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THE CASE OF MURTER ISLAND, CROATIA

APPROACH
The quality of the coastal tourism landscapes in the Mediterranean is in grave danger, because of unsustainable tourism. The Mediterranean strategy of the United Nations Environmental Programme (2008) consider sustainable development as a vital necessity to meet (tourism) development challenges in the Mediterranean. Sustainable tourism development is: the suitable balance between the environmental, economic and sociocultural aspects, which is established to guarantee its long-term sustainability (UNWTO 2004 in UNEP 2009). How should sustainable tourism landscapes look like? and how do they work? (Benson and Roe 2007). Lack between theoretical solutions and practical implementations of spatial sustainable solutions in tourism landscapes (research gap). The landscape approach is used in many elds of design (architecture, Urban/regional planning, etcetera) (Koh 2008), but with this thesis we add a new application: a landscape approach to sustainable tourism. This approach will contribute to diminish the research gap. With this project we have three aims: Theoretical aim: developing a landscape strategy and design principles for sustainable development of coastal tourism landscapes in the Northern Mediterranean; Empirical aim: develop a landscape design strategy and design principles which guide new tourism developments on Murter island from a landscape perspective in a sustainable way; Methodological aim: develop a methodology to achieve sustainable tourism.

A LANDSCAPE APPROACH TO SUSTAINABLE COASTAL TOURISM


THESIS FRAMEWORK
PART I: THEORETICAL BASIS PART II: MURTER CASE
PART III: THE FUTURE OF TOURISM ON MURTER ISLAND PART IV: DESIGN PART 5 CONCLUSION

STARTING POINTS
From twelve aim, described in the Guide for Policy Makers for Making Tourism More Sustainable of the UNEP and the UNWTO (2005), a selection is made which function as starting points for the design phase. The selection is based on the contribution of spatial interventions for achieving sustainable tourism. The starting points for the design phase are: Use the local landscape for the production of renewable resources Transition to green modes of transport Increase the physical/Social-perceptual carrying capacity Facilitate new modes of tourism (natural, cultural and active tourism) Make connections between tourist accommodations and local facilities Strengthen the landscape identity Use local aesthetics for new developments Protection of the (agri-) cultural and natural landscape Hiding the negative aspects and show the quality of the landscape Involve local stakeholders in the design process

UNSUSTAINABLE TOURISM

TOURISM PROBLEM ANALYSIS Environmental Environmental Socio-cultural UNSUSTAINABLE TOURISM Fordism mass tourism Sun, sea sand Economic Aesthetic PROBLEMS
translations of global problems to local problems
selection of the design locations
land alteration around the villages

Socio-cultural Economic Aesthetic

land alteration, pressure on resouces, habitat degredation lack of place identity, gated communities, globalisation of culture

gated accommodations only three star accommodations neglection of the public space

SCENARIO 1
tourism sprawl

high seasonality, short term profits, one sided tourism offer non-local materials, standard architecture, low quality of public space

MURTER AS CASE
Develop a landscape strategy and design principles for sustainable development of coastal tourism landscapes.

UNSUSTAINABLE TOURISM DEVELOPMENT OF MURTER tourism area life cycle of Butler

SCENARIO 2
mass tourism

COASTAL LANDSCAPES VS TOURISM


SUSTAINABLE TOURISM Post-Fordism flexible, individual experience
zoning plans, regulations, etc.

WORKSHOP

SCENARIO 3

LOCAL DESIGNS SCENARIO 3


Lucica Bay Slanica Bay Hramina Bay

SUSTAINABLE TOURISM APPLICATIONS Planning & Policies

Technical solutions Management

sustainable energy, waste treatment participation, visitor managament, staff training, etc.

RESEACH GAP lack of spatial implications for sustainable tourism development

LANDSCAPE QUALITY ANALYSIS Natural qualities


Historic qualities Experiential qualities

tourism network

SPATIAL PRINCIPLES SPATIAL PRINCIPLES SPATIAL PRINCIPLES

GENERAL DESIGN PRINCIPLES


which are applicable on other locations with the same characteristics and problems as well

EVALUATION
value of landscape architecture for sustainable tourism and the value of sustainable tourism for landscape architecture

SUSTAINABLE TOURISM

SCENARIO 4
tourism clusters

LOCAL DESIGNS SCENARIO 4


Lucica Bay Slanica Bay Hramina Bay

STARTING POINTS selection from the guide for policy makers of the UNEP and WTO

SPATIAL PRINCIPLES SPATIAL PRINCIPLES SPATIAL PRINCIPLES

THE ISLAND OF MURTER

TOURISM DEVELOPMENT ON MURTER ISLAND


Murter before tourism (1950) Murter with tourism (2010)

Tourism area life cycle theory by R.W. Butler (dark blue line) linked to tourism development on Murter island (light blue line).

SPATIAL QUALITIES

SPATIAL PROBLEMS

Empirical case in the Mediterranean: the Croatian island of Murter. Since the sixties: Fordist tourism destination, with the additional problems caused unsustainable development (see spatial problems). Tourism developments are far from saturation, and a lot of qualities are well preserved. Both municipalities on the island want to develop and restructure tourism in a sustainable way, but a coherent, spatial and visual strategy is missing. Post-Fordist forms of sustainable tourism: solutions for the problems on Murter Island Sustainable tourism development has the opportunity to protect or even strengthen the spatial qualities of the tourism landscape.

natural landscape

cultural landscape

public space

resources

accommodations

attractions

accessibility

natural landscape

cultural landscape

public space

resources

attractions

accommodations

accessibility

Msc Thesis Landscape Architecture and Spatial Planning

Luuk van den Berg & Dion Koens

Supervisors Dr. I. Ateljevic (SAL) and Dr. Ir. M. Brinkhuijsen (LAR)

June 2011

Poster 1

TWO SCENARIOS OUT OF FOUR


Butler (2006): consolidation leads to stagnation and eventually to decline or rejuvenation; Agarwal (2002) advise a re-orientation phase between stagnation and decline/rejuvenation; Murter island already started the re-orientation phase before stagnation, for example by our project; Many ways of predicting the future, we use the scenario method. Two main variables (sustainable versus unsustainable tourism and small scale local investments versus major external investments, see table below). This makes four dierent scenarios: Tourism sprawl: business as usual scenario; Mass tourism: themed gated resorts, neglection of the landscape outside the gates; Tourism network: connecting local attractions, resources, and accommodations; Tourism clusters: clustering of sustainable tourism developments to protect the agricultural and natural landscape.

TOURISM NETWORK
RESTRUCTURED SUSTAINABLE TOURISM NETWORK
This scenario focuses on small improvements by local stakeholders which together make the island more sustainable. To connect these initiatives, networks need to be made on different fields. The improvement of a sufficient network (foot- and bike paths) is very important in this scenario because this will make the island more attractive for people who like sports, nature, hiking, local culture and quietness. To make the path network more attractive several local attractions will constructed or improved. Locality is another keyword in this scenario, which means the use of local labour and resources as food, energy, water and materials. Existing accommodations will transformed in green ones by using local materials, green walls/roofs and sustainable resources.

TOURISM CLUSTERS
NEW SUSTAINABLE TOURISM CLUSTERS
The scenario of sustainable mass-tourism handles the tourism growth in a sustainable way. External investors came in to construct sustainable resorts, in which local culture, nature, architecture is involved into the design. Natural resources are exploited sustainable on a large scale windmill- and solar parks and water catchment installations. In order to keep control the new sustainable developments, conservation and improvement zones for cultural landscape and natural areas will be created. To attract tourists, historical sites and local traditions are exploited by musea and education/visitor centers. The infrastructure will be extended by more sustainable modes of transport and car free zones are created to discourage car use and create space for improvements and greening of the public space.

1 landscape

1 public space

1 landscape

1 resources

resources

accommodations

accessibility

attractions

workshop TOTAL SCORE

accommodations

accessibility

attractions

public space

workshop TOTAL SCORE

WORKSHOP
Local workshop results: sustainable scenarios were preferred, but no major dierence between the two sustainable scenarios; Design phase: work out both, representing a dierent time scale.

LIKE

DISLIKE

LIKE

DISLIKE

61x 9x
1
8

87% 13%

56x 17x 77% 23%


9

Sustainable tourism development on Murter island - Workshop report

Sustainable tourism development on Murter island - Workshop Report

SMALL SCALE LOCAL INTERVENTIONS

MAJOR MASS SCALE INTERVENTIONS

new tourism bay

harbour front

new tourism bay

harbour front

The groups are selecting images about landscape or tourism In the second part of the workshop the groups have to sketch which they prefer for the future of their island their ideas for the future of Murter island

HRAMINA BAY - RESTRUCTURING HARBOURFRONT MURTER

BAYS ON MURTER ISLAND


To implement the sustainable scenarios in detailed designs, three representative areas for tourism developments are selected. From the problem analysis we concluded that most of the tourism facilities and the entailed problems are concentrated around the bays. There are three main types of bays on the island: urban bays, tourism bays, and natural bays. Combining this with the bay problem map (right), three representative locations are facing the most urgent problems, all from a dierent bay type: Hramina bay, Luia bay, and Slanica bay. The workshop supported this location choice as well, because all of the groups mentioned these locations as areas for (re-)development. These designs are made in two phases which are linked to the scenarios of local, small scale investments and external, large scale investments. Phase one (small scale local investments) is within ten years and the phase two (major external investments) after 10 years.

LUCIA BAY - NEW TOURISM CLUSTER

SLANICA BAY RESTRUCTURING TOURISM CLUSTER

Msc Thesis Landscape Architecture and Spatial Planning

Luuk van den Berg & Dion Koens

Supervisors Dr. I. Ateljevic (SAL) and Dr. Ir. M. Brinkhuijsen (LAR)

June 2011

Poster 2

HRAMINA BAY

DESIGN PHASE 2: TOURISM CLUSTER

EXISTING SITUATION: PROBLEMS

No clear function of the eastern part The spatial connection between the sea and the village is lost (backside of the buildings facing the sea) Lack of green Domination of concrete and asphalt as pavement Bad accessibility for pedestrians of the western side of the harbourfront Insucient parking system: domination of cars in the public space Bad maintainance of the buildings (mainly sheds) Unpleasant micro climate.

3 4

DESIGN PHASE 1: TOURISM NETWORK

Connection along the waterfront by bridges (west side) and boulevard (east side). New parking places, pavement of natural stones and adding more green (trees, planters, green walls, and grass)

Construction of new buildings and renovation of existing buildings on empty spaces to create a new harbourfront. The backside of the east part of the harbour is transformed into a front.

SPATIAL PRINCIPLES
The starting points are used as basis for the designs. The principles are spatial translations of the starting points we made in the design for Hramina bay. The following principles are created for this design:

Accentuate the three dierent parts of the harbourfront

Update and create new landscape based attractions

Use of trees, green walls and terrace coverings to create an attractive micro climate

Make pedestrian route along the waterfront

Fit in starting point: strengthen the landscape identity

Fit in starting point: facilitate new modes of tourism

Fit in starting point: make connections between tourist accommodations local facilities

Keep the viewlines from the alleys on the sea intact

Use the irregular buidling line in new developments

Create solar panels on roofs and water retention basin under square

Decrease the dominance of cars by replacing the parking lots outside the centre

Fit in starting point: hiding the negative aspects and show the quality of a place

Fit in starting point: strenghten the landscape identity

Fit in starting point: use the local landscape for the production of renewable resources.

Fit in starting point: transition to green modes of trac

WEST SIDE: OLD HARBOUR


Phase 1: adding more green (green walls, small trees in planters) and new pavement of local ag stones. The west part of the harbourfront is connected by several bridges. In phase 2: one of the sheds is removed to create a small square covered with almond trees for catering purposes. Other sheds are renovated and reconstructed and hosting tourism facilities such as small bars and shops and apartments.

Phase 1 1

bridges to make the old harbour accessible

new pavement of local ag stones

extra green and sitting opportunities

Phase 2 3

Sheds transformed into catering facilities or shops

information sign to learn tourists the history of the place

restored houses oer oportunities to sell local products to tourists

Removal of an old shed and the creation of a terrace underneath the almond trees

Existing situation

EAST SIDE: NEW BOULEVARD


Phase 1: construction of a new boulevard paved with local ag stones. A double row of Holm oaks is planted along the road, to protect the boulevard from strong Bora winds. Parking is organized along the road in 90 degrees parking spaces. The ugly backyards are covered with green walls and the empty spaces are decorated with grass. Phase 2: buildings in traditional architecture are replacing the green walls and empty spaces.

Phase 1 2

extra green to make the boulevard more attractive

green walls to mask the mess behind the buildings

new boulevard of local ag stones

90 degree parking along the road

Holm oaks to protect the boulevard from the Bora winds

Phase 2 4

Sheds transformed into catering facilities with terraces

inllment of new buildings instead of sprawl

Small electric vehicles as an attraction and a green mode of transport

Existing situation

Msc Thesis Landscape Architecture and Spatial Planning

Luuk van den Berg & Dion Koens

Supervisors Dr. I. Ateljevic (SAL) and Dr. Ir. M. Brinkhuijsen (LAR)

June 2011

Poster 3

LUICA BAY
EXISTING SITUATION: PROBLEMS

DESIGN PHASE 2: TOURISM CLUSTER

2 4 3
Threat of landscape degradation (pine forest are replacing the olive groves: cultural tradition is lost) Domination of cars (in the tourist season) direct at the waterfront The sandy bottoms of the sea are inaccessible because of the rocky coast and the concrete rocks of the pier No sitting opportunities for tourists and locals. Insucient capacity of the path network (bad maintained) Tourism company wants to develop a tourist resort (risk of landscape degradation and visual pollution)

DESIGN PHASE 1: TOURISM NETWORK

Updating the path network, by new pavement and a central square. Construction of a parking lot land inwards. Creating of landscape based attractions: stairs to the waterfront and a watch tower on the island of kolji.

New sustainable resort, which includes the centre of education and human development. This centre can be used for congresses and education purposes. The congresses and lectures can also be given in a new constructed amphitheatre. The accommodations are divided in a hotel, group facilities and lodges and are constructed with local materials and traditions. The buildings are shaped into the landscape to prevent visual pollution The dry stone walls will be restored, by adding new paths on top to access the group facilities, lodges and the surrounding landscape.

SPATIAL PRINCIPLES
The starting points are used as basis for the designs. The principles are spatial translations of the starting points we made in the design for Luica bay. The following principles are created for this design:

Decreasing scale of the buildings uphill and positioning the buildings land inwards

Use the pattern of the dry stone walls for the positioning of the buildings

Windscreens of pine trees to protect against the cold Bora wind

Use roofs for solar energy and the amphitheater for water catchment

Landscape based attractions connected by an improved path network

Use the dry stone walls for paths to access the buildings

Car accessibility are replaced from the bay to a parking lot land inwards

Connect the paths of the tourism cluster with the existing path network

t in starting point: Hiding the negative aspects and show the quality of the landscape

t in starting point: Strengthen the landscape identity

t in

starting point: Use the local landscape for the production of renewable resources

t in starting point: Facilitate new modes of tourism

t in starting point: Protection of the (agri-) cultural and natural landscape

t in starting point: Transition to green modes of transportrenewable resources

t in starting point: Make connections between tourist accommodations and local facilities

PIER TO KOLJI ISLAND


Phase 1: construction of stairs to the sandy bottom of the sea. The stairs consist of local natural stones and are wide, which make them useful for sitting and relaxing. Besides the stairs, benches are added so that people can enjoy the scenery. In phase 2 the resort is constructed. The lodges are tting into the dry stone wall landscape so that the visual pollution from the pier and the island of kolji is low.

Phase 1 1

stairs towards the sandy sea bottom

new curved benches beneath the pine trees

central square makes the network more clear

stone bench with a wooden deck

Phase 2 3

main buildings in the valley for low visibility

lodges within the parcels of dry stone walls

amphitheatre for outdoor conferences and water catchment

Existing situation

ENTRANCE SUSTAINABLE RESORT


Phase 1: updating of the path network, by dividing pedestrian and car trac. The rst part of the parking lot is constructed on a terrace and decorated with indigenous trees. Also the street lighting is improved by adding solar street lights. In phase 2 the sustainable resort is constructed. The main resort buildings are constructed of local materials. Furthermore the dry stone walls are renovated so that they are accessible for pedestrians.

Phase 1 2

the bay is just accessible for pedestrians and cyclists

paved road towards the parking lot

parking lot planted with pine trees

Phase 2 4

paths over the restored dry stone walls

terrace covers of grape vines

main buildings built according local design principles

extended parking lot in terraces on the slope of the hill

Existing situation

Msc Thesis Landscape Architecture and Spatial Planning

Luuk van den Berg & Dion Koens

Supervisors Dr. I. Ateljevic (SAL) and Dr. Ir. M. Brinkhuijsen (LAR)

June 2011

Poster 4

CONCLUSIONS
THEORETICAL RESULTS
Besides the landscape strategy (See the scenario, design, and location specic principles), general design principles contributed in the translation of sustainable tourism theory into a spatial design for sustainable tourism development. The principles of each design are abstract examples of the spatial interventions of the designs based on the starting points. The set of principles of the designs are simplied and generalized into a set of general principles. The general principles can also be used on other coastal tourism landscapes with comparable characteristics. Use the local landscape for the production of renewable resources Transition to green modes of transport Increase the physical/social-perceptual carrying capacity Design with micro climate

move the parking lots away from the tourist hotspots

create car free zones on tourist hot spots

spread the tourist pressure within the tourism cluster

make the tourist places attractive for locals too

Use vegetation as wind screens to protect public spaces

Make use of deciduous vegetation for shade and sun

use roofs and hard surfaces for rain water catchment

use roofs for solar panels

improve the path network, by connecting, widening and repaving

use the space within the touristic hotspots more ecient

more green surface instead of aphalt and concrete to absorb heat

use green roofs and frameworks with climbers to isolate the buildings

Facilitate new modes of tourism

Strengthen the landscape identity

Protection of the (agri-) cultural and natural landscape

Hiding the negative aspects and show the quality of the landscape

landscape based activities

landscape based cultural attractions intergrate new development in the existing urban lay out use existing landscape patterns for guiding new developments inllment instead of urban sprawl use tourist developments for landscape improvement size restrictions for the buildings sizes no objects within view lines from routes on beautiful places

landscape based natural attractions

dierenciation of accomodations

Make connections between tourist accommodations and local facilities

respect topography for new developments

make use of existing landscape elements

make the landscape accesible

exploit or create view points

move the buildings and facilities land inwards

use of colours and materials

connect tourist cluster with existing path network

use the landscape for the production of agricultural products to sell to the tourists

use local vegetation

use local achitecture styles (materials, shapes and colours)

create landscape based attractions

information signs about the landscape

use vegetation to mask unappreciated objects

EMPIRICAL RESULTS
Besides the landscape strategy for Murter island (scenarios, designs, and principles), an empirical results is the increased awareness of the local stakeholders. To achieve this awareness a workshop was organized for dierent stakeholders. The results of the workshop raised awareness because: People realised that unsustainable tourism has spatial consequences; The participants preferred images which ts in the sustainable scenarios; We showed them the opportunities of sustainable tourism on the island; The participants sketched their own ideas for tourism development. According to one of the participants: it was interesting that locals visions of tourism development of Island were in line with Luuk and Dions work and tourism development proposal. The deputy mayor of Murter-Kornati, Dragica Bai, stated that with this project, the vision of sustainable tourism development has gained new momentum. This was also supported by the interest of the local media (newspaper article) and social media (197 views of our workshop report).

Thirty enthousiast workshop participants

In the regional newspaper Novi Tjednik

11 people like our workshop report on facebook and it was read 197 times on Scribd

METHODOLOGICAL RESULTS
The last result of this thesis project is the method of the landscape approach to sustainable tourism. This method consist of several steps which displayed on the scheme on the right. The landscape approach to sustainable tourism is based on the landscape itself, instead of a place or environment. It creates an aesthetic sustainable tourism landscape, which meet the demands, experiences, and values of the tourists and the locals.

LANDSCAPE

LANDSCAPE APPROACH TO SUSTAINABLE TOURISM

Quality analysis

Scenarios

Location design

Problem analysis

Workshop

Principles for sustainable tourism development

DEMANDS, EXPERIENCES, AND VALUES OF TOURISTS AND LOCALS


Msc Thesis Landscape Architecture and Spatial Planning Luuk van den Berg & Dion Koens Supervisors Dr. I. Ateljevic (SAL) and Dr. Ir. M. Brinkhuijsen (LAR) June 2011 Poster 5