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# Example 1

How much work will be done in bringing a charge of 5.0 millicoulombs from infinity to a point P at which the potential is 12 V? Solution. The work done is W=QV=(5 0x103C)x(12V)=60x103J=0 06J.

Example 2
A particle with a charge of 1.5 coulombs is taken from a point at a potential of 50 V to another point at a potential of 120 V. Calculate the work done. Solution. We have W=Q(VB−VA) = (1.5 C) x (120 V - 50 V) = (1.5 x 70) J = 105 J.

Example 3
Calculate the current in a wire if 900 C of charge passes through it in 10 minutes. Solution. We have itQ=900C12
60s=1

5A.

Example 4
How much current will flow through a resistor of resistance 12 Solution. From Ohm's law, i=RV=12 18V=1 5A if a battery of 18 V is connected across it?

Electrostatic force between 2 charges - solved problem in physics
A point charge Q1 = +5.0 x 10-7 C. What is the magnitude and direction of the electrostatic force on each of them? The charges are situated in dry air. Solution. This the simplest possible problem. We only need to substitute given values into theCoulomb law.

For dry air k = 8.39 N. and they are of the same type (sign). Q2= 3.99x109 Nm2/C2.0x10-6 C and Q2=5.The charges on the particles are Q1=5. From the Coulomb law (1) Taking the k = 8. Finding the distance from electrostatic force What must be the distance r between two point charges Q1=7. Three electric charges in equilibrium Three charged particles lie on a straight line as in Fig.0x10-6 C. The magnitude of the force is the same on both charges. This will find justification after you have learned about work in an electric field. The force between charges of different signs attracts these charges. After substituting numbers F= -53940.0 N? Solution.0cm. What must be the distance r12 between particles 1 and 2 for the net electrostatic force on 2 to be zero? . we get F= 1. The distancer13 between particle 1 and 3 is 20. therefore the force on Q1 is directed towards Q2 and vice versa.01 N. Such is the convention adopted in some textbooks on physics. It is in accordance with Newton’s third law of motion.0x10-6. and substituting values given in the problem. The minus sign “-“ of the force means attracting force. but this will be considered later in this physics tutorial. The positions of particles 1 and 3 are kept fixed.0x105 C for the electrostatic force (in the air) between them to have magnitude3.99x109 Nm2/C2.1.0 x 10-4 N = -5.

Convention adopted for denoting forces is: Fab – force exerted on charge (particle) a by charge b. Applying the Coulomb law to equation (1) we have (1a) After a little algebra equation (1a) becomes (1b) From (2) . To fulfill conditions required in the problem there must be F21 = F23 (1) From the upper part of Fig.1 we see that r12 + r23 = r13 (2) rd From the 3 Newton law F12 = F23 (3) F21 = F32 (4) To solve the problem we need only Equations (1) and (2).

This leads to the equation (5a) Solving this equation we get two values for r12 distance 0. In such a situation the electrostatic forces resulting from interaction with Q1 and Q2 would be acting in one direction (to the right) and the net force could never be equal to zero.r12 (2a) Substituting (2a) into (1b) and sorting with respect to r12. . which is our unknown.r23 = r13 . The solution correct from the physics point of view is the first one. What is the distance d between the balls in equilibrium – Fig.1225 m and 0. 1.5442 m. Problem 5 .electric charge and gravity Two small charged balls of identical mass m and identical charge Q hang on nonconducting threads of length L. we get (5) This is a standard quadratic equation of the type x2a + xb + c = 0 To simplify notation we substitute into (5) values given for charges and for the r13distance. Assume that α is so small that for α expressed in radians α ≈ sinα ≈ tanα. The second would “put” the charge Q2 to the right of charge Q3. as are the conditions stated in the problem. We leave to the reader to check the dimensions of the solution (meters).

From the figure we see that (1) from this F2 = m g d / (2L) From Coulomb’s law (1a) (2) In equilibrium F2 = F 1 that is .Solution. The gravity force of magnitude mg directed downwards can be decomposed into forces F3 and F2. The F3 force is compensated by the tension in the thread (third Newton’s law). Forces acting on both charged balls are symmetrical. For balls to be in equilibrium the component F2 must be equal to the electrostatic force (Coulomb’s law) F1. We analyze the forces on one of the balls.

the one in the center is in equilibrium – there is no net electrostatic force acting on it. . Solving this problem without the assumption α ≈ sinα ≈ tanα requires more complicated algebra and trigonometry. This is true for the situations on the left and right hand side of the figure. Notice. But there is a significant difference between the types of equilibrium in both cases.99x109 Nm2/C2. The blue color denotes a negative charge. but the “philosophy” is the same – the electrostatic repulsive force must compensate the horizontal component of the force of gravity.From this equation so finally If you would like to make any numerical calculations. If the three outer charges are fixed. Problem 6 .Four charges in equilibrium On the figure below two situations are depicted. All electrostatic charges have an absolute value of Q. remember that in Coulomb’s law k = 8. red – positive. Explain this difference.

Situation on the left hand side of the figure. the “left” and “right” one. Any attempt to move the central charge closer to any of outer charges will increase the force exerted by this particular outer charge and decrease the force exerted by two other outer charges. Now we analyze what would happen if the central charge was displaced a little from this equilibrium position. so the net horizontal force is zero. The net electrostatic force will now pull the central charge in the direction of this particular outer charge which is a little closes then other charges. Any attempt to move the central charge closer to any of outer charges will increase the force exerted by this particular outer charge and decrease the force exerted by two other outer charges. Situation on the right hand side of the figure. All electrostatic forces between central charge and outer charges are repulsive. when the central charge is exactly at equal distance r from the outer charges.Answer: In both cases. . the electrostatic force exerted on the central charge by the lower charge is F1 = k Q2 / r2 (1) The vertical component of force exerted on the central charge by each of the upper charges is F2 = k (Q2 / r2) cos60o = F1/2 The horizontal components of force exerted on the central charge by the upper charges have equal magnitude and opposite direction. The net electrostatic force acting on the central charge is zero – charge is in equilibrium in both the “left” and “right” case. This is a case of an unstable equilibrium. All electrostatic forces between central charge and outer charges are attractive. This in turn will results in a further increase of this force and finally the central charge will collapse into the outer one. The net electrostatic force will push the central charge back to the equilibrium position. This is a case of a stable equilibrium.

At which value of Q1 will the electrostatic repulsion force between these two charges be the greatest. The maximum repulsion will occur if we divide the given charge into two equal parts. The electrostatic force between these charges will be repulsive (the same sign of charges) and will be F = k (Q1Q2) / r2 (1) Substituting Q2 = Q – Q1 F = k [Q1(Q – Q1)] / r2 or F = (kQ1Q – kQ12) / r2 To find the maximum of these force as a function of Q1 we must find the derivative ofF with respect to Q1.Q1.Email this article to friend Problem 7 . Elementary calculus is required and we get dF/dQ1 = Q – 2Q1 The maximum occurs when this derivative is equal to zero from which Q1 = Q/2.maximum electrostatic repulsion A charge Q is divided into two parts Q1 and Q2 = Q . at a constant distance between them? Solution. .