I.

Deviance A. What is deviance? 1. Deviance is defined as the recognized violation of cultural norms a. Occur when there are normative violations in our society – life is less orderly and predictable. b. Deviance: Any violation of a widely held norm. • Prescriptive Norms: Dictate what is expected ("thou shalt"). • Proscriptive Norms: Govern forbidden conduct ("though shalt not"). • Most deviance is ignored, mildly punished, amusing, or supported by the larger society (ex. The US Constitution protects many deviant acts through the first amendment). • Serious violations versus social blunders. • Judgements about what is and what is not deviant are relative to the society in which the deviant act occurs. c. Deviance may exist in behavior or simply in a person's very existence d. It may be positive or negative 2. The social foundations of deviance a. Deviance varies according to cultural norms b. People become deviant as others define them that way c. Both rule-making and rile-breaking involve social power B. The Functions of Deviance: Structural Functional Analysis 1. Emile Durkheim: The functions of deviance a. Durkheim identified four distinct functions of deviance • It affirms cultural values and norms • Clarifies moral boundaries • Deviance as boundary setting • It occurs when shared norms set the limits of acceptable behavior. • Confrontations test the limits of acceptable behavior • Promotes social unity • Deviance can be used as a unifying force by reaffirming the strength of societal norms as well as our commitment to them. • A common temper or anger can be brought to bear against another group, reinforcing identity and consensus. • Deviance as Safety Valve • It allows controlled expression of deviance to stop any large scale deviance (ex. prostitution, Woodstock, etc.) • Encourages social change

law. • This socialization runs so deep we learn to really want to conform and not be deviant. family. police. or a social situation is too important to be left up to individual responsibility. • Formal Agents of Control: These are agents that occupy statuses specifically charged with norm enforcement. and peers). Because deviance may appear disruptive to social life. • Sociologists divide them into two kinds: • Internal Social Controls: Seated within the individual and are learned through socialization.but it also includes expression of disapproval. .attempts by society to regulate the behavior of individuals 1. speeding). Mechanisms that monitor behavior and penalize the violation of norms are known as social controls (from weak kinds to death). Ensures conformity and predictability. (ex. • Informal Controls: Expressions of Approval and affection by significant others -. • External Controls: rely on social mechanisms to prevent deviance (ex.C. all societies develop some means of controlling it. a. • They are used when our internal controls are not reliable. • We are taught that certain behaviors are normal and others are not. gov. • They are societal mechanisms that monitor our behavior: they reward conformity and punish non-conformity. Deviance calls forth social control -.

2. and nature of crime in society. Criminal justice refers to the study of the agencies of social control: police.II. An interdisciplinary science B. 1. courts. Methods used to control criminal behavior 5. extent. What is Criminology? A. Criminology and Deviance 1. . Criminology explains the etiology (origin). Body of knowledge regarding crime as a social phenomenon 2. and corrections. Criminologists study the process by which deviant acts are criminalized and how criminal acts are decriminalized and/or legalized. 2. Criminology and Criminal Justice 1. Not all crimes are deviant. Criminology is the scientific approach to studying criminal behavior. Deviant behavior is behavior that departs from social norms. D. Becoming Deviant 1. C. The cause of law violation 4. Development of criminal law and its use to define crime 3. not all deviant acts are illegal.

. Physiognomists and phrenologists studied facial features. To deter crime. shape of the skull and bumps on the head to determine criminal behavior. The use of scientific method to conduct research 2. Biological Positivism a. pleasure and pain. A Brief History of Criminology A. Classical Criminology 1. and proportionate amount to counterbalance the pleasure obtained from crime.III. Jeremy Bentham’s utilitarianism: people choose to act after weighing costs and benefits. The study of crime and criminality is relatively recent. Emergence of scientific method a. 1. i. ii. superstition and fear of satanic possession dominated thinking. During the Middle Ages (1200-1600). People began using observation and analysis of natural phenomena to understand the world. b. in later social stages. During the eighteenth century. balanced. Early research efforts shifted attention to brain functioning and personality as the keys to criminal behavior. b. people embrace a rational. a. Primitive societies consider inanimate objects as having life. b. Comte called this final stage the positive stage and those who followed his writings became known as positivists. Auguste Comte (1798-1857) applied scientific methods to the study of society. C. Two elements of positivism i. the pain of punishment must be administered in a fair. social philosophers began to embrace the view that human behavior was a result of rational thought process. B. Freud’s (1856-1939) work established the psychological basis of behavior. Psychopatic personality in its early form suggested that abnormality in the human mind linked to criminal behavior. Cesare Beccaria (1738-1794) applied Bentham’s principles to crime i. scientific view. Nineteenth-Century Positivism 1. c. i. Belief that human behavior is a function of forces beyond a person’s control ii.

Ceseare Lombroso (1835-1909) believed that serious offenders inherited criminal traits. Crime can be useful and even healthy for society. The Foundations of Sociological Criminology 1. Helped develop the cartographic school of criminology c. Crime is normal and a part of human nature because it exists during periods of both poverty and prosperity. i. Crime calls attention to social ills. Criminals suffer atavistic anomalies – physically. Indirect heredity: criminogenic traits acquired from degenerate family whose members suffered such ills as insanity. iii. Founder of sociology who defined crime as a normal and necessary event. From this shift flowed anomie. Found strong influences of age and sex on crime and uncovered evidence that season. Emile Durkheim a. . ii. and alcoholism iv. syphilis. Instigated the use of data and statistics in performing criminological research b. Concepts of “born criminal” and biological determinants ii. b. Described the consequences of the shift from a “mechanical” society to the more modern “organic society i. ii. Quetelet’s findings directly challenged Lombrosian biological determinism.c. climate. and poverty were related to criminality. Crime paves the way for social change. i. i. Social Positivism a. population composition. Scientific study of major social changes taking place in nineteenth-century society D. by implication. 2. Adolphe Quetelet a. other forms of deviance. c. they are throwbacks to more primitive times. d. Direct heredity: being related to a family of criminals 3. or norm and role confusion that maintained high suicide rates and. The inevitability of crime is linked to the differences (heterogeneity) within society.

Walter Reckless: Crime occurs when children develop an inadequate self-image that renders them incapable of controlling their own misbehavior. a. During the 1930s and 1940s. . By mid-century most American criminologists had embraced either the ecological view or the socialization view of crime. 3. The Development of Sociological Criminology 1. Karl Marx’s (1818-1883) Communist Manifesto a. Described the oppressive labor conditions during the rise of industrial capitalism and the relationship between the owners of the means of production (the bourgeoisie) and the laborers (the proletariat). b. b. Two views. G. The Roots of Conflict Criminology 1. learning and control. Marx’s writings laid the foundation for a Marxist criminology developed by young sociologists who began to analyze the social conditions in the United States that promoted class conflict and crime. family life. Louis Wirth (1897-1952) 2. Chicago School – University of Chicago – Ezra Park (1864-1944).E. linked criminality to the failure of socialization. Ernest Burgess (1886-1966). 4. Crime is a function of where one lives rather than individual pathologies. and peer relations – was the key to understanding human behavior. The character of every civilization is determined by its mode of production. F. some neighborhoods become “natural areas” for crime. Social forces operating in urban areas create criminal interactions. 2. a group of sociologists concluded that the individual’s relationship to important social processes – such as education. The Development of Social Process Theories 1. Edwin Sutherland: Crime is a learned behavior. c. Research on the social ecology of the city 3.

Classical theory has evolved into choice and deterrence theories. situational. Biological positivism has evolved into biological and psychological trait theories. The various schools of criminology have evolved and continue to have impact on the field. and social forces. Quetelet and Durkheim’s sociological criminology has evolved into contemporary social ecological theory. These are termed developmental theories. Criminologists are now integrating theories linking personal.H. Marxist writings have evolved into critical criminology. e. a. . Contemporary Criminology 1. c. d. b.

a. The Sociology of Law 1. Criminologists interested in criminal statistics try to create valid and reliable measurements of criminal behavior. 2. F. E. Studying the victim’s role in precipitating crime e. The criminal behavior systems subarea involves research on specific criminal types and patterns: violent crime. Criminal statistics can also be used to make international comparisons. Criminal Behavior Systems 1. Victimology is the study of victims and victimization. Criminal Statistics 1. The criminal behavior systems subarea also involves research on the links between different types of crime and criminals. C. public order crime. What Criminologist Do: The Criminological Enterprise A.IV. this is known as crime typology. Constructed theories are based on social fact and tested by constructing hypotheses and then assessing the hypotheses using empirical research. D. Several subareas of criminology comprise the criminological enterprise. 2. Criminologists who engage in theory construction view social theory as a systematic set of interrelated statements or principles that explain some aspect of social life. the role of criminal law in shaping society. Theory Construction 1. Victimology 1. Designing services for victims of crime G. Measuring the extent of criminal victimization b. it is the subarea of criminology that most resembles criminal justice. a. Penology involves the correction and control of known criminal offenders. Criminologists interested in the sociology of law are concerned with the role social forces play in shaping criminal law. Calculating the costs of victimization c. theft crime. and concomitantly. Measuring the factors that increase the likelihood of becoming a victim d. and organized crime. . Criminologists are devoted to the study of crime and criminal behavior. Penology 1. B.

According to the consensus view. D. Groups able to assert their political power use the law and criminal justice system to advance their economic and social position. or deviant behavior – or any action that departs from the social norms – apart from criminal behaviors. The conflict view depicts society as a collection of diverse groups who are in constant and continuing conflict. social stigma. and events are viewed subjectively and labeled either good or evil according to the interpretation of the evaluator. Criminal law is seen as conforming to the beliefs of moral crusaders or moral entrepreneurs who use their influence to shape the legal process in the way they see fit. a. The Interactionist view holds that people. Integrated definition: Crime is a violation of societal rules of behavior as interpreted and expressed by a criminal legal code created by people holding social and political power. Individuals who violate these rules are subject to sanctions by state authority. crimes are behaviors believed to be repugnant to all elements of society. The Conflict View of Crime 1. The Interactionist View of Crime 1. . B. and loss of status. or chosen to label as outcasts or deviants. c. because they have violated social rules. Defining Crime 1. c. institutions. unusual. b. a. Criminal laws are viewed as acts created to protect the haves from the have-nots. b. a. Crime is a political concept designed to protect the power and position of the upper classes at the expense of the poor. The Consensus View of Crime 1. How Criminologists View Crime A. C.V. Criminals are individuals society has stigmatized. Social harm is what sets strange. Crime definitions reflect the preferences and opinions of people who hold social power in a particular legal jurisdiction.

a. Acts prohibited by the criminal law constitute behaviors considered unacceptable and impermissible by those in power. c. 1.” who could attest to his or her character and claims of innocence. one of the oldest. C.VI. German and Anglo-Saxon legal codes a. established a system of crime and punishment based on physical retaliation (“an eye for an eye”). Mala prohibitum – defined by Parliament Contemporary Criminal Law 1. 2. that was based on precedents commonly applied in all similar cases. Punishing wrongdoing f. a. Mala in se – inherently evil and depraved b. legal system. b. The concept of criminal law has been recognized for more than 3. Maintaining social order The Evolution of Criminal Law 1. D. 2. The future direction of criminal law remains unclear.000 years. Compurgation: the accused person swore an oath of innocence with the backing of twelve to twenty-five “oathhelpers. Deterring criminal behavior e. Trial by ordeal: based on the principle that divine forces would not allow an innocent person to be harmed. Crime and the Criminal Law A. Crimes divided into felonies and misdemeanors based on seriousness. S. The Code of Hammurabi. 3. Criminal law is constantly evolving in an effort to reflect social and economic conditions. Change may be prompted by shifts in culture and social conventions. Change may be prompted by highly publicized criminal cases. . b. Social goals the government expects to achieve: a. Discouraging revenge c. The Mosaic Code was the foundation for Judeo-Christian moral teachings and the U. 3. Judge-made law that emerged after the Norman conquest of England in 1066. Enforcing social control b. Expressing public opinion and morality d. Common Law 1. B.

Should subjects be told the true purpose of a survey? b.VII. 3. It may be unethical to provide a special treatment program for one group while depriving others of the same opportunity. ii. 2. . More recently. Tendency of criminologists to focus on one element of the community while ignoring others: attention focused on poor and minorities while ignoring the middle-class criminal How are studies to be conducted? a. Criminologists must protect subjects from experiments that may actually cause them harm. Even when criminologists maintain discretion of choice. the direction of their research efforts may not be truly objective. Involves recognizing criminology’s political and social consequences B. iii. Criminologists select subject for study guided by their scholarly interests. i. Funded research has focused on criminal careers. social needs. or availability of data. the great influx of governmental funding has spurred criminological inquiry and has influenced the direction of research. b. What is to be studied? a. Conflict of interests emerge. Ethical Issues in Criminology A. Who is to be studied? a. c. Major ethical issues include: 1.