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CHAPTER 1
NETWORK ANALYSIS
CNG Alternative Network Analysis – Part III
1 Network analyses
1.1 Overview
The solution of a liquid/gas network means
estimating the flow rates in all the network
branches and calculating pressures at all node.
The hydraulic analysis of networks is
important for the hydraulic and mechanical
design of the different networks on the ship.
Generally we should have at least five
networks onboard the ship; the
loading/unloading network, the relief network,
the inert gas network, the CO
2
fire fighting
network and the water fire fighting network.
For the loading/unloading network it is
necessary to find the maximum flow rate in the
network and to find the maximum pressure at
each branch, thus allowing the diameter and
thickness selection of each branch. Also we
need to find the loading/unloading time of the
ship. For CO
2
fire fighting network, it is
important to find the pressure drop in the
network due to a certain flow rate and hence
select the network nozzles. The water fire
fighting network should be solved to determine
the required pump power. This chapter shows
the Hardy Cross method for network analyses
and the other bases of the analyses of gas
networks. It discusses two programs used to
solve the network, one is made using
MATLAB and the other is made using
Microsoft Office Excel. Then we go through
the transient analyses of the loading and
unloading process of the network.
1.2 Hardy Cross Method
The Hardy Cross method is the method used to
solve liquid and gas networks. We are now to
discuss this method and how to use it for gas
network analyses.
1.2.1 Network Elements
As shown in figure, the branch is a pipe
connecting two nodes. The loop is a group of
pipes connected in series thus the last point
lays on the first one. A single pipe is a pipe
connecting two separate loops. The tank forms
a node at which the pressure is known but the
flow entering the network or exiting it is
unknown. Only one knownpressure node is
needed in each problem to determine the
pressures at all nodes in the network. If there is
more than one tank in the network, they should
be connected by a virtual pipe. The virtual pipe
is an imaginary pipe that connects two tanks to
form a closed loop. The energy difference on
the virtual pipe should be given, thus there is
only one given pressure in each network.
Virtual pipes should be connected in series to
form one open loop.
Supply
Consumption
Node
Virtual
Pipe
Loop
Branch
Tank
Tank
Single pipe
CNG Alternative Network Analysis – Part III
1.2.2 Governing Equations
1.2.2.1 Continuity Equation
The continuity equation should be satisfied at
all nodes in the network. That is:
ΣQ
in
= ΣQ
out
(Or ΣQ = 0
The algebraic summation of all flow rates
entering and exiting the whole network should
equal zero. It should be noted that in case of
gas networks the flowrate used is the standard
flowrate which is equivalent to the actual
flowrate in liquid networks.
1.2.2.2 Energy equation
Across any branch 12; the change in the
energy of the fluid due to flow through branch
should be equal to the energy loss due to
friction in this branch. That is:
( )
L
D
2
C f 2
2 1
loss
h
2
ave
Z
2
ave
T
2
R
2
H
1
H
2
ave
P
2
M
2
2
P
2
1
P
ave
T
ave
Z R 2
M 1000
2
u
1
u
ln
2
C
·
· ·
=
÷
=
· ·
÷ · ·
+ ÷ ·
· · ·
·
+ · 
.

\



.

\

Where;
u
1
& u
2
= flow velocities at sections 1 and 2
respectively, m/s
P
1
& P
2
= average pressure between points
1&2, kpa
P
ave
= average pressure between sections 1 and
2


.

\

÷
·
÷ + · =
2
P
1
P
2
P
1
P
2
P
1
P
3
2
ave
P
T
1
&T
2
= temperatures at sections 1 and 2
respectively, k
T
ave
= average temperature between
sections 1 and 2, k
2
2
T
1
T
ave
T
+
=
R = universal gas constant = 8.314
kj/kgk
M = gas molecular weight = 17.4
kg/kmol (assuming 90% methane and 10%
ethane)
Z
ave
= compressibility factor at P
ave
and T
ave
From CNGA equation;
( )
(
(
¸
(
¸
·
· ·
+
=
3.925
T
G 1.785
10 5272.466 P
1
1
Z
2
D
b
Z
b
T R π
b
P M
b
Q 4
A
.
m
C
· · · ·
· · ·
= =
Q
b
= standard flow rate (m3/s)
P
b
& T
b
= standard pressure and temperature;
100 kpa and 298 k respectively
Z
b
= compressibility factor at P
b
and T
b
4 CLOSED LOOPS
Tank 1
Tank 2
Tank 3
CNG PROJECT Network Analyses
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Z
b
= 1
D = pipe diameter, m
To calculate the friction factor, f, we select to
use Panhandle B equation.
Panhandle B equation
0.01961
D
G
b
Q
20.8255
f
1


.

\

·
· =
0.03922
b
Q
2
0.01961
D
G
20.8255
1
f
÷
·
·
=
(
(
¸
(
¸

.

\

Where G = gas gravity = M/M
air
From the energy equation and Panhandle B
equation and by neglecting the elevation
difference and the velocity change; we can
conclude
n
b
Q r
loss
h · =
2
2
D
b
Z
b
T R π
0.01961
D
G
20.8255
b
P M 4
D
L
2 r
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(
¸

.

\

· · · · · · ·
· ·
· · =
n = 1.96078
Where r is the resistance of the pipe and n is
the head loss index.
1.2.2.3 Solution algorithm:
The network problem is a complicated
problem that can only be solved by successive
iterations which end with reaching a
predefined tolerance. Here are the general
steps for solving gas/liquid networks.
 First of all, we have to check the
continuity equation over the whole
network. The algebraic summation of all
the flow rates entering or exiting the
network should be zero. This condition
may not be satisfied if exists one or more
tanks in the network. Since the tanks are
nodes which absorb or release unknown
amounts of flow.
 Define the flow resistances of all pipe in
the network
 Distribute the external flow rates entering
or exiting the network among the branches
of the network. Try to distribute flow rates
in inverse proportionality with the
resistances of the pipes. This will reduce
the total number of iterations needed to
reach required tolerance.
 The problem will be solved when the
summation of the energy difference
around each loop equals zero. So an
iteration scheme is held by changing the
flow rates in the branches till reaching the
required tolerance. Note that in each
iterate, the continuity equation should be
satisfied at all nodes.
The Hardy Cross method offers an iteration
algorithm for solving networks in a directive
manner that reduces the number of iterations.
Hardy Cross algorithm
1. Find the algebraic summation of the
energy differences of the branches
forming each loop, that is:
1 n
0
Q
0
ΣrQ
loss
Σh
÷
=
2. If this summation is not equal to zero, the
usual case, the new flow rates are
calculated as following:
( )
ΔQ
1 n
0
Q Σrn
1 n
0
Q
0
ΣrQ
loss
Σh
s order term ...higher ΔQ
1 n
0
nQ
n
0
Q r
n
ΔQ
0
Q r
n
rQ
loss
h
ΔQ
0
Q Q
÷
+
÷
=
+
÷
+ =
+ = =
+ =

.

\

To reach the solution of the network, this value
should equal zero then:
1 n
0
Q Σrn
1 n
0
Q
0
ΣrQ 
ΔQ
÷
÷
=
All flow rates in the loop should be corrected
by this value ΔQ. This is then applied to all the
remainder loops. Note that the common
branches between two loops should be
corrected twice once in each loop. Note also
that the continuity equation will be
automatically satisfied in the next iteration as
the correction ΔQ is added to all branches in
the loop.
The equations listed above states that the
problem should now be solved (Σh
loss
= 0).
CNG PROJECT Network Analyses
4
However, due to the double correction of the
common branches, this does not occur.
3. At the end of each iterate, the error should
be compared with the predefined
tolerance.
TOLERANCE ΔQ Σ <
Where, ΣΔQ is the summation of the absolute
values of corrections of all loops.
4. For virtual pipes, the energy difference is
defined as the difference in fluid energy,
kinetic, potential and pressure energy,
between the two terminals. The slow in
the virtual pipe is set to zero and is never
corrected.
 After getting the flow rates in all branches,
now we can get the pressures in all nodes.
Once we know the pressure in only one
node in the network, we can solve the
whole network by using the energy
equation in the consequent branches.
n
b
Q r
loss
h
2
2
P
2
1
P
ave
T
ave
Z R 2
M 1000
· = = ÷ ·
· · ·
·

.

\

Then,


.

\


.

\

·
· · ·
· ÷ =
M 1000
ave
T
ave
Z R 2
n
b
Q r
2
1
P
2
P
1.3 Network Solution using MATLAB
Our MATLAB program is a general program
that can be used to solve any gas/liquid
network. The algorithm of the program is
listed below:
CNG PROJECT Network Analyses
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INPUT LOOPS AND NODES
START
INPUT PIPE LENGTHS, DIAMETERS
INPUT GAS/LIQUID PROPERTIES
GAS or LIQUID
ESTIMATING A SUITABLE VALUE FOR THE
INITIAL GUESS
FINDING FLOW RATES IN ALL BRANCHES ACCORDING TO THE INITIAL GUESS SUCH
THAT THE CONTINUITY EQUATION IS SATISFIED AT ALL NODES THERE IS NO
BALANCE AT THE EXTRA NODE
APPLYING THE ITERATION SCHEME TO FIND THE
FLOW RATES IN ALL BRANCHES
WITH TOLERANCE = 0.00000000001 M
3
/S
FIND THE ASSISTANT PARAMETERS AND BUILD THE
ASSISTANT ARRAYS
DETERMINING PRESSURES IN ALL NODES BY APPLYING THE ENERGY EQUATION
TO ALL BRANCHES THERE IS NO BALANCE AT THE EXTRA BRANCH IN EACH
LOOP OR AT THE VIRTUAL NODES
END
APPLYING THE ITERATION SCHEME TO FIND THE
FLOW RATES IN ALL BRANCHES
WITH TOLERANCE = 0.00000000001 M
3
/S
CNG PROJECT Network Analyses
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1.4 Solution using Microsoft Office
Excel
What is well known about Excel is that it is an
intelligent calculator that can maintain several
mathematical operations in a very short time,
but Excel is also a very powerful tool in
solving trial and error problems. The solution
using Excel gives a complete control of the
solution. For example, we can change the pipe
diameter or resistance to get a certain flowrate
distribution. Besides that the complete solution
can be chassed which allows validating
MATLAB results. The problem with Excel is
that it can not solve the transient problem so it
will be used for steady state or for a snap shot
during the transient problem. The transient
problem can be then solved using MATLAB.
The following lines explain the procedures
followed to solve networks using Excel:
Excel Sheet Setup Procedure
1. Open a new Excel sheet and name it "MyNetwork".
2. Build a table including all loops with their branches organized in order.
3. Beside each branch; set the gas properties and other constants; n, G, M, R, T
b
, Pb and Z
b
.
CNG PROJECT Network Analyses
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4. Set branch length and diameter
5. Set a column for "r" and set its equation.
CNG PROJECT Network Analyses
8
Note that virtual pipes take zero "r" values.
6. Set a column for Q which contains the initial guess; it may be kept empty
Note that in case of repeated branches, e.g. 75 and 57; Q of one branch should be referred to negative
Q of the other branch.
7. Build a column for head loss across all branches.
CNG PROJECT Network Analyses
01
NOTE that in case of virtual pipes the head loss is set to the energy difference between the two
terminals which is equal to the L.H.S of the energy equation.
8. Now build two columns named "LOOP BALANCE" and "NODE BALANCE" each is
divided into two columns
 LOOP BALANCE:
o The first column contains names of all loops
o The second column contains summation of head loss around each loop
 NODE BALANCE:
o The first column contains names of all nodes that we should satisfy continuity at (one
arbitrary, usually virtual, node is excepted from the balance)
o The second contains summation of flows entering each node
CNG PROJECT Network Analyses
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9. setup Excel solver function as following;
"Tools" menu → AddIns... → check "Solver Addin"
CNG PROJECT Network Analyses
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10. Use "Solver" to get the flow rates:
"Tools" menu → Solver
Parameters
 Select one of the "LOOP BALANCE" or "NODE BALANCE" cells to be the target cell and
set it to zero.
CNG PROJECT Network Analyses
02
 Select changing cells of flow rates Q
b
, except the cells of the repeated branches and virtual
pipes.
 Add two constraints ; LOOP BALANCE cells and NODE BALANCE cells equal to zero
11. Click "Solve" button. The program will change the flow rates to satisfy the preset conditions.
When the iteration ends we get the required flow rates in place.
12. Now, the pressure in all branches can be calculated from the following equation
( )
loss
h
ave
T
ave
Z R 2
M
2
2
P
2
1
P =
· · ·
· ÷
NOTE that while P
2
is function of Z
ave
, Z
ave
itself is function of P
1
and P
2
Excel usually sends error
message when a cell is referred directly or indirectly to itself. So Excel iteration function should first be
checked;
"Tools" menu → "Options" → "Calculations" tab → check "Iteration"
13. Finally we can check for the erosion velocity.
CNG PROJECT Network Analyses
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CNG PROJECT Network Analyses
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1.5 Ship network solution
1.5.1 First trial
Now we are going to solve our
loading/unloading network. We will start with
an initial schematic of the network, we will
solve it using both Matlab and Excel and
compare results of both solutions.
i) Drawing Network Schematic
according to Hardy Cross method
principles
Assumptions:
 Solving for half of the network for
symmetry.
 Q
b
= 500 MMSCFD = 164 m
3
/s
Then Q
b
for half of the network = 82 m
3
/s.
 Considering the shell of bottles as one
large tank.
 The energy difference on all virtual tanks
is set to zero.
 Connecting these tanks with one open
virtual loop
 Diameters are assumed as follows:
Branch Diameter (in)
Main 36
Sub 30
Terminal 20
The solution parameters are listed in the
following table
n G M (kg/kmol) R (kj/kmolk) Tb(k) Pb (kPa) Zb L(m) D(m)
1.961 0.6 17.4 8.314 298 101.3 1 38 0.911
LOOP 1
LOOP 2
LOOP 3
LOOP 4
LOOP 5
LOOP 6
LOOP 7
LOOP 8
LOOP 9
LOOP 10
LOOP 11
4
3 5 9 13 17 21 25
7 11 15 19 23 27
8 12 16 20 24 28
6 10 14 18 22 26
Q
b
= 82 m
3
/s
38 m
38 m
10 m
5 m
CNG PROJECT Network Analyses
05
MATLAB solution
Branch Q
b
Branch Q
b
3 4 34.775 19 17 3.2002
4 6 34.775 17 13 6.4568
6 8 16.839 13 15 6.1007
8 7 0 14 18 4.7546
7 5 22.868 18 20 2.3566
5 3 47.225 20 16 0
7 11 0 16 14 4.4924
11 9 11.799 19 23 0
9 5 24.357 23 21 1.8332
5 7 22.868 21 17 3.2566
6 10 17.936 17 19 3.2002
10 12 8.6887 18 22 2.3981
12 8 0 22 24 1.3499
8 6 16.839 24 20 0
11 15 0 20 18 2.3566
15 13 6.1007 23 27 0
13 9 12.558 27 25 1.4234
9 11 11.799 25 21 1.4234
10 14 9.2471 21 23 1.8332
14 16 4.4924 22 26 1.0482
16 12 0 26 28 1.0482
12 10 8.6887 28 24 0
15 19 0 24 22 1.3499
Excel Solution:
Branch Q
b
Branch Q
b
3 4 34.78 19 17 3.2
4 6 34.78 17 13 6.457
6 8 16.84 13 15 6.101
8 7 0 14 18 4.755
7 5 22.87 18 20 2.357
5 3 47.22 20 16 0
7 11 0 16 14 4.492
11 9 11.8 19 23 0
9 5 24.36 23 21 1.833
5 7 22.87 21 17 3.257
6 10 17.94 17 19 3.2
10 12 8.689 18 22 2.398
12 8 0 22 24 1.35
8 6 16.84 24 20 0
11 15 0 20 18 2.357
15 13 6.101 23 27 0
13 9 12.56 27 25 1.423
9 11 11.8 25 21 1.423
10 14 9.247 21 23 1.833
14 16 4.492 22 26 1.048
16 12 0 26 28 1.048
12 10 8.689 28 24 0
15 19 0 24 22 1.35
Both Results are similar
CNG PROJECT Network Analyses
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The Excel is a very powerful solution tool, we
can assume any parameter to be constant and
solve for the other parameters. One solution
was to fix all the flow rates supplied to the
shells to the same value and get the
corresponding extra resistances, valve
openings, on the shell inlet branches.
1.6 Loading/Unloading network
mechanical design
For the loading/unloading network, it is
required to use the largest possible standard
diameter. This is because the network is used
as gas storage during transportation. For the
mechanical design we would use the following
design formula:
factor location L
factor design F
FLJT
D
t 2S
P
=
=
·
=
From the CSA Z66296, assuming F.L = 0.5
J = joint factor, = 1.00
T = temperature factor, = 1.00 (T < 120 C)
S = specified minimum yield strength, SYMS,
= 100,000 psi, (X100 steel)
P = internal pressure, 3,552.5 psi
For the first trial take D=36" then t = 1.3"
which is larger than the maximum standard
thickness corresponding to the selected pipe
diameter. Try a smaller diameter, 34". Then t =
1.208" which is less than 1.25", the maximum
standard thickness corresponding to diameter.
So now all the main pipes are made of 34"
pipes with 1.25" thickness.
1.7 Solving the network at the start of
loading and start of unloading
1.7.1 Start of loading:
When the loading process starts, the gas
pressure in tanks is about 30 bar, whereas the
pressure in the loading line is kept at 245 bars
from the last loading time. Unlike our first
trial, in this solution we know the pressures at
all terminals, while the flowrates are
completely unknown. The network will have
the following schematic:
Solving the network gives the following results:
BRANCH Qb (m3/s) Pave(kpa) Zave us / ue (%)
LOOP1
3 4 49288.77591 11484.04696 0.803189019 2070.899721
4 6 49288.77591 8665.586262 0.843953791 2272.966825
6 8 33219.56682 7347.266455 0.864476237 1594.930042
8 7 0 7000 0.870049331 0
7 5 33220.37072 7347.28233 0.864475984 1531.964815
5 2 49288.67792 8665.609755 0.843953434 2070.894047
2 3 49288.67792 11484.05464 0.803188914 1819.849753
LOOP2 7 11 0 7000 0.870049331 0
LOOP 1
LOOP 2
LOOP 3
LOOP 4
LOOP 5
LOOP 6
LOOP 7
LOOP 8
LOOP 9
LOOP 10
LOOP 11
4
3
5 9 13 17 21 25
7 11 15 19 23 27
8 12 16 20 24 28
6 10 14 18 22 26
26.5 m
10 m
6.5 m
LOOP 12
2
1
26.5 m 26.5 m
4 m
12 m
24 m
CNG PROJECT Network Analyses
07
11 9 10837.55223 7039.963174 0.869404327 517.7731223
9 5 16068.30721 7385.981426 0.863859341 740.9935754
5 7 33220.37072 7347.28233 0.864475984 1594.968639
LOOP3
6 10 16069.2091 7385.915274 0.863860395 767.7247826
10 12 10830.3299 7039.911206 0.869405165 519.983256
12 8 0 7000 0.870049331 0
8 6 33219.56682 7347.266455 0.864476237 1531.930382
LOOP4
11 15 0 7000 0.870049331 0
15 13 3595.611082 7004.61188 0.869974846 172.5328021
13 9 5230.75498 7044.557594 0.869330235 249.9036943
9 11 10837.55223 7039.963174 0.869404327 520.3300128
LOOP5
10 14 5238.879201 7044.345694 0.869333652 251.3888439
14 16 3531.182157 7004.451319 0.869977439 169.5382886
16 12 0 7000 0.870049331 0
12 10 10830.3299 7039.911206 0.869405165 517.4313567
LOOP6
15 19 0 7000 0.870049331 0
19 17 1631.765394 7000.980132 0.8700335 78.3343954
17 13 1635.143898 7005.591582 0.869959025 78.46119954
13 15 3595.611082 7004.61188 0.869974846 172.631635
LOOP7
14 18 1707.697044 7004.94769 0.869969423 81.98448967
18 20 1153.572595 7000.496581 0.87004131 55.38505656
20 16 0 7000 0.870049331 0
16 14 3531.182157 7004.451319 0.869977439 169.4446018
LOOP8
19 23 0 7000 0.870049331 0
23 21 2.322696243 7000.000003 0.870049331 0.111516747
21 17 3.378503294 7000.000025 0.87004933 0.162207906
17 19 7 7000.000022 0.87004933 0.336082356
LOOP9
18 22 554.124449 7000.557748 0.870040322 26.60429067
22 24 396.4738952 7000.061171 0.870048343 19.03541157
24 20 0 7000 0.870049331 0
20 18 1153.572595 7000.496581 0.87004131 55.38163857
LOOP10
23 27 0 7000 0.870049331 0
27 25 1.055807051 7000.000001 0.870049331 0.05069116
25 21 1.055807051 7000.000003 0.870049331 0.05069116
21 23 2.322696243 7000.000003 0.870049331 0.111516747
LOOP11
22 26 157.6505538 7000.085315 0.870047953 7.569058657
26 28 157.6505538 7000.038261 0.870048713 7.569068091
28 24 0 7000 0.870049331 0
24 22 396.4738952 7000.047054 0.870048571 19.03530024
LOOP12
1 3 98577.45384 19491.52545 0.706267666 3618.345562
3 2 49288.67792 11723.90881 0.799900869 2045.286079
2 5 49288.67792 8994.215749 0.838988806 2227.27384
5 9 16068.30721 7775.758788 0.85769722 749.3020366
9 13 5230.75498 7454.377469 0.862771648 244.8579828
13 17 1635.143898 7417.840074 0.863352356 76.57339082
17 21 3.378503294 7414.436542 0.86340649 0.158214487
21 25 1.055807051 7414.436522 0.863406491 0.049443187
25 27 1.055807051 7414.436519 0.863406491 0.049443187
27 1 0 17370.37037 0.732986119 0
As we can see, the velocity of gas at certain
branches exceeds the erosional velocity limit.
This may result in premature failure of the
piping system. This can be solved by using
CNG PROJECT Network Analyses
08
extra pipe resistance, partially closed valves,
on the branches subjected to severe erosion.
These valves are controlled to keep the gas
velocity always under the erosional velocity
limits. The problem with valves is that they
reduce the loading/ unloading rate and hence
causes extra cost due to ship delay in SidiKrir
dock. So another suitable solution is to use
internal pipe coating for pipes subjected to
excessive erosion.
1.7.2 Start of unloading:
This time, the ship network and tanks are at
245 bar, relieves to the unloading line at 30
bars. The results are listed in the table below:
BRANCH Qb (m3/s) Pave(kpa) Zave us/ue (%)
LOOP1
3 4 50752.55493 9987.78499 0.824326902 2361.383628
4 6 50752.55493 6146.058023 0.884064318 2963.4826
6 8 34206.12215 3807.986428 0.924854111 2413.709522
8 7 0 3000 0.939839485 0
7 5 34206.95009 3808.019487 0.924853508 1997.35949
5 2 50752.454 6146.095887 0.884063687 2361.375653
2 3 50752.454 9987.795021 0.824326756 1939.471341
LOOP2
7 11 0 3000 0.939839485 0
11 9 11159.40759 3104.522919 0.937873654 763.2183617
9 5 16545.50391 3897.438853 0.923224405 966.0995548
5 7 34206.95009 3808.019487 0.924853508 2413.767944
LOOP3
6 10 16546.43278 3897.291836 0.923227079 1131.692885
10 12 11151.96924 3104.389622 0.937876156 786.9238794
12 8 0 3000 0.939839485 0
8 6 34206.12215 3807.986428 0.924854111 1997.32305
LOOP4
11 15 0 3000 0.939839485 0
15 13 3702.407106 3012.280813 0.939608085 260.257896
13 9 5386.096324 3116.527383 0.937648405 368.3679067
9 11 11159.40759 3104.522919 0.937873654 787.4487564
LOOP5
10 14 5394.463536 3115.977355 0.937658723 379.2498416
14 16 3636.051273 3011.854181 0.939616122 256.5731228
16 12 0 3000 0.939839485 0
12 10 11151.96924 3104.389622 0.937876156 762.7386771
LOOP6
15 19 0 3000 0.939839485 0
19 17 1680.310715 3002.615224 0.939790198 118.4719055
17 13 1683.689218 3014.888929 0.939558956 118.353655
13 15 3702.407106 3012.280813 0.939608085 261.2554339
LOOP7
14 18 1758.412263 3013.175907 0.939591223 124.0285523
18 20 1187.831416 3001.325204 0.93981451 83.81774425
20 16 0 3000 0.939839485 0
16 14 3636.051273 3011.854181 0.939616122 255.6272482
LOOP8
19 23 0 3000 0.939839485 0
23 21 2.322696243 3000.000006 0.939839485 0.163897971
21 17 3.378503294 3000.000063 0.939839484 0.238399588
17 19 7 3000.000056 0.939839484 0.493945691
LOOP9
18 22 570.5808475 3001.488437 0.939811433 40.26021942
22 24 408.2483846 3000.163281 0.939836408 28.80750436
24 20 0 3000 0.939839485 0
20 18 1187.831416 3001.325204 0.93981451 83.78297511
LOOP10
23 27 0 3000 0.939839485 0
27 25 1.055807051 3000.000001 0.939839485 0.07450162
25 21 1.055807051 3000.000008 0.939839485 0.07450162
21 23 2.322696243 3000.000006 0.939839485 0.163897972
CNG PROJECT Network Analyses
11
LOOP11
22 26 162.3324629 3000.227728 0.939835193 11.45454311
26 28 162.3324629 3000.10213 0.93983756 11.45463916
28 24 0 3000 0.939839485 0
24 22 408.2483846 3000.125602 0.939837118 28.80637092
LOOP12
1 3 101505.0089 19083.86016 0.71063338 3849.841815
3 2 50752.454 10284.32637 0.820049682 2309.899209
2 5 50752.454 6647.874354 0.875774263 2784.046508
5 9 16545.50391 4666.713461 0.909442773 1008.394862
9 13 5386.096324 4042.48739 0.920593984 333.4613644
13 17 1683.689218 3965.950467 0.921980092 104.4143309
17 21 3.378503294 3958.74763 0.922110753 0.209518574
21 25 1.055807051 3958.747589 0.922110754 0.065476091
25 27 1.055807051 3958.747584 0.922110754 0.065476091
27 1 0 16551.51515 0.742330035 0
As we can see, only the flow passing through
the main pipe exceeds the erosional velocity
limits.
1.8 Transient flow analysis
The flow in the network during loading and
unloading is not steady. It is transient flow as
the flow rate in each branch and pressure at
each node is continuously varying. This is due
to the fact that the pressures in tanks, bottles
are continuously varying due to the gas
accumulation in the bottles.
To solve the loading problem we can imagine
the network to consist only of one pipe
connecting two tanks; the first is a high
pressure tank, while the second is a low
pressure tank. Now consider the natural flow
from the high pressure tank to the low pressure
tank. From the defined pressures across the
pipe, tank pressures, we can find the flow rate
in the connecting pipe by applying the energy
equation.
n 2
2
2
1
rQ P P = ÷
The flow from the high pressure tank between
moments: t
1
&t
2
results in a pressure reduction
in the tank. The new pressure can be found
from the state equation of the gas.
constant e tank volum V
2
RT
2
Z
2
m V
2
P
step time predefined t
2
t &
1
t at times tank pressure high in masses gas
1
m &
2
m
t ρ Q ΔV m m
2 1
= =
=
=
=
· · = = ÷
In the same manner we can find the new
pressure in the low pressure tank. The process
is repeated with a time step, t, till the
difference in pressure between the two tanks
becomes within a predefined tolerance.
Now consider the forced flow, through a
compressor, from the low pressure tank to the
high pressure tank; this time the flow rate can
be evaluated by solving both the system curve
and compressor curve. The new tank pressures
can be found from the state equation as
previously mentioned. Note that the discharge
pressure from the compressor is calculated
based on the tank pressure and not vice versa.
The first case, natural flow, can be solved
simply while the solution of the second case
requires the curves of the compressors selected
for the loading and unloading processes. Then,
we can use the MATLAB to solve the transient
problem. The solution parameters are listed in
the table below:
Pressure
Flow rate
Operating
point
Compressor
curve
System
curve
CNG PROJECT Network Analyses
10
G
0.6
P
b
(kpa)
101.3
T
b
(k)
288
T
ave
(k)
298
Z
b
1
Z
ave
0.63
R (kj/kmolk)
8.314
M
air
(kg/kmol)
28.9
Pressure in bottles (kpa)
24500
Pressure in loading line (kpa)
7000
Tolerance (kpa)
1000
External flow entering all branches = 0
Tolerance (m
3
/sec)
0.00001
Volume per shell (m
3
)
4750
Time Step (sec)
3.6
Required Pressure (kpa)
7000
The solution of the problem is based on a
constant pressure at the end of the loading line,
2.5 km long. Also we considered the solution
of half the network for simplicity.
The naturalflow unloading process takes
98,071 seconds, that is 27.24 hours.
Several phenomena can be noticed in the
transient analyses of the loading and unloading
process; some of these are the following:
 From the snapshot solution for the
start of loading moment mentioned
above we can expect the tanks close
to the supply line to be filled very
soon, while the tanks remote from the
supply line to be filled after a very
long period of time. This is not true as
the fast flow into the close tanks, at
the first, moment results in a pressure
rise in these tanks which in turn forms
a resistance to more inlet flow. The
flow then goes with relatively larger
quantities to the remote tanks, till the
pressure in these tanks rises
somewhat. So the whole network will
be filled almost at the same time. The
same thing happens during the
unloading process, the fast flow out of
the close tanks, at the first moment,
releases their pressures and hence
more flow comes out from far tanks,
the whole network is unloaded almost
in the same time.
 It is obvious that the flow rate reduces
by time due to the continuous
reduction in the pressure difference
between tanks. That means that the
high flow rate during the start point
will stay only for a short time while
the rest of the loading/unloading
process will occur at much lower
rates.
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
x 10
4
1.5
1
0.5
0
0.5
1
1.5
x 10
5
Time (sec)
F
l
o
w
r
a
t
e
(
m
3
/
s
e
c
)
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
x 10
4
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
x 10
4
Time (sec)
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
(
k
p
a
)
Pressure
Flow rate Q
1
Q
2
Q
3
CNG PROJECT CNG Technology
11
1.9 System Timing
We are now to calculate the time of the
different processes included in the CNG
transportation. This will help us determine the
number of ships required to satisfy the required
demand to the required destination. The CNG
comprises mainly three processes; loading,
shipping and unloading. The loading process is
accomplished using five high flow rate
compressors, each having average flow rate of
500,000 m
3
/hr and maximum discharge
pressure of 40 bar (5 × 40 = 200 bar + 70 bar
supply pressure = 270 bar > 245 bar). While
the offloading is maintained using two parallel
compressors of the same type (70 – 40 = 30
bar remaining in bottles)
So we can say that the average loading rate is
500, 000 m
3
/hr. the unloading process starts
naturally by the gas pressure. This continues
till the pressure in bottles reaches almost the
network pressure, 70 bar, then the compressor
is used to suck the remainder gas till the bottle
pressure reaches almost 30 bar. The average
unloading rate by compressor is 1, 000, 000
m
3
/hr. The ship speed is about 25.5 knots,
nautical miles per hour, that equal 25.5 ×
1.15077 = 29.34 miles/hr. The distance from
Egypt to Cyprus is 435.05 miles. The required
number of ships can be calculated from the
following formula:
( )
Cargo
Demand
Time Shipping Time Unloading Time Loading
ships
N · + + =
speed Ship
Distance 2
Time Shipping
Rate Unloading Compressor
Cargo Remaining
Time Unloading Natural Time Unloading
Rate Loading
Cargo
Time Loading
·
=
+ =
=
( )
( )
( )
( ) mile/hr 29.34 Speed Ship
/hr
3
M
1,000,000 Rate Unloading Compressor
/hr
3
M 500,000 Rate Loading
SCM 40,845,000 Cargo
=
=
=
=
( )
( ) /hr
3
M 24 4,000,000/ Demand
miles 435.05 Distance
=
=
( )
( )
( )
( ) hr 29.66 Time Shipping
hr 30.7 Time Unloading Compressor
hr 27.24 Time Unloading Natural
hr 81.69 Time Loading
=
=
=
=
Then
N
ship
= 0.7 ships
For a reliable system, we need at least two
ships. The waiting period of the ship when the
ship stays offshore till the next trip can be
calculated from the following formula:
( )
Cargo
Demand
Period Waiting Time Shipping Time Unloading Time Loading
ships
N · + + + =
In our case the waiting time will be 320.85
hours, 13.4 days.
The previous method is not an accurate method
for the determination of the system timing as
the loading/unloading rates of compressors are
widely alternating during loading/unloading
process.
CNG PROJECT CNG Technology
12
1.10 Loading and unloading
pipelines
These offshore pipelines were designed
according to the same principles mentioned
before the results are listed in the table below:
Loading pipeline
Pipe length (km) 4
Inlet pressure (bar) 247
Outlet pressure (bar) 245
Inlet temperature ( c ) 20
Surrounding temperature ( c ) 20
Flow rate (SCM/D) 5,184,000
Material X80
Diameter(inch) 10.75
WT(inch) 0.356
Concrete thickness(cm) 15
Unloading pipeline
Pipe length(km) 2.5
Inlet pressure(bar) 245
Outlet pressure(bar) 244.8
Inlet temperature( c ) 20
Surrounding temperature( c ) 20
Flow rate (SCM/D) 10,368,000
Material X80
Diameter(inch) 14
WT(inch) 0.406
Concrete thickness(cm) 15
The design is based on the compressor flow
rate rather than the natural flowrate. The
loading pipeline is solved backward while the
unloading pipeline is solved forward.
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