.138 1.308
Other 1.04 1.14 1.26

Limit state
Functional

Environ-
Mental
Accidental
Pressure
γf γE γA γp
SLS& 1.2 0.7 - 1.05
ULS 1.1 1.3 - 1.05
FLS 1.0 1.0 - 1.0
ALS 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0

E E C F F d
γ S γ γ S S · + · · =
L 2νν)(π/4) (1 P 2νν)(π/4) (1 P EAsT α S
2
0 e
2
i i F
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ + · =
E E C F F d
γ M γ γ M M · + · · =
( ) t f t D π S
y P
÷ =
( ) t f t D M
y
2
P
÷ =
) P (P γ ΔP
e ld P d
÷ · =
1 ]
P
P
γ [γ ]
M α
M
γ γ
S α
S
γ [γ
2
c
e
m SC
2
P c
d
m SC
2
P c
d
m SC
s
|
|
.
|

\
|
· +
|
|
.
|

\
|
· +
|
|
.
|

\
|
·
o
d
P A
m SC
e
P
P
¸ ¸
Pr
s
5 . 2
Pr
) ( 35
D
t
f
P
SC m
fab y
·
·
·
· =
¸ ¸
o
Part I – Pipeline Alternative Hydraulic and Mechanical Analysis
16
Condition γc
Pipe line resting on uneven seabed or in
a snaked condition
1.07
Continuously supported .82
System pressure test .93
Otherwise 1

Material resistance factor γm
Limit state
category
SLS/ULS/ALS FLS
γm 1.15 1

5. The Drag Force:

The Lift Force:

The Inertia Force:

- ρ the density of sea water,
- D is is the pipe diameter
- U
C
is the steady state current velocity
averaged over the pipe diameter.
- C
D
and C
L
are the non-dimensional
force coefficient for drag and lift.
- C
M
: Inertia coefficient

c
D D
U DC F
2
5 . 0 µ =
c
2
L L
U 0.5ρ.5 F =
M
2
I
.C ρ.D
4
π
F =
Part I – Pipeline Alternative Hydraulic and Mechanical Analysis
17
3 VB.NET Program algorithm

3.1 Inputs

3.2 Outputs

Input data
- Pipe Length, Flow Rate
- Supply/Discharge Pressure & Temperature
- Surrounding Temperature
- Number of Segments
- Z-Factor Equation & Pressure Equation
- Allowable Range for Velocity Ratio &
Allowable Pressure Drop
- Gas Composition
- Concrete/Insulation Thickness and
conductivity, Surface Emissivity
Bases
- Environmental Conditions; contours of: depth,
wave and current speed & direction
- Properties of Gas components at the different
pressures and temperatures, ρ, P
r
, μ, Cp, k,
Joule-Thompson
- Molecular weight, critical pressures and
temperatures of different gas components
- Standard diameters and thicknesses from the
API
- Yield and tensile strengths of the different steel
Tables
- Acceptable diameters according to each equation
o Outlet/Inlet pressure and temperature
o Pressure drop
o Power lost in the line
o Velocity ratio
- Required thicknesses in each contour according to the
pressure drop calculated by each equation
Graphs
- Line chart
o Pressure plot
o Temperature plot
- Bar chart
o Velocity ratios
o Powers
o Pressure drop
Part I – Pipeline Alternative Hydraulic and Mechanical Analysis
18
3.3 Processing

Loop all API diameters
Loop all solution equations
Loop all pipe segments
Find suitable thickness for this pipe segment according
to DNV code
Calculate compressibility factor
Calculate segment temperature according to heat
transfer (convection and radiation) and gas expansion
(Joule-Thompson) effect
Calculate pressure using the selected solution
equations
Calculate power loss in segment
End of loop
Calculate local to erosion velocity ratio at pipe end
Calculate total pressure drop along pipeline
Calculate total power lost in the pipeline
End of loop
End of loop
Defining the flow regime; partially turbulent or fully
turbulent flow
Equation Suits Flow regime
Yes
NO
Diameter satisfies requirements
Yes
NO
Part I – Pipeline Alternative Hydraulic and Mechanical Analysis
19
3.4 Program Interface

Part I – Pipeline Alternative Hydraulic and Mechanical Analysis
21
4 Egypt-Cyprus Pipeline

4.1 Pipeline requirements:

The proposed Egypt-Cyprus pipeline is 680 km
(422.6 mile) long. The demand is 4 MMSCM/Day.
The discharge pressure is 1,015 psi (70 bar). The
discharge temperature and the surrounding
temperature are equal and supposed to be 20 (C).
The gas consists mainly of methane (90%) and
ethane (10%).

4.2 Solution bases

- Solve using both CNGA equation and Van-
der Waals equation
- Solve using all the energy equations,
Panhandle A, AGA partially turbulent,
Panhandle B, AGA fully turbulent,
Weymouth and Colebrook-White
- Divide the pipeline into 1000 segments.
- Accept only diameters that give outlet local
velocity ranging between 30-50% of the
erosional velocity
- Limit pressure drop to 1,500 psi
- Ignore heat transfer
- The selected pipe material is steel X-80.
- Concrete thickness = 15 cm

4.3 Results:
4.3.1 Solution using CNGA equation
Selected diameters
Panhandle B
D(in) P1(psi) T1(F) % us/ue Pressure Drop (psi) Power loss(HP)
14 2359.27 111.2475 35.25817 1344.27 3729.771
Weymouth
D(in) P1(psi) T1(F) % us/ue Pressure Drop (psi) Power loss(HP)

AGA fully turbulent
D(in) P1(psi) T1(F) % us/ue Pressure Drop (psi) Power loss(HP)
12.75 1709.595 93.16087 43.37388 694.5952 2269.894
14 1482.561 85.60558 36.26622 467.5608 1638.808
Colebrook-White
D(in) P1(psi) T1(F) % us/ue Pressure Drop (psi) Power loss(HP)
12.75 1746.229 94.33281 43.32061 731.2288 2364.554
14 1513.105 86.65953 36.22514 498.1049 1728.601

Selected thicknesses
12.75" 14"
Contour (mile) Thickness(in) Contour (mile) Thickness(in)
435.0528 427.6569 0.281 435.0528 399.8135 0.312
427.6569 263.642 0.312 399.8135 147.4829 0.344
263.642 147.4829 0.33 147.4829 0 0.375
147.4829 46.55065 0.344
46.55065 0 0.375

Part I – Pipeline Alternative Hydraulic and Mechanical Analysis
21
4.3.2 Solution using Van-der Waals equation

Selected diameters
Panhandle B
D(in) P1(psi) T1(F) % us/ue Pressure Drop (psi) Power loss(HP)
14 2386.581 111.8889 36.48789 1371.581 3782.823
Weymouth
D(in) P1(psi) T1(F) % us/ue Pressure Drop (psi) Power loss(HP)

AGA fully turbulent
D(in) P1(psi) T1(F) % us/ue Pressure Drop (psi) Power loss(HP)
12.75 1713.575 93.2877 43.77462 698.5751 2280.264
14 1483.859 85.65056 36.42109 468.8585 1642.656
Colebrook-White
D(in) P1(psi) T1(F) % us/ue Pressure Drop (psi) Power loss(HP)
12.75 1750.842 94.48033 43.76394 735.8423 2376.35
14 1514.654 86.71336 36.39981 499.6541 1733.113

Selected thicknesses
12.75" 14"
Contour (mile) Thickness(in) Contour (mile) Thickness(in)
435.0528 427.2219 0.281 435.0528 397.2032 0.312
427.2219 252.7657 0.312 397.2032 125.7303 0.344
252.7657 129.6457 0.33 125.7303 0 0.375
129.6457 23.0578 0.344
23.0578 0 0.375

Part I – Pipeline Alternative Hydraulic and Mechanical Analysis
22
4.3.3 Pressure plot vs. pipe length

Solution using CNGA equation Solution using Van-der Waals equation

AGA Fully
Turbulent
equation
Panhandle B
Colebrook-
White
Panhandle B
AGA Fully
Turbulent
equation
Colebrook-
White
Part I – Pipeline Alternative Hydraulic and Mechanical Analysis
23
4.3.4 Temperature plot vs. pipe length

Solution using CNGA equation Solution using Van-der Waals equation

Panhandle B
AGA Fully
Turbulent
Colebrook-
White
Panhandle B
AGA Fully
Turbulent
Colebrook-
White
Part I – Pipeline Alternative Hydraulic and Mechanical Analysis
24
Discussion of results:
- As we can see the use of Van-der Waals
equation results in slightly higher pressure
drop
- The in the selected diameters is fully
turbulent, so the solution is based on
equations: Panhandle B, AGA fully
turbulent, Weymouth and Colebrook-White.
- The power lost is calculated by summation
of the power lost in each segment of the
pipe.
( ) ( ) ( )
550 3600
144

psi ΔP
b
T
b
Z P
T Z
b
P
SCF/hr
b
Q hp loss Power
×
×
× ×
× ×
=

- The reason why we do not include the effect
of heat transfer can be interpreted as
following: due to heat transfer, the
temperature drops along the pipeline. For
long pipelines, such as our case the
temperature reduces till reaching the
temperature of the surrounding, then the pipe
become "thermally insulated" and the
temperature become constant for the
remainder of the pipeline. If we had to solve
the problem from the last segment to the first
one backward solution, there will be no way
to determine the point when the pipe become
isothermal so the backward solution is not
possible

- The number of segments in the forward
solution should be selected in proportional to
the pipe length since a small number of
segments for a long pipeline may result in a
great error calculation of the heat transferred.

- The program determines the minimum
required thickness in each pipe contour. For
liquid pipelines it is possible to use more
than one thickness which greatly reduces the
total cost of the pipeline. However, in gas
pipelines we can only use one thickness
which is certainly the largest one. But
studying the variation in thicknesses along
the pipeline, gives an indication to the
factors affecting the mechanical design of
the pipeline, which may be the pressure if
the thicknesses are descending along the
pipe or the water head if the largest depth is
associated with the largest thickness.
- Selected diameter: Due to the proceeded
selection criteria there are two acceptable
diameters 12.75" and 14". We decide to use
the 14” diameter as most flow equations
decide this diameter. The specifications are
summarized in the table below:

Distance
Temperature
Surrounding
Temperature
Gas Temperature
Distance
Temperature
Surrounding Temperature
Gas Temperature
Large number
of segments
Moderate
number of
segments
Distance
Temperature
Surrounding
Temperature
Gas Temperature
Small number
of segments
Distance
Temperature
Surrounding Temperature
Gas Temperature
Part I – Pipeline Alternative Hydraulic and Mechanical Analysis
25
D(in) Thickness (in) P1(psi) T1(F) % us/ue
Pressure
Drop (psi)
Power
loss(HP)
14 0.375 1482.561 85.60558 36.26622 467.5608 1638.808