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GENERAL OVERVIEW DESIGN OF CASTINGS LOGISTICS ENGINEERING PURCHASING & SUBCONTRACTING PATTERN MOULDING MELTING FETTLING HEAT TREATMENT MACHINING & MARKING SURFACE TREATMENT QUALITY DEPARTMENT REPAIR SALES & MARKETING SERIAL FIRST PIECE QUALIFICATION ENVIRONMENT AUTHOR
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ir G Henderieckx Gietech BV
1. Introduction 2. Process 3. Important features 4. Conclusion
A foundry is the process (producing castings); split up in several smaller processes each performing part of the job. The result must be a casting, which is, conform to the requirements of the customer. The sub processes are related one to the other and each process has an influence on the next one (next step in the total process). So it can be said that each department is the supplier of another and the customer of the previous (according to the total process) one. Quality is the result of the performance of each group in the process. Department further in the total process, can sometimes correct an insufficient performance of a previous department, but only due to extra cost! The words "quality does not cost" are true in the sense that an insufficient quality level will increase the cost of the casting. But requiring a higher quality level will cost basically more compared to a lower level. Sub suppliers can do some of the sub processes and some items can be bought. Inspection is not only the job of the quality control department but also of each responsible of a group or department! Maintenance is considered as an integral part of the production. Financial, health and human resources department are not included in this text. They are not considered typical foundry activity, which means necessary to produce correct castings.
ir G Henderieckx Gietech BV
The process has three major steps, which are not all done one after another in time. Some of them are running simultaneous. The flow chart below is indicating all steps.
CONTRACT ORDER OFFER ORDER ADMINISTRATION Inspection plan ENGINEERING
S U B C O N T R A C T IN G
I N S P E C T I O N
HEAT TREATMENT SURFACE TREATMENT Repair Repair
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FOUNDRY MANUAL The first step is the paperwork to be done after the entry of an order. The order will be compared with the offer and or contract. The selling department will check price. The order administration office will check all data concerning number, drawing and pattern number, material, specifications and all commercials items as shipment, payment The planning, in accordance with the required time and the production will be set. If this job is done, the Quality Control office will set up the inspection plan concerning casting performance, taking in account the requirements from the order and the requirements due to the quality level of the foundry. The engineering department will decide about all items necessary for the production: 1. items to purchase 2. items to subcontract 3. work sheets for pattern shop, moulding and melting, heat treatment and fettling and shipment The second step is the production of the casting. This can involve the pattern production, surface treatment and will involve moulding and melting as well as fettling, heat treatment and shipment. Sometimes also heat treatment is subcontracted. It is very important that engineering will get all feed back about problems, nonconformities and defects. They need this information to modify the work sheets. Engineering will also list and supervise the equipment and tooling (especially the mould boxes). If there is a need they can ask for investing extra ones. The third step is the inspection and surveillance step, mostly done by the quality department. The inspection must be done as well by the head of each group and or department. The information from the order will establish an inspection plan, which is made by the quality department and will be made available to the engineering department. The required quality level as well as the foundry quality level requirements will have an influence on the pouring system risers and chills and sometimes on the work procedures. This inspection plan will set the "hold points" and "check points". This inspection is also present if there is repair to be done by a subcontractor. The sales & marketing department will be described at the end (Chapter 15). This department is the connection between the foundry and the market.
ir G Henderieckx Gietech BV
performing part of the process. does influence the result concerning quality and cost. The engineering department and the correct applying of the work instructions as well as the feed back of problems will set the quality level. IMPORTANT FEATURES The most important feature is the importance and responsibility of the engineering department. This is the only way to avoid these problems in the future.FOUNDRY MANUAL 3. Each instruction that does not lead to a performance equal to the required quality level or better. They have the highest influence on the cost and quality of the castings. Sales & Marketing will be described in Chapter 15. To make their job easier it is preferred to have work sheets. This knowledge must be supplemented by experience. All these pictures can be made available in a booklet or ask for on the intranet of the foundry. The other important feature is the necessity of "discipline" of the production people and sub suppliers to act according to the work sheets and to report about problems to every one involved. each sub process (including a flow chart) will be described in detail and the important features as well as the influences on the process will be discussed. The inspection is not only done by the quality department but also by every responsible of a group or department and at the end of ever one in the foundry.and CAQ-production will be described in Chapter 16. brought in by the foundry workers and suppliers. foundry techniques and requirements and standards. Engineering must have the knowledge of materials. A foundry is a "learning community" which will gather information and experience and increasing the level of the group by sharing all this. Being a process every department. included with pictures made from previous castings. SP. ================================================================ Menu ir G Henderieckx Gietech BV JANUARY 2005 5 . Every one can understand a picture but not very one can understand and handle according to drawings and sketches. CONCLUSION Making castings is a "skill" which level is set by experience and knowledge and the degree of sharing and discussing it. The difference between the FPQ-. repairing or even scrapping the castings involved. It is important to have also the pictures and or the history of work instruction leading to problems. will add extra cost due to correcting. In the detailed descriptions of the departments. 4.
Conclusion 1. It must be considered that the dimensions. included the tolerance range. All these items involve the "product" and are depending on the designer. meeting all requirements of the design or performing better. type of machining and machinability of the material. And this will last forever 2. the more problems there will be. The castings have to comply with several requirements concerning assembling of the product. The first step is to set up the requirements concerning strength and ductility (shape and section and material related). The first item is to find an (international) standard to refer to. The second item is the machining cost. The third concerns the castibility into the foundry. Introduction Design starts from a product. in the best area. ir G Henderieckx Gietech BV JANUARY 2005 6 . Features 4. Flow chart There are two steps in the design of a casting. which will be influenced by the shape. service condition resistance (concerns corrosion. erosion ) and assembly requirements (dimensions and tolerances and process reliability). some of them being a casting. A casting with an incorrect or "not best" design will cause trouble concerning quality and delivery reliability and will have a too high cost. The more complex the shape is. No third party is involved up to now. strength and ductility of the material and requirements concerning the service conditions. which has to perform a function. do meet the requirements of the design and to locate the material excess. These requirements are completed with three other items to get the best product at the lowest "total cost". The required mechanical properties must be met in the "representative" wall thickness.FOUNDRY MANUAL Design of castings DESIGN OF CASTINGS 1. This product consists of one or more parts. Flow chart 3. due to pattern draft. Introduction 2. An inventory is made from these.
taken in account the shape. it is preferred to choose one with slightly higher (better for the design) values. But also the pattern concept. This is dependant on the shape and size of the casting and of the type of moulding.FOUNDRY MANUAL PRODUCT PART 1 PART 2 PART X ASSEMBLY REQUIREMENTS REQUIREMENTS STRENGTH DUCTILITY SERVICE CONDITIONS STANDARDS FOUNDRY MACHINE SHOP CHEMICAL ANALYSIS SHAPE SHAPE HEAT TREATMENT WALL THICKNESS TYPE OF MACHINING MECHANICAL PROPERTIES PATTERN DRAFT MACHINABILITY OTHER PROPERTIES TOLERANCES CASTING The second step concerns third parties. The shape must be that no problems can occur with section connections. First it is important to find an international standard. size and material. Secondly the foundry must check if all requirements can be met. The pattern draft must be located that or it must not be removed or it falls within the machining stock. has an influence. sharp angles These problems are completely different per material (strength. ductility ) and depend also on the heat treatment. The foundry must also indicate the tolerances that can be met. which does comply with the requirements. wall thickness (the mechanical properties of a lot of materials do depend on the section size) and dimensionally tolerances. ir G Henderieckx Gietech BV JANUARY 2005 7 . If no one is found.
The casting will have a high reliability to quality and delivery and performance. The choice of material does not only depend on the mechanical and other properties! Quite a lot of materials do have different strength and ductility in different section sizes. The required tolerances will influence cost because they point to the pattern and moulding. it is possible to get a design with the lowest cost and the highest reliability for quality and delivery. due to the cooling after pouring and or heat treatment. 4. Subjective (very smooth surface) and or not measurable requirements (free of any defect at all) do ask for a never to win discussion. Of coarse he knows the product and the required performance of the product and its components. but this will be at the price of a higher cost and less reliability of delivery.FOUNDRY MANUAL 3. But this can lead to a higher machining cost. material. But the performance does depend on the possibilities of the foundry and the machine shop. These standards are clear described. Only a good and deep discussion. Will every casting meet the requirements and what will be the difference between the best and the worst result? This does not only depend on the ability of the foundry and machine shop but also at the type of casting (shape. Only then can brought in a lot of experience and knowledge. It is necessary to take the benefit of working together with the foundry and machine shop. before the design is finalised. The larger the tolerance span. Features The design can be done quite well by the designer. The last factor is that only after that deep discussion. proven to be valid and accepted by every one. Quite some materials will have difficulties with complex shapes and a large variety of section sizes. It also involves the cost of repair and or scrapping of castings as well as the cost of rescheduling production and loosing customers because of too late deliveries. Even if every requirement can be met. it is important to know the span of the results. tolerances ). Conclusion Design has been for too long the single responsibility of the designer. it must be stressed that it should be part of the casting delivery . Although it seems not the task of the foundry. They also have a clear required type of testing and certifying. Therefore it is preferred to compromise for casting tolerance (casting cost) and machining cost. This will avoid discussions later on. ================================================================ Menu ir G Henderieckx Gietech BV JANUARY 2005 8 . The cost is not only the cost of a pattern and a casting. It is important to relate all requirements to an international standard. the cheaper the total cost of the casting. can lead to the best design .
The purpose it to deliver the orders at the required delivery date. These "hot situation" must be communicated to production and customer. Introduction This department has to collect all data about the casting and make the production schedule using these data. the type and amount of material as well as the availability of the mould boxes. pattern and order related data as number of castings and required delivery date. 2. week sheets and a capacity plan for the production as well as the paperwork for the subcontracting. it is necessary to contact the customer and get an agreement about a new date. If meeting this delivery date is not possible.FOUNDRY MANUAL LOGISTICS LOGISTICS 1. Features 4. dimensions. If the required delivery date cannot be met. ir G Henderieckx Gietech BV JANUARY 2005 9 . Flow chart There are three steps in the activity of the logistic department. this must be communicated to the customer and an agreement about a new delivery date must be found. type of material. There should be a continuous feed back about the progress of the production and contact with the customer about delivery date. This concerns "standard data" as weight. The second step is to schedule the production. calculate the delivery date and confirm it to the customer. The first step is to collect all necessary data about the castings involved. The engineering department provides the standard data and the order related data are written in the order form. Scheduling in the foundry does work with the hours per department and equipment. The third step is producing work instructions. Conclusion 1. Flow chart 3. Introduction 2. The feed back of production must continuously be reworked in the capacity plan and scheduling. mentioned in the order. Influences 5.
So they can prepare the shipment and inform the customer about it.FOUNDRY MANUAL The last job involved is the shipment of the order and providing all data to the financial department for invoicing the order. The delivery time is depending on the standard and order related data. It neither is nor preferred to shift castings to later delivery time as originally planned in order to benefit a new order. Indeed every modification of the planning will affect more than the one or two orders involved. Shipping is part of the job because the scheduling department is continuously aware of the latest state of the production. which must be kept up to date. Each modification of these data will have an influence on the lead-time of the production and delivery time of the order. Features The scheduling is done with standard data. ORDER DATA / CASTING DELIVERY DATE E N G I N E E R I N G hours metal mouldboxes SCHEDULING SCHEDULED CASTING ORDER CONFIRMATION C U S T E M O R WORK INSTRUCTIONS WORK SHEETS CAPACITY PLAN PRODUCTION SUBCON TRACTING SHIPMENT INVOICING 3. ir G Henderieckx Gietech BV JANUARY 2005 10 . but also on the existing capacity for similar castings.
This will avoid the building of stock between two operations and will result in the shortest lead-time. It can provide the customer with the correct information and establish a trustful relation. and on the efficiency of the job and the availability of people and equipment. This special work also results sometimes in the use of less suitable tooling and mould boxes. which will increase cost of this casting. If this is not done. It is necessary that the up to date data and continuous feed back of the real production volume be provided. Menu ir G Henderieckx Gietech BV JANUARY 2005 11 . These results depend on data. This efficiency increase must be introduced into the scheduling calculations. Influences A delivery date is a living date . The problem of very short deliveries (this means shorter as normally. continuously influenced by the results from the production. The shipment and providing data for the invoicing is the final job per casting. 4. with and without cores ). This automatically results in a less fluent production of other products. Investments mostly increase the efficiency of the production. Efficiency can increase if a large variety of castings and a little over numbered are scheduled. It is important to correct the momentaneous capacity per department to the available and scheduled amount of work. there is a chance that this increase will vanish in easier and less efficient working. which are not correct. The logistic department plays an important role towards the customer. This enables an as correct as possible scheduling. 5. Conclusion The logistic department is important for the production because it has an important influence on the efficiency.FOUNDRY MANUAL Efficiency can be increased by the scheduling if somewhat extra castings are available (extra to the theoretical capacity) and this in a wide variation of types of castings (large and small. calculated with the available capacity) will have the attention of every one.
All knowledge is present and kept up to date: 1. This knowledge includes a theoretical part as well as the extra experience out of the foundry. Keeping these files up to date does not mean that "non active" and or "incorrect" procedures and work instructions are forgotten. weight. Other foundry specifications 5. With the use of this knowledge and the casting features (shape. chemical analysis. dimensions and material) the pattern. Influences 5. inserts and work sheets are set up. On the contrary these information must prevent the foundry to re-use them again (sometimes years later). Production possibilities. Flow chart 3. ir G Henderieckx Gietech BV JANUARY 2005 12 . Material specifications 4. Introduction This department is the "guard of knowledge" of a foundry. Important features 4. It is very important that the engineering keeps aware of new technologies and gets a continuous feedback from the production and inspection and customer remarks in order to modify the production work sheets to get the "best" casting (required quality and lowest cost). Introduction 2.FOUNDRY MANUAL ENGINEERING ENGINEERING 1. Conclusions 1. Tooling and equipment 2. Manufacturing specifications 3.
the second step is to consult the files for the best technique to produce a good casting. consulting the available possibilities for the production and setting up the procedures and work sheets for the casting.FOUNDRY MANUAL 2. The use of equipment and tools as well as the production possibility are important to set the pattern concept (split line. The weight is very important because it has an influence on: 1. The dimensions will lead to the best-suited mould boxes. the use of ladles 4. The properties of a lot of materials (grey iron) do depend on these data and can be mastered by adopting or closer limiting the chemical composition. ORDER SHAPE WEIGHT MATERIAL DIMENSIONS TOOLING / EQUIPMENT PRODUCTION DEPARTMENTS ENGINEERING MANUFACTURING SPECS MATERIAL FEATURES EXTRA FOUNDRY SPECS C O S T O F C A S TI N G pattern work sheets pouring system risers + chills chemical analysis inserts melting fettling heat treatment surface treatment moulding PR OP OS AL FO R INV ES TM EN TS The first step is to verify the casting data. The material must be brought in relation with the shape and dimensions of the casting. Flow chart There are three major steps in the job that engineering is performing: calculating and verifying the casting data. necessary amount of liquid metal to pour the casting 3. taking in account the machining stock. the pouring temperature. number of cores ). number and size of risers and chills 2. ir G Henderieckx Gietech BV JANUARY 2005 13 . Knowing these basically data. The shape and dimensions must be qualified according to tolerances and importance.
Most of the people can read drawings and work instructions to a certain extend but all of them can understand pictures. Engineering department is the best suited for calculating cost of a casting. The third step is the final set up of pattern. surface treatment and shipping. and use of inserts. The experience will come from working together and a close contact and trustful relation with the foundry workers and the technicians of the suppliers. This can be as documents or better as pictures. But this is not true. fettling. It must be clear that new castings always have a higher risk for problems and even scrap. moulding and pouring. work instructions and inspection hold points. it is them which will set the cost of the castings.FOUNDRY MANUAL The manufacturing specifications are identical or similar to previous casting or made new. ir G Henderieckx Gietech BV JANUARY 2005 14 . in cooperation with the employees involved. Working in this department asks for a structurised filing of data and results and a high competence to absorb this knowledge or to find this information easily back. for heat treatment It is preferred to discuss possibilities and proposal with the production and quality control in order to have the maximum input of experience. surplus for nonproduction costs and financial and other cost. the real cost can be calculated and handed over to the selling department. 3. surplus for storing and handling. for the coating. possibly available on line by the intranet of the foundry. have to be more or less encyclopaedia. Extra specifications and or requirements will be set for chemical composition of the material. chemical composition of the material. for the time after pouring and before shake out. They need to be open-minded and realise that studying will a never-ending task for them. Another important feature is the availability of all information (including the "why's" behind every instruction) to the foundry workers. But because engineering has to propose investments to apply new techniques or to increase the efficiency of old techniques and. find out operation work methods with higher efficiency. The engineering department must have filed the materialising of the proper foundry know how (knowledge and experience). Their theoretical knowledge must be on a high level. These know how may not only be in the head of employees but must be written down or available as pictures. for strength of the mould material. The work sheets do include all instruction for melting. Important features It looks that people working in the engineering department. It has know how and knowledge to predict the number of hours and cost of material. heat treatment. If it is provided with the cost per hour.
5. To be effective this department must have a close contact with the foundry workers.can be top of the bill in all type of material and castings! Therefore it is preferred for a foundry to specialise in a restricted number of castings and materials and be the best in it. which have to be followed by the production. It must be shared and will increase by sharing! Engineering must learn to work with the available equipment and tools. This will avoid re-using it after a long period of time and will inform new employees for pitfalls. with suppliers and must know the quality of the castings of other foundries. the correct and not correct information must be stored and kept available for consulting by every one involved (especially new employees). already discovered by others in the past. Doing this the foundry will avoid to return to working with a not best result. This knowledge is partly theoretical and partly due to experience in the foundry. These can be taken in account if new proposals come in. They will suit for a certain type of castings and be less effective for others. No foundry . it will set the cost level of the foundry With these tool engineering is setting up the work instructions. If production has remarks and or proposals to do better. It must be the purpose to bring as much people as possible on a very high level of knowledge and experience. The good and worse. ================================================================ Menu ir G Henderieckx Gietech BV JANUARY 2005 15 . because they are witnesses of incorrect and or "not best" work instructions and procedures. Influences It is very important to keep old non-active procedures and work sheets. Applying the knowledge and experience and introducing new techniques.engineering department . It is very important to keep all "old work sheets and procedures". the head of the engineering and the production will decide to try and apply this. Conclusion The importance of the engineering department is very high as a "guard of knowledge".FOUNDRY MANUAL 4. The cooperation between engineering and quality department and production will avoid that knowledge and experience will not be shared. The best production for a new type of castings mostly asks for investments.
The production and delivery of the order items are also involved in this step. The third step is the inspection. if this work is not performed according to the requirements and specifications. marking ). to comply as much as possible with the requirements of the order. from the data sheet (raw material. inserts. These are from the customer order (castings. material. The purchase order must reflect the requirements valid for per item of the order. work instruction. delivery time) and inspection requirements. Lay out The purchasing and subcontracting consists of four steps. 2. Introduction These two departments are mostly combined.FOUNDRY MANUAL PURCHASING & SUBCONTRACTING PURCHASING & SUBCONTRACTING 1. These data are provided by the customer (quantity. painting ). Important features 4. The second step is the choice of the supplier. sand ) and from the work sheets (machining. Purchasing and subcontracting starts with collecting data and ends when the purchased items enter with all required documents and approval of quality inspection. It is important to summary for each supplier his possibilities and performance concerning quality. The value of this damage and or scrapping can exceed far over the value of the subcontracted work. can cause damage and even lead to scrapping the casting. The first step is to collect all necessary data about quantity. although that for subcontracting engineering and logistic department is very much involved. Flow chart 3. drawing ) and the engineering or logistic department (work sheet. Introducing 2. After the approval the goods are taken in the inventory and will be stored. For subcontracting it must be considered that. according to the order requirements. of the delivered order items. alloys. The quality and other documents are also verified. delivery reliability and cooperation to decrease price. which does comply or is considered able. Conclusion 1. delivery time and quality and delivery requirements. ir G Henderieckx Gietech BV JANUARY 2005 16 .
Conclusion It is a fact that besides price. 4. To have an objective figure of these. Mostly the castings will be delivered too late. indicating all necessary data and requirements involved. ================================================================ Menu ir G Henderieckx Gietech BV JANUARY 2005 17 . The data are coming from the inspection department and production as well as from the supplier. These costs will definitely exceed the price difference between two suppliers.FOUNDRY MANUAL The last step is to collect data about quality and delivery time. The requirements must be identical to those in the customer order involved. Important features It is very important that every order is put in a clear and written document. SUPPLIER DATA CUSTEMOR ORDER PRODUCTION RAW MATERIAL PRODUCTION OTHER MATERIAL LOGISTICS INSERTS SUBCONTRACTING PAINTING P U R C H A S I N G S U B C O N T R A C T I N G FOUNDRY CASTINGS SUPPLIER RAW MATERIAL SUPPLIER OTHER MATERIAL MACHINE SHOP INSERTS SUBSUPPLIER PAINTING SCHEDULING SPECIFICATIONS DATA INSPECTION STORE INVENT ORY 3. the important items are quality and delivery reliability. These data will lead to a statistically figure about the performance of the supplier. Lack of quality or too late delivery will result in costs which can be real costs (repair ) and or disturbing of the production and resulting in a decrease of efficiency. it is necessary to do statistical calculations.
It is for this reason that very much attention must be paid on the pattern concerning concept. Process 3. to be produced (factor is wear of pattern) or as the time that the pattern must be usable (factor is the degeneration of the pattern material).FOUNDRY MANUAL PATTERN PATTERN 1. excluded the scrap ones. INTRODUCTION The pattern is the start of a casting. SP. execution and dimensions.2 Tolerance 4. A more detailed description is given in Chapter 15. machining shop and pattern shop is absolutely necessary.1 Pattern 3. This is a completely incorrect opinion.4 Pouring system / risers / chills 4. Mostly the buyer feels a pattern as an extra cost. which keeps expensive during the whole lifetime. Influences 4.2 Core box 3. to be paid at the start of production.3 Quality of the casting 5. To get the best pattern. and useless for him. the dimensions and soundness of the material section as well as the surface condition of the casting. Conclusion 1. in which the FPQ-. A low cost casting can be the start of an expensive casting. The pattern has a large influence on the cost. Introduction 2.1 Pattern condition 4.and CAQproduction will be compared. The lifetime is quoted as the amount of castings.3 Template 3. a cooperation between foundry. ir G Henderieckx Gietech BV JANUARY 2005 18 . A bad pattern can also be the start of a continuously troubling quality and delivery. Important items 3.
mould) and the total amount of casting during the lifetime (number of moulds which indicates the pattern material to use). starting from the casting drawing. drawing casting Shape Material Order lot Life time drawing pattern Pouring temperature Mould mat erial final part drawing machining dr awing PATTERN pattern core box templates pouring sytem/riser/chill Mould Mould ins pection Casting Dimensional inspect ion The first step is the production of the pattern drawing. Casting shape and material to predict the overall and local shrinkage to be applied to the pattern. 3.FOUNDRY MANUAL 2. The final part drawing and machining to set the zero point for the lay out and marking as well as the design of the pattern to put pattern draft as much as possible in the planned machining stock. 2. PROCESS The pattern producing process is shown in the following flow chart. There are four groups of information used for this step: 1. 4. The amount of castings per delivery (number of parts on a pattern plate. ir G Henderieckx Gietech BV JANUARY 2005 19 . It has four steps. The type of production concerning mould material (influences the shrinkage and the pattern wear) as well as the pouring temperature (influence on the shrinkage due to the influence on the mould strength).
This first step needs the knowledge and experience with similar castings and material in the foundry. which will be used to assemble cores and cores in the mould cavity. This is done with the comparison of the real dimensions to the required dimensions. The last step is the dimensional modification of the pattern. the located riser seats and riser-blocks and the pattern for chills to be poured. This can lead to another split line for the pattern or new or other cores. taking in account the pouring system. It is necessary that all problems. It is nearly impossible to have the best result from the first shot. can be measured and discussed. a new cycle starts again and it does cost a lot of money. ir G Henderieckx Gietech BV JANUARY 2005 20 . This must result in correct dimensions and a narrow variation in dimensions between the castings. the first casting. assemble and pour it. in agreement with the buyer. must be reported as well as correction on the spot done. risers and chills. For complex and or important castings.FOUNDRY MANUAL Generally the split line or lines is set. It is mostly the confirmation that the foundry did not have or did not use the experience and knowledge about the type of casting and material involved. If this situation does occur. The engineering department. it is necessary to produce templates. The third step is the first use of the pattern to produce a mould. The second step is the physical production of the pattern. can correct the pattern to get a correct casting. This also can result in another way of assembling or in the use of other templates. which consists of one or more pattern parts. It is more severe if the lay out of the pattern must be changed due to an insufficient quality or surface condition. small and big. the assembling of the cores and the machining planes. no or one or more core-boxes as well as the pouring system. taking in account the tolerances on the final dimensions and the tolerances due to the production. The result.
There are two solutions for this matter: 1. ir G Henderieckx Gietech BV JANUARY 2005 21 . size of the mould boxes (especially height) 2. locate the split-line in a plane that has to be machined 2. The split will cause a mark on the casting surface and has a risk for some mm of mismatch between the two parts as well as extra length due to the seal between the two mould parts. templates and pouring system with riser and chills. Therefore the foundry has to make the final decision. risers and chills 3. The split line can be horizontally or vertically (mostly for serial production and small. is a help for an easy and non damaging removal of the pattern from the mould cavity. The real shrinkage will always be smaller than the theoretical one. core boxes. A damaged pattern surface will also bother an easy removing. For this reason literature is indicating always a span of shrinkage values. The splitting is done because of: 1. The size of the draft is prescribed in standards and guidelines in relation to the dimensions of the casting. the lesser the extra material due to draft) 4.FOUNDRY MANUAL 3. This will lead to extra fettling and or machining. The gliding paste. location and easy assembling of the cores. machining stock and coating layer thickness (especially for small and or thin wall castings) is taken in account. But mostly there is insufficient consideration of the complexity of casting shape and mould material. not complicated parts). It is also preferred to remove the pattern before the mould material is completely hardened. the expected shrinkage. Important items This are pattern. But the ever varying factors as are the strength of the mould material and the pouring temperature and the thickness of the coating layer do have also a small influence. It is mostly necessary to correct the pattern due to unexpected shrinkage. The expected shrinkage is depending of the type of material and the shape of the casting. Pattern The pattern can be single part or more parts due to several split lines. The split between pattern parts needs a correct referencing item (mostly conically shaped sand or metal blocs) with a small tolerance span and no possibility to dislocate or rotate one part to the other. put an extra flat rib so that the extra fettling is easy and restricted to this flat rib (a plane is very difficult to correct). put on the pattern. amount and location of draft material (the more splits. Concerning dimensions. location of pouring system.
are preferably made of cast iron in stat of steel. Single and unique parts can be made with a pattern in pressed paper. taking in account the number of parts per delivery and the lifetime of the casting and pattern. Parts with a complicated shape and low need can be made with a pattern in wood and or plastic and eventually mounted on a pattern plate. Sometimes an old casting can be used after adapting the dimensions for shrinkage and machining stock. This is the part of the core which locates the core into another core or into the mould cavity. Parts with a low need can be made with a pattern in wood. The way of using this space to locate one to another will decide the final dimensions of the casting. Not all castings do need a core. Because core and mould are made separately and both have tolerances concerning dimensions. The parting or design must be so that placing core stiffeners and gas escape devices can be done in a easy and correct way at the correct location. If the shape is very simple also styrene or a combination with wood can be used. styrene or thin wood. which are mostly completed surrounded by liquid metal after pouring is finished. must be removed carefully without damaging the core or changing its dimensions. Parts with a serial need can be made with a pattern in wood. A core must be designed for easy filling. ir G Henderieckx Gietech BV JANUARY 2005 22 . cold box). The core material can be the same as for the mould and or special designed chemical bounded sand (hot box. especially for large cores. which can be done by hand or under air pressure. it is possible that there is a lot of space. There are also casting that are made without a pattern. plastic or metal and are always mounted on a pattern plate. Sometimes cores are used at the outside of the mould cavity to avoid extra material due to the required pattern draft. Parts with a low series need can be made with a pattern in wood. Core stiffeners. For this reason they are heavily attacked. Core boxes must be composed of parts. The indications on the core surface. They shape the inside part of the casting. Another important feature is the core-shoulder . The cavity (mostly a concrete box or pit) is filled with cores to make the mould cavity.FOUNDRY MANUAL The pattern material is chosen. which allow easy assembly and disassembly as well with unique and steady referencing items. Cast iron does deform less due to temperature increase. Core boxes The core-boxes are used to produce cores. due to the split line.
Also the influence of the coating. for exceptional reasons. These points are physically present on the pattern and or core-boxes. This will prevent surprises during moulding. This template only has to check the location of the core-assembly and master shifting and rotating of it. It is preferred to assemble the cores aside of the mould. A template must be referenced to the zero start point . for the loss of the final required dimensions. especially if no template is used. risers and chills. The dimensions of the core must take in account that the shrinkage of the material will decrease the dimensions to an extent. Templates Templates are necessary to have a correct assembly of cores to cores and to the mould cavity. risers and chills It is necessary to use a standard system concerning shape and dimensions. used for the core-boxes. no standard can be used. If. The material. The core-assembly can be put in the mould cavity and checked by template before fixing the location. It can be metal if a lot of cores have to be made during the lifetime and if filling under pressure is used. The use of a ok and not ok template is mostly not possible because the complexity of the shape and the combination of location of special items. This point must be situated on a non machined plane to assure that dimensional differences can be corrected in the machining stock. check them by template and fix the assembly so that no dimensional change can occur anymore. The template must assure that the tolerance space of both (core and core or mould cavity) is always used in the same way (shifting and rotating). up to one mm.FOUNDRY MANUAL It is very dangerous to correct core-shoulder by hand. But is necessary to make reference points for the location of the ingates. the pouring system and riser and chill are part of the pattern. which is also used by the machine shop. This is indicating in marking or seats . is mostly wood. ir G Henderieckx Gietech BV JANUARY 2005 23 . This will benefit the machining and assembling cost. This shrinkage is mostly much lower as the pattern shrinkage. will influence the final dimensions. These are not always reachable by templates when they are placed in the mould cavity. Pouring system. The use of templates can narrow the tolerance on the dimensions of the casting. depending on the pressure strength of the core. The use of templates will give castings within a very narrow dimensional span.
4. Pattern condition The pattern condition has an important influence on the surface condition of the casting. Damage can bother the easy removing of the pattern out of the mould cavity. This is only possible with marks on the mould surface, which will degenerate the surface quality of the casting. A bad pattern condition can require shaking of the pattern in the not yet hardened mould material. This shaking will increase the dimensions of the casting. The referencing items must be in the best condition. It cannot be allowed them to sit loose, to be bended or to have too much wear. The split plane of the pattern is very prone to damaging by removing the pattern of the mould cavity. If pattern(s) come loose from the pattern plate, sand can enter between them. This will change the dimensions and make it more difficult to remove the pattern from the mould without damaging one of them.
Tolerances The tolerances are important in two ways: the absolute value and the span due to the reproducibility of the process. These tolerances and span must be compared with the required tolerances of the casting. The absolute size of tolerance, compared to the required dimension, is depending on the size of the pattern and the real shrinkage. These items are mastered by the correction of the pattern. The tolerance span, due to the reproducibility of the process, is mastered by the use of correct templates and a very well control of the strength of the mould material and the pouring temperature. It is important to use the same zero point for the design of the pattern and the machining. This zero point must be situated at a non-machined plane. The use of templates will increase the stability of the dimensions and narrow the tolerance.
Quality of the casting The quality of the casting depends a lot of the pattern concept . The influence on the dimensions is discussed in previous items.
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FOUNDRY MANUAL The quality of the material section (porosity) will partly depend on the possibility of an easy putting of risers and chills. The location of thin sections, section changes can minimalism the problem of turbulence and high speed of the entering liquid metal and cold runs The concept of the pattern can also direct the inclusions (sand, slag ) to an area, which is machining stock. If this problem is limited to this stock, it is removed after the machining.
The importance of the pattern in the production of a casting is mostly underestimated and can be the cause of troubling quality and delivery for the rest of its lifetime. The effect of the pattern on the casting is very large: dimensions, machining stock, quality and surface condition. These master these effects there is a need for proper use of knowledge and experience of the foundry. A new type of casting and or material will always have problems in the beginning. It is necessary to design a pattern (pattern, core-boxes, templates and pouring system, risers and chills) in cooperation with designer, foundry, machine shop and pattern shop. Only by doing this, the maximum profit can be taken of all knowledge and experience. A more detailed description is given in Chapter 15, in which the FPQ-, SP- and CAQproduction will be compared.
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1. Introduction 2. Description 3. Influences 4. Coating 5. Special situations 6. Conclusion
It is important to describe the process of mould fabrication in order to recognise all possible influences on the result of moulding to the condition of the casting. Moulding consist of four important steps: 1. Filling the mould and core boxes 2. Finishing mould and cores (correcting, coating ) 3. Assembling and closing mould and cores 4. Preparing for pouring (clamping and weigthening). The production is guided by methods (work instruction, choice of materials), the result of the used equipment (coating and sand mixers, clamps, mould boxes, pattern and core boxes), and the conformity of the used material with the material specification and the handling and acting of the people. All these have an influence on the result, single and in combination with each other.
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The process is described in the flow chart below.
boxes new sand old sand
corebox core sand
Filling station mould
Filling station cores
upper mould coating mixer coating coating
lower mould coating
Mould ready for pouring
Step 1 Filling mould In filling station the area between pattern and mould boxes is filled. The pattern has to be in good condition and must be placed on a flat (floor or pattern plate) in order to have a correct and not deformed mould. The mould boxes are placed some mm above the floor in order to assure a mould part - mould part contact by assembling and closing it. A contact between mould boxes has a risk of non-sealing the mould parts, depending on the condition of the boxes (flatness, straightness, condition of surface of bottom and top of box ).
The condition of the pattern will influence the smoothness of the contact sand surface and in this way the surface of the casting. ir G Henderieckx Gietech BV JANUARY 2005
The kind and amount of binder that is depending on the kind. Ramming or vibrating can do this. ir G Henderieckx Gietech BV JANUARY 2005 28 . The time for removing the pattern is influenced by the degree of reaction of the chemicals. For the core filling the same remarks are valid. grain size and morphology of the sand mixture establish the strength of the sand.FOUNDRY MANUAL CORRECT TO AVOID SAND SAND SAND SAND The sand is mixed in a machine that first brings new and reclaimed sand together. The sand is falling in the mould boxes and it must be assured that all area is filled with the same density of sand. adding then the catalyst and later the binder material. The speed of hardening of the sand is depending on the kind and amount of catalyst (compared to the amount of binder) that is depending on the temperature and humidity of the air and the condition of the reclaimed sand (remaining degree of acid). This mixing must be done in a correct way to ensure the homogeneity of the sand. The ramming or vibrating can increase the overall strength or decrease it if this action is going on too long time because it can destroy the bounding of the sand grains. Very important for this handling is the presence of stiffening bars in the upper and lower mould boxes as well as in the mould itself. The strength must be high enough to remove the pattern and handle the mould without damage. The inside walls of the mould boxes have some features (strap or bar) to avoid moving of the sand along this metal.
if it is possible in a technical way as well as economically. The thickness is easily 1 mm and up. stainless steel). Any repair. resist the expansion of the sand during pouring and cooling 5. resist the erosion and temperature of the entering metal 4. The way of applying determinates the smoothness. The most frequently used are: 1. The result is a difference in dimensions. high-alloyed irons. machining stock ir G Henderieckx Gietech BV JANUARY 2005 29 . a coating is put on the mould material. carbon based all kind of iron 2. must be made in a way that the repair material cannot loose the base mould material during handling and pouring and that the bound is as tight as possible. The following summary indicates the important items: 1. smoothen the surface of the mould cavity 3. the condition of the mould cavity is checked and repaired if necessary. A lot of incorrect or and avoidable matters can happen and a lot of them cannot be seen during or after assembling the mould. avoid mould gasses to enter the mould cavity and liquid metal. In order to assure a smooth surface for the casting. magnesite based high-alloyed steels (manganese steel. large wall thickness 3. Step 3 Assembling mould and cores The assembling of cores in the mould parts and mould parts with each other is a high-risk job. The result can be a defective and or scrap casting. The applied thickness of the coating layer depends on the kind of coating and the wall thickness of the casting. Spraying and floating will lead to the best surface. fills up small gaps and holes in the mould material 2. This coating has the purpose to: 1. Referencing between two or more mould parts or between mould boxes is not unique and or has a large tolerance This can lead to rotated upper and lower casting halves or a shifting between them. the pouring temperature and the wall thickness of the casting. brushing will show strives and lead to the poorest surface. zircon based steel.FOUNDRY MANUAL Step 2 Finishing mould / cores After completion of the hardening of the mould material. The kind of coating depends on the type of material (chemical nature).
Sometimes clamps are replaced or combined with bolts and or wire rods and nuts. clamp. The material must be high strength and ductile. The air escapes are not open due to blocking with sand. The shape must be that increasing forces are tightening the mould parts and increasing the clamping force. seal material . It is an important step because it must prevent metal from running out of the mould and bring the mould in an optimal condition to pouring (no dust. ir G Henderieckx Gietech BV JANUARY 2005 30 . scale and or grooves (damage). The clamping must be activated equally spread around the mould to prevent deformation. 6. Sand and or dust and or other items (hammer. Proper clamps must do clamping. The air escapes are not connected to the outside of the mould 5. It can also happen in the pouring system. This will lead to non-conform castings. filter chamber ). 2. clamped properly ).mould connection and or between the mould parts is not correct Metal can run out of the mould cavity and or seal material can touch liquid metal which can introduce gas in the metal or lead to a lack of material (size and shape of the sealing).FOUNDRY MANUAL This shifting can also disturb the section and section ratio of the different parts of the pouring system (sprue. 7. chill ) remain in the mould cavity or fall in during assembling. Step 4 Preparing mould for pouring This step has to be taken as close as possible to the time of pouring. A core is not assembled so that the shape of the casting is incorrect and or extra machining is necessary or the casting is scrapped 4. metal drips. machining stock 3. runner. To assure this they must be clean: without rust. humidity of chills. This can lead to incorrect filling and scrapped castings. The result is a difference in dimensions. ingate. Referencing of the core shoulder and mould and or other cores is not unique and or has a large tolerance This can lead to rotate upper and lower core halves or a shifting between them and or unpredictable location of them compared to the mould. The sealing of the core . Bear in mind that increasing temperature of these clamps will decrease the clamping force or even loose it.
gas evolution and the surface condition of the mould cavity. water will interfere with the sand and weaken the sand bounds. The water content in the binder will limit the strength. This water will soften and weaken the mould material. as upper and lower box. risers or at least make it difficult to cover open risers with insulating / exothermic cover.FOUNDRY MANUAL The amount of weightening is calculated with the horizontally surface and the pouring height. will get the highest density. between assembling and pouring. The blocs must be located in a way to ensure that the effect is equally divided all over the mould area and does not deform the mould cavity. a box with stiffening bars. They must be located in a way that they do not bother pouring or decrease the accessibility of the ladle. The larger the size the less binder is needed. Doing this can lead to blocking air escapes. strength of mould material. Strength of the mould boxes The strength is set by the shape and thickness of the box material. The sand grain size and the division over the size sieves are very important. But also the catalyst has some water and the reaction also forms some water. These bars do prevent the sand to fall out or move during rotating and handling the mould. These can also resist better the deformation due to temperature increase and handling the mould. The humidity in the air has a similar effect but in a lesser degree. Sand with a round grain shape needs less binder than an irregular shape. Each binder has a maximum strength. 2. will be damaged and even destroyed and they will not recover anymore. belonging to three neighbouring sieves. Strength of the mould material The type of binder must suite the type of sand (silica. 3. MOST IMPORTANT INFLUENCES Which are the features that have an important influence on the casting? This are the following five: strength of mould boxes. Sand with about 85 % of the sand. chromite. reaction speed of the mould material hardening. It is important to use. ir G Henderieckx Gietech BV JANUARY 2005 31 . For this reason it is important to have upper mould boxes with stiffening bars. 1. This action can only be done in the early phase of the hardening reaction because after a time the bounds between the grains made by the binder. The blocs cannot be located directly in contact with the mould. which can be obtained with the appropriate amount in according to the sand. zircon. During the waiting period. Ramming and or vibrating the sand do give it a high density and a high strength. This is mostly stronger if the box elements are cast. reclaimed sand ). It is also advised to provide sand holding bars or other devices at the inner wall surface of the boxes.
During this burning gas will be formed. Decreasing the temperature of the sand. ir G Henderieckx Gietech BV JANUARY 2005 32 . will decrease this. Gas evolution The most important factor is the amount of binder and catalyst. The coating needs to resist high temperature and gas penetration. Surface condition The surface condition of the mould cavity will be related to the surface condition of the casting. An increasing amount of binder and catalyst will give an increasing amount of gasses. must be evacuated through the escapes. A core is completely surrounded by liquid metal and all gas. The lower the LOI the less gas will be involved. 4. The amount of catalyst in relation to the amount of binder will increase the reaction speed. Its nature is important. coming from binder and catalyst. The grain size of the sand as well the ramming / vibrating will be the other factor. The coating is the most important factor. Therefore it can be set that higher pouring temperatures and thicker wall sections will cause a higher amount of gas.FOUNDRY MANUAL 3. The denser the sand is. A too high amount of binder and catalyst can also cause a rough surface. The wall thickness of the casting will influence the temperature of the sand and the amount of sand that is "burned". Reaction speed of the sand hardening The main influence is coming from the catalyst. The more reclaimed sand the higher the overall LOI. formed during burning. Air and gas escapes in cores are very important. the humidity of the air is involved. The LOI (loss of ignition) is a factor indicating the amount of organics present in the sand. These organics will burn above 600 C and cause gas. the binder and catalyst and the mould boxes will slow down the speed. On the other hand the amount of water. 5. In a lesser degree. This sets a maximum amount for them and does influence the strength of the mould material. the smoother the surface will be. The larger the areas in contact with the open air the higher the reaction speed.
SPECIAL SITUATIONS There are several situations where other techniques are used: 1. which can be alcohol. In case of water. The disadvantage is that it requires a high investment and a similarity in mould sizes. the kind of metal and the pouring temperature combined with the section thickness of the casting. The kind of coating is related to the kind of mould material. High temperatures and wall thickness ask for a zircon coating. In case of alcohol or another chemical. The disadvantage is that it is negative for the environment and people in the surrounding area. The layer to cover the pattern. After being in place. Sometimes the area is also filled with sand lumps taken from the shake out. using a much higher amount of reclaimed sand and less binder. thickness depending on the thickness of the casting section. The advantage is that fewer boxes are required as well as less handling and storing of these boxes. 5. The rest of the mould can be filled with sand. the liquid must be removed. The liquid is there to carry the refractory until it is put on to the mould material. This is necessary because water in contact with liquid metal can give an explosion.FOUNDRY MANUAL 4. It also has a penetrating smell. A magnesite coating does fit the best for a 12 % manganese steel. is made of proper sand as described above. the mould and or core must be heated in a controlled way in order to remove all water. Backing sand For large moulds two type of sand can be used. ir G Henderieckx Gietech BV JANUARY 2005 33 . COATING Coating consists of refractory material and a carrying liquid. Box less moulding A mould can be made without mould boxes if it is made for a thin wall casting and a material with a low pouring temperature. 2. a carbon coating for all irons and a zircon coating for unalloyed steel. The advantage is that it is a "quick process" and there is no risk for explosions. It enables the coating to cover and penetrate the mould surface. The liquid is giving some viscosity and fluidity to the coating. This evaporation can be speeded up by heating the mould or core or by touching it by a gas flame. another chemical or water. the liquid will evaporate in time. The advantage of this solution is a friendliness concerning environment and people.
6. Vertically split moulds These moulds are mostly made f green sand and used in serial production. Each new method and product will have a period with a lot of problems and will be mastered slowly. Menu ir G Henderieckx Gietech BV JANUARY 2005 34 . has an important influence on the quality of the casting. To obtain extra cooling chromite sand is used as well as silica-carbide material. bentonite ). To avoid a reaction between sand and metal olivine sand can be used for manganese steel. The result is related to the skill and gift and experience of the performer. clamping and weightening is somewhat more difficult. The material should be as purchased in nature. It is important to have the correct "work instruction" as well as that people do understand the influence of different features involved.FOUNDRY MANUAL The disadvantage is that there is need for a higher amount of sand compared to the weight of the casting and that handling. The equipment must work. Whatever on paper. Without this knowledge they will never be able to make "standby" decisions in suddenly occurring situations. 4. as it should to get the best possible result. it must be performed by the hand of the master. This is not a matter of a year but of a lot of years. To obtain a smooth surface for thin wall castings zircon sand is used. CONCLUSION The moulding operation. The sealing between the moulds is obtained by a horizontally pressure. size and quality. 3. assembling. Other types of sand Several types of sand are used although silica sand is number one followed by green sand (clay. And last but not least the importance of the "experience and skill" of people. as described here.
Critical features 4. the mechanical and physical properties.3 Lining material of furnace and ladle 4.1 Condition of charge 3.FOUNDRY MANUAL MELTING MELTING 1. Introduction 2. the soundness of the material section (porosity.4 Metallurgical treatment 4.1 Chemical analysis 4. The result of melting is very important because it has an influence on the chemical composition.3 Type of lining 3. Energy. This means that each test done. Influences 3. inclusions ) as well as on the surface condition. Steps 2.4 Pouring 3.3 Ladle situation 2. ir G Henderieckx Gietech BV JANUARY 2005 35 . melting itself (furnace and holding furnace). The most important feature of liquid metal is its "living" behaviour. environmental and working area 6. gives the situation on the time of taken the sample or performing the measurement and not at the time of knowing the result. stay in the ladle and pouring.1 Charge 2.4 Pouring 5.2 Type of melting 3.2 Melting 2. INTRODUCTION Melting involves four major steps: charge for melting. This is clearly indicated in the next flow chart. Summary 1.2 Metallurgical treatment 4. This means that it is continuously changing in time.
tubes 2b. The materials involved can be: 1. STEPS 2. sheet.1 Charge This involves the type and amount of material that is put into the melting furnace to obtain the required amount of metal with the correct chemical composition. ir G Henderieckx Gietech BV JANUARY 2005 36 . steel 2a.FOUNDRY MANUAL iron steel special material alloys returns Temperature control F U R N A C E Melting Chemical analysis Correction Holding Tapping Metallurgical treatment Deslagging Metallurgical treatment Transport Temperature control L A D L E Deslagging Metallurgical treatment Pouring 2. profile bars. new as remaining of cut plates. "pig iron" and other "basic iron" 2. bars. used as cut parts (shredder ) It can be "loose" or pressed in "package".
Alloys 4a. It is depending from element to element and from the type of melting furnace. 2. Group 4a. Group 5. The main three steps are melting. high alloyed material specially made or selected 5. Group 4b.FOUNDRY MANUAL 3. Returns from the foundry production (pouring system. holding metal at temperature and tapping. The condition of the charge material is also involving the melt result: 1. ir G Henderieckx Gietech BV JANUARY 2005 37 . Group 3a. size can lead to shorter (main frequency electrical furnace) or longer melting time (all other furnaces) 4 Variety of size extra loss of elements (lower melt yield). rotating furnace) or by vibrating belts or bins (induction furnaces). Group 3b. The amount of each group is calculated according to their chemical composition (certificates or checked composition) and the melt yield per element.2 Melting Melting starts as heat is put into the furnace. skip loading (cupola. wet gas and danger for explosion 3. the size of the charge material and the deslagging procedure. which homogeneity and composition is very scattering 4. Special material 3a. ferro alloys 4b. dirty and rusted extra slag and gas 2. Group 2b. The composition of each group is not necessary stable in the mass. the furnace lining. the maximum temperature. The melt yield is the factor "end composition" divided by the "original composition". Even large differences can occur (groups as indicated above): Group 1. Group 2a. material made with a special chemical composition (primary melt ) 3b. broken scrap. risers. Very stable composition Stable composition Rather stable composition Very stable composition Very unpredictable composition Very stable composition Stable composition Rather unpredictable composition. scrapped parts ). The melting is done in two stages: part with solid and part with liquid metal. The way of melting and the problems that can occur are very different depending on the type of furnace. This charge material is put in the furnace by hand (smaller furnaces). time of melting (especially those on high temperature or > 1500 °C).
This treatment requires higher tapping temperatures due to the extra heat loss of bringing the metal from one ladle to the other. after tapping is finished. in the ladle: nodulising. ir G Henderieckx Gietech BV JANUARY 2005 38 . The last step is tapping. The temperature is regularly checked. It is possible to do some metallurgical treatment in the tapping stream or in the ladle during filling. Remark Some treatments can be done. When all metal is liquid. This can be de-oxidising (steel). This will happen until there is liquid metal. This must be done very carefully.FOUNDRY MANUAL During the time that the charge material is solid. Mostly two limits are giving where the inner limit is the best and between the inner and the outer limit special attention is required. de-sulphurising In this case another ladle is used for pouring. water and other organic material can be burned and removed from the furnace. nodulising (ductile iron) and inoculating (ductile and grey iron). after deslagging of the meta l. The holding step starts at the point that the analysis is conforming the wishes. The required "furnace analysis" takes in account that extra is added by the metallurgical treatments and some is lost during the further stay on temperature. The slag is left on the metal until tapping can start because this prevents the metal from heat loss and reaction with the air.3 Ladle The ladle transports the metal from the melting furnace to the location of pouring. It is preferred to cover the ladle with a slag binder that also will isolate the metal from loosing heat and reaction with air. During this transport some reaction products will float to the metal surface and will becatched by the slag binder. The temperature is increased to the tapping temperature. organic material can dissolve in the liquid metal and contaminate it. Depending on the result extra material is charged to correct the analysis. When solid material sinks into liquid material. assuring that the metal is completely homogeneous. Sometimes an extra degassing or de-oxidising is done. a sample is taken for testing the chemical composition. de-oxidising. At the area of pouring all slag is removed by skimming the metal surface. 2. During this time no elements are lost except graphite that can react to CO gas in arc furnaces and oxygen-gas rotating furnaces. quite some dirt. at a temperature of 100 to 150 C above the melting temperature. During this time the material can loose part of the amount per element this will increase with increasing temperature. oil.
4 Pouring Pouring will bring the metal from the ladle into the pouring system of the mould and this as clean as possible. Bottom ladle used for steel. It is preferred to check the real pouring time with the calculated one in order to correct the system in a proper way. into a pouring cup (small castings) that prevent air and slag to enter the sprue together with the metal and into a pouring box which acts identically as a bottom pouring ladle. The pouring time is calculated and depends on pouring system and the shape of the mould cavity. after this the T-pot ladle and the lip ladle requires a very skilled operator to deliver clean metal.FOUNDRY MANUAL Eventually a last metallurgical treatment is done. The problem for a bottompouring ladle is to calculate the proper weight of the casting plus pouring system and riser. A bottom ladle has the best result. lip ladle used for all types of metal 2. Pouring can be done directly in the sprue (requires bottom ladle). It is indeed not easy to close the ladle if the mould cavity is full. 2. There are several types of ladles: 1. T-pot ladle used for iron 3.5 C around the prescribed pouring temperature. Also the problem of the correct calculation of pouring weight is present. This can be due to an excess time that occurred between the previous treatment and pouring and that has caused a too high fading of the treatment effect. The difference is the ability to prevent the metal contamination is poured into the mould. During the stay in the ladle the temperature is carefully checked in order to assure a pouring temperature in a span of +/. For iron this will be some extra inoculation. Bottem pouring Lip pouring T-pot pouring ir G Henderieckx Gietech BV JANUARY 2005 39 .
1 Condition of charge It is clear that charge material must be clean to avoid contamination of the melted material. All organic material can react with elements of the metal as carbon and silicon (oxygen) and manganese (sulphur). partly continuously smelters. 3. Another problem is the high pollution of the air (CO and dust) as well is the formation of dioxins. They all have private features and application. mostly used for non-ferrous metals. Another problem occurs if "other metal" is present. mostly used for grey iron and in a lesser degree for ductile and vermicular iron. They destroy the metal because the properties are heavily decreased and it is nearly impossible to remove them. INFLUENCES 3. It also brings gasses into the metal. Main frequency furnaces are partly badge. A special type is the channel furnace. Especially not if the stirring effect of the melting furnace is taken in account. Even the addition of oxygen does not improve this very much. It requires a long time to get the first liquid metal but it melts at a high rate if the liquid metal heel is present. It is a disaster if lead or tin are brought into the metal (present as non ferrous layer or seal rings in scrap). Sometimes "duplex melting' is used. Therefore it will be very difficult to remove them effectively. main frequency furnace.FOUNDRY MANUAL 3. Every reaction is related to time and temperature and seldom finishes in a short period of time. Cupola melting is continuously melting. The best way is to avoid them to enter the metal and use clean scrap.2 Type of melting Several types of melting exist: cupola. and induction and arc furnaces. It has the advantage to melt at the lowest cost and at a high melt rate. It is a badge smelter and is used for all types of iron included the alloyed ones. This is melting with a cupola and correcting the analysis in an electrical holding furnace. especially for ductile iron. rotating furnace. as are oxygen. It is a rather cheap smelter but the know how to use it is not common use. but with the exception of the high chromium alloyed types. ir G Henderieckx Gietech BV JANUARY 2005 40 . The reaction products will partly dissolve to the metal and partly float to the metal surface or stick to the sidewall lining. The disadvantages are a low controllability of the chemical composition (especially carbon) and temperature. Rotating furnaces does work with gas or oil and air or oxygen. hydrogen and nitrogen.
They cause also very much pollution and are noisy for the people. The lining is very crack sensitive for sudden temperature drops. The cost is between rotary furnaces and induction furnaces. The neutral lining is suited for nearly all iron and steel. The stirring effect is depending on the level of frequency used. Arc furnaces are "all-smelters". 3. This can lead to high wear of the lining and a high degree of metallurgical slag. the basic one on magnesite and the neutral one on aluminium eventually combined with silica. The basic lining is the most expensive one and resist up to 1750 to 1800 C. Especially steel and stainless steel is melted.3 Type of lining The lining used for melting furnaces and ladles are of acid. The service temperature is around 1600 C. ir G Henderieckx Gietech BV JANUARY 2005 41 . Because the lining of the melting furnace is during a long time in contact with the liquid metal at high temperature and a continuous movement. it is sure that interactions will happen. It can be used up to 1700 C. The melt rate is rather high. This is the reason why it is not common used for steel and high-alloyed irons and steel. The acid one is based on silica. It is very easy to do extra metallurgical treatments in the furnace by using bottom plugs and or vacuum hoods. The metal and lining will react and form typical reaction products. The manganese present in the returns will also react with an acid lining and this will restrict the relative amount of returns.FOUNDRY MANUAL It also has a high stirring effect that will lead to a pronounced pick up of gas and loss of elements with a high oxygen reaction tendency. The acid lining is the cheapest one and well suited for all kind of irons. basic or neutral nature. They are mostly used for steel and sometimes for alloyed steels as manganese steel. mostly using elements out of the metal and the lining. The problem is that they burn out most of the elements and it is very difficult to bring the metal "on composition" due to the lack of stirring. They are not suited for irons and stainless steels. It is the friendliest smelter concerning environment and people. So will it be nearly impossible to melt a high manganese steel (12 %) in an acid lined furnace. The same will happen in the ladle but to a minor degree because the temperature is lower and the time of stay is much shorter. Induction furnaces are badge smelters that can melt nearly all metals in a very flexible way but has the highest cost. also high alloyed ones. They can melt every scrap at a very high rate and at low cost.
These requirements are the responsibility of the foundry and come from the experience with this material and type of castings. time till pouring and amount of metal on the final result of the treatment. It is obvious that some elements do interact and also their combination should be mastered by extra requirements. sulphur and other inclusions. For the latter materials the span per element is indicated and the real result should be within these limits.FOUNDRY MANUAL 3. CRITICAL FEATURES 4. It is impossible to do the correct treatment without checking the metal before or using the metal without checking the effect of the treatment afterwards. For this reason a program should be established to know the influence of temperature. But it is not sufficient. although the melting procedure is followed to a maximum extend. to meet this analysis. This amount and the combination of the amount of the particular elements will determine the metallurgical treatment. Because of this. Elements can have a tendency to form carbides and this fact has an influence on the microstructure. It is necessary to be aware that the situation continuously change due to the fading effect of the treatment and the continuing reaction of metal with air.4 Metallurgical treatment It is impossible to prescribe the correct amount of product that is necessary for these types of treatments. For all steels and alloyed irons the analysis is given by the standards.1 Chemical analysis The chemical analysis is not prescribed in the standards for the irons and mostly required for the alloyed irons and all steels. The analysis is the final analysis that means in the casting and after all metallurgical treatments are done. ir G Henderieckx Gietech BV JANUARY 2005 42 . taken in account the real chemical analysis. This can be done by a statistical research of several results. Therefore some rules have to be set for cooling and heat treatment. the section size of the casting and the way of production. hydrogen. nitrogen. The analysis also has an influence on the cooling after pouring and the heat treatment of the casting. the metal can and will have another content of oxygen. For iron the analysis is set by the foundry. It is very dangerous to accept an analysis set up by the customer. to get the correct mechanical and physical properties. The analysis in the furnace is something in between and must be corrected by the extra influence of all addition done trough metallurgical and other treatments. Indeed every badge of metal is melted in a particular way. 4. lining and slag. taken in account the requirements of the customer.
For ductile and vermicular iron the "primary treatment" (nodulising for ductile iron) is necessary to avoid an excess of gas and too high sulphur content. For this reason the lining must be as dense as possible and damaged area must be repaired to the maximum. This can contaminate these metal (for instance iron in a steel charge). The amount of product must be adapted to this result and to the expected time until pouring and solidifying. Steel is always de-oxidised. It is possible to do a desulphurising for iron. Above this temperature. This treatment can be set after checking the initial amount of sulphur. or in the ladle. 4.2 Metallurgical treatment It is important to realise that this treatments are reactions and have a fading effect. Also the temperature has a large influence on the result. But even if the nature is equal it can be that the metal absorbs part of the lining. It is also preferred to clean the lining from slag and other sticking material.FOUNDRY MANUAL 4. Also these treatments do depend on the condition of the metal at the end of the melting: initial amount of sulphur and gas. This can be done in the furnace. The correct graphite morphology will only be obtained by a correct inoculation. ductile. Is this is very low some of the metal will remain there and can dissolve if the next metal charge is liquid. The lining has a chemical nature. ir G Henderieckx Gietech BV JANUARY 2005 43 . So the effect will be decreased to an insufficient level. If this nature is different from the nature of the liquid material there will be a reaction. For iron (grey. with vacuum and or gas bubbling. This treatment does depend on the number of germs still present in the iron at the end of the melting. These facts will set a limit for the use a lifetime of the lining. This is very dangerous for the furnace. The result must be checked and the treatment must be done as close as possible to the time of pouring. The nature and amount of germs does depend on the temperature in the furnace and the time been on this temperature. the lining will plastify and stop functioning as refractory. Afterwards it is very important to remove the reaction products as quick as possible to avoid sulphur re-entering the metal. The amount of treatment product must be adapted to the time till pouring and even better till solidifying. vermicular) the inoculation is important. But if there is too much inoculation the shrinkage during solidifying can increase and lead to porosity. The density of the lining is important. after a short time.3 Lining of furnace and ladle The lining has a maximum service temperature.
If it is burned it disappears in the air. dioxins and dust output in the air as well as polluting the working area in the melt shop with dust. a higher noise level and from time to time some fumes. The cleaning of the metal surface in the ladle will avoid difficulties to stop slag entering the pouring device. It is important to pour at a height as low as possible compared to the pouring device.4 Pouring Whatever pouring system is used. Energy includes also the energy necessary to produce raw material. electricity. Melting can be done by using "old material". The dust must be stored and dumped in special circumstances. If a system with a bottom pouring is used. but the more the more other phenomena will come up. Some other not wanted elements must be removed and oxidising them mostly does this. The CO and dioxins are very difficult to minimise. "raw material" and is causing CO. ir G Henderieckx Gietech BV JANUARY 2005 44 . 5.FOUNDRY MANUAL 4. Isolating and filters will do this but do cost again energy. it is important that the pouring action is done in a continuous and steady way. it is preferred to let calm down the metal and assure that all slag has floated up. Melting is using a lot of energy. Dirt material must be cleaned and this dirt is waste. These items will be discussed over and over and the government will make regulations. gas and noise. ENERGY. This will prevent air and other gasses entering the liquid metal and avoid slag to enter the mould cavity. Melting will always be working in an area that has a higher temperature. gas. These oxides do go in the air or must be stored for re-use somewhere else. to pour at a constant rate and to keep a sufficient high level of metal in the pouring device. But for metals with a high tendency to oxidise it can be good to keep an oxide-layer on the surface to prevent excessive oxidising and hold new oxides and slag by sticking to this surface layer. ENVIRONMENT AND WORKING AREA Melting is a very critical item at this time for our society because it is using "old material". The dust and oxides can be captured in a filter that also uses quite some energy. Energy is not the energy we read on the meter aside the melting equipment. and oxygen This total energy can show another picture as the energy just used by the melting equipment. But without melting a lot of things and tools will not be available anymore.
FOUNDRY MANUAL 6. environmental and working area pollution. For this reason new material (new for that particular foundry) will always have some difficulties in the beginning until these experience is built up. this means changing in time depending on the used system and temperatures and materials. The process is difficult to master because it is a "living process". It does give the material its correct properties in the particular casting. It requires a lot of experience to evaluate the situation at the time the metal is solidifying. Melting is controversial concerning energy consumption. It requires a lot of knowledge about the particular equipment and working procedures. There is no absolute satisfying solution for this matter. Menu ir G Henderieckx Gietech BV JANUARY 2005 45 . SUMMARY Melting is a very important part of the casting process.
Combined with the evaluation through the quality control (defects after NDT inspection) will complete the total evaluation. Influences Use of correct tooling / equipment Never ending job 5. Important features Unavoidable fettling Avoidable fettling Window on performance 4. Introduction 2. melting shop and pouring. a lot of it can be decreased tremendously. mould. This extra work is only partly unavoidable.and core-shop. Process 3.FOUNDRY MANUAL FETTLING FETTLING 1. ir G Henderieckx Gietech BV JANUARY 2005 46 . Conclusion 1. Fettling is the window on performance evaluation for a foundry concerning cost and quality. Perhaps this is due to the fact that it is hard and dirty work that can be done by nearly every one? Perhaps this is due to the fact that its workers are low schooled? Perhaps this is due to the fact that the fettling department has to correct the non correct performance of the previous departments? The fettling department has an opportunity to be the judge of the foundry by seeing the quality of all done in previous departments: pattern shop. The casting can be seen at first and an estimation of the extra work can be done. INTRODUCTION Fettling is the most underestimated part of the foundry.
burs casting surface correcting fettled casting The first step is the shot blasting of the casting.FOUNDRY MANUAL 2. used for small parts 2. used for large and or complicated parts. hand blasting with shot. PROCESS There are major steps in the fettling process: shot blasting the unboxed casting. used for small and medium parts 3. The type of shot is depending on the material and the required surface condition of the casting. ir G Henderieckx Gietech BV JANUARY 2005 47 . oxides and other adhering material should be removed by the blasting. The following type of equipment is used: 1. removing pouring system and risers as well as visual inspection and the correcting of the casting surface. Sand. rotating drum with or without blasting. unboxed casting shotblasting casting pouring system unfettled casting risers visual inspection finns. automatic blasting with shot.
For this reason a riser-seat is used. This asks for immediate action in the moulding department and limiting of the pouring temperature. it is released for further fettling. The mismatch of pattern. This visual inspection will tell us if: 1. the pouring system has trapped the slag. the risers did deliver sufficient liquid metal for feeding by checking: · rest weight of the casting compared to the initial weight · connecting plane concerning porosity and metal condition. type of coating and coating layer thickness and the pouring temperature. which enters the casting material. the casting is full and without misruns (cold flaw. This removing is done by cutting discs (for materials as iron as well as stainless steel and manganese steel and high alloyed irons and steels) or by oxi-cutting (for materials as carbon and low alloyed steel) or by shock removing (for brittle materials as grey iron.and or core-parts is hard to remove and it is very well possible that the neighbouring area is damaged. sand and other inclusions 3.FOUNDRY MANUAL It is mostly steel shot. The most important part of the second step is the visual inspection . laps ) 2. It will be a continuously returning job for the next castings if nothing is done to correct the fitting. The thickness of the burs do indicate the pouring temperature: the thinner and larger the bur the higher the pouring temperature. After the cutting a lot of flatting by grinding wheels is necessary. The material of the shot will be glass. Adhering and even burnt sand is very difficult to remove and requires a lot of fettling work. By shock removing it is necessary to avoid a fracture. After removing a lot of flatting by grinding wheels is required. The size of shot and the velocity and amount is depending on the initial condition (as unboxed) of the casting surface: lot of adhering sand. Oxi-cutting is a fast operation but cannot be used for materials with a low heat conductibility (austenitic steels and iron or brittle grey irons). inclusions Also the required surface condition is a factor to take in account. ir G Henderieckx Gietech BV JANUARY 2005 48 . There are rules for the dimensions. small grained shot. burned sand. white iron and high alloyed iron and steel). For austenitic materials. Finns are mostly due to the quality of the mould material. This is done after shot blasting because the removed clean material can be re-used in the next melt-charge. blasted at low speed will be used to avoid cold hardening of the surface. Burs are due to miss fitting of pattern parts or of pattern to cores. This will mostly go together with a high roughness of the surface. slag or sand. at first view. The third and last step is the removing of fins and burs and the correction of the surface to comply with the requirements. The second step is removing pouring system and risers. If the casting is approved to be. correct.
FOUNDRY MANUAL Inclusions are mostly easily removable but afterwards the surface must be smoothened to the neighbouring area. Pay attention that this modification do not lead to porosity in the material section! 3. Which material of disc suits for which material is a matter of equipment and experience of the fettlers. burs It is a need to stress the performance of the previous departments to be high quality. pouring to avoid adhering sand 3. moulding to avoid surface roughness. This will decrease the cost and lead time of a casting. Shot blasting is mostly not a problem for loose sand. but can take a long time if adhering or burnt sand is present. The fettling is done with fettling discs put in electrical or air driven equipment. Each of them has a particular lifetime for a particular material. 3. This work can be decreased if attention is paid to the dimensions of the risers and the their location as well as the use of riser seats. The higher the rotation speed. Anyhow the material must be chosen that it will not heat the casting material too much (problem for casting material with a low heat conductibility). The discs are of silica-carbide.2 Avoidable fettling This is the work that can minimalised to a large extend and even be avoided by the better performance of the previous departments: 1. engineering to avoid inclusions. Unavoidable fettling Removing the mould remains by shot blasting and removing the pouring system and risers is unavoidable. IMPORTANT FEATURES Fettling has some important features: there is avoidable and unavoidable fettling work and it can give the best information about the performance of the previous departments as pattern shop. moulding and core shop and pouring. pattern shop to avoid mismatch. So it is also preferred to stop the fettling regularly to allow the fettled area to cool. ir G Henderieckx Gietech BV JANUARY 2005 49 . the faster the fettling is done. zircone or another material. split lines on planes without machining 4. Too much heat will lead to surface cracks and even to fracture in thin walled castings. turbulent pouring. adhering sand and sand inclusions 2.
1 Use of correct tooling / equipment To have the maximum efficiency. concerning pattern * dimensions of pattern in accordance to the cores * draft of the pattern: size and location * referencing between pattern and cores 2. Shot can have a too high speed and this will roughen the casting surface and possibly deform thin castings. ir G Henderieckx Gietech BV JANUARY 2005 50 . melting department *deslagging of metal * pouring temperature * pouring experience 4.FOUNDRY MANUAL 3. INFLUENCE 4. Shot can be too light and have a too low speed.3 Window on performance The fettling department is offering the opportunity to evaluate the performance of the foundry. is seldom used as it could be. it is necessary to use the best tooling and equipment. Incorrect tooling can also damage the casting. The non conformities that can be stated are: 1. riser. moulding department * quality of the mould department * quality of coating and coating applying * condition of the equipment used * experience and knowledge of the moulders 3. It is a waste of experience and knowledge increase! 4. casting ) is still available. engineering * split line of pattern * location of pouring system * location and shape of connection of risers compared to casting * number of cores and their relation. This will be the case if austenitic stainless steel is blasted with sharp and heavy steel shot. This possibility to measure the performance of the foundry and to find the possible causes and remedies to solve the problem. It is the best site to found out the non conformities and has the possibility to find the possible causes because all "witness material" (pouring system. This results in long blasting time and mostly in an insufficient removing of the adhering sand and inclusions. Shot can damage the casting permanently be work hardening the surface and or introducing shot material in the surface. This can only be overcome by a extra amount of fettling work.
The job is very difficult to describe and to make procedures for it. without or with shot.2 Never finishing job It is a job. This is so because the situation will be different from casting to casting and the evaluation is highly subjective. During this job a foundry has a open window on the performance of the foundry because all non conformities and defects can be stated (excluded those at the inside of material sections). It is preferred to do tests and cooperate with the supplier of them. Using oxi-cutting for materials with a low heat conductibility and or brittle nature. 5. To overcome this it is preferred to have master samples of material cast in the own foundry. The operators are not paid as moulders and are considered as those which have to correct the insufficient performance of other departments. CONCLUSION The fettling operation is a costly and time consuming job which is mostly underestimated. which is never finished because: 1. austenitic iron and steel). can deform and break the castings. can cause the same phenomena as oxi-cutting (high manganese steel). The use of a chisel in air operating equipment or small sharp discs during cutting or fettling can mark the surrounding area. there will always be an area which does not comply completely 2. These marks can ask for more fettling The nature of the cutting and fettling discs will influence the time of fettling and cutting. fettled area aside of a non fettled one will give a subjectively unsatisfying feeling 3.FOUNDRY MANUAL Rotary drums. 4. ============================================================== Menu ir G Henderieckx Gietech BV JANUARY 2005 51 . mostly no real comparison material is available 4. Also heavy duty cutting or fettling with a lot of pressure on the discs. the evaluation is highly subjective. area will be difficult to reach and work at 5. especially thin walled complex castings. Therefore it is necessary to have reference standards available and a close surveilling of the boss of the department and quality controller involved. It is very important that all material involved is still there and the causes can be found more easily. will cause cracks and probably fracturing (grey iron.
will have a different chemical analysis. There are treatments that do not change the mechanical properties.3 Treatment without change of microstructure and mechanical properties 4. It is sometimes even possible to change physical properties. strength as well as ductility as well as hardness. Types of heat treatment 3. Conclusion 1. ir G Henderieckx Gietech BV JANUARY 2005 52 .4 Atmosphere 4. The microstructure is the base of all this possibilities. The temperatures at which heat treatment must be performed will change from casting to casting because the transformation of microstructure is depending on the chemical analysis of the casting involved.3 Heating and cooling rate 4.FOUNDRY MANUAL HEAT TREATMENT HEAT TREATMENT 1.2 Treatment without change of microstructure 3. Introduction 2. the casting can locally or as a whole be heated to a low temperature. to some degree. They will. INTRODUCTION Heat treatment is the "process" that brings the castings on "another temperature" as room temperature with the purpose of changing the mechanical properties of the material. stress relieve the casting.1 Temperature 4. Influences 4.1 Treatment with change of microstructure 3.2 Time on temperature (dwelling) 4.5 Loading 5. decreasing the stress situation in the casting and or preheating the casting for welding or cutting risers or deforming the casting The mechanical properties can be changed. Process 3. from different pouring badges. Castings. For welding the casting or cutting risers or deform it.
It is not allowed to enter castings in a furnace with a temperature above 100 °C. which can lead to cracks and deformation. especially for complex castings and or casting of a material with a low heat conductibility (austenitic microstructure). ir G Henderieckx Gietech BV JANUARY 2005 53 .FOUNDRY MANUAL 2. This will cause a thermo shock. This must be done in a way that: 1. no burner flame can touch a casting 3. PROCESS The process is described in the following flow chart: Casting Casting Casting Casting Loading S U Cooling B Z E R Dwelling O F U Heating R N A C Dwelling E ATMOSPHERE CONTROL Heating Cooling furnace Air Water Other HEATTREATED CASTING The first step is the loading of the furnace. all castings will have nearly the same temperature and that this temperature is about the temperature indicated by the thermocouples. the free flow of air around the castings is guaranteed 2.
as expected for the original chemical composition. tempering and subzero treatment.FOUNDRY MANUAL The second step is bringing the castings on the required temperature and keeps it that long that the complete section is on temperature and the required transformations and processes (carbide dissolving) are performed. depends on the section size of the casting and the type of material and the time needed for the required transformation. shape of casting 2. with a microstructure transformation 2. The higher the temperature the lower the time needed for the transformation but the larger the grain size will be. dwelling time. material of the casting 3. This temperature is mostly higher as room temperature but there is now a treatment with a lower temperature (subzero treatment). The higher the treatment temperature. The time on temperature. hardening. A casting with an oxidised surface will have problems in a corrosive service and castings with a de-carbonised surface cannot reach the theoretical strength and hardness. soft annealing. HEAT TREATMENT There are three major categories: 1. Normalising is the treatment that transforms the material to the austenitic structure at temperatures above the Ac-temperature. The heating rate depends on: 1. without any change of structure and material properties Treatment with a microstructure transformation These are normalising. After the transformation is finished. anymore. the load of furnace compared to the capacity. without a microstructure transformation 3. ir G Henderieckx Gietech BV JANUARY 2005 54 . Transforming from the ferrite to the austenite structure will be quicker than the time needed for dissolving carbides into the matrix. the castings are cooled in calm air. The furnace atmosphere has an importance for the oxidation damage of the casting surface and even for de de-carbonising of it. 3. the more pronounced oxidation and decarbonising could be.
After soft annealing the material has a lower strength and hardness and most of the carbides will be dissolved and do not form again during cooling. This happens in the temperature zone below the Ms-temperature (martensite-start) and even below the Mf-temperature (martensite-finish) where no austenite can exist anymore. ir G Henderieckx Gietech BV JANUARY 2005 55 . The strength and hardness will decrease but the ductility will increase. transform it to pearlite. bainite and sometimes extra secondary carbides will be formed. When all austenite is transformed the material will cool to room temperature in the furnace (for complex shaped castings) or in calm air. The material will have the maximum strength and hardness but a very low ductility. The material has all over the section the same properties. After the transformation is finished. The subzero treatment is used to transform the austenite structure to martensite. Tempering is the treatment that must follow each hardening. This tempering will. Hardening is the treatment that transforms the material to the austenitic structure at temperatures above the Ac-temperature. the casting are cooled very fast (quenching) which allows the transformation to the martensitic structure. It is preferred to temper the material after this treatment. Soft annealing will bring the material to the austenitic microstructure followed by a cooling until just below the austenitic zone (Ac-temperature) and staying at this temperature to allow the formation of soft ferrite. After the transformation the cooling can heat again to room temperature. if austenite is present. The final microstructure consists of martensite and possibly some bainite and some austenite.FOUNDRY MANUAL The result is that the grain size of the material is decreased and homogenised. The minimum rate of cooling depends on the chemical composition of the material as shown in the CCT-diagram. The stress level will also be decreased.
The strength and hardness do decrease a little and the ductility does increase a lot. welding. The cooling must be very fast. No mechanical properties of the material are changed. ir G Henderieckx Gietech BV JANUARY 2005 56 . No microstructure is changed and the ductility will increase. mostly in the range of 1. cutting risers and not due to transformation of microstructure. No microstructure and strength is changed. For ferritic high alloyed irons and steels a stress relieve and globulising will be done at a very high temperature (700 to 800 °C).000 °C. The material is heated to a temperature just below the Ac-temperature (start of austenite transformation) and during the stay at this temperature the carbides will globulise. The treatment decreases the stresses and increases a little the ductility. in order to avoid the formation of new ones. Tempering is the treatment that will decrease the transformation stresses (martensitic formation). These stresses are due to cooling. The most influencing factor is the temperature and in a smaller degree the time on this temperature. No mechanical properties or structure is changed. The higher the temperature the quicker the dissolving will be finished. which decrease the stresses in the casting. which will result in a small decrease of ductility. Preheating can be done in order to be able to do some welding or deformation.3 Treatment without any change in structure and mechanical properties Stress relieving is a treatment. The material is brought to a temperature. An increasing stay at the treatment temperature will lead to an increasing size of grain.2 Treatment without a microstructure transformation These treatments are tempering. With a higher ductility they can resist crack building. Solution treating is done with materials that have an austenitic structure and some carbide and possibly other precipitates. solution treatment and globulising carbides.FOUNDRY MANUAL 3. The microstructure itself is not changed. The longer the stay on this temperature the larger the grain size will be and this will decrease the ductility. at which carbides and precipitates do dissolve completely. 3. Globulising carbides are done with non-austenitic materials. depending on the temperature. Material on a higher temperature has a lower strength and a higher ductility. especially in the zone where carbides and precipitates are formed.
it is lower or higher and consequently points to a different dwelling time. 2. ir G Henderieckx Gietech BV JANUARY 2005 57 . Ac-temperature This is the temperature that forms the borderline between the area of material with an austenite structure and the area with an alpha crystal structure (ferrite. the faster the transformation will occur.1 Temperature The temperature is the most important item for a heat treatment. bainite. Mf-temperature Below this temperature no austenite can exist anymore because it is completely transformed to martensite or another alpha crystal phase. At a sufficient high temperature carbides and precipitates will dissolve into the structure and disappear in this way. resulting in the best combination of strength and ductility. This temperature is not valid for materials with an austenitic structure. For iron. INFLUENCES 4. There are several important temperatures for each material (see CCT-diagram): 1. martensite). But there is a best temperature. The grain size of a structure will increase if there is no transformation. measure the temperature that is identical to the temperature of the casting. pearlite. it is out the required temperature span 2. it is possible that: 1. Both possibilities will lead to an incorrect treatment. is fixing the thermocouple wires to the casting. This is very difficult and the only way to obtain this to a high degree. 3. still cooling. which do master the furnace activity. The most important point is that the thermocouples. The higher the temperature above the Ac-temperature.FOUNDRY MANUAL 4. Each treatment has a temperature span and these temperatures depend on the chemical composition of the material. the transformation from austenite to martensite starts. The amount of transformed austenite is depending on the temperature and not on the time. a high temperature can kill the germs necessary to obtain a good free graphite morphology. Ms-temperature At his temperature. If the temperature is not correct.
Dwelling on a high temperature can cause grain size increase and this fact will lead to a small decrease of the ductility. The stresses can lead to cracks. This diagram is unique for a material with a particular chemical composition. the lower the cooling rate must be because a non uniform cooling will definitely lead to deformation. It is nearly impossible to correct deformation due to incorrect heat treatment! 4. De-carburising and oxidation will also increase a bit with longer times on high temperature. During the dwelling on high temperature..FOUNDRY MANUAL 4.2 Time on temperature (dwelling) The time on temperature is less important than the temperature itself. 4. these stresses are decreased a lot. Because the transformation is a process. Nearly all materials will de-carbonise during heat treatment at a temperature above 700 °C if the atmosphere is oxidising. it needs time to finish. Therefore the time on temperature must equal the sum of the time necessary to equalise the temperature throughout the casting section and the time the transformation requires. Any touch of the burner flame will lead to extreme temperature differences and causes deformations and cracks. The cooling rate is different from material to material and can be found in the typical CCT-diagram of the material. especially the distance to the burners. Each loss of chromium will lead to a decrease in corrosion resistance. Depending on the section size another type of cooling is needed.4 Atmosphere The atmosphere in the furnace is very important due to its influence on the surface of the casting: oxidation.3 Heating and cooling rate The heating and even more the cooling rate are important. Stainless steel will loose carbon but also a lot of chromium. This phenomena is also valid for heat resisting materials. Also between thick and thin sections in the same casting. temperature differences will cause thermal stresses. ir G Henderieckx Gietech BV JANUARY 2005 58 . This chromium is necessary for the corrosion protective film in service conditions. It is very important to limit the rate to that one which will not cause deformation and or cracks in the material. This time depends on the heat conductibility of the material and the location of the parts in the furnace.. The more complex the shape of the casting. This loss of carbon in the surface area will lead to a loss in strength and hardness after quenching. de-carburising. The heating rate has to be so that the section can equalise the temperature of the core and surface in a short time.
The surface can have small cracks. which eventually can go through the section and lead to fracture. a heat treatment which is set up according to the real chemical composition of the material and which does take in account the complexity of the shape of the casting. It is nearly impossible to give a full loaded furnace (in weight and number of parts) a correct cooling to all castings involved.FOUNDRY MANUAL 4. Mostly. 5. Complex shaped castings can deform in a way that the dimensions do not match anymore. All castings must be heated up as equal as possible. Menu ir G Henderieckx Gietech BV JANUARY 2005 59 . the casting can deform. These deformation cannot be totally corrected. Any touch of the burner flame will lead to extreme temperature differences and causes deformations and cracks. The surface can be de-carbonised or oxidised too much. It is a dangerous operation because quite some things can go wrong. CONCLUSION The heat treatment is an important production step for a casting in order to obtain the required mechanical and physical properties and be free of stresses. Material with nearly all wanted properties can be produced.5 Loading The loading of the furnace must be in that way that the furnace atmosphere can circulate around the castings in a freely and equal way. especially if it touches the floor of the furnace. But during cooling this item is even more important. If the cooling is not equal per casting. the results can be a very good material. Small changes in cooling rate can cause the formation of other microstructure. If properly done. does give a problem. the bottom part.
DRAWING MARKING INSTRUCTIONS MACHINE SHOP FOUNDRY MARKING MACHINING INSPECTION ir G Henderieckx Gietech BV JANUARY 2005 60 . Introduction This job is mostly not included in the foundry activity. if not by the foundry. This is necessary for the first. Flow chart CASTING This job is a single step job. Machining is done by specialised companies and is a completely different job as producing castings. casting to assure the dimensional quality of the pattern. Conclusion 1. Introduction 2.FOUNDRY MANUAL MACHINING & MARKING MACHINING & MARKING 1. Marking must be done. Flow chart 3. and even more if this does not comply. a integral part in the production of the component they need. by a specialised sub-supplier. Feature 4. 2. for the customer. Marking and machining are. The circumstances in a foundry are not suitable for a good machining.
The report will accompany the casting in further production. 4. This zero point is the starting point for the marking and machining. It can lead to repair and or scrapping of the casting. which is with certified tools and equipment and by competent operators. The zero point is the result of the pattern concept and the mould assembly (putting together mould parts and cores). The marking is the confirmation for the foundry that the casting production complies with the dimensional requirements. Therefore the sub-supplier for marking and machining must be reliable and familiar with castings. The marking is done before the machining. because it is the start of machining. the foundry is also involved. the casting is mostly lost too. 3. This point is as well as for the foundry (pattern and mould assembly) as for the machine shop the starting point for further production. which will accompany the casting in further production. It must assure that the casting can be machined without any dimensional problem. If these jobs are performed incorrectly. Features The most important feature is the zero point . The zero point is the most important item in the casting production. All inspections must be done in a correct way. which involves the foundry and the sub-supplier of marking and machining. The results must be put in a report. If machining is done incorrectly. but belong to the component production for the customer.FOUNDRY MANUAL The casting and drawing and marking instructions are used to set the zero point . especially for complex castings. The zero point should always be situated on a non-machined (as cast) plane! The cost of machining can be higher as the cost of a casting. It is an item. The inspection. Menu ir G Henderieckx Gietech BV JANUARY 2005 61 . mostly dimensional and surface roughness. probably due to incorrect marking. Therefore a continuous feedback after marking is necessary to confirm or to be able to modify the pattern and mould assembling. Conclusion Marking and machining are no foundry jobs. must be done with certified equipment and competent (certified) operators.
3. It is very important that the surface condition after the treatment is clearly described and or visualised. PROCESS In this process there are possible routes: 1. Conclusion 1. If there is no requirement and the casting does look good. the casting can go to the final inspection as it is. Anyhow it pays if the foundry looks to send only castings. INTRODUCTION The surface of a casting has its proper requirements. which are well equipped and specialised in the treatment involved. Process 3. The best situation is that there are international accepted standards. This can be the case if the customer does him self still some treatment.FOUNDRY MANUAL SURFACE TREATMENT SURFACE TREATMENT 1. shot blasting the casting after fettling. The purchase order from the foundry to the subcontractor must indicate and specify all requirements. 2. Influences 5. which look good. subcontract specialised treatments. Introduction 2. Important features 4. asked for by his proper customer. A specialised treatment is mostly done by subcontractors. ir G Henderieckx Gietech BV JANUARY 2005 62 . It can be that nothing is specified and than there is no treatment at all unless the foundry does want this surface to comply with their standards. no requirements and no treatment done 2.
equalise the surface between fettled and as c ast area 2. Painting can be done to prevent rusting of the casting. another layer. comply the surface with the requirements. If a special treatment is required. The surface condition and the cleanliness will be higher as the foundry can get. This shot blasting mostly is done after the NDT-inspection (non destructive testing as are magnetic. surface hardening 3. painting 2. penetrant. ultrasonic and X-ray) because this test can leave products. sometimes a finer and more round shaped shot is used.FOUNDRY MANUAL Casting Shotblasting Shotblasting / cleaning Painting Shotblasting / cleaning surface hardening Shotblasting / cleaning metalising Shotblasting / cleaning Other layer NDT inspection Shotblasting Final inspection After fettling the foundry can do another shot blasting to: 1. the shot blasting and cleaning cannot be done in a foundry shot blasting equipment. this is mostly performed outside the foundry. This shot blasting can be done with the same shot as the shot blasting after removing the casting from the mould. used for the test. These treatments can be: 1. ir G Henderieckx Gietech BV JANUARY 2005 63 . metalising 4. If this is the case. This assures a better surface roughness. on the surface. If painting is required with requirements on layer thickness and adhering force. no special requirements will be asked for and the foundry can do this.
too a very high extend. a cleaning in a bath after a shot blasting is mostly preferred. It is very important to make sure that the sub supplier will work according the correct requirements and the foundry is advised to inspect the treatment results. It is very dangerous to weld or repair with "liquid cold metal" a surface. It can also be that the treatment does require a specially adapted chemical composition of the casting material. are very dangerous for all treatments that are done on a higher temperature. Indeed these defects can blow up the surface and destroy the treatment. These requirements are mostly not international standards but "company made". The requirements for this treatment are not that complex and therefore. This asks for a certificate or can be done by an independent surveyor. in most cases the foundry does it. Chomating an iron will ask for a low silicon level. If the casting must be metalised. and on which some wishes are valid. Specialised companies that are experienced in the treatment involved must do the other treatments. 3. This treatment can be painting to protect the casting for rusting. CONCLUSION The surface treatment is every operation that will change the surface. Surface hardening does require special equipment and skills.FOUNDRY MANUAL Surface hardening is done in special cases. INFLUENCES The moulding process will. After the treatment the final inspection can be done. fix the surface condition. just below the surface. Defects. which are important. 5. The casting must be free of scale and oxides and inclusions. Never accept requirements without knowing from a specialist that these do meet the possibilities of the material. 4. All work to be done to correct the surface will not be beneficial for the surface treatment because there will be two types of surfaces: fettled and as cast. Therefore it is important to discuss these requirements with the sub supplier and to agree about the features. As a matter of fact the surface treatment will react on this area very different. IMPORTANT FEATURES It is well known that a surface treatment does have requirements. Menu ir G Henderieckx Gietech BV JANUARY 2005 64 .
The results are compared with the nominal dimension and the tolerance span. 3. tools and operators. 2. depending on the requirements. It can lead to scrapping the casting or ask for extra objective inspection. surface condition and NDT (non destructive testing). 4. as well as the knowledge of the specifications and requirements. which are mentioned in the order. Introduction The quality department has the purpose to inspect castings in such a way that all delivered castings do meet the customer requirements and the foundry specifications. There is also a quality system. 5. material properties. The important point is ir G Henderieckx Gietech BV JANUARY 2005 65 .TEST REQUIREMENTS The inspection can be visual. dimensional. It is an subjective test. there is more than inspection.FOUNDRY MANUAL QUALITY DEPARTMENT QUALITY DEPARTMENT 1. the certifying of instruments. The dimensional inspection is done according to the casting drawing. Flow chart The quality inspection is an operation. The visual inspection concerns the first inspection. CASTING VISUAL QUALITY SYSTEM PROCEDURES TOOLING OPERATORS ORDER FOUNDRY CERTIFICATE ACCEPTED CASTING REJECTED CASTING CERTIFYING QUALITY INSPECTION DIMENSIONAL MATERIAL SURFACE CONDITION NDT . If nothing is mentioned in the order the foundry specifications and requirements will be valid. To fulfil this job. It does involve mostly the shape and surface. which can be done in several ways. Introduction Flow chart Features Influences Conclusion 1. 2. very cheap and easy to perform.
it will keep together with the casting. indicating the standards and quality level to apply. The quality level can be different according to the type of test. the rules of the foundry s standard quality are to apply. The result is related to other tests (tensile strength) and is an indication for the machinability. bending The test is mostly done for the tensile conditions and is done on special cast material bars. The shock and impact tests are done to validate the service temperature range. The NDT inspections concerns: 1. If the customer has asked for it. X-ray (PT) (MT) (UT) (XT) surface condition surface condition and layer just below surface and section material surface and section material. Hardness is an easy test. which is not conform. it gets its certificate of conformity. The difficulty is to decide the size of the area. To perform the inspection there is a need for a system. Each rejected casting can be scrapped or repaired. The authorisation is got after certifying the procedures. If no quality is mentioned in the order. ultrasonic 4.FOUNDRY MANUAL to use the same starting point (zero point) as is indicated on the casting drawing and used by the machine shop. penetrant 2. After performing the inspection. This involves as well the inspection of the casting as the tooling as the production. The material properties include rupture stress. pressure. The system is called the quality system and does set the rules for the functioning of the quality inspection. After the repair a new inspection must be performed. This inspection does not damage the casting and therefore it is named non destructive . magnetic 3. tools and operators. The information is found in the order. To do this each casting must be marked with a unique serial number. an authorisation and information. yield stress and deformation on the different kind of tension: tensile. The surface condition concerns the roughness. This test is partly objective and partly subjective. If the casting is accepted. the casting can be rejected. ir G Henderieckx Gietech BV JANUARY 2005 66 . They have to perform tests according to international standards and perform the job involved very regularly.
which is also appearing in each report. Any inspection is valid if there is a written procedure of inspection. ============================================================================= Menu ir G Henderieckx Gietech BV JANUARY 2005 67 . If once certified. engineering 2. inventory of operators with a valid certificate 4. Important features The quality inspection must function in and according to a quality system. the results of the inspection are not usable. It is preferred to inform the customer about these differences and probably ask permission to use it. By describing circumstances and appearance. Lloyds Register of Shipping ) is a timely and costly operation. 4. scheduled internal and external auditing. Influences The inspection and quality system can refer to different standards. but are very similar. Therefore the foundry system uses a standard. it pays to keep certified by a regularly (mostly yearly) small test and question for prolongation. A qualification by a third party (Bureau Veritas. it can help production to correct the non conformity for the future. If the certification is not there. The standard can be a agreement between buyer and foundry. Conclusion The most important feature is that quality must be inspected by an according to certified operators and rules and with certified equipment and tools.FOUNDRY MANUAL 3. which does meet the requirements of several standards. The value of an inspection is zero if the equipment and tools and probably the operator are not certified. Quality can only refer to a casting if this casting is marked with a unique serial number. 5. rules to be followed to inspect the product and production as well as administrating. This system must cover: 1. inventory of tools with a valid certificate 3. Also a certificate has a validity that is timely restricted. the value of the report is zero. In this system the foundry quality standard must be mentioned and described. If one of these conditions is missed. A certified operator must do this. Mostly the standards from different countries do not comply completely. the requirements that were used as standard and a written report. It is important that quality inspection does more than just reporting.
If the delivery time is critical. If the cost is higher it pays to pour a replacement casting.FOUNDRY MANUAL REPAIR REPAIR 1. Introduction The need for repair is the consequence of the fact that the casting does not meet some requirements concerning material section. repairing itself and inspection and reporting after repairing) has a high level compared to the casting cost. If the total repair cost (preparing the repair. Flow chart 3. cracks ) and surface condition (corrosion. Influences 5. Introduction 2. it should be considered to forget about repairing. Conclusion 1. commercial and economical. The repair must technically be possible and accepted. material strength (strength and ductility). erosion ). It can spoil a good name. the permission of the customer and or surveillance office must be given. shape and or surface condition. The decision to repair has several aspects: technical. The repair must be economically acceptable. It is preferred to do repairs after informing or receiving permission to do it from the customer. This concerns the shape (dimensions). Each foundry should set a standard cost (relative to the casting cost) as a maximum for repairing. it can be a factor to do a repair because pouring a replacement casting will take a lot more time and delivery retarding. if the customer and or the market does have negative feelings about the type of repair or the repair as such. Whatever technically possible. quality of the material section (porosity. Important Features 4. The repaired casting must meet the order requirements and if not. The repair must be commercially accepted. ir G Henderieckx Gietech BV JANUARY 2005 68 . the foundry should consider to do it.
the foundry must provide him with all data about the non-conformity and the type of repair. The second step is the performing of the repair. ir G Henderieckx Gietech BV JANUARY 2005 69 . The customer must be asking if this is allowed. Only after a written permission the repair can proceed. The type of repair. This is mostly done for irons.REPORT CUSTEMOR AGREEMENT R E P A I R SMOOTHEN AND FETTLING PUT PLUGS WELD PROCEDURE CERTIFICATE INSPECTION WELD HEAT TREATMENT WELDING INSPECTION ACCEPTED CASTING REPORT REPAIR The preparing of the repair is the first step. It can be done if an excess of material and or strength is available or if no other material (weld material) is allowed (possibly for corrosion reasons). Flow chart There are three steps for a repair: preparing the repair. removing material and smoothen the area 2. This is mostly done for high-alloyed irons and if the defect is minor. Removing material and put a plug is possible for non-conformities with a restricted dimension. Mostly the defect is drilled and a plug of identical or similar material plugs the hole. removing material and weld the area involved. NON CONFORM CASTING NDT . performing the repair and the inspection and reporting about the repair. is chosen. To make this decision possible.FOUNDRY MANUAL 2. The question if the repair is technically possible must be answered first. which does suit the best. removing material and put a plug in this area 3. The repair can be one of the following possibilities: 1. Smoothen the area is the easiest and lowest cost repair.
which is the maximum temperature of the weld and casting during the welding process. corrosion. These requirements can be different from those. The non-conformity must be quantified according to these aspects. leading to late delivery. Important features The first important feature is the question of a repair to be done or not. certified operators must do all inspection. the casting is accepted. A certified welder and an accepted and approved welding procedure must do welding. 4. which are valid for the casting. ir G Henderieckx Gietech BV JANUARY 2005 70 . The inspection during welding is part of the repair. erosion) and requirements (strength. quality of material section and surface ) of the casting as well as of the material of the casting (machinability. especially for steel. Another feature is that the requirements for the repaired casting must be clear and agreed by the buyer and foundry. Sometimes it is necessary to redo the required heat treatment. For some castings a soft annealing is required and a preheating.FOUNDRY MANUAL Welding is the most performed repair. This repair report is part of the repair cost! The fourth feature is that. It he non-conformity is removed and the quality according to the requirements. ductility. The report of the repair must be made and is an integral part of the delivery. If stress is the requirement and the amount of good section is sufficient to withstand these. repair not been scheduled. Mostly the casting will be stress relieved after welding. But mostly. The third feature is the fact that a written report is an essential part of the repair. This report must describe the defect or non-conformity. will even lead to later delivery. There can also be an interpass temperature. will increase the lead time of the casting involved and mostly the delivery time will be longer. the repair itself. perhaps no repair should be made. the preparation of the repair. economical. It is possible that welding does require a preheating of the area to weld or even of the complete casting. This decision must be based on several aspects: technical. especially for quenched and tempered materials. 3. weldability ). commercial The fact is that a repaired casting will never be clean anymore and always be accompanied by a repair report. the treatment after repair and the results of the inspection. The last step is the inspection of the casting and especially the repair itself and the surrounding area. scrapping the casting and pouring another. Influences The possibility to repair will depend on the service conditions (temperature.
Each repair needs a written permission of the buyer and or designer and must have a written report. Also commercial reasons can lead to not repairing. this can be impossible (not weldable). The plug can be fixed by screw thread or pressing force (putting in place on a much lower temperature). Welding must do the repair for a large non-conform area. This scrapping is possible if the foundry is confident that the cause of the non-conformity and the solution for it is known and the next production will be correct. A repaired casting is stigmatised for the rest of its life and this is not a positive marketing factor for the foundry. Menu ir G Henderieckx Gietech BV JANUARY 2005 71 . Depending on the casting material. If the metal can be drilled. the defect area must be cleaned and repaired. The best repair is no repair! Repair is always increasing cost and it is the first rule to consider scrapping the casting and replacing it by a new one. If stress is a problem. even for the final product. It is the result of the non-conform casting due to a not correct production. restricted possible (iron with nickel weld material) or without problems (steel with identical weld material). It can be smoothening the area. This can be the repairability of the material and the fact that the repair will never meet the requirements. Technical reason can forbid repair. there is always a risk of growing and it is preferred to remove the crack and smoothen the area. If corrosion and or erosion are involved. This responsibility is very difficult to quantify because the foundry is not fully aware of the service conditions and design stresses. plugging and welding or spraying. 5. it must have a very similar thermal expansion coefficient. It will always increase the lead-time of the casting. Conclusion Repair is never planned.FOUNDRY MANUAL But if the defect is a crack. the removal of the defect area is necessary. A repair will always bring some more responsibility. Therefore it must be handled very carefully. The consequences can exceed far the value of the casting. to the foundry. Large and not deep defects can be metal sprayed (preferable hot spraying). The easiest repair is repairing a restricted and small area. Anyhow the weld material must meet the service and other requirements and if temperature changes are involved. drilling and putting a plug in identical or similar material remove the defect.
It is to assure that all information about the customer and the market and the deliveries do penetrate to the foundry and its quality department. The third task concerns the gathering and providing updated market-information to the management and quality control department of the foundry. the relation with the customer and the intention to do business with this particular customer and market (for instance first delivery). which depends on the market situation. The first task concerns the handling of requests. ir G Henderieckx Gietech BV JANUARY 2005 72 . starting from the cost price and adding a margin.FOUNDRY MANUAL Sales SALES & MARKETING 1. offers and orders. Introduction 2. It is important to know the reason for not approving the offer and ordering elsewhere. A customer communicates with the foundry with the help of this department. Conclusion 1. Sales organises the flow of each request for quotation . The second task is to master the information flow from and to the customer. Flow chart This department has three major tasks. If the offer is validated sales must inform about the requirements and special wishes in order to communicate these correctly to the foundry and especially the quality control department. Sales will communicate the information and price to the customer. Features 4. Flow chart 3. which gives it a window to the market. The offer is discussed with the customer in order to recognise its value and the appreciation of the customer. The production department as well as the quality control department have to evaluate and quantify the cost. Introduction Sales & marketing is a department of the foundry. 2. The price is set up. On the other hand the technical and quality possibilities of the foundry must be made available to the customer and the market.
It is also necessary to inform about markets on which the foundry is not working. Knowing this information. This information must be communicated to every department in the foundry. which reveals the reasons why customers do feel well with deliveries and suppliers. ir G Henderieckx Gietech BV JANUARY 2005 73 . Sales must communicate these complaints to every-one in the foundry. This involves the evolution of the demand level as well as the number and activity of the competitors. the purchasing department of the customer will know the judgement of its production and quality department. It can be that extra wishes are expressed. The customer must feel that the foundry does react and does its utmost to avoid the problem or complaint for the future. the foundry can schedule and perform investments and extra activity. But contact about the delivery is necessary because at that time. The customer must be informed continuously about the production and the expected delivery time. The last task is to provide the management level of all updated information of the market. It can be possible that sleeping or new markets have splendid future expectations. It is also important to do a bench marketing .FOUNDRY MANUAL CUSTOMER & MARKETINFORMATION NO ORDER INFORMATION ORDER REQUEST FOR COSTPRICE MARK ET OFFER FO UN DR Y COSTPRICE / PRODUCTION TIME TECHNICAL POSSIBILITIES MARKETING INFORMATION REQUEST FOR QUOTATION SALES & MARKE TING OFFER QU AL IT Y CO NTR OL ORDER QUALITY POSSIBILITIES NO ORDER COSTPRICE / QUALITY PERFORMANCE CUS TO MER INFORMATION CUSTOMER COMPLAINTS The order communication must be send as quick as possible. Customer complaints must be handled very carefully.
It can be interesting to work with local representatives. This department has a job. correct information. Working all over the world will ask for local representatives. This must be done in a way that all interesting information. It also will increase the cost of this department. Conclusion Sales & Marketing is a very important department. Features The important feature of sales & marketing is that it belongs to the foundry but works for the customer.FOUNDRY MANUAL 3. is necessary. which is already very high. has done it utmost or at least knows how to prevent this fact happening again. Doing business all over the world will ask for the knowledge of cultures and the ability to adapt to it for a certain extend. It is mostly a very expensive! It requires very high experienced employees with a highly flexibility in the relation to others. 4. The method to do this by giving presents. being the connection between customer and foundry and the window to the market. On the other hand it must show the customer that the foundry. which seems and is partly conflicting because it has to defend and to work for two different parties. although not performing as it should. This is especially the case if the business will be done in developing countries . It must communicate the feelings of the customer to the foundry and struggle to get the best reaction on it. The possibility to bring good as well as bad messages. Using not accepted ways to get information and or orders must be avoided! Menu ir G Henderieckx Gietech BV JANUARY 2005 74 . This needs to do the job in a very interesting way. whatever the reaction of the opponent is. The main capabilities are a stable and calm behaviour. An angry customer or colleague must get the opportunity to show its feelings in its proper way. It can help to feel the correct culture of the customer. This attitude will benefit most in the future. in an objective but correct way. excessive provisions and personal gifts is very controversial at present. It must have and keep a trustful relation with both parties. Having a drink or dinner together. This does not mean that everything must be accepted but the sales representative must always be the most calm of all. will be gathered. But it adds an uncertainty about its knowledge and acting to get information and orders. This will increase the cost. meeting on meetings and or company festivities will be common practice.
called MPP mod x. the approved MPP is modified (as a preventive or corrective action). Introduction 2. ir G Henderieckx Gietech BV JANUARY 2005 75 . If for any reason. The casting can be the first to produce or the first part to produce by the foundry with an existing pattern or with a newly made pattern. First Piece Qualification Introduction Procedure Importance of pattern 3. Conclusion 1. After the FPQ-production.FOUNDRY MANUAL SP / FPQ SERIAL FIRST PIECE QUALIFICATION 1. Serial Production 4. All these activities are described in the following text. INTRODUCTION It is not normal practice to start the production of a casting without special care. In all these cases there is definitely a need for a First Piece Qualification (FPQproduction). It is done according to the MPP mod 0 (manufacturing production plan). This production is called the Serial Production (SP-production). all conditions are fixed to produce the casting with the existing working procedures and inspection plans. Corrective Action Qualification 5. This action will lead to a new MPP. These are the very first three castings produced one after another. the Corrective Action Qualification (CAQ-production) is started.
It will check that the pattern and working instructions assure that a correct casting is produced (in serial production) at the lowest cost and to the satisfaction of the customer. SPECIFICATIONS GENERAL MATERIAL CASTING NDT/DIMENSIONAL INSPECTION PATTERN MPPfpq FPQ PRODUCTION CORES MOULD TEMPLATES ASSEMBLED MOULD TEMPLATES NDT INSPECTION CASTING MARKING DIMENSIONAL INSPECTION SECOND RUN TEMPLATE FOR CASTING THIRD RUN SERIAL PRODUCTION ir G Henderieckx Gietech BV JANUARY 2005 76 . which meet the requirements and specifications of the order. Procedure This procedure has at least three production runs. FIRST PIECE QUALIFICATION Introduction The FPQ-production is done to prove that the MPP will lead to castings.FOUNDRY MANUAL 2.
taking in account the results and experience of the first assembly and dimensions. This plan describes the process steps. Second run A new casting is produced using the modified (or not modified) MPP and templates. It is important to locate this point in a unique way. The pattern (layout and dimensions and templates) is the most important tooling and shall be described more in detail in Chapter 2.FOUNDRY MANUAL First run Starting from the component drawing and the specifications and the requirements of the order a Manufacturing Process Plan (MPP) is set up. starting from the zero point . The mould parts and cores are made and assembled. chills and work instructions will be modified. The templates to use for the moulding department can be produced now. The marking of the casting must be done. The casting is poured and after shot blasting the visual and NDT-inspection is done. For small and or low cost castings the NDT-inspection can be replaced by a destructive cutting of the casting. risers. Depending of this new result and taking in account that the quality is at least one class better as required by the customer. ir G Henderieckx Gietech BV JANUARY 2005 77 . But a NDT-inspection can complete the picture of the non conformity and will be of help by the inspection during the serial production. The result of this dimensional check will be used to correct the dimensions of the pattern and core boxes as well as the connection between each of them. no modification is done. which is also the zero point for the machining.3 Importance of Pattern. Especially the critical areas have to be checked. During the assembling the design of templates is figured out. It is important to have the pouring system and risers present to help finding the causes of possible non conformity and or scrap. If the results were good. These templates must assure an unique assembly of cores and mould with the narrowest possible tolerance range. the MPP and or pattern is modified for the second time. According to the result of the NDT-inspection the pouring system. It is impossible to set now the tolerance range because only one measurement is done. the work instructions. The NDT-inspection and dimensional inspection must prove that the non conformities are decreased and or removed. marking and machining. In the worst case even another pattern layout is required. the pattern and pouring system (included risers and chills) as well as the holding and inspection points. available for the moulding department.
The pouring system. which will establish the final shape. This will take in account the casting process (production). The inspection of this casting together with the experience of similar castings and the controllability of the production process will provide information about the tolerance range of the dimensions. This is shown in the figure on next page. tolerances and mechanical properties of the material. The templates do start from the zero point . Importance of the pattern The pattern will be responsible for dimensional non conformities. surface condition. They have to assure a very narrow dimensional tolerance range and a high controllability of it. it is necessary to follow the production cycle of a casting. including pattern layout. The foundry and designer will create a casting drawing using the requirements for quality. zero point and tolerance range). risers and chills must be easy to assemble. The templates for the moulding department and the inspection of the castings can be made now. The customer is designing a component. It is the most important tooling for the foundry! To understand these statements. These templates belong to the pattern. It can be that very small corrections can be preferred to assure the best fit. for quality problems due to incorrect and or difficulties by assembling mould and cores and for higher cost of the production. dimensions and material. which is identical with the point for marking and machining. the core-mould connection and the mould-mould connection is designed. The pattern split line. This casting must prove the production for serial production with standard inspection. The templates that are used for the dimensional inspection of the casting do not belong to the pattern. The location of the identification plate is another item. ir G Henderieckx Gietech BV JANUARY 2005 78 . To choose the must suitable production the order quantity and total need of castings must be estimated. material and templates. Two types of templates are used: one to assemble core to core and one to assemble core-assembly to the mould. The casting drawing is transformed in a pattern drawing .FOUNDRY MANUAL Third run The third casting must prove that the production is correct and controlled. the engineering (to assure the required quality) and the machining process (dimensions.
FOUNDRY MANUAL COMPONENT DRAWING COMPONENT CASTING H E A T T R E A T M E N T C U S T O M E R C U S T O M E R D I M E N S I O N S S H A P E M A ORDER T & E TOTAL R QUANI TITY A L PATTERN DRAWING T O Q L U SURE A FACE R L CONA I DIN T TION C Y E S PATTERN LAYOUT & MATERIAL F O U N D R Y MACHINING C A S T I N G P R O C E S S ABILTY TO ASSEMBLE S T T Y O P C E K C L A M ZERO P POINT I N G CONTROLABILITY PATTERN MATERIAL MOULD MATERIAL PATTERN DRAFT MOULD EQUIPMENT MOULD SHRINKAGE PATTERN UPPER HALF TEMPLATE NO PATTERN PLATE PATTERN PLATE PATTERN LOWER HALF CORE ASSEMBLY MOULD LOWER HALF + CORES ENGINEERING M O U L D B O X E S R I S E R S C H I L L S POURING SYSTEM PATTERN DRAWING POURING SYSTEM IDENTIFICATION PLATE TEMPLATE CORE BOX CORE BOX ir G Henderieckx Gietech BV JANUARY 2005 79 .
It is visualised in the figure below. It is done with the MPP-map (Manufacturing Process Plan) and the approved pattern and templates. The MPP must be available for production and inspection at all times! The NDT. SERIAL PRODUCTION The serial production (SP) is the production of the casting after the FPQ-prodution.and dimensional inspection results will be noted in a quality and dimensional report.FOUNDRY MANUAL 3. SPECIFICATIONS GENERAL MATERIAL CASTING NDT/DIMENSIONAL INSPECTION SERIAL PRODUCTION MPPmod 0 PATTERN CORES MOULD TEMPLATES ASSEMBLED MOULD TEMPLATES MATERIAL TEST CASTING NDT TEST MARKING DIMENSIONAL INSPECTION S I X S I G M A T E C H N I Q U E QUALITY REPORT CASTING CTQ VALUES ir G Henderieckx Gietech BV JANUARY 2005 80 . All data are also filed and monitored by the Six Sigma Technique to increase the controllability of the process. The customer will ask for a special measuring and reporting of the Critical to Quality-dimensions (CTQ-values).
SPECIFICATIONS GENERAL MATERIAL CASTING NDT/DIMENSIONAL INSPECTION CAQ PRODUCTION MPPmod 0 MODIFICATION CORES MOULD TEMPLATES ASSEMBLED MOULD TEMPLATES NDT INSPECTION CASTING MARKING DIMENSIONAL INSPECTION SECOND RUN (if necessary) TEMPLATE FOR CASTING THIRD RUN (if necessary) MPP mod x The MPP is modified and a test run is made. ir G Henderieckx Gietech BV JANUARY 2005 81 . The cause can be related to the MPP-file. It is shown in the figure below. These actions can be preventive (the result was still in limits) or corrective (result was outside limits). a CAQ-production or just continuing the SP-production. it is necessary to agree about the implications: a new FPQ-production. it is necessary to look for the cause and to do corrective actions.FOUNDRY MANUAL 4. after the CAQ-proces. If the customer modifies dimensions and or adds extra requirements to the specification. The inspection will cover all aspects involved: those that were changed and those that can be influenced. The final MPP. the material used and or the human activity. the equipment. a simplified FPQ-production. This action is called a Corrective Action Qualification (CAQproduction). CORRECTIVE ACTION QUALIFICATION If a non conformity appears during serial production or if the results move towards the limit of the requirements. If necessary a second and even a third run will be performed. is modified and noted as MPP mod x.
If the customer is changing requirements. The production is started with a FPQ-run. followed by the SP-production and interrupted possibly by the CAQ-run. it is necessary to agree about the type of test after modification. it is necessary to follow the described procedure. It can be FPQ. stabilise quality level ) and to decrease the cost. SP and or CAQ. as well for the customer (complying with all requirements and fulfilling the wishes to a great extend) as for the foundry (lowest cost and highest controlability).FOUNDRY MANUAL 5. The SP-production will provide data to increase the controllability of the production and to decrease the cost of production. The FPQ-run assures a good serial production concerning quality and dimensions. CONCLUSION To get the best production of a casting. The CAQ-run will modify the production to increase controlabilty (decrease tolerance range. Menu ir G Henderieckx Gietech BV JANUARY 2005 82 .
In generally. INVENTORY TOTAL CONSUMPTION PER USER 4. INTRODUCTION The environment is becoming a very important item. FLOW CHART 3. ENVIRONMENT 1.FOUNDRY MANUAL ENVIRONMENT 16. REPORTING EFFIENCY INDEX FINANCIAL REPORT 6. It is not allowed to charge or destroy the future for our children. INTRODUCTION 2. ACTION HOUSEKEEPING PROCESS CO NTROL INVESTMENTS SCRAP : REWORK REDUCTION 5. ir G Henderieckx Gietech BV JANUARY 2005 83 . The environment concerns the: · · · · · · · use of energy use of raw material pollution of air pollution of water pollution with noise reclaimable waste non reclaimable waste. it is possible to picturise the foundry activity as shown in next picture. CONCLUSION 1. Each of these items has to be considered sperately. Each society does understand that everyone has to think at the future.
which are all Critcal to Quality items. it is possible to find the best solution during each production step. ir G Henderieckx Gietech BV JANUARY 2005 84 . The possible problems are given in the figure on next page.FOUNDRY MANUAL TEMPERATURE INCREASE RECLAIMABLE WASTE NON RECLAIMABLE WASTE RAW MATERIAL OTHER MATERIAL ENERGY AIR & WATER AIR POLLUTION NOISE POLLUTION ADMINISTRATION PRODUCTION PRODUCT WATER POLLUTION To monitor these items. Only then. it is necessary to use Process Control.
TOOLING SAND DUST NOISE POLLUTION AIR POLLUTION CASTING OXIDES REFRACTORY AIR POLLUTION NOISE POLLUTION TEMPERATURE INCREASE HT CASTING TOOLING CHEMICALS WATER POLUTION NOISE POLLUTION AIR POLLUTION CASTING RAW MATERIAL OTHER MATERIAL ENERGY AIR RAW MATERIAL OTHER MATERIAL ENERGY AIR MOULDING RAW MATERIAL OTHER MATERIAL ENERGY AIR & WATER MELTING OTHER MATERIAL ENERGY AIR POURING RAW MATERIAL OTHER MATERIAL ENERGY AIR & WATER SHAKE OUT OTHER MATERIAL ENERGY AIR FETTLING RAW MATERIAL OTHER MATERIAL ENERGY AIR & WATER HEAT TREATMENT OTHER MATERIAL ENERGY AIR & WATER FINAL INSPECTION ir G Henderieckx Gietech BV JANUARY 2005 85 . FLOW CHART ADMINISTRATION WOOD & TOOLS WOOD DUST AIR POLLUTION PATTERN SHOP PATTERN SAND DUST AIR POLLUTION NOISE POLLUTION CHEMICALS MOULD METAL SLAG AIR POLLUTION NOISE POLLUTION TEMPERATURE INCREASE WATER POLLUTION LIQUID METAL METAL SLAG AIR POLLUTION TEMPERATURE INCREASE POURED CASTING METAL SAND DUST NOISE POLLUTION TEMPERATURE INCREASE WATER POLLUTION AIR POLLUTION RAW CASTING METAL.FOUNDRY MANUAL 2.
take benefit of experience 4. But the area involved is also very important. check results. The choice of the units is very essential and should be agreed before starting. These quantities can be. apply improvements. not in ranking of importance but alphabetic: housekeeping. whatever it is now. This means that every one will stop non productive use (lightening of a hall without workers). weight.2 Process control This involves the use of good instruction (correct and optimum to have minimum use).FOUNDRY MANUAL 3. re-instruct people. Process control measures. INVENTORY 3. investment. This means that all what is going in and not coming out. scrap/rework reduction. These are. is filed in quantities.4 Scrap/rework reduction The easiest way to reduce the use of items is to avoid scrap and rework. good working equipment (maintenance. ir G Henderieckx Gietech BV JANUARY 2005 86 . This indicates the subgroup that is most important for actions. ACTION The actions can be divides in four groups. 4. depending on the type of item. 4.2 Per user The total consumption will tell us about the subtype of item. Is it the melting or production of compressed air or another. The energy inventory tells us if electricity is the most used energy or coal or another.1 Total The inventory must be set up for the total of the foundry. process control.1 Housekeeping This involves the participation of every employee to reduce the consumption of the item. 3. best suited materials and the best performance of the employees. 4. It is always possible to reduce this figure. volume or energy units.3 Investment It can be necessary that excisting equipment must be replaced due to the condition or due to the possibilities. 4. best performing). propose improvements. This can only be done if the financing is available.
Work load of the foundry Type of product Quality level of the product Environmental efforts Safety efforts. Every foundry can reduce the environmental consequences. 6. But depending on the circonstances. All the factors as well as the calculation must be agreed by all participants. A similar idea about consuming raw material. These factors must be agreed by all participants and must be related to the environmental and financial result. less problems and a better delivery and service to the customer. cost to improve and the benefit concerning lower use of the item.FOUNDRY MANUAL 5. REPORTING 5. For this reason. emissions and production of waste. it is necessary to set efficiency factors . the financial consequences must be evaluated and reported to all participants.1 Efficiency factor To be able to measure and quantify the result of the program. 5. Important are the investments. 3. The best procedure is to have a good process control .2 Financial report Each company must be as efficient as possible and have a profit. due to the shortage of raw materials and due to the reaction of other countries and people. 5. It also indicates if some operations that are highly energy consuming. 2. which are influenced by our activity. CONCLUSION The environmental consequences of our industrial activity become more important due to real danger of spoiling our environment. there can be correction factors: 1. The facotr will be related to the product unit. which enables us to have a clear idea of the activity. can completely or partly be replaced by others. less consuming. The profit will be the driving force of the program. Menu ir G Henderieckx Gietech BV JANUARY 2005 87 . 4.
D HENDERIEC KX ROZENLAAN 1 NL 4551ET SAS VAN GENT THE NETHERLANDS Email: staf. SWITZERLAND BHEL INDIA.FOUNDRY MANUAL Author 17. GM: General Manager) NEDSCHROEF HERENTALS ALLARD TURNHOUT BOOMSE METAALWERKEN TECHNOMET WETTEREN ZEEUWS VLAAMSE GIETERIJ GIETERIJ MIDDELBURG GIETECH ML ML GM GM GM GM GM PRESSES IRON AND STEEL FOUNDRY STEEL FOUNDRY HIGH ALLOYED IRON IRON AND STEEL FOUNDRY IRON FOUNDRY FOUNDRIES ALL OVER THE WORLD PUBLICATION GP GIETERIJ PERSPECTIEF DE CONSTRUCTEUR MATERIALEN PARTICIPATION IN PANEL OF SEMINARS CHOICE OF MATERIAL IN VLISSINGEN AND TILBURG MATERIALS IN ANTWERP DAY FOR ENVIRONMENT IN DEN HAAG ENVIRONMENT IN VLISSINGEN TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE FOR TRANSFORMING AN IRON FOUNDRY TO A STEEL FOUNDRY TECHNOMET WETTEREN ZEEUWS VLAAMSE GIETERIJ SAS VAN GENT BEGEMAN HELMOND INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN CASTINGS GE USA.be MECHANICAL ENGINEER IN 1970 UNIVERSITY LOUVAIN BELGIUM CAREER (ML: Management firstname.lastname@example.org Website: www. NUOVO PIGNONE ITALY SULZER GERMANY. GE FRANCE (Alstom). AUTHOR ir G. SUEZ CANAL AUTHORITY EGYPT FLS SCHMIDT DENMARK ir G Henderieckx Gietech BV JANUARY 2005 88 .gietech.
DUCTILE IRON NIHARD + HIGH CHROMIUM IRON NIRESIST SILICON IRON COQUILLE POURED IRON CARBON STEEL LOW ALLOYED STEEL MANGANESE STEEL WEAR RESISTING CHROMIUM STEEL ROESTVAST EN HITTEBESTENDIG STAAL SIZE UP TO 12 TONNES IN STEEL UP TO 20 TONNES IN IRON PRODUCTION BADGE AND SMALL SERIES PRODUCTION MOULDING WITH CHEMICAL BOUNDED SAND COQUILLE POURING MELTING: CUPOLA-.FOUNDRY MANUAL EXPERIENCE WITH MATERIALS LAMELLAR. ELECTRICAL AND ROTARY FURNACES HEAT TREATMENT INDUSTRIES NUCLEAR CHEMICAL INDUSTRY WEAPON INDUSTRY GAS TURBINES COMPRESSOR MACHINE BUILDING PRESSES SHIPBUILDING VALVES TRANSPORT DREDGING INDUSTRY MILLING EQUIPMENT STEEL INDUSTRY NON FERRO MELTING Menu ir G Henderieckx Gietech BV JANUARY 2005 89 .
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