Motivation, Personality & Emotions

Dr. Rohit Vishal Kumar Reader, Department of Marketing Xavier Institute of Social Service Ranchi - 834001



Motivation Motivation: – It is the reason for any behaviour either consumer or otherwise It is a construct representing an unobservable inner force that stimulates and compels a behavioural response and provides specific direction to that response Motive: – Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Five Levels of Needs – – – – – Physiological Needs Safety Needs Social Needs Esteem Needs Self Actualization Needs An individual first fulfills the baser needs and then progresses to higher level needs Manifestation of need may be different in different culture – Germany (Self Actualization): Washing a self owned luxury car with mineral water – India (Self Actualization) Giving up worldly wealth for religion 2 .

External) Need for hints to understand what people know and feel Cognitive Growth Motive – Need for Autonomy (Active. Internal) Desire to have all parts of self consistent with each other – Need for Attribution (Active. External) Desire to understand the reason for what is happening to us – Need to Categorize (Passive. Internal) Need for understanding information in a meaningful way – Need for Objectification (Passive.McGuire’s Psychological Motive 16 categories of basic motives divided in to 4 groups Based on 4 categories on two broad Criteria – Mode of Motivation: Cognitive / Affective Cognitive motive focuses on a persons needs for being oriented towards the environment and achieving a sense of meaning Affective motive focuses on achieving a satisfaction state – Focus on: Status Quo / Growth Preservation motive focuses on achieving a state of equilibrium Growth motive emphasizes development Further subdivided using two more criteria – Source for Behaviour: Actively Initiated Response to Environment – Objective of Motive: New Internal State New External Relationship McGuire’s Psychological Motive Cognitive Preservation Motive – Need for Consistency (Active. External) The need for variety seeking behaviour – Telological needs (Passive. Internal) The need for individuality and independence – Need for Stimulation (Active. External) The need to approach any problem logically and rationally 3 . Internal) Need to modify environment to suit a person’s perception – Utilitarian Needs (Passive.

Internal) Need for Reinforcement (Passive. Internal) Need for Modeling (Passive. External) Need for Identification (Passive. Internal) Need for Expression (Active.McGuire’s Psychological Motive Affective Preservation Motive – – – – Need for Tension Reduction (Active. External) Affective Growth Motives – – – – Purchase Motives Manifest Motives: – – – Motives that are known and freely admitted Motives which conform to social norms may be more manifest EG: I Should have a Nokia Phone Motives that are either unknown or the person is reluctant to admit They are not readily expressed EG: Wearing a Stiletto makes me appear more sexy Latent Motives: – – – Discovering Purchase Motives – – – Projective Techniques Laddering Benefit Chain Marketing Communications normally done on multiple motives 4 . External) Need for Assertion (Active. Internal) Need for Affiliation (Active. External) Need for Ego Defense (Passive.

Motivational Conflicts Approach – Approach Conflict – – When the customer has to choose between two alternatives both of which are equally attractive EG: Buying a Nokia Phone or Buying an Apple iPod When the customer has to choose between two alternative one of which is attractive and the other is unattractive EG: Joining VLCC to loose weight and stop eating ice-cream When the customer has to choose between two alternative both of which are unattractive EG: Repair an old washing machine or buy a new one Approach – Avoidance Conflict – – Avoidance – Avoidance Conflict – – Personality 5 .

benefits and related services Brand Personalities offer the basis for long term relationship with a brand 6 . Compulsive Shopping and Complaints Brand Personality Is defined as the set of human characteristics that become associated with a brand Key aspects: – – – Consumers readily assign human characteristics to brand even if the brand is not managed or characteristics are not wanted by marketers Brand Personalities creates expectations about key characteristics.What is Personality? Personality is an individuals characteristics response tendency across similar situations Five Factor Model of Personality – Extroversion Prefer Large Group / Talkative / Bold – Instability Moody / Temperamental / Touchy – Agreeableness Sympathetic / Kind / Polite – Openness to Experience Imaginative / Appreciative / Find Novel Situations – Conscientiousness Careful / Precise / Efficient The model finds most use in marketing and has been validated in Bargaining. performance.

Emotions What are Emotions? Emotions are relatively strong. uncontrolled feelings that affect behaviour Features of Emotions – – – – – Are generally triggered by external forces Are accompanied by physiological changes Emotions are generally accompanied by non cognitive thoughts Emotions have associated behaviours Emotions are attached with subjective feelings 7 .

Sleeping Pills.PAD Theory of Emotions Pleasure Duty Faith Pride Affection Innocence Gratitude Serenity Desire Joy Competence Arousal Interest Hypo-Activism Activation Surprise Déjà Vu Involvement Distraction Playfulness Contempt - Dominance Conflict Guilt Helplessness Sadness Fear Shame Anger Hyper-Activism Disgust Skepticism Emotions & Marketing Emotion Arousal: – – Products are sold by using emotional triggers EG: Casino. Emotion Reduction: – – Marketers are increasingly using emotions to sell products – – – – – Emotion enhances attention to an advertisement Emotional messages are processed more effectively Emotional Advertisement is remembered better There is increase in brand preference Emotions may lead to strong brand liking 8 . Amusement Parks. Disney Products are also sold to reduce negative emotions EG: Alcohol.

Thank You 9 .

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