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Key Questions Is this an acute infection? How old are you? Have you had a fever?
What these questions will tell you
Lab Tests Tympanometry. Insert a probe into the external ear while pressure in the eardrum is continually changed. Provides indirect measure of pressure in the middle ear.
Generally an inflammatory Have you had an URTI? process: in children its in the middle ear. In adults it Have you had ear infections before? is referred from other Is there a family history of ear infections? head and neck structures What environmental conditions might suggest increased risk? Does anyone around you smoke? Do you?
Need to view TM and Acute otitis media (AOM) declines after 6 external ear canal. Fever present in 60% of children with AOM Lavage indicated if (infants <2mo uncommon, high fever is blockage. CI if history systemic illness) suggests perforation. Organisms travel up eustatian tube --> Note behaviours in obstruction --> mucus and bact growth children: irritability, poor feeding, congestion, fever. High risk of recurrens of AOM Having a sibling or parent with chronic OM Older infants may pull on makes you 2x as likely. May be environ'tal painful ear, bang head on affected side.
2-3x inc risk. Leads to functional eustachian tube obstruction, decreases protective ciliary action in the tube
Inspect External Ears
Audiometry. Tests frequency and intensity of sound that can be perceived.
Child: does the child attend day care? Child: does the infant take a bottle lying down?
Inc exposure to organisms Swallowing lying down may allow nasopharyngeal fluid to enter middle ear Have you been swimming recently? Swimming causes loss of protective cerumen and excessive moisture and irritation to the canal Have you recently been in an airplane or been scuba Barotrauma --> acute serous otitis. Failure diving? of eustachian tube to open and equilibrate --> fluid collection in middle ear. Could this be related to a systemic disease?
Hemorrhage over matoid - Mastoid Process battle's sign - basal skull Radiography fracture radiographs of mastoid. Pain in opening of ear or inflamed skin suggests bacteria Fungal and yeast infections CT of temporal bone for are white or dark patches cholesteatoma and congenital syndromes
Palpate External Ears. Also pre and postaruicular Do you have diabetes? Predisposition to malignant otitis externa (a lymph notes. Pre may be enlarged in AOM and otitis cellulitis), OM, and mastoiditis externa. Post in Have you ever had dermatitis, eczema, or psoriasis? Overproduction of sebum can cause otitis mastoiditis. externa Child: does the child have a nonrepaired cleft palate? Can cause functional obstruction of the Inspect Ear Canals with eustachian tubes Otoscope What does the presence of pain tell me? Visualize any discharge, Where specifically is the pain felt? Is it in one ear or Otitis externa - pinna. Mastoiditis - mastoid. noting color, consistency, both? Bilateral - otitis externa. Referred pain or and odor. Disharge usually AOM is unilateral. Children may tug at ears means infection, however, CSF must be kept in mind with trauma. How severe is the pain? Does it interfere with AOM - deep pain or blockage of ear. Inspect Tympanic sleeping, eating, or other activities? Serous otitis - bubbling, popping, or stuffy. Membrane noting light Otitis externa - tender and may have reflex. Normal: transluscent itching. Cerumen impaction - vague and pearly grey. Normally discomfort concave. TMJ - lasts a few minutes and occurs 3Bulging: increased 4x/day, sometimes with headache, worse hydrostatic pressure in the morning (grinding). Chronic pain may be dental malocclusion or RA. Perform Pneumatic Otoscopy (Insufflation) Discharge seen after TM ruptures, can be secondary to mastoiditis. Itching indicates infection of the external canal. Can also be precursor to herpes zoster of CN V. Tests mobility of the TM by creating a seal - normal if there is slight motion when air is insufflated
How long have you had this pain? Is the pain constant or intermittent? If intermittent, how long does it last? Does the pain travel (radiate) to other areas? What does the presence of discharge or itching tell me? Do you have any discharge from the ear? Do you have any itching in the ear?
What does a history of trauma or injury tell me?
Test hearing acuity: Weber and Rinne Have you had any recent trauma to the ear? Trauma can perforate the eardrum.Fractur Examine Related Body of the petrous temporal bone can destroy Systems: head and neck. Have you had any head trauma? the inner ear. Cotton-tipped swabs can Conjunctiva, mucosa and How do you clean your ears? Do you use cottonscratch the canal. patency of nose, sinuses, tipped swabs? larynx/tonsils, teeth and Do you have a history of excessive earwax? Accumulation can cause hearing loss, gums tinnitus, pressure sensation, vertigo, infection. Self-cleaning can cause harm. Child: does the child have a history of putting objects can cause ear pain and inflammation Perform an Intraotic into ears? Manipulation. Face the Have you had any recent insect bites around the Can lead to acute pain and tenderness of patient, insert a single fingertip in each ear and ear? the external canal and may develop pull the patient toward you secondary infection. Have you been exposed to any loud noise? Loud prolonged noise can destroy cochlear as they are instructed to open and close their hair cells. mouth. Pain is elicited in 90% of patients with a TMJ disorder. Is hearing loss a clue? Do you have any difficulty hearing? Do you have any dizziness? Do you have any ringing in the ear? Child: do you think the child can hear normally? Does he or she turn their head to listen? Blockage, inflammation, neoplasm. Most common cause of CHL is cerumen. Chronic OM can cause hearing loss. May indicate serious inner ear condition. Evaluate CN V, VII, and IX. CN V: feel masseter as patient clenches teeth. Sharp/dull over CV V - 3 branches. Taste is CN VII and IX and both apply sensation to external ear.
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Condition Earache DDX External otitis
History More common in adults, especially those with diabetes, ear pickers, or swimmers. Bilaral itching; pain.
DDX Physical Findings Diagnostic Studies Discharge; inflamed, swollen external canal; pain None with movement of pinna; TM normal or not visible
Acute otitis media
More comon in children <6 years; those with smoke exposure, recent URTI; severe or deep pain; unilateral; sensation of fullness More common in children but occurs in adults with URTI; unilateral pain; senation of crackling or decreased hearing
Red, bulging TM; fever; decreased light reflex; opque TM; decreased TM mobility
Fluid line or air observed behind TM; conductive Tympanogram hearing loss; decreased TM mobility
Hearing loss; recent perforated TM
Pearly white leasion on or behind TM
History of recent otitis media; chronic otitis pain behind ear Both children and adults have pain or vague sensation of discomfort; decreased hearing History of flying, diving; severe pain; hearing loss; sensation of fullness; history of recent nasal congestion History of blunt trauma, penetrating trauma
Swelling over mastoid process; fever, palpable tenderness, and erythema over mastoid Visualize foreign body or cerumen; may detect foul odor; conductive hearing loss Retraction of bulging of TM; perforation of TM; fluid in canal
Radiograph of mastoid sinuses reveals cloudiness, referral None
Foreign body or cerumen impaction Barotrauma
Radiographs/CT scan as directed by injury Cervical lymphadenitis History of cervical node swelling; pain in ear common Enlarged, tender, cervical lymph nodes; may see Throat culture if indicated. Monospot in children early onset of AOM in children if indicated in adolescent Cervical nerves 2, 3 (referred Pain in skin and muscles of neck and in ear canal Dermatome evaluation for cervical nerve None pain) Cranial nerves (referred pain) History, depending on CN involved Test function of CNs V, VII, IX, X; ear Radiograph/CT scan directed by CN examination normal involvement TMJ disorder None More common in adults, 50% related to dental Malocclusion; bruxism; normal external and problems; discomfort to severe pain; unilateral; pain middle ear structures and function; jaw click; worse in morning abnormal CN function; ear examination normal
Perforation of TM
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All these symptoms signal acute Assess degree of illness Generally limited to epiglottitis. Rare but can cause airway (emergency questions) identification of GABHS obstruction. Syptoms: sore throat, difficulty swallowing, respiratory distress (drooling, dyspnea, inspiratory stridor). MC due to H. Have you been unable to lie down? Most common Inspect the mouth look for Rapid screening tests: influenzae type b, age 2-5. inflammation of the ulcers. throat swap for strep mucosa of the antigens. If positive: tx, if oropharynx. Less negative: throat culture. Have you been restless, unable to stay still? Peritonsillar abcess also needs immediate Inspect the posterior commonly a symptom of a Monospot is a rapit slide referral (sx of this and cellulitis are severe pharynx and observe systemic illness (i.e. swallowing: grade tonsils test that detects Have you been unable to carry on a conversation? sore throat, odynophagia, trimsus (diff mono). Classified as heterophil Ab opening mouth), medial deviation of the (1: behind pillars, 2: those with ulcers and soft palate, and peritonsillar fold.) between pillars and uvula, agglutination, not specific those without. Make sure for EBV 3: touching uvula, 4: you idetify group A Bbeyond midline). hemolytic strep (GABHS) Is the sore throat related to an infectious cause? Do not examine the due to sequelae parynx if you suspect epiglottitis (may Is anyone else at home sick? Increases likelihood of bact/viral infxn Culture - "gold standard" precipitate obstruction). for GABHS. Can confirm Beyond midline: gonorrhea Are any of your friends or co-workers sick? peritonsillar abscess. Grey When did the pain start? Sudden onset of sore throat is caused by exudate: diptheria. Yellow GABHS. Gradual onset is mono. In viral exudate: GABHS. pharyngitis sore throat is a day after other sx. Noninfectious - insidious onset. How severe is the pain? Strep infxn pain is intense. Influenza/ "Doughnut lesions": red, ASO titer - for enzyme adenovirus throat is severe with edema. raised hemorrhagic lesions streptolysin. Detects Noninfectious "scratchy or annoying" with yellow center are previous strep infection. diagnostic for GABHS Does not aid in diagnosis What does the presence of fever tell me? but in associated Have you had a fever? Present with GABHS (38.5C, malais, HA Palpate the cervicofacial infections (e.g. rheumatic and painful swallowing) and epiglottitis. lymph nodes: anterior fever) Adenovirus has high fever (more than 40C) enlarged in strep, posterior if viral . Cardinal sign of mono. When did it start? Fever that recurrs may indicate peritonsillar CBC with diff - 50% abcess. lymphocytes and 10% atypical lymphocytes How high has it been? Inspect the nasal confirms mono mucosa: red, swollen What does the presence of upper respiratory indicates infection. Pale, symptoms tell me? Do you have a cough? Presense of these 2 are rare with strep and boggy indicate allergy. CT scan - obstruction or suggest viral infection. Influenza is assoc Purulent discharge: swelling Have you had a runny nose? What color is the sinusitis with several days of fever, cough and drainage? Do you have mucus dripping from the back of your rhinorrhea. Clear nasal discharge common Inspect the conjunctiva: Nasal smear - presence to allergic pharyngitis. nose and down your throat? red may indicate of eosinophils on a nasal pharyngoconjunctival fever smear stained with Do you have any eye redness or discomfort? Rare with strep, common to viral or caused by adenovirus. Non Wright's stain suggest allergies purulent discharge. Watery allergic, inflammatory Have your eyes been itchy or watery? discharge: allergic process Have you had any hoarseness? Viral or allergen exposure. Have you been sneezing? Viral or allergen exposure, can be seasonal. What do associated symptoms tell me? Inspect the tympanic membrane - can have Do you have muscle aches? Myalgia common in GABHS, influenza. nontypical H. influenza Have you had any nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea? AOM Does the presence of risk factors help me to Palpate the thyroid narrow the cause? acute thyroiditis How old are you? GABHS is usually 5-15 years. Rare under Inspect the skin - scarlet 3. Influenza is all ages. Parainfluenza, fever has maculopapular adenovirus and RSV is in children. Mono in erythema that spares teenagers. palms and soles What is your smoking history? Musocal irritations What kind of work do you do? Irritants: working outdoors, housekeepers Auscultate the lungs (chemicals) could be mycoplasma pneumoniae in Do you engage in oral sex? Pharyngitis from chlamydia trachomatis adolescents (adventitious) and neisseria gonorrhea
Is this an emergency?
Have you been drooling? Have you been unable to swallow?
Are you taking any medications? Do you have any chronic health problems? Are your immunizations up to date?
Immunosuppression seen with meds
Palpate the abdomen splenomegaly in mono
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Sore Throat DDX: Sore throat, difficulty with secretions, odynophagia Pharyngitis without ulcers: (seen in pediatric patients >2), unable to lie flat, Epiglottitis cannot talk Peritonsillar/ retropharyngeal History of recurrent tonsilitis; sore throat, difficulty abscess swallowing, respiratory symptoms, fever, malaise Viral pharyngitis Group A B-hemolytic streptococcal pharyngitis Scratchy, sore throat, malaise, myalgias, headache, chills, cough, rhinitis Most common in persons 5-15 years; known exposure; fall/winter season; sudden onset of fever, severe sore throat, and malaise; absence of cough and upper respiratory symptoms
Respiratory distress, drooling, toxic appearance; Refer immediately DO NOT EXAMINE PHARYNX
Orthopnea, dyspnea, asymmetrical swelling, abscess, trismus Erythema, edema of throat, tender posterior cervical nodes Temp >38.5C (101.5 F); exudate; anterior cervical lymphadenopathy
Rever immediately; CT scan; head and neck radiographs; laryngoscopy None Positive rapid strep antibody screen, strep culture
Mononucleosis (EBV) Gonococcal pharyngitis Inflammation
Young adults; slow onset of malaise, low-grade +/- pharyngeal exudate, palatine petechiae, temperature, mild sore throat posterior cerv LN, splenomegaly History of orogenital sexual activity; may be Pharyngeal exudate; bilateral cervical asymptomatic lymphadenopathy Exposure to irritants; postnasal drip; allergic symptoms Sinus tenderness, pale or swollen pharynx, postnasal drainage visible, no fever or lymphadenopathy
Positive monospot; CBC with differential >50% leukocytes Gram stain; gonorrhea culture Eosinophils in nasal secretions with allergies
Pharyngitis with ulcers: More common in children; immunosupressed; painful Lymphadenopathy; small greyisk papulovesicular Serology Herpangina (coxsackie virus) throat; fever, malaise lesions of the soft palate and pharynx, progressing to shallow ulcres, <5mm Fusospirochetal infection (Vincent's angina) Poor oral hygiene; painful ulcers, foul breath, bleeding Gray necrotic ulcers without vesicles on the gums ginigcal margins and interdental papillae Gram stain reveals spirochetes
Oral trauma, ill-fitting dentures; painful ulcers vary in size; absence of other symptoms History of trauma to the mucosa; pain, fever, headache Immunosuppressed; persons on antibiotics or with diabetes; sore mouth/throat
Herpes simplex infection Candidiasis
Shallow ulcers, no vesicles; indurated papules that procress to 1cm ulcers; ulcer has yellow membrane and red halo; no fever or nodes Perioral lesions; lymphadenitis; vesicles on palate, pharynx, gingiva Curdlike white plaques that bleed when scraped off
Viral culture KOH smear shows hyphae; culture
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Nasal Symptoms and Sinus Congestion
What are the primary symptoms that will help me narrow the possibilities? How long have these symptoms been present? Acute symptoms with fever/chills: acute infectious rhinitis Do you have a history of nasal or sinus problems? Chronic: rarely infectious, associated with anatomical abnormalities that impair the sinus drainage system Do the symptoms occur at any particular time of the Allergic rhinitis if with sneezing, wheezing, year or season? itchy/burning eyes that are seasonal. IgE response. Early spring (tree pollens), early Is there a family history of allergies or asthma? summer (grass), early fall (weed pollens) Do you have other symptoms? If I suspect sinus problems, what do I need to Maxillary: toothache. Frontal: frontal know? headache worse on wakening. Ethmoid can refer to the vertex, forehead, occipital Do you have a history of sinus problems? or temporal regon. Sphenoid: top of head. Do you have pain? Please point to the areas. Do your symptoms change with position changes?
Perform a general inspection Take vital signs: acute viral rhinitis or acute sinusitis may be afebrile.
Nasal smear eosinophils confirms allergic rhinitis Sinus radiographs for severe/chronic sx CT Scan MRI Sinus aspiration - the only way to confirm diagnosis of bacterial sinusitis
Inspect the face: children with chronic allergic condition have an allergic "salute" (crease on nose from wiping), allergic "shiners" are dark circles under eyes from venous congestion/stasis.
Maxillary sinusitis: worse with bending or Periorbital cellulitis is the Allergy skin testing leaning forward. Postnasal discharge most common serious worse with lying down with sinusitis complication of severe bacterial sinusitis. How long have you had these symptoms? Children: chronic sinusitis is >30 days Do associated symptoms provide any clues? Acute bacterial infection: purulent nasal Perform a regional discharge. Acute rhinitis: bacterial or viral examination of the head and has fever, myalgia, chills. Sinus and neck: eyes (visual complaints: pressure/pain of the cheeks, acuity), ears, LN. forehead, behind eyes. Do you have other acute symptoms such as cough, Acute sinusitis: <30 days, persistent cough, Examine the mouth and fever, or muscle aches? fever >39C for 3 days, malodorous breath. teeth: look for abscesses, MC maxillary and ethmoid sinuses, dental root infection. occasionaly frontal and rarely sphenoid Erythema of tonsils in acute viral rhinitis. Do you have other chronic symptoms, such as eye Seen with chronic sinusitis, not bettwe with pain, bad breath, or fatigue? meds. Is it viral or bacterial? Test for smell severe nasal congestion or What color is your nasal discharge? Yellow or green purulent is viral or ethmoid sinusitis causes bacterial. Watery/clear is allergic. anosmia How long have you had these symptoms? URTI is 5-10 days then subsides Are the symptoms unilateral or bilateral? Is it on Infectious/allergic: bilatral. Unilateral are Inspect condition of one side or both? MC anatomical cause: polyps, septal dev, nasal mucosa and foreign body. turbinates Are there risk factors that will narrow the Smoking has inc risk of sinusitis: more Inspect for masses: nasal diagnosis? mucus and paralysis of the nasal cilia. Risk polyps look like skinned for upper and lower resp tract infections grapes. Septal deviation Do you smoke? predisposes to infection. Are you exposed to others who smoke? Do you have any other health problems? Have you had a recent history of head or facial Rare but serious post-trauma CSF trauma? rhinorrhea may be present. Have you been diving or swimming? Secondary to barotrauma, infection from Note the presence and contaminated water, or allergic response to color of any discharge chlorine pus in middle turbinate suggests bacterial sinusitis. Have you been exposed to infections in day care, CSF drainage will increase school, or work settings? in forward position Are you pregnant? Hormonal changes may lead to nasal congestion Is the patient using any drugs that would cause nasal congestion? Are you using nasal sprays or drops? Do you use cocaine or other drugs? What medications are you taking? Transilluminate the sinuses - complete opacity suggests infection Palpate and percuss fornal and maxiallry sinuses for tenderness Test for facial fullness and pressure - bending forward from the waist or valsalva will worsen sumptoms of a partial or complete sonus obstruction Examine the lungs Perform neurological testing if indicated severe complications from sinusitis - brain anbscesses
Use for more than 1 week can lead to rebound nasal congestion. Also rebound nasal congestion BCPs, ACE inhibitors, B-blockers may cause nasal congestion Is there a systemic disease present? Cystic fibrosis can cause dec mucociliary Have you noticed any other general body symptoms? clearance. Also: diabetes, leukemia, AIDS, hypothyroidism, acromegaly, horner's syndrom, neoplasm can cause nasal sx. Do you have any chronic health problems?
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Nasal symptoms DDX: Infectious rhinitis Allergic rhinitis Nonallergic rhinitis Rhinitis medicamentosus Acute sinusitis
Perennial but more common in winter months; recent Red, swollen mucosa; purulent discharge URI Family history of allergies; sneezing; recurrent pattern; Pale, boggy mucosa; rhinorrhea with clear, more common in children and young adults watery mucus No allergenic cause identified Similar to allergic rhinitis Sollen mucosa; clear mucus or dry mucosa Purulent discharge; maxillary toothache on percussion; postnasal drainage; decreased transillumination Same as above; decreased or no transillumination; obstruction such as deviated septum, polyps
Nasal smear for neutrophils, intracellular bacteria Nasal smear for eosinophils; allergy testing Absence of eosinophilia on nasal cytology None None
History of medication use: oral contraceptives, nasal sprays, antihypertensives; nasal congestion Smoker; recent URI; winter months; frontal headaches made worse with forward bending; sensation of fullness or pressure History of previous sinus infections; dull ache or no pain; persistent symptoms
Sinus radiographs; CT scan; sinus aspiration and culture
History of asthma, aspirin intolerance; foreign body in Increased pain with forward motion or valsalva; children; tumor in adults' infeants with choanal atresia: pain with percussion and palpation of the difficulty feeding; cyanosis if bilateral sinuses; no transillumination; septal deviation
Sinus radiographs; CT scan
History of asthma. Aspirin intolerance.
Presence of polyps
May require biopsy
Osteomyelitis of the frontal bone
History of head trauma, diving
Appear severely ill; periorbital and fronal edema
Sinus and skull radiograph; blood culture
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Non Emergent Chest Pain
If acute ischemic heart disease is unlikely, other causes could be from pulmonary, GI, psychological, musculoskeletal, or pericarditis Many causes of noncardiac chest pain relate to anatomy. In children, costochondritis is most common and respiratory conditions associated with cough
First, is this a life threatening condition? Can you describe the pain? What does it feel like? E.g. dull, sore stabbing, burning, squeezing?
Substernal heaviness, pressure or squeezing provoked by exertion is anginal. Tearing pain is aortic dissection. PE: gripping, stabbing over lung. Sudden onset and dyspnea is with PE. Pneumonia is more gradual. Determine if it is exercise related Chronic pain is less likely to have a cause MI: n/d/v SOB, syncope. PE: SOB, apprehension, hemoptysis. Fever, cough, think sputum in pneumonia. Major risk factors for CAD: smoking, HT, low HDL, family history, age (men >45, women >55)
Observe general appearance. MI: diaphoretic, pale, anxious. PE: anxious, cyanotic. Rib fx: shallow breaths. Measure vital signs and respiratory patterns Aortic dissection: hypotension and unequal pulses.
ECG - good to compare previous ECG's. ST elevation means injured myocardium. T wave inversion: ischemia.
When did it start? What were you doing when it started? How long have you had the pain? What other symptoms have you noticed?
Treatmill exercise testing - tests risk of severe CAD
Palpate trachea and chest - pneumothorax. Palpate for tenderness, depressions, buldges. Costochondritis is pain What were you doing when the pain first occurred? where bone meets Emergent chest pain: Point to where the pain is located. Does it spread to Localized pain is more likely non-emergent. cartilage. constricting, squeezing, any other part of your body? burning, heavy. It What seems to trigger the pain? Percuss the chest radiates. Does the pain awaken you from sleep? Awakening because of pain signals more Auscultate breath serious problems such as cardiac sounds ischemia. Non emergent chest pain: What do associated symptoms tell me? Auscultate for dull or sharp. adventitious sounds Usually infection. Do you have a cough or a change in your usual Submammary and cough? hemothorax areas. Pain Do you bring up sputum? If so, how much and what Pneumonia sputum: green, rust color, or Auscultate heart sounds provoked by body colour? red. - MI cannot be ID'd movements or breaths Do you have a fever? May indicate pneumonia, myocarditis,PE Observe spine for evidence of scoliosis Are you lightheaded or dizzy? MC caused by structural heart disease, arrhythmias, and cornary insufficiency. MC benign in children - breathing difficulties. Chronic pain is rarely emergent. May be related to URTI or GERD. Do you feel like your heart is racing? Is the pattern of pain related to activity and position change? Describe your recent physical activities. Caffeine, stress, hormonal changes, mitral Examine abdomen valve prolapse, and drugs can cause auscultate, palpate for palpitations tenderness/masses. Physical activities can cause muscle strains, rib fracturs, contusions. Decreased exercise tolerance: shunts, CAD, or arrhythmias. Investigate any episode during exercise. Recent muscle strain, hemo/pneumothorax, rib fracture. Pain of cardiac origin, except pericarditis, is not affected by respiration. Sharp, pleuritis pain relieved by sitting up is pericarditis. Pain worse with movement over sternum: costochondritis.
Does the patient have risk factors for CAD? How old are you? Do you smoke? Do you have high BP, diabetes, or heart dz? Do you have a history of MI? Has anyone in your family had a heart attack or stroke before age 60? If this is not a life-threatening condition, what does a description of pain tell me? Is the pain acute or chronic?
Inspect the skin. Cool, pale, moist skin in MI, PE, or aortic dissection. Look for herpes zoster. Bruises. Look for central cyanosis.
Exercise myocardial perfusion imaging Cardiac Engymes: CKMD rise within 4 hours of MI, peak at 24 hrs. Troponins T and I are predictive for future events. Remain elevated 7-10 days. Echocardiography Ventilation/ Perfusion Lung Scan - for PE Pulmonary angiography
Arterial Blood gases detect resp alkalosis from hyperventilation
Radiography pneumothorax and pneumonia
CT Scan MRI
Examine extremities: aPTT and PT for clubbing, cyanosis, pulses anticoagulant therapy (atherosclerosis, aneurysm) Serum amylase and lipase - pancreas.
Have you had any injury to your chest? Does chest movement or position make the pain better or worse?
Is there a GI origin for the patient's chest pain? Does the pain get better or worse from eating? Do you have blood in your stools? Have you vomited any blood? Could this pain be from a systemic cause? Do you have any skin problems? Do you have any chronic health problems? Pain of esophagitis and cardiac origin are hard to ddx, both better with nitro. Esophagitis is associated with meals. Peptic ulceration. Pancreatitis has hypotension. consider herpes zoster: persistent unilateral pain thet is pruritis, burning, or stabbing. Local inflammation of muscles in polymyositis, fibromyalgia, or SLE. Sickle cell disease can cause chest pain. Marfan syndrom: inc risk for aortic dissection
Bronchoscopy CBC - elevated WBC's with infection Esophageal pH - for GERD Endoscopy
What does family history tell me? Has anyone in your family had heart disease, chest Hypertension, hypertrophic pain, or sudden death from cardiac arrest? cardiomyopathy, CAD have strong family history. Has anyone in your family been born with heart problems? What is the emotional state of the patient? In the past 6 months, have you had a spell or an Panic disorder, anxiety, depression. May attack in which you felt frightened, anxious, or very have difficulty taking a deep breath. uneasy? Or has your heart begun to race, felt faint, or you could not catch your breath?
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Nonemergent Chest Pain DDX: Stable angina
Substernal chest pressure following exercise or stress Normal examination; possible transient S4 and relieved by rest or nitroglycerin; nausea, SOB, diaphoresis, sternal chest pressure
ECG during episode of chest pain
Chest pain; history of fever, dyspnea Sharp, stabbing pain referred to left shoulder or trapezius ridge, usually worse during coughing or deep breathing; may be relieved by sitting forward; history of viral or bacterial infection, autoimmune disease
Heart murmur, friction rub, fever Fever before onset of pain, tachycardia, pericardial friction rub
ECG, chest radiograph WBC, ESR, ECG, chest radiograph
Chest pain on exertion, subsernal and anginal in Radial pulse diminished; narrow pulse pressure; Echocardiogram, ECG, chest quality; fatigue, palpitations, DOE, dizziness, syncope loud, hars, crescendo-decresc murmur heard at radiograph 2nd R ICS leaning forward; thrill Exertional chest pain, fatigue, palpitations, dizziness, Holosystolic, blowing, often loud murmur heard at Chest radiograph, ECG, DOE, syncope apex in L lateral position, which dec on echocardiogram inspiration; murmur may radiate to the axilla and possibly the back Productive cough of yellow or green or rust sputum; dyspnea; pleuritic pain Chest pain, varies in location and intensity; palpitations; anxiety; non-exertional pain of short duration, history of Marfan's syndrome Mild, localized chest pain, worse with deep breathing; recent URI Substernal pain worse after eating and lying down; sour taste in mouth History of injury or trauma; pain with deep breaths; splinting of chest wall Pain along sternal border, increases with deep breaths, distory of exercise, URI or physical activity Fever; tachycardia, tachypnea; inspiratory crackles; vocal fremitus; percussion dull or flat over consolidation; bronchophony. Egophony Dysrhythmias, possible midsystolic click over apex, hear best sitting or squatting; thoracoskeletal deformity common in children Shallow respirations, local tenderness, pleural friction rub Epigastric pain with palpation Chest radiograph; sputum cultures; ABGs ECG, echocardiogram
Mitral valve prolapse
None initially Esophageal pH
Chest trauma (rib fracture) Costochondritis
Shallow respirations; chest wall pain on palpation Chest radiograph Pain with palpation over costochondral joints; normal breath sounds None
Herpes zoster Peptic ulcer disease Cholecystitis
Unilateral chest pain; painful rash
Normal breath sounds; vesicular rash along dermatome Epigastric pain 1-2hrs after eating, > antacits; Tenderness to palpation in the epigastric area; hematemesis and melena. Risks: smoking, alcohol signs of hypovolemia Right upper quadrant abdominal pain radiating to the Positive Murphy's sign; palpable gallbladder right chest, often following high-fat meal; nausea and vomiting
None Upper GI radiograph, upper endoscopy, CBC Gallbladder ultrasound
Acute pancreatitis Lung tumors
Severe left upper quadrant abdominal pain radiating into the left chest; pain worse supine; n/v, fever Chest pain, SOB, cough, hemoptysis, history of cigarette smoking; history of pneumonia
Left upper abdominal pain with palpation; hypotension Normal exam or diminished breath sounds over tumor and dull percussion over tumor
Serum amylase. Pancreas ultrasound or CT scan. Chest radiograph, CT scan of the chest, bronchoscopy
Cocaine use Psychogenic origin Pleurodynia
Chest pain, SOB, diaphoresis, nausea; may relate to Tachycardia, hypertension substance use Precordial chest pain, history of stressful situations Normal exam
ECG, serial cardiac enzymes, drug screen ECG, chest radiograph None
Severe, acute onset, stabbing, paroxysmal, pleuritis pain over lower ribcage and substernal edge; headache, malaise, nonproductive cough
Pleural friction rub 25% of time; chest examination normal; fever usually present
Precordial catch syndrome
Sudden sharp not distressing pain near apex of heart; Normal examination seen in adolescence
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Is this a medical emergency?
assess adequacy of the airway
Did this come on suddenly, or has it been New-onset acute may be an emergency developing gradually? Over what period of time did it such as: foreign body, anaphylaxis, PE, develop? pneumoT What were you doing before having difficulty breathing? Do you have other symptoms, such as itching or swelling? Rule out epiglotitis in children: drooping, dysphonia, looks toxic. Anaphylaxis from insect bites or ingestion of potential allergins (meds, food)
Note general appearance Transcutanous pulse and observe posture: oximetry respiratory distress? Chest radiography
Electrocardiography Assess level of consciousness Observe chest movement: PE and pneumothorax have unequal expansion Inspect shape and symmetry of chest: kyphosis & scoliosis can cause dyspnea. Inc AP diameter in COPD (air trapping) Echocardiography Hemoglobin and Hematocrit anemia Spirometry: in COPD, FEV1 and the ratio are dec. In restrictive lung disease (pneumonia, pnumothorax, pleural effusion) FVC is reduced and ratio is normal or elevated
Is the dyspnea caused by secondary obstruction Obstruction may be intraluminal (foreign in the lower respiratory tract? body, asthma), intramural (edema, Have you had a cough or cold symptoms recently? bronchiolitis), extramural (compression from tumor, lymph nodes) Do you have a history of asthma? Is there a family history of asthma? Is the dyspnea caused by trauma to the chest? Have you experienced trauma to the chest? limitation of movement of thoracic cage Is the dyspnea caused by a pulmonary embolus? Risk for PE: >60, pulmonary HT, CHF, chronic lung disease, ischemic heart Have you been confined to bed recently? Had recent disease, stroke, cancer. Also: 1) venous stasis, 2) hypercoagulability, 3) endothelial surgery? Had a recent fracture? injury. MC after prolonged immobility, Are you taking BCPs? Do you smoke? trauma to leg. Do you take any other medications? Are you feeling anxious or scared? People with PE feel a sense of impending doom. May be caused by O2 depletion Is the dyspnea related to a preexisting disease? CAD, valvular disease, CopD, or asthma can cause dyspnea. Also MI. Also things that dec oxygen capacity of blood (e.g. Do you have a history of heart problems? Lung anemia) problems (asthma)? Anemia?
Look for retractions CT Scan contractions of intercostals Pulmonary angiography Observe rate, rhythm and for PE depth of respiration for 1 full minute - expiration longer in COPD. Tachypnea: resp distress. CBC with diff for bacterial infection BUN and creatinine for renal function ABGs
Listen for stridor inspiratory airway obstruction Do you have any numbness or tingling in your body? Hyperventilation syndrome: nonemergent. Listen for audible wheeze Sputum culture Where? Paresthesias around mouth and distal and voice changes extremities. Have you noticed any other symptoms? > rest if lung/cardia orgin. < rest if from Take pulse, temperature, anxiety and blood pressure. What factors precipitate or aggravate dyspnea? Smoking most frequently causes chronic Palpate pulses. dyspnea. COPD > rest. What activities are associated with SOB? Inspect oral cavity foreign body. Do you take any prescription medication? Do you have any known allergies? Trees? Dust? Associated with asthma. Inspect the nose Pollen? Animals? Have you been exposed recently? patency and flaring Is there anything that makes your SOB better? Sit up? Stay indoors? Lie down? Use meds? Is the dyspnea caused by a neuromuscular problem? Are the patient's immunizations up to date? Child: has the infant had honey? Do you live on a farm? Child: are they at risk for lead poisoning? Do you have a headache, muscle weakness, or visual changes? Does the patient have any pertinent risk factors that will point me in the right direction? Do you or have you smoked? Are you exposed to cigarette smoke frequently? What type of work do you do? Have you had recent weight gain? Have you ever had eczema? Palpate the neck masses and trachea Examine skin and extremities: cyanosis, pallor (anemia), clubbing, peripheral edema, angioedema (allergy), cap refill, diaphoresis Palpate the chest Asses for vocal fremitus diminished in pneumothorax, asthma, emphysema. Inc in pneumonia, heart failure, tumor Percuss the chest Auscultate breath sounds Auscultate heart sounds
May result in paresis/paralysis of resp muscles. Can be caused by infections: poliomyelitis, tetanus. Botulism --> respiratory distress. Organophosphate chemicals can cause a myasthenia-like syndrome Could also be: meningitis, seizures, CNS lesion
Exposure to: asbestos, silicon, paint and chemical fumes, coal dust. Obese patients report SOB more frequently than their counterparts. Assoc with asthma
Page 9 of 52
Dyspnea DDX: Emergent Conditions Pulmonary Embolus
Acute-onset dyspnea, cough, mild to severe chest Restlessness, fever, tachycardia, tachypnea, pain, sense if impending doom; hemoptysis; history of diminshed breath sounds, crackles, wheezing, DVT, recent surgery, oral contraceptive, smoker, pleural friction rub hyperco-aguability states Acute-onset dyspnea; history of eating or drinking Apnea or tachypnea, restlessness, suprasternal large amounts of alcohol; in children, history of putting retractions, intoxication, inspiratory stridor, small objects in the mouth; possible cough localized wheeze Acute-onset dyspnea; history of insect sting, ingestion of drug, or allergen Acute-onset dyspnea; sharp, tearing chest pain; pain may radiate to ipsilateral shoulder History of upper respiratory infection Positional sitting forward; sore throat, anxious, toxic child Recent viral infection Recent URI, exposure to allergins, breathlessness Angioedema, tachypnea, clammy skin, hypotension, bilateral wheezes, tachycardia Tachycardia, diminished breath sounds, decreased tactile fremitus, hyper-resonance of lung area affected; possible hypertension and tracheal shift Hoarse, seal-bark cough, fever (variable) High fever, drooling, stridor, muffled voice
ABGs, chest radiograph, ECG, ventilation/ perfusion scan
Foreign body aspiration
Lateral neck radiograph, chest radiograph, bronchoscopy
None; emergency measures necessary Chest radiograph, ABGs
Croup Acute epiglottitis
None initially; if respiratory distress increases, pulse oximeter and referral Admit; life threatening
Bacterial tracheitis Status asthmaticus Botulism
Fever, stridor, purulent sputum Wheezing, coughing, tachycardia, tachypnea
Radiography of airway, WBC increased, tracheal culture Peak flows, chest radiograph, ABGs Pulmonary function testing, chest radiograph, fluroscopy, stool culture
Honey ingestion in infant, contaminated food ingestion Hypoventilation, drooling, weak cry, ptosis, ophthalmoplegia, loss of head control
Nonemergent conditions: Pneumonia
Dyspnea, cough, sputum production (green, rust, or Fever, tachycardia, tachypnea, inspiratory Chest radiograph, sputum cultures, red), pleuritis chest pain, chills; in infants and children: crackles, asynchronous breathing, vocal fremitus, ABGs, WBC irritability and feeding problems percussion dull or flat over area of consolidation, bronchophony, egophony Dyspnea, lightheadedness, palpitations, paresthesias Restlessness, anxiety, normal CV examination (perioral and extremities) Neonate, infant: history of stridor, history of URI Infant: dyspnea, brassy cough, difficulty swallowing Chronic progressive dyspnea, cough, frothy sputum, fatigue, lightheadedness, syncope, weight gain, ankle swelling, palpitations, PND, orthopnea, hidsory of heart disease; in children, chronic progressive dyspnea, sweating above lip and forehead, expecially while eating Dyspnea on exertion, fatigue, palpitations, lightheadedness, history of chronic disease Dyspnea on exertion, weight gain, palpitation on exertion, sedentary lifestyle, cigarette smoker Dyspnea, paroxysmal cough, audible wheeze, history of asthma or allergies Inspiratory stridor; normal cough, cry Inspiratory stridor with expiratory wheeze Chest radiograph Refer for visualization of larynx Barium swallow, echocardiography
Hyperventilation syndrome Laryngomalacia Vascular ring Heart failure
Altered level of consviousness, restlessness, ECG, chest radiograph, ABGs, jugular venous distention, tachypnea, use of echocardiogram accessory muscles to breathe, rales, rhonchi, wheezes, tachycardia, decreased peripheral pulses, cool extremities, desplaced PMI, S3, S4, ascites, liver enlargement Pallor, tachypnea, cool dry skin on extremities, possible orthostatis hypotension Overweight, tachycardia Restlessness, tachypnea, use of accessory muscles to breathe, intercostal retractions, decreased vocal fremitus, decreased breath sounds, inspiratory and possible expiratory wheezes CBC, iron studies Cardiac stress test Spirometry, chest radiograph, ABGs
Anemia Poor physical conditioning Asthma
Chronic progressive dyspnea, dyspnea on exertion, persistent cough, minimal sputum, easy fatigue, history of smoking
Rapid shallow respirations, reddish complexion, Chest radiograph, pulmonary function test, exercise tests, ABGs increased AP diameter of thorax, use of accessory muscles to breathe, pursed lip breathing, decreased tactile fremitus, decreased respiratory excursion bilaterally, lungs hyperresonant, distant breath sounds, prolonged expiration, occasional wheezes, possible tachycardia, muffled heart sounds
Page 10 of 52
Is there a pregnancy? Are you sexually active?
Important to rule out pregnancy! Ask questions about having nonconsensual sex. Contraceptive failures may account for unintended pregnancy. Amenorrhea may occur after discontinuation. Unintended or intended. Also may refer amenorrheic patient to infertility clinic. Age range for menarche is 9-17yrs. If established menses (no outlet flow problem and HPO axis & endometrium functioning) at intervals of every 21-38 days then classification of secondary. Begins w/ growth spurt 1 yr before breast buds at ~11yrs. Pubic hair at beginning of menarche. Avg age for menarche 12 years 4months. Can look at peds growth chart to see if normal dev. Primary - lack of menses & 2o sex char. by 14 or lack of menses by 16 w/ 2o sex char. Ask about mother/sister's menses onset if delayed. Secondary - Absence of menses for 6 months or cycle > 35days.
Note general Pregnancy Test: rule out appearance: short stature, pregnancy. under/overweight. Thyroid stimulating hormone: Identifies hypothyroidism. Menses resumes w/ Assess nutritional status supplementation. and plot measurements on growth chart in Prolactin levels: fasting adolescents: under/ levels. overnutrition. Height, If high or galactorrhea weight, arm span. RO adenoma or illicit drugs. Screen for eating disorders: Anorexia or bulimia. Refer to DSM for criteria. Calculate BMI: 17% (19kg/m2) body fat needed for menses and 22% body fat for ovulation. BMI > 27% obesity = imbalance in HPO axis Serum Follicle Stimulating Hormone: Inc FSH = ovarian failure w/ low E2 FSH & LH > 50, primary ovarian failure. Low FSH = hypothalamicpit. Dysfxn & 2o ovarian failure.
Lack of menstruation that Are you using any birth control methods? may be a result of 1o or 2o causes. Are you trying to become pregnant? Is this primary or secondary? Have you ever had a menstrual cycle?
Have you started pubertal development? Can you show me how your breast and pubic hair look compare with these pictures? (see pics in book pg.314 3rd ed.) At what age did you start you periods? When was your last normal menstrual period? What is the nature of your periods (amount of flow, frequency, duration)?
Are there any constitutional delays causing the amenorrhea? Has there been a change in weight, % body fat, or athletic training intensity?
Severe stress of anorexia can produce prolonged amenorrhea. Low body fat causes menstrual irregularity. Examine skin and hair: Obesity - sign of PCOS or cause of thyroid dysfxn, Cushing's, amenorrhea. androgen excess.
Stress can disrupt normal cyclic menses. Are you under unusual stress at school, home or work? Do you or anyone in your family have any congenital Turner's syndrome- abnormality of disorders or chronic diseases? components necessary for menses. Structural anomalies - prevent outflow. Anorexia, DM, Crohn's, SLE, GN, CF, pituitary adenoma, adrenal diseases & thyroid dysfxn. Could this be a thyroid dysfunction? Have you noticed changes in the texture of your hair Hyperthyroidism - heat intolerant or skin? Hypothyroidism - cold intolerant Are you bothered by hot or cold temperatures? Have you had any changes in your energy level / bowel function? Could this be caused by hyperprolactinemia? Are you able to express a discharge or liquid from your nipples? Nipple d/c not associated with breastfeeding or medications (dopamine antagonists/ estrogens). Inc thyroid fxn - restlessness, diarrhea Dec thyroid fxn - constipation, fatigue
Perform head & neck exam: visual changes, webbed neck, lowset ears. Serum LH: LH:FSH > 2:1 suggestive of PCOS, >3:1 diagnostic.
Palpate thyroid gland and CNS Imaging: If both lymph nodes: FSH, LH low indicative of enlargement, bruits, pituitary problem. Use lymphadenopathy. contrast CT or MRI to determine ABN. Perform breast exam: sexual maturation level, axillary hair, galactorrhea. Pelvic U/S & Vaginal U/S: presence of uterus & size, endometrial thickness, fibroids, tumors, cysts.
Perform pelvic exam: maturation of female genitalia, secondary sex characteristics. Is there increased stimulation to your nipples? Galactorrhea - from clothing irritation, Absence of vagina, cervix sexual activity, LN dissection, herpes Have you had any surgery or disease of the breasts or uterus. zoster or chest wall? Outlet problems, assess vaginal walls. Could the hyperprolactinemia be caused by Meds such as phenothiazines or Bimanual examination medications? contraceptives cause amenorrhea (inc prolactin, induce estrogenic effect, toxic to enlarged ovaries, position/size of cervix / ovaries) What prescription medicines are you taking? Heroin and methadone lead to menstrual uterus. Have you used any street drugs? What kind of drugs abnormalities. have you used? Is a pituitary tumor causing the amenorrhea? Have you experienced any visual changes? Hyperprolactin state - pituitary tumor --> may cause headache, visual defects (optic Are you having an increased number of headaches? chiasm & nerves compressed) Is this a problem of the HPO Axis? Have you experienced any problems with infertility? Main cause = failure of ovulation. PCOS b/w ages 15-30. Do you have excess hair on your face or chest? 50% of women w/ PCOS are hirsute & obese, difficulty conceiving. LH elevated. Androgen excess - truncal obesity, acne, male pattern baldness Are you having menopausal symptoms (Hot flashes, Estrogen deficiency - menopausal sx. May vaginal dryness)? see dyspareunia, dysuria. Prolonged may lead to osteopenia. Did you hemorrhage during childbirth? May lead to amenorrhea - Sheehan's syndrome. Is this a problem of the uterus? Endometriosis, incomplete abortion, or aggressive curettage of uterus can lead to Have you had a miscarriage or abortion, uterine infection, or any surgery or procedure involving your denuding of endometrial layer, scarring & Asherman's syndrome. uterus? What symptoms support a structural outflow problem? Do you have a cyclic abdominal bloating or cramping? Have you been amenorrheic since you had a cervical procedure? Incomplete outflow tract (imperforate hymen/ cervical os) - dysmenorrhea w/ absence of menses Stenosis of cervical os - can occur after surgeries (cervical biopsies)
Progesterone Challenge Test (Prog. Withdrawl Test): administer progesterone (oral/IV). If +ve patient will bleed, functioning outflow tract, intact HPO axis.
Estrogen & Progesterone Challenge test: +ve if flow w/in 27days, indicates inadequate estrogen production.
Chromosome Analysis: abnormalities in development.
Endrometrial Biopsy Basal Body Temp. Charting Progesterone Levels Maturation Index
Page 11 of 52
DDX: AMENORRHEA Pregnancy Constitutional Problems: Delayed puberty
Breast tenderness, morning sickness, urinary frequency.
Globular, enlarged uterus; soft, bluish colour cervix
B-hCG pregnancy test positive; U/S positive. Prolactin normal; TSH, T4 normal; CBC, UA normal; chemistry profile normal; bone age normal; skull radiograph normal
No menstruation at age beyond 16 years; more than 5 Breast stage 1 persists beyond age 13.4; pubic years b/w initiation of breast growth and menarche. hair stage 1 persists beyond 14.1.
Anorexia nervosa / bulimia
Mean age 13-14; fear of being fat; low self-esteem; depression; isolation; overachiever; food is a parental battleground; preoccupation; hair loss; abdominal bloating, pain, constipation.
Amenorrhea before or after weight loss; cachexia; low body fat; short stature; yellow, dry, cold skin; acrocyanosis; increased lanugo hair; hypotension, systolic murmurs, often mitral valve prolapse. BMI < 17% body fat
TSH normal; prolactin normal; FSH & LH usually low; glucose normal; ECG: bradycardia, low-voltage changes, T wave inversion and occasional ST depression. TSH normal; prolactin normal.
Exercise Induced Amenorrhea Began athletic training at young age; more common w/ long distance runners, ballerinas, gymnasts.
Congenital or Chronic Disorders: Turner's syndrome
Congenital; short stature; infantile sexual development.
Characteristics: webbed neck, low set ears, shieldlike chest, short fourth metacarpal
Cushing's syndrome Thyroid dysfunction
Weight gain; weakness; back pain Hypothyroid: delayed growth, weight gain, fatigue, constipation, cold intolerance; hyperthyroid: wt loss, nervousness, heat intolerance Infertility Monthly bloating, cramping and pelvic pressure; no menses; cryotherapy or other procedure to cervix
Moon face, acne, hirsutism, purple striae of abdomen Hypothyroid: dry skin, fine hair, galactorrhea; hyperthyroid: moist skin, hyperpigmentation over bones, thin hair, goiter Hirsutism; obese; enlarged ovaries Fibrotic hymen without patent opening; stenotic cervical os
Cortisol increased; 17-ketosteroids increased; CT adenoma Hypothyroid: TSH high; Hyperthyroid: TSH low; T3 high; T4 high U/S: enlarged overies w/ multiple fluid filled cysts; Testosterone high. Clinical diagnosis by history and findings
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Uterine and Outflow Tract Problems: Imperforate hymen/ stenotic cervical OS
History of uterine infection; tuberculosis, Pelvic exam normal schistosomiasis; uterine iatrogenic scarring; curettage, irradiation Hot flashes, night sweats, insomnia, mood changes Pale, dry vaginal mucosa; few rugae
PCT negative; E and PCT negative; hysteroscopy adhesions FSH and LH high; estradiol low
Hypothalamic-pituitaryOvarian Axis Problem: Menopause Sheehan's syndrome Medications/ chest wall or nipple stimulation
Recent history of postpartum hemorrhage and shock during delivery Breast nipple d/c; history of dopamine antagonists, estrogens, or illicit drugs; stimulation to nipples; exercise or sexual history of chest wall surgery or herpes zoster
Hair loss; depigmentation of skin; mammary and genital atrophy Nipple discharge: bilateral; multiduct; milky, clear or yellowish discharge
Pituitary and end-organ hormones low; hemoglobin low Wet mount or hemoccult of nipple discharge: -ve for RBCs; prolactin high; cone-down view of sella turcica; MRI or CT with contrast
Delayed puberty; history of visual changes, increasing Visual defects; galactorrhea headaches
Prolactin high; cone-down view of sella turcica positive; MRI or CT with contrast positive
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Breast Lumps & Nipple Discharge
Is this lump likely to be malignant? How long has the lump been present? Is the lump changing (eg. Getting bigger, worse, more painful?) Is the lump in 1 breast or lumps in both? When was your last menstrual period?
Malignant lesion = single, hard, painless lump, unchanged by hormonal cycle, progressive increase in size Benign lump = unchanged, sometimes resolves w/in 2-3 menstrual cycles Malignant = solitary unilateral Benign = bilateral, identical quadrants
Inspect breast & nipples: arms at side, on hips, elevated above head, bending forward. Look for dimpling, asymmetry, inversion.
Ultrasound: differentiates solid from cystic. Mammography: for nonpalpable lesions
Cyclic cysts less common after menopause Observe skin of breasts MRI: evaluates abnormal therefore warrant investigation. and nipples: erythema, lesions on mammogram, Peri/post menopausal at greater risk for prominent vessels, good for dense breast CA. eczema, pigmented lesions tissue Is there any discharge from the nipple? Ductal CA - nipple d/c w/ a lump (eg (Paget's), crack, exudate, Paget's - mass w/ bloody d/c.) retraction. 80-90% of breast lump Have you recently been treated for a breast Masses after ABC's suspicious for Fine needle aspiration found before diagnosis infection? malignancy & require biopsy. & Cytological Exam: Palpate breasts & through clinical breast differentiates solid vs. nipples: feel for lumps, Does the person have additional risk factors for Inc risk of malignancy if: exam. Risk of breast CA breast cancer? cystic (in-office) nodules, feel tail of - Hx of epithelial hyperplasia, ductal acceralerates after age Spence. carcinoma in situ (DCIS) or lobular 50. Nipple d/c associated Have you ever had breast cancer? carcinoma in situ (LCIS) Do you have a family history of breast cancer (first - tumors in adolesents more likely to be Palpate lymph nodes: Stereotactic or needle w/ pregnancy, breast feeding or estrogenic degree relative)? supra/infraclavicular, localization biopsy: for metastasis than primary tumor axillary. Note size, poorly defined masses meds. - 75% of all cases occur >50 yrs old Have you ever had ovarian, endometrial, colon, or consistency and mobility. - previous hx of breast biopsy for benign thyroid cancer? Do you have a family history of ovarian, endometrial, breast disease (LCIS) Assess nipple well: - genetic mutation (BRCA1, BRCA2 genes) depress nipple ino areola colon or prostate cancer? Core needle biopsy: for - Hx of CA (Ovarian, endometrial, colon, should move easily. difficult to palpate Have you ever received radiation to the chest or had thyroid) masses malignancy in childhood? Examine Nipple for - Family Hx (First deg. relatives) discharge: uni/bilateral, Is this condition more likely to be benign? single/multiple ducts, take Excisional biopsy: gold standard for masses. sample of d/c . How old are you? Fibrocystic breast changes b/w 20-30 Fibroadenomas b/w 15-39 Intraductal papilloma & ductal ectasia b/w 35-50 Breast carcinoma b/w 40-70 Have you had lumps before? Do you have a history Fibrocystic breasts - Painful, mobile lumps Transluminate breast Microscopy: of nipple of cystic breast changes or lumpy breasts? that increase in size & tenderness, discrete masses: solid mass will d/c reveals "fat cells" of borders changes correspond with not transluminate galactorrhea, leukocytes, menstrual cycle (malignant) RBCs. Does this lump feel like other lumps youve had? Do the lumps come & go or change with your periods? Have you ever had a mammogram or u/s? Why was it done? What were the results? Have you ever had a lump drained or biopsied? What was the diagnosis? Have you had breast implants? Cyclical changes correspond w/ benign disease along w/ clear fluid aspirate from cyst. No changes of tissue on mammogram or U/S. Characterize lump: depth of lesion, contour, shape, Cytological smear: may flutuation, firmness, expose cancerous cells mobility. Ductography: for the cause of nipple d/c Serum PRL levels: elevated can produce d/c Thyroid functioning test: TSH high in hypoT cause of hyperprolactinemia
Ruptured implant pushes augmented breast tissue away from chest wall. Could this lump be mastitis related to lactation? Breast masses in lactating women usually associated w/ mastitis & a blocked duct. Usually caused by Staph aureus. Have you recently had a baby? CA in lactating women rare. Are you currently breast feeding/ suckling? Are your nipples sore, cracked or pierced?? May be site for infection Is your breast painful or hot? Areas of redness? Mastitis - painful, hot, red breast Inflammatory BR CA - swollen heavy, edematous breast (m/c in non lactating women) Have you had a fever? sign of infectious mastitis - associated w/ lactation & breast feeding Is this normal lactation? When was your last menstrual period? How frequent Fibrocystic changes manifest as are your cycles? spontaneous multiple duct d/c. Is it possible you are pregnant? What are you using Pregnancy - m/c cause of galactorrhea; for birth control? bloody d/c due to vascular engorgement When was your last delivery or miscarriage? How Normal lactation - milky, non purulent d/c long were you pregnant? Mastitis/ sub aerolar abscess - purulent d/c (DDx w/ inflammatory CA by use of ABCs) BCP - clear, serous or milky d/c Did you breastfeed? For how long? When did you Duct ectasia/ Papillomatosis - green/brown stop? d/c Is the nipple discharge clear or milky? Bloody d/c - benign or cancerous How long have you had the nipple discharge? Is the discharge related to high prolactin? What medications are you taking? Do you jog or run? If yes: Do you wear a sports bra? Do your nipples rub on your clothing? Are your breasts fondled, squeezed, or suckled during sexual activity? Do you have a thyroid condition? What medical / health problems do you have? If a newborn: has d/c been present since birth? Can nipple d/c be a sign of malignancy? Is the nipple d/c spontaneous or must it be expressed? Does it come from one or both nipples? Does it come from one or multiple nipple ducts? Do you also have a breast lump? Are you post menopausal? New onset d/c requires further investigation. Discontinuation should elimate d/c Stimulation inc. PRL levels along w/ marijuana.
responsible for galactorrhea (eg. hypoT, pit. Adenoma, Cushing's, cirrhosis) Witch's milk - effects of maternal estrogen Spontaneous - concerning, lactation, systemic Unilateral spontaneous d/c - intraductal papilloma or CA Unilateral - ass. w/ intraductal papilloma / CA Single duct w/ intraductal papilloma / CA May be benign or malignant. Futher investigate. Higher incidence of CA
Page 13 of 52
DDX: BREAST LUMPS & NIPPLE DISCHARGE Usually older than 35; unilateral new lump Single Breast Mass: Cancer
Single, hard, nontender, fixed lump; borders irregular or not discrete; may be erythema, dimpling, increased vessel patterns; may have nipple discharge round or elliptical; soft or fluctuant; mobile Single, sharply circumscribed mobile lump Single mass; irregular shape; chronic abscess may be nontender Single, fixed and often irregular tumour Single tumours; smooth, well-defined; fluctuant consistency Single; irregular shape; nontender
Diagnostic mammogram; ultrasound; tissue biopsy
Cysts Fibroadenoma Abscess Fat necrosis Lipoma Tuberculosis
Younger age, often younger than 35; often multiple Common in adolescence History of mastitis May have history of injury at site May have others on arms, trunk, buttocks, or back; usually nontender History of Tb, Positive PPD, or chest radiography; immunocompromised patient status
Clinical exam; FNA:Clear aspirate; mammogram; U/S: cysts Diagnostic mammogram; ultrasound; biopsy Biopsy Biopsy Biopsy Biopsy
Ruptured implant Inflammatory Breast Mass: Mastitis and acute abscess
History of augmentation; change in shape or size of breast
Nodule palpated best when patient is sitting
Diagnostic mammogram; U/S; MRI
Primigravidas more often than gravidas; >1wk after delivery; breast feeding; tender nipples
Red, warm, tender; usually unilateral, one fourth Culture positive for S. aureus, E. of breast, or one lobule; breast engorgement; Coli, Strep; Elevated WBCs fever; nipple discharge: pus Biopsy
Inflammatory Breast cancer
History of mastitis or inflammory process of breast Entire breast swollen; fever rarely present; axillary lymphadenopathy Multiple or Bilateral Breast Lumps: Fibrocystic breast changes Multiple breast lumps of both breasts; cyclic changes Bilateral nodularity; dominant lumps; tender, that worsen at time of menses mobile Nipple Discharge: Intraductal Papilloma Fibrocystic breast changes Duct ectasia
FNA; Ultrasound; Mammogram
Bloody nipple d/c; usual age is 40-50yr
Diagnostic mammogram; ductogram Diagnostic mammogram; ductogram Diagnostic mammogram; ductogram
Milky nipple d/c; cyclic changes that worsen at time of Spontaneous, clear or milky, bilateral, multiduct menses nipple d/c; multiple breast lumps Green nipple d/c Greenish or brownish nipple d/c
Neonatal Discharge (Witch's milk) Hyperprolactinemia
Milky d/c 1-2 wk after birth Milky or clear nipple d/c; amenorrhea; Hx of meds: estrogenic, dopamin depleters;hypoT; pregnancy; postabortion; nipple stimulators; visual changes
Enlarged breast tissue, milky d/c lasting 1-2 wk after birth Spontaneous, unilateral or bilateral, multiduct; clear or milky nipple d/c
None Serum Prolactin levels; MRI if indicated
Male Breast Disease: Acute Mastitis
Hx of clothing rubbing nipple (eg. Jogging); swelling or Red, warm, tender; usually unilateral, one fourth Culture positive for S. aureus, E. lump of chest wall; tenderness of site of breast, or one lobule; breast engorgement; Coli, Strep; Elevated WBCs fever; nipple discharge: pus Family Hx of male breast cancer; painless lump of chest wall Induration, retraction of nipple or mass in nipple well; fixed, nontender; lymphadenopathy Mammogram; FNA; tissue biopsy
Page 14 of 52
What does this px mean by "diarrhea"? How frequent is the stool? What is the volume of stools? Typical 1-3x/day to 2-3x/week. SI - large volume watery, infrequent, no urgency, intolerance LI - usu bacteria induced inflammation, less watery, mucous, colon CA, IBS Malabsorption - continous / intermittent loose IBS - alternating constipation / diarrhea Dehydration = < 6 wet diapers/24hrs or >4hr without urination Increase thirst, irritability, crying = DeH2O Mild dehydration - tears present; modsevere - no tears present
Inspect General Appearance
Most cases are of viral origin and are self-limiting. Osmotic/ malabsorptive: nonabsorbable water Are the stools formed or liquid? soluble solutes. Secretory: At what intervals does the diarrhea occur? imbalance b/w fluid secretion & absorption. Exudative: mucosal Is this an infant, is there risk of dehydration? inflammation or How many wet diapers has the child produced in the ulceration. past 24 hours? Does the infant seem thirsty? Does the child have tears when crying? If this is an adult, is there risk of dehydration? How many times have you urinated in the past 24 hours? Are you thirsty? Do you have a dry mouth or dry eyes? Is this an acute or chronic problem? How long have you had diarrhea? Have you had this problem before?
Assess hydration status: increased thirst, rapid pulse, dry mouth, decreased urine output, Fecal occult blood turgor & mobility, fontanel, testing: RBCs indicate peripheral perfusion bacteria or protozoa Temperature: elevated increases water loss Fever > 37.8C Weight: note wt loss failure to thrive, malabsorption, etc.
Fecal leukocytes: found in inflammatory bowel disease, UC, Crohn's
Fecal Immunochemical Test (FIT): uses Anti-b's to detect human blood protein Fecal fat: restrict fat & collect stools. D-Xylose Absorption test: malabsorption vs. maldigestion.
Observe abdominal contour: distension Related to rate of fluid loss Auscultate Abdomen: Ss/Sx: thirst, dry mouth, dry eyes, detect presence of bowel frequency & volume of urination, weakness sounds
Acute adults: infectious cause(viral), self limited, <2wks Acute children: loose/liquid d/t infection or congenital anomaly Chronic Adult: >2wks, parasites, meds, Does the presence or absence of blood help me IBS, lactose, IBD narrow the cause? Chronic children: >3wks, formula intolerance, infex, Giardia, malabs, IBD Is there any noticeable blood in the stool or tissue? How much? What colour is the blood? What colour are the stools? Hemorrhoids - bright red blood upper GI bleed - black, tarry stools Infants - blood in stool = hemorrhagic disease Red: blood, food, drugs, food colouring Green-black: grape drinks, iron Dark gray: cocoa, chocolate Pale gray/white: cholestasis, jaundice, malabsorption Green: bile salts, chlorophyll veggies Malabsorptive - pain & flatulant stools Self limiting viral - pain, D/N/V, fever, tenesmus Generalized: diffuse inflammation UC: entire abdomen or lower abdomen IBS: over sigmoid colon Self limited diarrhea - mild cramping Serious organic disease (HIV, diabetes) persistent diarrhea that awakens patient
Palpate abdomen for tenderness: peritonitis Stool pH: 5 indicates (rigid abdomen, rebound malabsoption tenderness, +ve iliopsoas, obturator. Wet mount: assess for bacteria, cysts, ova, larvae, trophozoites Perform DRE: look for fissures/lacerations, feel for impacted stool Palpate lymph nodes: lymphadenopathy associated w/ lymphoma and AIDS
C. difficile toxin assay: toxin causes necrosis of colonic epithelium
What does the presence or absence of pain tell me? Are you having any abdominal pain or gas with the diarrhea? Where is the pain? What does the pain feel like? Is the pain constant or does it come and go? Does the pain awaken you at night? Does the pain interfere with you activities (eg. Work, sleep, eating)? What do the associated symptoms tell me? Do you have any fever? Did you measure your temp? What was the highest temp? Do you have any vomiting?
Stool culture: detects common bacteria
Stool for ova & parasites: requires fresh stool Giardia antigen test: tests for antigen 65 Indirect hemagluttinin assay: detects antibodies CBC w/ diff: may indicate presence of chronic disease, anemia, inflammatory dz.
Cardinal manifestation of disease (GI tract, RTI) Viral gasteroenteritis, food poisoning, main cause of dehydration What occurred first: the diarrhea or vomiting? Diarrhea before vomiting = bacterial etiology Could this be caused by exposure to others or to Orofecal contamination & diaper; greater contaminated food? risk if attending daycare If a child: Does the child attend daycare? If a child: Are any of the other children in day care ill? Food bourne infxn: if acquired at social gathering Have you been around others who have similar symptoms? Could this be the result of exposure to animals? What pets do you have? Have you had contact with or have you handled dogs, cats, turtles? Could this be caused by exposure to contaminated water? Have you travelled recently? Where? Could sexual activities explain the diarrhea? Do your sexual practices include anal sex? Could this be a result of an immune problem? Have you been diagnosed with an immune system problem? Do you have frequent colds or other illnesses? Are you receiving chemotherapy? Could this be caused by medications? Have you taken any ABCs recently? Which ones? What prescription medicines are you taking? What over-the-counter meds/preparations are you currently using? Campylobacter - infected dogs or cats Salmonella - infected turtles More susceptible to infxn if travel, camping (E.Coli, Giardia, Shigella, Salmonella, Campylo, Cryptosporidium) Shigella: in patients who engage in anal sex Proctitis: pain, tenesmus and mucus of IgA & IgG deficiency - frequent cause chronic diarrhea in children Enteropathy - AIDS, chemotherapy
Peripheral blood smear: examines cellular contents BUN & creatinine: indicates severe illness & dehydration Endoscopic studies: when cause cannot be determined
Pseudomembranous colitis (C.Difficile): ABCs disturb normal flora of gut Antacids (Mg), ABCs, methyldopa, Antiinflams, laxatives, B-Blockers, Colchicine, salicylates
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DDX: ACUTE Diarrhea Viral gastroenteritis (eg. Norwalk or rotavirus viral agents) Shigella (gram negative rod; fecal-oral transmission; common in day care setting; common in gay bowel syndrome) S.aereus food poisoning (gram-positive cocci; from improperly stored meats or custard filled pies) Abrupt onset 6-12 hr after exposure; nonbloody, watery diarrhea; lasts <1wk; nausea/vomiting, fever, abdominal pain, tenesmus Acute onset 12-24 hr after exposure; lasts 2-3 days; large amounts of bloody diarrhea with abdominal cramping and vomiting In children may see severe dehydration; hyperactive bowel sounds, diffuse pain on abdominal palpation None
Lower abdominal tenderness, hyperactive bowel Fecal leukocytes, positive stool sounds, no peritoneal irritation culture
Acute onset 2-6hr after ingestion; lasts 18-24hr; large Hyperactive bowel sounds amounts of watery, nonbloody diarrhea; cramping and vomiting
Clostridium perfrigens food Acute onset 8-20 hr after ingestion; lasts 12-24hr; poisoning (Gram-positive rod; large amounts of watery, nonbloody diarrhea; from contaminated food) abdominal pain and cramping Salmonella good poisoning (gram-negative bacilli; ingestion of contaminated food, poultry, eggs)
Hyperactive bowel sounds, diffuse pain on abdominal palpation
Fecal leukocytes, negative anaerobic cultures of stool
Acute onset 12-24 hr after exposure; lasts 2-5 days; Fever of 38.3-38.9C (101-102F) common; moderate to large amounts of nonbloody diarrhea with hyperactive bowel sounds, diffuse abdominal abdominal cramping and vomiting pain Fever, lower quadrant abdominal pain
Fecal leukocytes, positive stool culture, WBC count normal
Campylobacter jejeni (gram Acute onset 3-5 days after exposure; lasts 3-7 days; -ve rod; fecal-oral moderate amounts of bloody diarrhea transmission; household pet)
Fecal leukocytes; positive stool culture
Vibrio cholera (gram -ve rod; fecal-oral transmission; ingestion of contaminated water, seafood or food)
Acute onset 8-24 hr after ingestion of contaminated food; lasts 3-5 days; large amounts of nonbloody, watery, painless diarrhea; can be mild or fulminate
Cyanotic, scaphoid abdomen, poor skin turgor, thready peripheral pulses, voice faint
Fecal leukocytes, negative stool culture
Enterotoxic E.Coli (gram -ve rod; fecal-oral transmission; ingestion of contaminated water or food) Entamoeba histolytica parasite (cysts in food & water, from feces) ABC-induced (begins after taking ABCs) Pseudomembranous colitis (C.difficile ABC induced) Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS)
Acute onset 8-18 hr after ingestion of contaminated No fever; dehydration is major complication food/water; lasts 24-48hr; moderate amounts of nonbloody diarrhea; pian, cramping, abdominal pain; adults in US generally do not develop this Acute onset 12-24 hr after ingestion of contaminated Right lower quadrant abdominal pain; in small food or water; large amts of bloody diarrhea; number of cases hepatic abscess forms abdominal cramping & vomiting Mild, watery diarrhea: crampy abdominal pain
Fecal leukocytes; positive stool culture
IHA: Antibodies to E.Histolytica; positive titer is > 1:128
Diffuse abdominal pain on palpation; fever absent Usually not needed
M/c ampicillin; Sx range from transient mild diarrhea- Lower quadrant tenderness, fever active colitis w/ bloody diarrhea, ab pain, fever Children < 4yr w/ Hx of gasteroenteritis; Hx of bloody Fever, irritability; may have oliguria or anuria diarrhea, fever and irritability
CBC: leukocytes; sigmoido/ colonoscopy, C.diff toxin assay or stool culture; C difficile toxin CBC, platelet count, renal fxn test, periph. Blood smear; -ve stool culture
Premature or low birth we infant who presents w/ Vomiting, abdominal distension, lethargy, loose, Refer feeding intolerance bloody mucousy stools Bruising, ecchymoses, mild to moderate bleeding Lab studies typically show elevated Hemorrhagic disease of GI bleeding 2-3 days postnatal; Hx of lack on vit K newborn injection; Hx of mother on anti convulsants prenatally PT & PTT w/ dec. levels of vit K dependent factors DDX: CHRONIC DIARRHEA: Intermittent diarrhea alternating w/ constipation; Tender colon on palpation; may have abdominal Diagnosis of exclusion; mucus w/ stool; seldom occurs at night or awaken px; distension; no weight loss; afebrile sigmoidoscopy. Protoscopy IBS commonly present in morning; may have rectal urgency; episodes usually triggered by stress or ingestion on food; affects women 3 times more UC (distal colon most severely affected & rectum involved) Crohn's (associated w/ uvetitis, erythema nodosum) CHO malabsorption Hx of sever diarrhea w/ gross blood in stools, no growth retardation; few complaints of pain; age of onset 2nd & 3rd decades w/ peak I adolescence; postive family history Overt rectal bleeding; initially no fever, weight CBC show leukocytosis or anemia, loss, or pain on palpation of abdomen; moderate ESR elevated; stool cultures to rule colitis: wt loss, fever, ab tenderness out other causes of diarrhea; colonoscopy Wt loss, rare gross rectal bleeding, fistulas common Diffuse abdominal pain Rectal prolapse, poor wt gain, abdominal distension Physical exam & growth normal Failure to thrive, abdominal distension, irritability, muscle wasting Colonoscopy w/ biopsies Trial elimination of offending foods 73 hr fecal fats; sweat test Clinical diagnosis Clinical findings, improvement on gluten-free diet, CBC, anemia, folate deficiency, radiograpy, biopsy Giardia antigen test
Hx of chronic bloody diarrhea w/ ab cramping, tender & rectal bleeding; in children Hx of growth retardation, wt loss, mod. Diarrhea, ab pain, anorexiaingestion of Bloating, flatus, diarrhea exacerbated by certain disaccharides (lactose, milk products); may follow viral gasteroenteritisstools; associated w/ Fat malabsorption Greasy, fatty, malodorous deficiencies of vit K, A & D; cystic fibrosis Toddler's diarrhea 3-4 stools/day; some contain mucus; rare >4-5 yrs Celiac sprue/ PRO Increased stool frequency, looseness, paleness & hypersensitivity (rxn to protein bulkiness of stool w/in 3-6 mo of dietary onset; in wheat, rye, barley & oats) children are lethargic, irritable and anorectic; peak frequency 9-18mo Giardia parasite (primary cause of chronic diarrhea in children) Watery, foul diarrhea; common in daycare; among travellers and in male homosexuals
Low-grade fever, wt loss; chronic form: fatigue, growth retardation, steatorrhea
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Could this be related to a surgical procedure? Have you had surgery recently? Is this diet related? How much apple juice or how many sodas do you drink in a day? Do you drink milk or eat milk products?
Surgery can result in dumping syndrome after eating: inadequate mixing and digestion - also stagnation & bacterial overgrowth High carb content drinks lead to malabsorptive diarrhea Malabsorptive osmotic diarrhea Protein hypersensitivity: 2-3 wks after starting cow's milk or soy formulas
Do you eat wheat products? Gluten enteropathy or hypersensitivity What have you had to eat in the past 3 days? Loose stools: low fiber diet Could this be caused by food preparation problems? Have you recently eaten raw or undercooked poultry, Salmonella/ C. jejuni: undercooked poultry shellfish or beef? E.Coli: undercooked beef/ unpasterized milk Have you recently ingested unpasterized milk? Norwalk virus: shellfish Do you prepare poultry and/or beef on the same Food poisoning if 2 or more persons ill surface as other foods? from same food; infected food or toxic substances (lead, mercury) Is anyone else you know ill with similar sxs? Is there any family predisposition that may point to a cause? Have you or anyone in your family been diagnosed CF leads to fat malabsorption & produces with cystic fibrosis? fatty, foul smelling diarrhea Does anyone in your family have a history of chronic IBD genetically linked diarrhea, UC, or IBD?
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Cryptosporidium sp. /Isospora Recurrent episodes; variable amounts watery, belli protozoan parasites nonbloody diarrhea; amounts can be massive (fecal-oral; ingestion of contaminated water or direct oral anal contact)
Wt loss, severe right upper quadrant abdominal pain with biliary tract involvement
Stool for O &P
Postgastrectomy dumping syndrome Diabetic enteropathy
Following GI surgery, diarrhea occurs after meals; Diaphoresis and tachycardia diarrhea occurs after meals b/c of increased transit of food through colon
Upper GI series
Nocturnal diarrhea, postprandial vomiting, fatty stools Findings associated w/ diabetes from malabsorption HIV enteropathy (direct infxn Insidious onset, recurrent large amounts of nonbloody Findings associated w/ HIV infection of mucosa & neuronal cells in diarrhea, mild to moderate nausea / vomiting GI system) Medication induced Mild to moderately severe nonwatery, nonbloody diarrhea No specific findings related to diarrhea
Diagnosis of exclusion in diabetic persons Testing for HIV
Usually not needed
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Is this really constipation? How many stools are there per day? Complete failure to What is the consistency of the stool? evacuate the lower colon Is the constipation acute or chronic? associated with difficulty When did the constipation start? defecating, infrequent How long have you been constipated? Is this an BMs, straining, ab pain, individual episode or is it chronic? pain on defecating. Can At what age did the constipation first begin? be acute or chronic.
Normal = 3-12 Constipation <3 BM/wk Hard, dry stools charac of constipation Recent onset suggests lifestyle or phys health changes (Meds, diet, activity) Chronic ass w/ lack of dietary fiber and bulk or systemic disorders (DM, hypoT) Colon CA = new onset >40yrs Infants: inadequate fluid/fiber
Plot growth curve in Fecal occult blood children: slow growth may testing: ulcerative or indicate megacolon malignant lesions, screen for colon CA Perform abdominal exam: contour, distension, auscultate, masses, Fecal Immunochemical tenderness, hernias. Test (FIT): uses Anti-b's to detect human blood protein Perform DRE: look for fissures/lacerations, feel for impacted stool, rectal prolapse, sphincter tone
If the constipation is acute, what conditions should I consider? Have you been ill recently? Have you have a fever? Dehydration & fever cause hardening of stools Reflex ileus sometimes seen w/ pneumonia. Do you have any chronic health problems? Renal acidosis / Diabetes insipidus Medical dz can cause constipation b/c of neurological gut dysfxn (myopathies, endocrine, electrolytes) If the constipation is chronic or recurrent, what should I consider? What do you usually eat in a day? How many glasses of liquid do you drink/day? What are your usual bowel habits? How active are you? What medications are you taking? Do you use laxatives? How often? How long have you used laxatives? How can I further narrow the causes? What does your stool look like? Is the stool size large or small? What is the general shape of the stool (eg. Small, round, ribbonlike)? Is the stool formed or liquid? Have you had any involuntary loss of stool? Does the constipation alternate with periods of diarrhea? What else do I need to consider? Do you have the urge to defecate? Do you have any urinary tract symptoms? Do you have any nausea or vomiting? Is there any pain with defecation? Dec. peristalsis: diets that lack bulk, roughage, inadequate fluids (<6 glasses/day), inc. calcium (formation of calcium caseinate in stools) High protein diets stimulate movement. Postponing BM b/c of time constraints Lack of PA reduces peristaltic reflex Narcotics, imipramine, diuretics, Ca channel blockers, anticholinergics Use of stimulants to empty colon removes peristalsis stimulus for 2-3 days. Aganglionic megacolon: infreq. Small, hard stools Ribbonlike: IBS or narrowing of colon Lack of fluids/fiber = dry hard stools Fecal incontinence in elderly characteristic of IBS (stools described as hard and pellet-like) Hirschsprungs dz: no urge to defecate b/c stool accumulates in lower rectum voiding problems may be abdominal mass Intestinal obstruction: bilous vomiting in newborn Obstruction in adults: vomiting w/pain Intermittent, recurrent pain ass. w/ constipation IBS: crampy lower ab pain w/ distension Diverticulosis: noncrampy dull pain on left Hemorrhoids/fissures: pain w/ defecation Hemorrhoids /fissures - bright red blood upper GI bleed - black, tarry stools Red: laxatives or vegetables Black/ dark brown: iron & bismuth (from drugs) functional megacolon 2o to constipation: involuntary passage of feces Also fear of toilet/ coercive toilet training
CBC: Hematocrit & Hb below normal
Perform focused neuro exam: Test relevant DTRs & superficial reflexes. Inturruption of T12-S3 nerves causes loss of voluntary control of defecation
Serum electrolytes: hypokalemia, hypocalcemia (causes of constipation)
Serum Thyroid Stimulating hormone: inc TSH = hypoT (cause of constipation)
Urinalysis Anoscopy: indicated if DRE detects hemi's, fissures, strictures, masses Flexible sigmoidoscopy & colonoscopy
Barium enema: contrast technique to detect diverticula, polyps, masses Colon transit studies: severe chronic constipation
Is there any bleeding with defecation? How much? What colour are your stools? Are the stools very dark coloured or black?
If this is a child, is there anything else I need to consider? Is there fecal soiling of underpants? Is there crying with defecation? Crying w/ fissure or large hard stools If an infant: Is there a Hx of delayed passage of May indicate Hirschsprung's disease meconium stool? Has the child begun to drink milk? Cow's milk common cause of constipation Has the child recently started toilet training? Stool witholding develops sometimes Does the child have urinary frequency? May result in constipation Is there a family history or genetic predisposition? Is there a family Hx of constipation or IBS? Genetic predisposition seems to exist. Have you experienced any of the follwing symptoms DSM IV criteria for Generalized Anxiety WITH anxiety/worry more days than not for at least 6 Disorder months: -Patients will often report sense of doom 1) Restlessness, keyed up, on edge and fear of losing control 2) Being easily fatigued 3) Difficulty concentrating or mind going blank 4) Irritability 5) Muscle tension 6) Sleep disturbance
Ask: dyspnea, chest discomfort, fatigue, restlessess, sleep disturbance Physical findings: tachycardia, palpitations, and diaphoresis
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Low dietary fiber & bulk; inadequate fluid intake; physical inactivity; pain before and w/ bowel movements; anorexia
Normal abdominal and rectal examination; may feel fecal masses in colon and rectum
None if resolved; consider sigmoidoscopy if not resolved Abdominal radiography, unprepped barium radiography Sigmoidoscopy if indicated Sigmoidoscopy if indicated FOBT or FIT to rule out tumors Colonoscopy
Functional constipation IBS Obstipation/ impaction Slow transit Hirschsprung's disease
Preschool and school-age children; Hx of abdominal Palpable stool in LLQ; large dilated rectum w/ pain and stool soiling. packed stool; external sphincter intact May have tender, palpable colon Onset in young adulthood; alternating diarrhea and constipation; mucus in stools Passage of hard stool 3-5 day interval; diarrhea, small Hard feces in rectal ampulla; may have palpable stools; common in those confined to bed feces filled bowel Common in older adults; physical inactivity; decreased Normal abdominal and rectal examination stool frequency; stool dry & hard Delayed passage of meconium at birth; no urge to Empty rectal ampulla on examination defecate
Rectal pain on defecation; Hx of hemorrhoids; blood on stool, on toilet tissue, or in toilet
On rectal exam: Hemorrhoids, fissures, tears, abrasions; increased sphincter tone
Hx of chronic laxative use; Hx of taking med that produce constipation Diarrhea more common than constipation; recent onset: pain & abdominal distension, stool leakage, urgency; late onset: wt loss, anorexia; increased increased incidence over age 40; uncommon in children
Normal rectal and abdominal exams
May have palpable abdominal mass or organomegaly
None if resolved; consider sigmoidoscopy, barium enema if not resolved CBC, FOBT or FIT, sigmoidoscopy, colonoscopy, barium enema
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Define the Nature of the Problem What kind of sleep problem are you having?
Are you having difficulty falling asleep?
Inspect Ears and nose Inspect mouth, throat, neck (tonsils, adenoids) checking for obstruction for sleep apnea Auscultate LU: asthma CHF is risk factor for sleep Often related to poor sleep hygiene practices, use of stimulants or medications, apnea Palpate abdomen: GERD disruption of circadian rhythms, pain, upper abdominal pain anxiety Sleep disorders include: sleeplessness (insomnia), disturbance of behaviour associated with sleep (parasomniacs), excessive sleepiness (hypersomnia) Sleep disrupted d/t physiological factors, illness, depression, pain, meds or alcohol Acute/transient (few days) - d/t stress, illness, environmental disturbance, jet lag Short term (weeks) Chronic (months to years) - d/t sleep disorder, mood disorder, medications, sleep disturbance Restless leg syndrome: sxs increase in evening, esp when person is lying down and still Common > 65yoa. Periodic Limb movement disorder: b/l repeated, rhythmic jerking or twitching
Sleep diary: keep for 1-2 weeks. Record bedtime, total sleep time, time until sleep onset, times they wake, quality of sleep, etc
Are you having difficulty staying asleep? How long has the problem been going on?
Is this a specific Sleep Disorder? Do you have a creeping, crawling or uncomfortable feeling in your legs that is relieved by moving the legs? Does the bed partner report patients arms and or legs jerk during sleep?
Sleep labs Polysomnography overnight sleep study for 1-2 nights
Do you snore loudly, gasp, choke, or stop breathing Obstructive sleep apnea: loud snoring and restless sleep patterns. May during sleep? report insomnia and excessive daytime sleepiness Passive parental smoking can be a risk factor for snoring in children (smoke provoke mucosa --> narrowed pharynx --> snoring) Do you have difficulty staying awake during the day Narcolepsy: excessive daytime sleepiness. or doze off during routine tasks (driving)? Adults: fall asleep during tasks like driving Child: difficulty getting up in am, when awakened appear confused, aggressive (phys or verbal), fall asleep at school, doing hmwk, watching TV Do you have episodes of muscle weakness? Could the Sleep Problem be Secondary to an Illness? Have you been ill recently? Do you have a chronic health condition? What medications do you take? Do you have depression or anxiety? Could this be related to Sleep Hygiene? What is your bedtime routine? What else do you do in your bedroom? Cataplexy: episodes of sudden muscular weakness and atonia; emotional trigger Ask: Do you lean against wall for support b/c legs feel rubbery?
Children: OM, chronic otitis, upper airway obstruction GERD, COPD, PUD, CHF - paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea Anything causing nocturia anidepressants, decongestants, bronchodilators, b-blockers, thyroid meds, phenytoin, methyldopa, corticosteroids, antihistamines Depression: early morning waking Anxiety: trouble falling asleep
Is it consistent? - can cause disruptive rhythms Work or watching TV can cause disruptive envt noice can affect sleep, decrease REM Do you consume alcohol, nicotine, caffeine, diet pills alcohol shortens total sleep time and exacerbate GERD and sleep (with ephedrine) before bed? apnea Alcohol withdrawal in heavy drinker can be assocaited with restlessness and sleep disturbance Do you exercise before bed? avoid for 1-2 hours before bedtime How do you put your child to sleep? Child who is put to bed when they are still awake will learn to use selfcomforting methods so even if they wake in the middle of night, they will fall back asleep Toddlers fearful of separation must establish routine Where does your child sleep? Sleeping with parents can be disruptive if parents move Should be quiet and dark room Could this be lifestyle related? Are you a shift worker? Interruption of circadian rhythm Do you sleep in the same bed each night? Affects quality of sleep, increase light sleep, shorter REM Do you travel frequently? Jet lag Could this be age related? How old is patient? Newborns: 20 min - 4 hrs What age was child when problem began? School age - 8 hrs/night Does your child wake up screaming at night? Night terrors - inconsolable for up to 30 min and then falls asleep Does your child have problems going to bed? again, happen within first few hours of sleep, not readily awakened, no Does your child refuse to go to sleep? recolleciton of event Nightmares - can be consoled, child is awake, and dream is remembered Could this be conditioned insomnia? Are you able to fall asleep easily in places other than Usually insomnia develops initially in response to psychosocial stressor the bedroom? Can fall asleep outside bedroom but awake in bed If a child: what do they do when they wake up at night? If a child: what do you have to do to get them back asleep? Sleep walking? Children need to develop self-comforting behaviours Conditioned to feeding after waking at night, can prevent development of more mature circadian rhythm usually once/night and 15 min. Takes great effort to wake person and they have little or no memory of episode
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DDX Insomnia Restless leg syndrome Periodic limb mvmt Obsructive sleep apnea
Irresistable urge to move legs in bed
None None sleep studies
> 65yoa, rhythmic jerking of legs or arms while asleep Normal Apneic episodes, loud snoring, restless sleep patterns decrease oxygen, enlarged adenoids, tonsils
Narcolepsy Secondary to illness or medications
Excessive sleepiness, cataplexy GERD, COPD, PND, CHF, prostatitis, nocturea, depression or anxiety consistent with medical condition
refer to sleep specialist consistent with medical condition
Poor sleep hygiene
routine, habits, env't not conductive to sleep use of alcohol, caffiene, diet pills, nicotine shift work, travel, jet lag
Night terrors Nightmares Night awakening Sleep refusal Conditioned insomnia Somnanbulism Trained night crier Trained night feeder
Inconsolable awakening occuring early in sleep, lasting 15 min, no memory of event Occur later in sleep cycle, dream is remembered Single to repeated awakening at night child refuses to sleep identify intial trigger with persistent problem sleep walking in early sleep cycle child unable to soothe self Hx of frequent feedings on awakening at night
Use medical examination to eliminate associated depends on examination illness normal physical exam to r/o underlying condition normal normal normal none sleep diary None none none
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HTN Dx: depend on two or more blood pressure readings taken at each of two or more visits after initial screening Definition is 140/90 Stage 1 HTN is defined as a systolic blood pressure of 140-159mmHg and a diastolic blood pressure of 120-139/80-89 is preHTN, 90-99mmHg follow up annually Stage 2 HTN is defined as a systolic blood pressure greater or equal to 160mmHg, or a diastolic blood pressure greater or equal to 100mmHg
BP!!! CV exam Resp exam Vision changes Peripheral neuropathy/pulses
Presenting Condition What have previous blood pressure readings been? A gradual rise in blood pressure with age is normal, but a sudden increase could suggest a secondary cause or malignant hypertension Have there been any symptoms or signs of clinically Episodes of weakness or dizziness overt cardiovascular disease? (cerebrovascular disease), angina pectoris (coronary artery disease), or dyspnea caused by pulmonary edema (congestive heart failure). Such episodes could show that hypertension is already causing target organ damage and that it should be treated more aggressively Does the patient have diabetis mellitus? Diabetic patients with hypertension are particularly at risk of cardiovascular disease and should be treated more aggressively than nondiabetic patients Contrary to popular opinion, headache is not a characteristic symptom of hypertension, although it may be associated with severe hypertension Such symptoms may point to underlying hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism as a cause of hypertension, or pheochromocytoma
Excessive alcohol consumption can raise blood pressure
Have you been experiencing headaches?
Have you been experiencing heat or cold intolerance, sweating, slow or fast heart rate, or palpations? How much alcohol do you drink?
Excessive consumption of sodium chloride and caffeine can raise the blood pressure Is your diet high in salt? Do you cook with a lot of salt? How much salt do you add at the table? How much coffee and tea do you drink? Do you eat regular amounts of licorice? Is the patient obese? Licorice has mineralocorticoid properties similar to aldosterone, and excessive intake can directly cause hypertension Obese patients are at an increased risk of hypertension and should be encouraged to lose weight Smoking increases cardiovascular risk, and a diagnosis of hypertension is a good opportunity for advice on giving up Anxiety disorders, especially panic disorder, can result in significant episodic elevation of blood pressure Specifically, estrogen therapy, such as oral contraceptives, can be associated with hypertension Essential hypertension has a strong genetic component, and the lack of a family history increases the likelihood of a secondary cause Patients with a family history of cardiovascular disease are at an increased risk of complications of hypertension
Do you smoke? Do you have a history of anxiety? What medications do you take?
Is there a family history of hypertension?
Is there a family history of other cardiovascular disease?
Hypertension should be treated urgently and aggressively in the following emergencies: Hypertensive encephalopathy Intracranial hemorrhage Unstable angina Acute myocardial infarction Acute left ventricular failure with pulmonary edema Dissecting aortic aneurysm Pregnancy-induced hypertension Malignant hypertension
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What Does the Patient Mean by Dizziness? Describe how you feel when you are dizzy
Do you feel as though you or the room is spinning? Do you feel your balance is off?
Vertigo - patient or env't is spinning Neoplasms and progressive vetibule loss produces changes in vestibular fuction. Slow onset and manifest as imbalance Loss of balance, lack of coordination with absence of vertigo - result of degenerative, neoplastic, vascular, or metabolic disorder
Take VS and BP, orthostatic HoTN
Includes vertigo, lightheadedness, loss of balance. Needs visual, vestibular, and sensory systems Central: neopastic or vascular, CNS Peripheral: inner ear or vestibular appraratus
Do you feel like you are about to faint?
MRI brain - acoutis neuroma or central cause of vertigo. Order if sudden onset or with severed headaches, General appearance: looks direction-changing nystagmus, or neurlogical ill (labyrinthitis) signs Acute nausea and vomit: vestibular neuronitis Vision exam: change in visual acuity/ new corrective lenses may cause transient imbalance Ear Exam: look for signs of CT - persistent vertigo infection (serous otitis, OM) and in all cases with Cholesteatoma: shiny additional sigsn of white irregular mass, foul- neurological disturbance smelling d/c With renal failure, HTN, Look at TM: trauma hematological malignancy Rinne and Weber tests: with sudden onset sensorineural loss lateralizes to unaffected ear; AC > BC (but both reduced) EEG - vertigo with alterations of consciousness CBC - anemia Glucose levels - DM BUN - renal failure Syphilis - 2nd or 3rd like Meniere's diseases
In Children: parents may describe as trouble walking, irritable, or behaviour differences Do you feel lightheaded? Or about to faint?
Maybe peripheral neuropathy or dysfunciton of vestibular or cerebellar system Near syncope
In elderly: have you previously been diagnosed with orthostatic hypotension is most common blood pressure irregularities? cause of dizziness in the elderly - d/t abnormal BP regulation Does the Vertigo Result from a Systemic Cause? CV problems common cause of vertigo. May be vasomotor instability decreasing systemic vascular resistance, venous What other medical problems do you have? return - can lead to transient decline in cardiac output
Would you describe yourself as anxious or nervous? Psychogenic dizziness. Sxs are vague and CN VIII - nystagmus include fatigue, fullness in head, lightheadedness, feeling apart from env't. Do the episodes occur with any specific activity or When turning, especially when rolling in Neurological exam: CN, movement? bed usually d/t vertigo. cerebellar function (gait, Disequilibrium - unsteady while walking balance), rapid-alternating mvmts, sensory and motor Is the vertigo central (brainstem or cerebellar) or function peripheral (vestibular) in origin? Do you have migraine headaches? Do you have other symptoms that bother you? H/a - vascular related cause of central vertigo. Often with migraines Central vertigo nearly always have neurological sxs (double vision, facial numbness, hemiparesis) Cerebellar causes also will have loss of balance, motor dysfunction, coordination problems Peripheral origin - no additional neurological symptoms Suspect peripheral vestibular apparatus problem Common with vestibular neuronitis and labyrinthitis If first arising in morning, usually vestibular disorder If turning in bed - benign positional vertigo (BPV)
CV exam: HR and rhythm, auscultate carotid and temporal arterires for bruits for CVS cause of vertigo
Do you have nausea and vomitting?
When do the episodes occur?
What Do the Characteristics of the Episodes Tell Few secs: BPV, d/t rapid head mvmt Me? Min - Hrs: Meniere's disease or recurrent vestibulopathy Days - Wks: vestibular neuronitis. >lying completely still. Stroke can produce long-lasting episodes. How long do the episodes of dizziness last?
Is the onset sudden or gradual?
Sudden >60min: central causes like infection, brainstem infarction, inflammation, hemorrhage, trauma Child <30min: seizure, migraine, BPV Chronic persistent: brainstem lesion, anemia, diabetes, thryotoxicosis, psychosomatic disorder Sudden: labyrinthitis, Meniere's, stroke, vestibular basilar Gradual: acoustic neuroma, BPV
Do you have any hearing loss?
Meniere's triad: vertigo, hearing loss, tinnitus (also fullness in ears) CN VII or lesions in inner ear: tinnitus, hearing loss, pain in ear Hearing loss, no tinnitus: labyrinthitis U/l hearing loss w/ tinnitus: acoustic neuroma
Do you have ringing in your ears? What Else Should I Consider? Salt retaining or oxotoxic: vertigo, lightheadedness, or unsteadiness Psychotropic drugs - vertigo AntiHTN drugs - HoTN Sedatives, alcohol, anticonvulsants - disequilibrium
What medications are you taking? Are you now or have you recently been ill?
Have you had any recent injury to your head? Did you have dizziness before the head injury? Have you had any previous ear surgery?
Vestibular neuronitis - recent viral infxn Currently ill - labyrinthitis (ass w/ concomitant bac/viral infxn) Sinus/ear infxn, middle ear infections: dysfunction of vestibular apparatus Temporal bone fracture, whiplash can cause labyrinth damage Cholesteatoma: hx of chronic middle ear infections, otorrhea, conductive hearing loss. Prior procedures can produce peripheral vertigo b/c vestibular apparatus disrupted
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Central Causes Brainstem/cerebellar problems elderly, acute onset, recurrent vertigo, tinnitus, hearing OK
MS Migraine Peripheral Causes BPV
30-40yog h/a hx, other migraine sxs adults, with position changes, recurrent episodes, lasts sec-min, > no motion
MRI ataxia, double vision, coordination problems, sensory/motor deficits, nystagmus, impaired RAM and finger-finger testing HEARING OK maybe normal MRI maybe have sxws of vertebrobasilar vascular abnormalities nystagmus NO tinnitus HEARING OK vomitting, pallor, sweating, nystagmus, no LOC, neurological, audiological can be normal nystagmus, fluctuating hearing loss, low tones, sensorineural nausea and vomitting, nystagmus NO HEARING LOSS audiometry MRI MRI provoke position changes
Benign paroxysmal vertigo of children, preschoolers, sudden onset with crying childhood Meniere's Disease Vestibular neuronitis sudden onset, lasts hours, recurrent, tinnitus and fullness in ears sudden onset, previous viral infection
hypoactive or abset response to caloric testing
Labryinthitis Acoustic neuroma
sudden onset, lasts hours to days
current illness, nystagmus, hearing loss maybe tinnitus, n/v adults, gradual onset, mild vertigo, persistent tinnitus, u/l hearing loss, poor speech discrimination facial numbness, weakness history of trauma, hearing loss nystagmus and vertigo, sensorineural hearing loss serious otitis, OM, tenderness on sinus, purulent nasal d/c, NO nystagmus normal neurological and auditory exams
Otitis/sinusitis Systemic Causes Psychogenic CV Neurosyphylis
pain in ear or face, Hx of infecitons, gradual onset of vertigo vague sxs, recurrent, anxious, other psychiatric diagnosis CV hx, antiHTN meds vertigo, tinnitus, fullness in ears
hyperventilation to reproduce the vertigo
depends on px and conditions orthostatic BP, dysrhythmias, carotid/temporal bruits Various clinical sxs, papilledema, aphasia, monoplegia/hemiplegia, central nervous palsies, pupillary abN, Argyll-Robertson pupil, focal neurological deficits
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Is This Really Syncope?
Did you lose consiousness? Did you have any prodromal symptoms?
Syncope is the reversable What precipitated the event? Or What were you loss of consciousness and doing when the event occurred? postural tone that results from a sudden decrease in cerebral perfusion
If you lost consciousness, how long did it last?
Was there any limb jerking during the event? Did anyone see you faint? Does This Require Immediate Referral?
Distinguish syncope from dizziness, vertigo and resyncope where loss of consciousness and postural tone does not occur Prodromal symptoms of sweating, vertigo, nausea and or yawning associated with syncope. Aura and tongue biting associated with seizures Loss of consciousnes precipitated by pain, Observe Hydration exercise, urination, defecation or stressful Status events is probably not a seizure. Breath- Dehydration leads to holding spells in children causes syncope syncope and are usually precipitated by pain, anger, a sudden startle or frustration. Syncope that occurs with rest or in supine suggests seizure or arrythmia. Syncope with no warning suggests cardiovascular origin. Disorientation after event, slowness in returning to consciousness and unconsciousness lasting longer than 5 minutes indicate seizure Rhythmic movements during event suggest seizure, although they can occur with syncope History from witness give you useful info. Presence of structural heart disease increases risk of sudden death. Hospitalization required if history of coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure or ventricular arrythmia. Aortic or mitral stenosis or prosthetic valves may cause syncope. Complete heart block is leading cause of syncope.
ECG to rule out cardiac cause Event Monitoring or Continuous Loop Monitoring Used in patients with suspected cardiac arrythmia and syncope Doppler Studies Detect hemodynamics of intra and extracranial arteries. Treadmill testing Stress test for arrythmias Echocardiography For people with exercise induced syncope to rule out left ventricular outflow tract obstruction Electrophysiological studies Test for arrythmias Baseline Blood Testing Electroencephalograph y For seizure CT Scan for neurological cause Toxicology Screen for unexplained syncope Tilit-table testingSimulate syncope and if positive indicates neurogenic cause
Do you have a history of heart disease?
Do you have a congenital heart problem? Are you having chest pain and/or shortness of breath?
Perform Heart and Lung Exam Look for cardiac cause Perform a Neurological Exam Perform a Abdominal exam Examine extremities for signs of thromboembolism
Obstructive mechanical blockage may be caused by pulmonary embolism, cardiac ischemia or myocardial infarction with pump failure Did this occur after exercise? Syncope after exercise is of cardiac origin until proven otherwise. Syncope after exertion ina well-trained athlete who has no heart disease is of vasovagal origin. What Do Associated Symptoms Tell Me? Supraventricuar and ventricular tachycardia are associated with syncope and sudden death.Ventricular fibrillation is What other Sx did you have or are you having? always fatal unless reversed with electrical Did you have/ have you been having palpitations? defibrillation. Have you had headaches? Pain of migraine headaches can affect brain stem and cause sycope. Headache continues after consciousness has been regained and is associated with other migraine symptoms Have you had vertigo, dizziness, diplopia or other May accompany migraine or transient vision changes? ischemic attack Is This Neurocardiogenic in Origin? vasovagal syncope is neurocardiogenic Did this occur in response to a specific situation (eg., and tends to occur in families. Often precipitated by emotional stress, fear, stressful event, urination, defecation?) extreme fatigue or injury and can occur without any antecedent cause. Warm temperature, anxiety, blood drawing and What position were you in when you fainted? Sitting, crowded rooms can cause peripheral standing or lying flat? vasodilation. Situational syncope can occur in response to urination, defecation, cough Are you an athlete? Do you have a history of any or emotional stress. Post-tussive heart problems? syncopefollows paroxysmal coughing Is This Orthostasis? caused by increased intrathoracic What medications are you taking? 10% of syncopal episodes are caused by prescription medication, over the counter medications, and recreational drugs that Have you recently started taking blood pressure produce orthostasis, bradycardia or medicine or increased its dose? prolonged QT interval. What other health problems/conditions do you have? Diabetes may induce hypoglycemia. Also anemias and chronic GI bleeding from an ulcer can cause syncope. Pregnancy, prolonged bed rest and dehydration can lead to orthostatic hypotension. Is This Explained by Other Factors? Psychogenic syncope often associated with repeated episodes in which Have you had this before? How often? unpredictable motor reflexes appear with a Did it occur with suddden head turning? lack of pathological reflexes. Carotid sinus If a child: Has the child had Kawasaki disease? hypersensitivity produces a cardioinhibitory response that results in a profound drop in heart rate or may induce an abrupt vasopressor response with a drop in blood pressure. Children who had Kawasaki disease are at risk for coronary heart disease which may present as chest pain associated with exercise. Do you have Lyme Disease? Lyme Disease can cause dysrhythmia in the form of heart block which can lead to syncope. history of idiopathic hypertrophic What Other Things Do I Need to Consider? A family subaortic stenosis is a risk factor for sudden death. Family member who had MI Do you have a family history of sudden death? before age 30 is also risk for sudden death. Do you have a family history of fainting? If a child: Did the mother have SLE when pregnant? Neurogenic syncope is common in families
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Cardiac Causes Organic Shortness of breath, chest pain, palpitations, exercise May have bradycardia or tachycardia, cyanosis, heart Disease and Arrythmias associated Loud S2, S3; murmur, lift
Refer, electrocardiogram, Holter, echocardiogram, Doppler studies, treadmill
Neurocardiogenic Causes Vasovagal
Emotional event, standing for long periods, crowded room, warm environment
tilt table test
occurs with cough, micturition, defecation, swallowing none
infants 6 mo to 5 yrs, associated with anger, pain, brief cry. Breath is held, loss of consciousness, may have twitching Anxiety or fear induced event, shortness of breath
cyanosis or pallor
History of asthma, coughing paroxysm awakens child wheezes from sleep, becomes flaccid with clonic muscle spasm, loss of consciousness Position change from lying/sitting to standing. Pregnancy, prolonged bedrest
Orthostasis Orthostatic hypotension
Hypotension on testing orthostatic blood pressure 20 mm Hg drop in systolic pressure on standing
Medication Related Prescribed medications Drug induced Neurological Causes Migraine Seizure
History of antidepressants, antiarrythmic agents, beta- Depends on underlying condition blockers, or diuretics History of use of illicit drugs Arrythmia may be present Headache, vomiting, photophobia, positive family history convulsion, incontinence, postical phase Usually none, nystagmus, photophobia usually none, nystagmus
None Toxicology screen None electroencephalogram
Psychiatric Causes Mental disroder Hysterical reaction
Symptoms consistent with depression, anxiety, panic none
Adolescent, event occurs with audience present. Gentle fall, memory or incident exact
no diagnostic characteristics
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ABDOMINAL PAIN subjective feeling of discomfort.
Is this an acute Condition?? 1.how long ago did the pain start? Was the onset sudden or gradual??
acute onset of pain that is getting prgressively worse may signal surgical emergency (severe 6-12hr form the onset = emerg) ex. ectopic preg, perforation, obstruction, ruptured aortic anuerysm, intussiception
3 processes produce:
How severe is the pain (1-10)
acute and severe could mean emergency
General Appearance CBC visceral pain = restless and inc WBC move about - obstr, stones, infection/inflam gastroenteritis inc neutrophils - bacterial parietal pain = lie still, don't infection want to move appendicitis, rupture, perforation children - do they look sick, Urine/serum HCG lethargic withdrawn to RO pregnancy ESR inflam, or tissue injury, pregnancy Vitals fever - acute inflam condition, mc renal or lung infection Urinalysis eval of KI infection, stone, failure or systemic process Urine culture suspect UTI Test for STI's all types Colour of skin Fecal Occult Blood Test Cullen's sign - ectopic preg RO GI bleeding or pancreatitis Grey-Turners sign pancreatitis Imaging Ultrasound
1. tension in the GI from mm contraction or distension 2. Ischemia
Child? What is their level of activity?
avoidance of favourite activities indicates an organic problem serious! An organic dz wakes a child from rest
does the pain wake you from sleep?
3. Inflammation of the perotineum pain can also occur from within or outside the abdominal wall
course of the pain? Getting worse/better?
pain that is severe and progressing = bad, Abdominal Musculature likely an emergency rigid - perotineal irritation may require surgery obstipation occurs with complete obstruction but diarhea may present with partial obstruction. chronic pain may be bc potential emerg event is brought into check but is not resolved. If >1yr consider IBS or colorectal, endometrial or inflam causes 1.visceral pain - perceived midline - dull deep, diffuse. Orginates from epigastric, periumbilical and hypogastric causes from intraabdominal extraperotineal organs. 2. paritoneal pain - localized and sharp. Originates from the intraperitoneal organs.
had this pain before?
where is the pain?
does it travel anywhere? describe pain
pain will radiate from distribution of nerves Abdominal Distention that supplies affected area "The F's": fluid, fat, feces, fetus, flatus, fibriod, full gives clues to the specific condition (ie. bladder, false pregnancy, colicky/cramping from a hollow viscus) fatal tumour. relieved by defecation or diet changes --> intestines. Associated with meals --> GI tract. With sex -->pelvic origin. With position changes --> referred from a MSK origin. Exertional pain could mean cardiac origin
CT Sigmoidoscopy, colonoscopy, proctoscopy
related to activity?/ triggers?
if vomit precedes pain unlikely a surgical problem. Vomiting may be from: irritation of the nerves of perotineum obstruction of involuntary mm tube absorbed toxins Pain with vomiting - acute obstr of urethra or bile duct. In intestinal obstruction timing indicates how high the obstruc is in the GIT appearance? clear=gastric fluid. bile coloured=upper GI. Feculent=distal intestinal obs.
Aucultate bowel sounds absent - peritonitis or ileus. Hyperactive gastroenteritis, intestinal obstr (tinkling), GI bleed
blood = in the intestinal tract diarrhea may preceed perforation of appendix children - diarhhea may suggest acute gastroenteritis
Percuss unexpected dullness
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ACUTE 1. Ectopic preg
women childbearing age sudden spotting and cramping in lower quad after missed period
hemorrhage, shock and lower abd peritoneal irritation. Enlarged uterus and cervical motion tenderness
HCG + ultrasound ruptured ectopic preg = sugical emerg
2. peptic ulcer perforation
sudden severe, intense, steady epigastric pain that radiates to sides, back and shoulder. Hx pain < empty ST
Pt lying still. Epigastric tenderness, rebound tenderness, abd mm rigid, bowel sounds decr.
Radiograph - surgical emerg
3. dissection of aortoc aneurysm 4. peritonitis
sudden excruciating pain in chest or abd. May radiate pt looks shocked, vitals indicate impending to back. shock, decr femoral pulses. sudden severe pain, diffuse and worsens with movement/cough gaurding. Rebound tenderness, bowel sounds decr.
CT or MRI and cardiac enzymes surgical emergency CBC with differential. Abd radiograph
5. acute pancreatitis
Hx of cholithiaisis or alcohol abuse. Pain LUQ steady, pt appears acutely ill. Abd distention, decr bowel CBC with differential. boring and unreleived by change position. N/V sounds, diffuse rebound tenderness, mm rigidity US sweating. in abd Abd radiograph fever, pain in RLQ, other sx suggestive appendicitis pain in RLQ, may be pharyngitis and cervical adenopathy CBC with differential. Adenovirus found in surgical specimen. CBC with differential. US Abd radiograph serum amylase and lipase
6. mesenteric adenitis
colicky pain changing to chronic pain. RUQ pain may tender to palpation or percuss on RUQ. GB radiate to scapula. N/V and hx of daark urine or light palpable in some. Murphy's ss +ve stools
colicky pain changing to chronic pain. Pain in low abd CVA tenderness, incr sensitivity and lumbar and Urinalysis and flack radiating to groin. N/V abd distention, chills, groin, hematuria CT fever, incr unrination
9. UTI/pyelonephritis 10. PID
Urinary sx of UTI. Back pain with pyelonephritis.
altered voiding pattern, malodorous urine, fever
Urinalysis Culture WBC, ESR elevated cultures and gram staining.
LQ pain that incr in severity. May have irreg bleeding, abd tenderness, adnexal tenderness, guarding, vaginal dc and vomiting - MC in sex active women rebound tenderness, feverm vaginal dc
abd radiograph sudden crampy pain in umbillical area of epigastrium, hyperactive, high-pitched bowel sounds, fecal vomiting mass may be palp, abd distention, empty rectum on DRE
abd distention, vomiting, obstipation and cramps
minimal/absent peristalsis on auscultation
gaseous distention of isolated segments of small and large intestines shows on radiographs
sudden onset pain in infants
fever, vomit, jelly stools
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Clues to implicate organ?? Do you have GI symptoms? changes in bowel habits/stools or eating habits? gas, bloating, diarrhea, constipation, and rectal bleeding - usu pain intestinal origin heartburn and dysphagia - esophagitis pain relieved by defecation/flatus - IBS pain produced by MSK and refered to abd
pain relieved by defecation/burping? Pain or difficulty with movement, limited ROM, swellings
Palpate start gentle and finish with area of pain. Rebound tenderness and gaurding peritoneal irritation. Palpate LV, GB (murphy's sign), SP, KI, aorta, BL
Pain with exertion, palpitations, chest pain, fast HR? referred pain from chest not uncommon. RO MI as cause. On extertion - angina or CAD cough or difficulty breathing/SOB? Pneumonia - pain often perceived in abd pleurisy - in abd with deep insp Pain Psychogenic?
Palpate for masses neoplasm, obstruction, hernia, feces. Intussusception in infants.
how do you feel? mood? Energy? Dx of mental health disorder? Other Meds? recent surgeries?
not organic pain Palpate groin Palpate Hernias sugery can produce adhesions thatmay cz Percuss for flank intest obtsr tenderness KI issue could be stone colon cancer? Test for peritoneal irritation 1. obtrurator mm test 2. iliopsoas mm test 3. Rovsings test Perform pelvic Exam in women/Genital prostate exam on men
camping recently or chikd in day care?
untreated water ingestion - parasite parasites also transmitted in day cares
Check peripheral pulses
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14. malrotation/ vulvulous 15. incarcerated hernia
abd films upper gastro series
MC elderly. Constant severe pain in RLQ or LLQ that hernia or mass that is non-reproducible worsens with strain
CHRONIC LOWER ABD PAIN 1. IBS
begins in adolescence. Hypogastric pain, crampy. Variable infrequent duration, assoc with bowel function. Gas bloating distention relief with passing flatus/feces. crampy pain after eating dairy
2. lactose intolerance
Proctosigmoidoscopy barium enema stool positive for blood failure to improve after 6-8 wk therapy trial elim of dairy
3. diverticular dz 4. constipation
older pt. localized pain colicky or dull and steady pain. Does not progress or worsen.
abd tenderness, fever fecal mass palpable. Stool inrectum
Barium enema, elevated ESR, none if habitual/lifelong constipation barium enema if metabolic or systemic cause suspected GYN consult pelvic USG if neoplasm cannot be excluded proctoscopy, barium enema is strangulation suspected pelvic USG
5. dysmenorrhea 6. uterine fibroids 7. hernia 8. ovarian cysts
premenstrual pain. Decr with age. pain related to menses, intercourse localized pain incr with exertion young
normal pelvic exam palpable myomas hernia noted adnexal pain and palpable ovarian cysts
9. abd wall disorder
bruising or swelling, no GI/GU sx
CT uf internal dz
UPPER ABD PAIN CHRONIC 10. esophagitis/GERD burning, gnawing pain in mid epigastrium. Pain after Unremarkable eating. May be relieved after antacids 11. Peptic Ulcer burning, gnawing pain. Soreness. Empty feeling or may have epigastric tenerness on papl hunger. MC with empty ST, stress and alcohol. Relieved with food. Pain steady, mild or severe in the epigastrium constant burning pain the in epigastric are. May N/V Unremarkable diarrhea or fever. Alcohol, NSAIDs and salicylates agg diffuse crampy pain with N/V diarrhea, fever hyperactive bowel sounds. Dehydration if very severe. vague complaints of indigestion, heartburn, gas, abd Unremarkable distention children 5-10 yo. Enviro pr psycholog stress. Unremarkable
upper gastro series radiogrpahy or endoscopy if sx severe upper gastro series, endoscopy, gastric analysis
pt should respond to therapy
13. Gastroenteritis 14. Functional Dyspepsia 15. recurrent abd pain
no dx test needed CBC, fecal occult blood test (FOBT) CBC, urinalysis, ESR, FOBT
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Have you had a fever or chills?
Urinary Problems in Females and Children
systemic inflammatory response - acute Inspection: ill appearance condition such as pyelonephritis or lithiasis likely to have upper UTI of Urinary system such as pyelonephritis, urolithiasis. Lower problems are fever-free and appear well.
Urine Dipstick: Specific gravity, leukocyte esterase, nitrites, protein, glucose, ketones, blood
Have you had nausea or vomiting?
Accompany a UTI, pyelonephritis, or Also, neonates with UTI's Microscopic Urinalysis: lithiasis. Systemic inflammatory response may present with Jaundice. color, sediment, RBC's, indicating an acute presentation WBC's, Casts Upper UTI and pyelonephritis. Urinary Vitals: Hypertension is tract stones can cause localized back pain seen in patients with that radiates to the thighs nephritis immunocompromised individuals are susceptible to infections Palpate and Percuss: the flanks and costovertebral angle for pain, this may indicate renal capsule distention KOH and Wet Mount: if you suspect vulvovaginitis Ultrasonography: renal US to assess size and contour of KI, bladder US to assess for tumors of the bladder or thickening of the bladder wall.
Have you and acute pain in the abdomen or back?
Are you positive for HIV? Or receiving chemo?
In an infant: has the infant been irritable with lethargy?
In babies, UTI may present as irritability, anorexia and weight loss.
Pain the lower quadrant lower ureter involvemnet
Radiography: urinary calculi
Have you had any recent injury?
Hematuria can be caused by injury to the flanks
Suprapubic tenderness lower UT
Have you been hit recently?
Domestic violence can cause blood in the urine d/t trauma
Deep palpation for any masses distended bladder rises above the symphysis and is a sign that the bladder isn't emptying. Enlarged bladder may cause pain.
Are you sexually active? And how frequently do you Acute bacterial cystitis d/t frequent sexual engage in this behavior? intercourse, use of diaphragm or spermicidal gel.
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DDX Common causes of Urinary Problems in Females and Children Uncomplicated UTI Dysuria, frequency, mild Nausea, nocturia, urgency, voiding small amounts; neonates and young infants present with anorexia, irritability, fever
NO fever; appears well; no CVA tenderness; may have suprapubic tenderness; Note: neonates and young infants may present with failure to thrive, bacteremia
Urine dipstick: + blood, +leukocyte esterase, +nitrites, microscopic analysis: RBC's WBC's no casts; urine C&S; in children, voiding cystourethrogram and renal US are recommended
Dysuria; vaginal d/c, Hx of new sex partner, frequent sex, partner with urethritis, multiple sex partners
Appears welll has no CVA tenderness or fever
Urine dipstick: may have + blood, + leukocyte esterase, + nitrites, urine culture; molecular testing vaginal specimen
Hx of vaginal itching, dc, burning, dryness, postmenopausal
inflamed or atrophic labia, vaginal or cervical d/c Microscopic exam, vaginal cultures, molecular testing
Frequent painful urination, hematuria, most often appears well and has no physical findings; middle-age women, often frustrated b/c no cause has suprapubic tenderness, may be present been previously found for long standing and persistend symptoms
urinalysis usually negative, x-ray and cystometric studies to rule out other urological disease, cystoscopy
fever, chills, back pain, n/v, toxic appearance, some patients also have frequency and dysuria
feels and looks ill, fever, CVA tenderness, abdomen may be tender
Microscopic examination, WBC's may have white cell casts or bacterial casts, urine C and S: E.coli, klebsiella, proteus mirabilis, enterobacter, blood cultures
Pain, hematuria, may have symptoms of secondary may have CVA tenderness, loosk ill during infection, renal colic, pain that radiates to inner thigh, periods of acute pain, may have abdominal nausea, vomiting distention
urinalysis, gross or microscopic hematuria, WBC's with or without bacteria, crytstalline structures may be present, noncontrast helical CT
Poststreptococcalglomerul Hx of skin or thorat infection 1-3 weeks prior, lethargy, Hypertension, perioribital edema, CVA onephritis anorexia, vomiting, abdominal pain tenderness, may have dyspnea, cough, pallor Chemical Irritation Hx of bubble baths, soaps, lotions, sprays, urgency, dysuria No fever, erythematous labia, urethral opening
U/A: +proteinuria, +hematuria, +ASO titer, serum C3 low early in disease hematuria common, gross hematuria, unusual and casts never seen
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Vaginal Discharge and Itching
What kind of vagnitis might this be? What is the amount, color, and consistency of your discharge? Do you have itching, swelling, or redness? Is there an odor? Is this likely a sexually transmitted infection? Are you sexually active? Do you have multiple partners? Do you have a new partner? Have you had sex against your will? (Child: has anyone touched your private parts?) What form of protection do you use? How often? Have you or your partner(s) ever been tested or treated for a STI? Do you have any rashes, blisters, sores, lumps, or bumps in the genital area? Can this be vaginitis that is not related to an STD?
Green, offensive smelling: T. vagnitis. Purulent: gonorrhea and chlamydia. Moderate white, curd-like: candida. BV is thin and either white, green, gray or brownish. Vagnitis causes inflammation --> erythema and edema. Candida has itching. Fishy: BV (positive whiff). Foreign body. MC in women of childbearing age (12-50) with a new partner.
Note vital signs Fever in serious infection such as PID (uncommon in vaginitis) Perform oral exam look for oral thrush Perform an external genitalia examination check lymph nodes (inguinal), erythema, excoriations and induration. Discharge in labial folds.
Potassium Hydroxide (KOH) and wet mount. Whiff test is + for BV. Look for hyphae: candida. Clue cells for BV Test for pH - normal is less than 4.5. Above this: BV, trich, or atrophic Funal culture or sabouraud agar culture
Common vaginal infections pospubertal: Trichomonas, Candida and bacterial vaginosis
Recent treatment may indicate tx failure Vesicles: herpes. Warts are common (M contagiosum may extend to thighs). Painless ulcer suggests syphilis (solitary)
Most common cervical infections: Chlamydia, Neisseria gonnorrhea, and herpes simplex
Have you ever been told you have diabetes or Could be immunocompromised Cushing's syndrome or that you are positive for HIV? Have you been ill recently? Chickenpox, scarlet fever, measles can cause vaginitis Associated with candida. (Alter pH and flora) Pinworms! Bike riding, pools/hot tubs, tight fitting pants --> moisture/heat and mechanical irritation or infection Predisposed due to nonestrogenized vagina and lack of hair and labial growth After new partner suggests acute STI. Assoc with condoms/jelly suggest sensitivity to the product. Related to bathing: chemical irritation
Are you taking antibiotics, hormones, or BCPs? Postmenopausal women Have you received chemotherapy? have discharge related to Does the itching seem to be worse at night? atrophic vaginitis (def of Describe some of your recent activities estrogen) Is the patient premenarche? Is the condition acute, recurring, or chronic? How long have you had this? Is it getting better or worse? Have you ever had these symptoms before? How many episodes have you had in the past year? Are the episodes related to any particular activity or time? If this is acute, could it be related to a previous infection? Have you been tested and treated for this condition recently? What medication was prescribed? How long ago? Did you take all of the medication? What other prescriptions were you taking at that time? If this is chronic, what should I suspect? Do any family members or sexual partners have vaginal or urinary infections? Any itching, rashes, sores, lumps or bumps? Do you have a new or untreated partner? What are your sexual practices? Vaginal, oral, and/ or anal sex? How many yeast infections have you had this year?
Herpes culture Perform an internal vaginal examination look Tzank smear - for herpes at the cervix and vaginal walls Modified diamond's culture - for trich (rarely used) Perform a bimanual Thayer-Martin culture examination - POSITIVE for gonorrhea CERVICAL MOTION is DNA probe for from PID and warents Chlamydia, Gonorrhea, immediate evaluation, and herpes treatment, or referral to prevent scarring, ectopic pregnancy, and infertility Serology for syph Urinalysis Microscophy and skin scraping for scabies and pubic lice Perform a vaginal-rectal exam Scotch tape test - for pinworms (Enterobius) Acetic acid test for HPV FSH - to determine premenopause
Watch for self-diagnosis of a "yeast infection" Can have tx failure if stop taking meds. May have drug interactions Transmission of candida, M. contagiosum, herpes, lice, pinworms. Also poor hygiene.
Consider diabetes or immunocompromised state (HIV) if more than 3x candida/yr.
What are other possible causes for this vagnitis? local irritation, altered flora. Perfumes, douches, sprays, lubricants, bubble baths all are offenders in allergic vaginitis. What are your personal hygiene practices? Do you douche? Changes flora and pH. Also scented/coloured toilet paper can irritate. Direction of wiping is also important (microbes from anus to vagina) May cause allergic inflammation Have you changed brands of contraceptive products? have forgotten to remove your diaphragm Itching, burning, foul, purulent discharge. Could you or tampon? Also assoc with vaginal bleeding. Are there any associated symptoms that point to a cause? Do you have burning or pain with urination? Atrophic vaginitis: dysuria, dyspareunia, Frequency, hesitation, nocturia? vaginal dryness. Do you have painful intercourse? Endometriosis or PID, or fibroids. STIs leading to PID. Do you have any abdominal or pelvic pain? Infant: is there an eye infection? Gonorrhea or chlamydia Infant: is there a cough? Pneumonia assoc with chlamydiosis
Page 35 of 52
Vag Discharge DDX Physiolocial discharge
Increase in discharge; no foul odour, itching, or edema Clear or mucoid, pH <4.5.
Up to 3-5 WBCs; epithelial cells, lactobacilii Presence of KOH "whiff" test, presence of clue cells, <lactobacilli KOH prep: mycelia, budding, branching yeast, pseudohyphae Round or pear-shaped protozoa; motile "gyrating" flagella Folded, clumped epithelial cells WBCs WBCs DNA probe; >10 WBC's/HPF
Bacterial vaginosis Candida vulvovaginitis
Foul-smelling discharge Priuritic discharge
Homogenous, thin, white or gray discharge, pH >4.5 Whie, curdy, pH 4-5.0
Trichomoniasis Atrophic vaginitis Allergic vaginitis Foreign body Chlamydia
Watery discharge; foul odour Dyspareunia; vaginal dryness
Profuse, frothy, greenish discharge; red friable cervix; pH 5.0-6.6 Pale, thin vaginal mucosa; pH >4.5
New bubble bath, soap, douche, etc. Foul smell, erythema, "lost tampon"; pH<4.5 Red and swollen vulva; vaginal discharge; past history Bloody, foul smelling discharge of use of tampon, condom, or diaphragm Partner with non-gonococcal urethritis; asymptomatic May or may not have purulent discharge
Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) Itching and lesions DDX Syphilis
Bleeding, abdominal pain, fever, and vaginal discharge; increasing amount of dicharge and bleeding after sex History of painless ulcerative lesion; rash on palms and soles; warty growth on vagina or anus
Cervical motion test and adnexal tenderness; WBC, culture, DNA probe, gram may also have guarding and rebound tenderness staining Chancre: usually 1, painless ulceration; condylomata lata: flat, whitish papule or plaque; maculopapular rash: palm, soles, body VDRL, RPR, FTA-ABS
Mild-to-moderate itching, foul vaginal discharge; child: Moist, pale-pink, verucous projections at base; Acetic acid test: white history of sexual abuse; adult: new or multiple located on vulva, vagina, cervix, or perianal area partners; past history of warts History of prodromal syndrome, paresthesias, burning, itching, may have mucoid vaginal discharge History of contact with infected person; if inflamed: itching Grouped vesicles on a red base, erode to ulcer; if Viral culture; Tzank smear on mucous memb, exudate forms, if on skin, crusts form; redness, edema, tender ing lymph nodes Flesh-coloured, dome-shaped papules, some None with umbilication; usually 2-5cm in diameter
Page 36 of 52
Was onset abrupt or gradual? Does it chenge in a 24 hr. period?
Abrupt & shortlived = transient ischemic attack. DEMENTIA = insidious onset Sudden over a few hours = delirium
Is pateint alert and aware? Has the aptient seen, heard, felt things that are not there? Hx of head trauma? Medications?
MENTAL STATUS EXAM CBC- infxn, or anemia - What is the date? may contirbute to - Repeat words after me: confusion house, car, lake. Fluctuating symptoms in delerium More stable symptoms in depression and - What is this? (pointing to pencil) dementia Yes = dementia and depression No/decreased alertness = delirium Serum folate and B12 deficiencies may cz Cranial nerves: i.e. sense reversible dementia Hallucinations common in delirium of smell often impired in Uncommmon in dementia and depression dementia; slurred speech S-syphilis r/o neurosyphilis (although can occur in late stage dementia) Rapid alternating Mvmt: Rhomberg's, DTR (hyperreflexia in dementia); Urinalysis - r/o infxn Numerous drugs, illicit and pharmaceutical Language (apahsia in can alter mental states. Lumbar puncture - r/o dementia) Meds interactions meningitis NEURO exam Associated with Parkinsons, HIV encehalopathy, liver dz, medication rxns, head trauma
Tremor and gait disturbances at rest?
H/A, fever, n/v?
What specific problems with mental abilities or tinking have you noticed?
H/A, N/V assctd. With stroke and tumor nd trauma Abdomen: inspect, percuss Fever in infxn, OH withdrawl for CVA tenderness. May indicate systemic cz of confusion i.e.urinary retention- UTI CVA tender-pyelonephritis Delirium = global cognitive losses involving Large Liver= hepatic memory, thinking, perception and encephalopathy judgement. Also irritability, disoriented, fearful Early Dementia = seletive cognitive losses, poor hygiene, socially withdrawn, Depression= fewer cognitive losses
Does patient have any chronic health concerns?
HIV, alcoholism, renal failure, liver disease, severe anemia, COPD, CVD, predispose elderly to the development of confusion
Is this really fatigue? Tell me what you mean by fatigue?
Discriminate b/w fatigue & weakness. Pxs Psych screening for describe muscle weakness instead. depression & anxiety
The sensation of profound Is the fatigue physiological? tiredness that is not Tell me about you lifestyle habits (Exercise & diet)? relieved by rest or sleep Tell me about your sleep pattern. and is not associated with prolonged activity. Chronic fatigue lasts more Do you require naps? than 6 months and onset Do you feel rested when you wake up in the am? is slow & progressive. When was your last menstrual period?
CBC w/ diff: may indicate presence of anemia (Hb, hematocrit), chronic blood loss Erratic eating patterns, over/undernutrition, Note general appearance inflammation or infxn missed meals, caffeine, stress, -demeanor employment. Lack of adequate sleep. Need b/w 6-8 hrs Vitals - fever, inc. HR/BP, adults; adolescents 8-9hrs; kids 10 hrs. Early am waking/ Xs sleep = sx of depression orthostatic hypoT, BMI Ferritin - stored iron (low in iron def. anemia) Total Iron Binding Capacity- indirect measure of transferretin UA- infxn or systemic dz, hematuria, pyuria, leukocytes, ESR - rate at which blood settlesin anticoagulated blood; inc in inflammation (infxn, RA) Fasting Blood glucose>126mg/dl suggests diabetes Hepatic fxn - AST/ALT for general inflammation of liver (hepatitis) TSH - level identifies hypoT HIV infxn - enzyme linked immunosorbet assay to R/O infxn TB skin test - mantoux for Tb antibodies Monospot- detects heterophil Ab not specific to EBV Chest Radiographpneumonia, heart size, fluid (CHF)
Inspect skin, hair & nails - for signs of hypo/hyperT, Fatigue = early sx of pregnancy, post child nail biting, skin lesions (mono, Lyme dz) birth, perimenopausal (night sweats/ hot flashes = disrupted sleep) Do I need to consider an organic cause? 1st sign of HIV, hep, AIDS - STI contracted Examine Nose, eyes, from semen or blood. & through sex mouth & throat Do you practice saf sex (if sexually active)? practices that damage mucous membranes inflammation, lymph Have you ever had hepatitis? nodes, mucous Do you take any medication? Fatigue = side effect membranes Do you drink alcohol or use street drugs? alcohol , marijuana use result in fatigue - CV exam - heaves, bruit, CAGE questionnaire heart sounds, PMI What other clues can help me rule out an organic increased app may indicate hypoglycemia Examine LU - RR, A/P, cause? dec. app. May indicate infectious process fremitis, rales, wheezes Wt loss - malignancy, infxn, poor nutrition Examine Abdomen Have you noticed a change in appetite? Do you have any joint tenderness or pain? seen in juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) bowel sounds, Palpate (light & deep); rigid Have you noticed increased urination? DM type 2 = fatigue, poly dypsia/phagia/uria aches, abdominal pain, abdomen (peritoneal What other symptoms have you experienced? Sx such as muscle irritation), LV, KI, SP for general lethargy, dry skin & nails, SOB w/ tenderness exertion Could this have an environmental cause? Heavy metals & pesticides may cause MSK exam- joints for fatigue & neurological sx inflammation & swelling, Where do you work? test stamina (fatigue level) Have you been exposed to any toxins? Lyme disease (malaise, chronic fatigue before skin manifestations) Have you been camping? Neuro exam - Cognitive & physical fxn (attn span, What else do I need to know about fatigue? Psychological - Often related to stressful judgement, memory), CN, event & may have sudden onset. Describe the onset & pattern of your fatigue. When relflexes, cerebellar, motor Matabolic - slow, progressive onset did you first notice this? How severe is the fatigue? What makes the fatigue better or worse? May limit social fxning, rec. activities Psych - usually < am, > w/ phys. Activity Organic - not relieved w/ sleep or rest Have you had a fever? Seen w/ infectious dz Prolonged fever - chronic infxn, inflammatory dz, malignancy How you had any bleeding? Heavy menses may lead to anemia, also GI ulcers, polyps, bowel CA If I suspect a psychological cause, what else do I Stressful events inc risk of depression need to know? Muscle atrophy w/ inactivity can lead to fatigue Describe your stress level and how you cope with stress in your life. Have you recently had a stressful event in your life? Family Hx of depression increases risk of Do you or anyone in your family have a problem with depression m/c women b/w 20-30 anxiety or depression? How are you doing in school? Dec academic performance & dec. productivity may be early sx of dpression Overachievers may be compensating & hiding depression
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reduced attn span; disorganized thoughts; decreased level of consciousness; irritability; memory impairment; disoreintation; perceptual disturbances; hallucinations; sudden onset,short lived less abrupt and less severe than delerium; apatheic, drowsy; disoreintation especially TIME, less for place, never for Self; diurnal variation less than delirium;
depends on underlying cz tremors affected speech (slow, incoherent etc) tremor, difficult motor relaxation
Insidious onset; stable course through day and night ; poor hygeine; weight loss; language difficulty; patient is alert; orientation often impaired; incontinence; irritability hallucinations absent until late stages; fragmeted sleep; "near miss" answers on Mental status exam
DSM IV 1. Memory Impairment 2. One or more of the following: a) Aphasia b)Apraxia c) Agnosia d) Disturbance in planning, organizing, sequencing 3. These defects casue impairment in social or occupational functioning
abrupt onset confusion; some diurnal variation; more consistent over time than delirium; Hx of phsychiatric problems; fluctuating cognitive losses; no hallucinations; suicidl thoughts; anxious mood
DDX: FATIGUE Physiological causes Psychological causes: Depression: Children Depression: Adults Anxiety Organic causes: Infection Drugs and Alcohol Adolescent and younger adult, history of overwork, psychological stress, disturbed sleep, poor diet Feeling sad, angry, irritable; Decreased academic performance; Somatic complaints Loss of interest in usual activities; Feelings of worthlessness; Sleep problems Numerous somatic complaints, breathlessness Normal examination None None DSM-PC, DSM-IV
Depressed affect; normal examination Tachycardia, palpitations, diaphoresis
Depression screening instrument None
Sudden onset; history of exposure; recent viral illness Fever; lymphadenopathy, localized signs of CBC, ESR, monospot erythema, edema History of smoking, alcohol use; antihistamines, Bilaterally enhanced or depressed DTRs; pupilary CAGE alcohol screening analgesic, antihypertensive meds changes; reduced attn span, judgement Anemia Increased pulse; pale mucosa; smooth red tongue CBC w/ indices, serum iron, ferretin, Breathlessness w/ exertion; menstruating female; recent surgery, delivery transferretin Hypothyroidism (myxedema) Poor appetite, fatigue, weight gain, cold intolerance T4 low, T3 low, TSH elevated Decreased pulse; dry skin, coarse dry hair, thyroid possibly enlarged, hoarseness Hyperthyroidism (Graves) Hyperactivity, heat intolerance, sleep problems Lid lag, fine thinning hair, tachycardia T4 increased, T3 increased, TSH depressed Organic causes: Male, middle aged or older, partner reports periods of Hypertension, obesity, narrowed upper airway sleep studies Sleep apnea no breathing during sleep, fatigue
Medications Heart Failure Cancer Mononucleosis (EBV) Hepatitis Fibromyalgia Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
Hx of allergies treated with antihistamines; meds for hypertension, heart disease, chronic pain Dyspnea, wt gain, fatigue, cough Fatigue, unexplained wt loss
Nasal congestion, cough, injected conjunctiva
Evaluate medication choices ECG, chest radiograph, ABGs CBC to rule out anemia,; leukocyte count Positive monospot; CBC w/ diff; >50% leukocytes Bilirubin increased; hepatitis panel None CBC, ESR
Anxiety, JVP, displaced PMI, rales Observe, palpate & percuss all systems for lumps, lesions or consolidation; PE may be Young adult; slow onset of malaise, low-grade fever, normal petechiae, posterior cervical Palatine mild sore throat lymphadenopathy, spleenomegaly Jaundice, anorexia, fatigue, faver may be reported Jaundice, wt loss, athralgia, akin rash Female 20-50 yr, Hx of depression, sleep disturbance, Palpation of trigger pts will produce pain; normal chronic fatigue, general muscle and joint aches physical exam Fatigue greater than 6 mo, sudden onset of flu-like Physical exam may be normal, cerival & axillary symptoms that persist or recur lymphadenopathy
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Is the pain related to an urgent problem that Muscguloskeletal injury can rainge from needs immediate treatment to avoid disability or simple muscular strain to a significant death? fracture associated with nerve or vascular Have you had a recent injury? Priority of recent trauma is to assess injury. vascular and neurological integrety of the limb Do you have any other symptoms, such as fatigue, Suggests systemic disorder such as fever or swollen joints? infection or rheumatic disease. What is the severity of the pain? Unrelenting diffuse pain, often occurring at night, is an indication of bone involvement Does the pain occur with exercise or rest? Claudication and neurogenic pain increase with activity and decrease with rest, more immediately for vascular causes and more slowly for neurogenic causes What does the location of the pain tell me? Where does it hurt?
Symptoms of coldness, severe pain or paresthesia warrant physical exam immediately to assess need for emergency treatment. Ask specifically about the mechanism of injury and also wether or not the patient heard any noise to assess if there is a broken bone
Location of pain provides a clue for Always observe for identifying the site where the pain symmetry and then originates receptors signal the site of functionally assess limbs Local pain and joint bilaterally irritation and an increase in sensitivity beginning with unaffected (hyperesthesia) results. Referred pain side. Order the exam so Could this be caused by a sprain or strain? generally involves the muscle chains, painful tests are done last. nerve pathways, and vessels. Unilateral, circumscribed limb or quadrant pain involves autonomic nerve fibers. Bilaterla pain is more likely to originate from systemic involvement. Diffuse pain with inconsistent distribution may be the result of psychosomatic conditions such as depression and anxiety Describe how the injury occurred? Strain involves injury to muscles and Observe patient walking, tendons, whereas sprains involve injury to removing coat, getting into ligamentous structures. Both produce sitting position. Look for a ripping or tearing sounds. limp. Have the patient Did you hear a noise with the injury, such as a A fracture produces diffuse swelling around locate the pain. Note any deformities ripping or cracking sound? the injured vone soon after injury. Deformity will be present if the fracture is displaced. Were you able to use the limb after the injury? Barotrauma --> acute serous otitis. Failure Assess vital signs. of eustachian tube to open and equilibrate Elevated temperatures are --> fluid collection in middle ear. seen in neoplastic, systemic and infectious If there is no history or trauma or a precipitating processes such as event, what else is causing the pain? osteomyelitis, septic arthritis and septic hip in Describe your usual daily activities at home, work Overuse: repetitive microtrauma results children and rheumatic and with hobbies from cumulative injury or overuse. disease. Is the pain localized or generalized? How does the pain afect your activities? Inspect skin and nails. Lyme disease has a target lesion and rash on the trunk. Look for puncture or abcess which may be Do you have other illnesses? Presence of coronary artery disease source of infection. Look increases the risk of arterial insufficiency for ecchymosis and and associated caludication pain. bruising indicating trauma. Peripheral neuropathy associated with Look for swelling and In joint pain with injury, what do I need to know diabetes can produce a burning pain or about the specific joints involved? redness of joints. 'pins and needles' sensation, esp. lower Upper extremities: Shoulder, wrist, elbow key Measure limb extremities. questions circumference and length. Is the pain in your dominant limb? Pain in the dominant hand may indicate Palpate extremties and repetitive microtrauma or overuse. joints Did you fall on an outstretched hand or arm? Breaking a fall with an outstretched arm is Perform passive and active a common mecahnism of injury for a ROM of all limbs. Test for Did you overuse a joint? fracture or dislocation of the hand or wrist muscle strength with RROM. Neurological exam of dermatomes and myotomes. Lower extremities: Knee, ankle Activities: a person may adapt to chronic musculoskeletal problems by using an assistive device such as a cane or by limiting activities.
Complete Blood Cell Count Evaluates for anemia associated with chronic disease, infection or neoplasm. Altered WBC count may indicate infection or leukemia. Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate Elevated when inflammation is present. Non-specific Joint Aspiration Assess synovial fluid for elevated WBC, gram stain, culture and sensitivity, crystal analysis, presence of glucose and consistency.
Radiography Obtain at least two radiographic views, anteroposterior and latera becausae injuries are not always apparent on a single view. MRI and CT usually ordered by specialists. MRI good for spone, joint and soft tissue imaging. CT good for bone visualization
Antinuclear Antibodies Postive with RA ans SLE Rheumatoid Factor Positive in 80% of RA patients C4 Complement Increased in active inflam. Disease and autoimmune disorders such as juvenile RA
How is the pain affected by weight bearing or activity? Did you feel a sense of 'giving way?' Did you hear a pop, tear, or other sound?
Continuing with activity means the injury did not totally disrupt any ligamentous structures. An inability to straighten or ben the knee suggests a mechanical blockage A loud pop is virtually diagnostic of an ACL tear. A ripping sound suggests a meniscus injury. A cracking sound may signify a bony injury or dislocation of the patella A sudden change in direction or sudden stop may put more force on the ligaments than they can dissipate, resulting in acute rupture
C-Reactive Protein Elevated in RA and infection Lyme Titer Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay Serology (ELISA) May detect anti-bodies for B. burgdoferi.
What position was your leg in when you hurt your knee? Could this be musculoskeletal joint disease? What does the pain feel like?
sharp, piercing, stabbing, cutting, pinching, gnawing pain --> nerves and skin. Dull, tearing, boring, burning, cramping are common terms to describe pain arising from deeper structures such as muscles, joints, and internal organs. Pulsating, pounding, throbbing, or hammering --> vascular pain. gradually increasing sensations of pressure, tension, heaviness and calf pain --> venous obstruction. Severe pain that develops over 1 to 4 days is typical of osteomyelitis or septic arthritis in children, which is an emergency
What does the history of swelling tell me?
is there any swelling? When did the swelling begin?
Swelling is always abnormal. Within 2 hours after injury is the result of a fracture or hemarthosis. Swelling 6 - 24 hours after injury is usually of synovial origin. >24 hours suggests an inflammatory response.
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Musculoskeletal Inflammation Tenosynovitis Bursitis Fibrositis Repetitive trauma activities; pain with movement History of overuse; aching pain over affected bursae that radiates along the limb Pain in trigger sites throughout body, joint stiffness, disturbed sleep Swelling over tendon, crepitus Local tenderness, swelling, limited joint motion, muscle weakness Fatty, fibrous nodules in muscles, palpation of trigger points elicits pain none none none
Presentation depends on age, location of infection, trauma, penetration, invasive procedure; refusal to bear weight (hip); constant pain
Fever, chills, vomiting, pain localized over affected area but progressively worsens; soft tissue injury or abcess
Increased WBC, ESR, C-reactive protein, radiographs
Joint Inflammation Osteoarthritis
Older adults, asymettrical joint pain and stiffness that DIP, PIP joints enlarged, Heberden's nodes. improves throughout the day, history of repetitive joint Limited cervical spine ROM trauma, obesity
ESR; radiograph may reveal osteophytes, loss of joint space
Morning stiffness of small joints, symmetrical involvement, anorexia, weight loss
Fever, rehumatoid nodules, ulnar deviation of wrists
Increased ESR, positive rheumatoid factor, anemia on CBC, radiograph shows bony erosion
Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis
Fatigue, weight loss, failure to thrive, refusal to walk, joint pain and stiffness
Fever, rash, guarding of joints, limited ROM; joint Elevated WBC, ESR; positive swelling, nodules rheumatoid factor and antinuclear antibody
History of systemic infection, malaise, diaphoresis, refusal to bear weight (hip), acute joint pain
Fever, red, swollen joint, limited ROM
WBC, culture of joint aspirate, ESR, C-reactive protein, ultrasound of joint Increased serum uric acid level, ESR, WBC
Acute pain of large joint, asymmetrical, males over 30 Inflamed swollen joint, tophi, sodium urate years, history of gout crystals
Musculoskeletal Pain Related to Trauma and Overuse Shoulder dislocation Acromioclavicular joint injury Bicipital tendonitis Rotator cuff tear History of trauma, pain History of trauma, pain History of overuse of biceps; pain worse with movement Acute: younger persons, history of trauma, severe pain; chronic: older, pain worse with overhead movement, sleep disturbance repetitive motion of or pressure to the elbow, localized pain History fo repetitive contraction of extensor and supinator muscles, pain over lateral epicondyle that progresses Occurs in children, pain in the elbow or arm Limited rotation, arm abduction and hand supination Limited shoulder movemnt; obvious deformity Positive Yergason's test; pain localized over the intertubercular groove Acute: inability to raise arm side-ways, shrug shoulders; chronic: tenderness over AC joint, crepitus, weakness in external shoulder rotation Radiograph of shoulder Radiograph of shoulder radiograph (Fisk view) radiograph may reveal humeral displacement or spurs
Olecrenon bursitis Lateral humeral epicondylitis Subluxation of radial head
warmth, redness and swelling over joint, full ROM radiograph to rule out fracture of the olecranon process Tenderness over later epicondyle; palaption none roduces pain, motion does not; supination against resistance worsens pain radiograph of elbow The afected arm is flexed and the hcild cries when attempts are made to move the joint Palpation of snuffbox increases pain; observe for Three-view radiographs to determine joint deformity scaphoid or Colle's fracture Joint swelling, instability Three-view radiographs (PA. lateral and oblique)
Wrist fracture Finger fracture
History of fall on an outstretched hand, pain and swelling of forearm and wrist History of trauma or fall, joint tenderness
Ganglion Slipped capital femoral epiphysis Transient synovitis of the hip Legg-Calve-Perthes disease
Noticeable lump on dorsal surface of wrist Children during rapid growth spurts, knee pain worse with activity Children less than 10 yrs, history of upper respiratory infection, limp, pain in the anteromedial thigh and knee Boys 3-11 yrs, groin or medial thigh pain, limp
Gelatinous filled, nodule, soft, transilluminates Limitation of medial hip rotation, limp Tenderness on palpation over anterior hip; hip movement increases pain and is limited; lowgrade fever. Decreased ROM of hip
none Radiograph of epiphyseal plate Ultrasound, ESR AP and frog lateral radiograph of the hip; LCPD may show increased density of the femoral head
History of repetitive flexion of hip; pain worse with movement Adolescent females; history of knee trauma or misalignment, knee pain worse with activity History fof overuse, especially running or jumping; dull, achy knee pain; click
With patient sitting, place the heel of affected leg none on the knee of the other; test is positive if pain is elicited Tenderness to palpation over knee Q angle greater than 10 degress in males, 15 degrees in females, clicking or popping with knee movement Four-view radiographs of knees to rule out arthritis none
Chondromalacia patellae Patellar tendinitis
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Limb Pain Continued
Is this an acute or chronic problem?
Pain hours after injury is usually acute extensor injury or pveruse. Severe ligament sprain manifests immediately. Chronic problems compound each other whereas intermittent or episodic pain is characteristic of diseases of the musculoskeletal system
When did the pain first occur?
When did you first notice a problem?
Problems with activities of daily living are noticed
How is activity affected? What will this tell me?
What are your usual activities? What activity makes the pain worse?
Repetitive microtrauma in lower extremities is due to inappropriate rate and intensity of training, shoe wear and playing surfaces Intraarticular lesions usually worsen with joint motion and sports activities. Intraosseus tumors are less sensitive to joint motion. In children with septic hip pain increases with movement
What movements make the pain worse?
What does joint stiffness or locking tell me? Have you had any joint stiffness?
Stiffness is felt after being in one position for too long. Locking of the knee is an abrupt occurrence where they somplain that something 'gets in the way' of fully extending the knee.
Does activity make the stiffness worse or better? Do you have any locking of the knee? What does a history of a limp tell me? Is there pain with the limp? Did the limp come on suddenly? is the limp constant or intermittent? what is the effect of running or climbing stairs? Could this be caused by systemic disease? Have you been treated with any antibiotics lately?
common feature of inflammatory arthropathy eg RA or SLE Sign of chronic unstable meniscus tear limping is a pathological alteration of a smooth, regular gait pattern and is never normal
Limp after strenuous running may indicate stress fracture neuromuscular diseases can result in progressive and painless muscle weakness or spasticity that affects ambulation in a variety of ways quadraceps weakness causes difficulty climbing stairs
antibiotics can cause serum sickness in children. Fluoroquinoline antibiotics can produce tendinitis or tendon rupture in adults transient arthralgia may occur 6-8 weeks after receiving MMR. Recurrent or permanent arthritis may follow rubella vaccination, esp. adult females
have you had any recent immunizations?
has the fever been constant or intermittent?
does the pain awaken you at night? is the pain worse ar night? do you have a skin rash? Could the pain be caused by Lyme Disease? have you been camping or out in the woods? have you noticed any skin rash? What does past medical history tell me? Have you had anything like this before? Do you have a chronic disease? Could you have been exposed to any sexually transmitted disease? Have you been treated with cortisone? Have you had a recent cold or upper respiratory infection? Is this likely a mixed condition?
report by an adolescent of night pain is a red flag for intraosseous pain of a bone tumour. Growing pains may also awaken a child. Growing pains are bilateral
Lyme disease is an infection caused by tick-borne spirochete borrelia burgdorferi. Symptoms involve arthralgias, particularly knee joint target lesion Sickle cell anemia, IBD, Crohn's, hypo and hyperthyroidism, or collagen vascular diseases are frequently associated with skin rashes, psoriasis and limb or joint pain Gonorrhea may disseminate to the musculoskeletal system in 1-3% of ppl with disease. more than 80% develop arthritis cortisone-induced necrosis of the hip sickle cell anemia can cause hip pain . Viral infections may cause diffuse myalgia pre-existing systemic disorders can result in acute injury. A clue is that the extent of the injury seems out of proportion with the precipitating activity
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Limb pain DDX cont'd: Medial collateral ligament sprain medial meniscus tear
History of valgus stress to knee; limp; pain
Effusion and point tenderness over knee; valgus AP and lateral radiographs may and varus pressure to assess instability reveal a ligament avulsion of femoral origin Positive McMurray's test, clicking or locking during joint movement Four-view radiographs to rule out bony deformity
History of twisting injury to the knee, pain, diffculty flexing; bearing weight, clicking or catching of knee with movement
Anterior cruciate ligament tear History of twisting or extension knee injury; audible Swelling; positive Lachman's test radiograph to rule out fracture 'pop' Osgood-Schlatter disease Adolescent males, knee pain and swelling aggravated Tenderness, warmth, swelling over anterior tibial Radiograph with knee rotated inward by activity, limp tubercle may show soft tissue swelling Baker's cyst Fullness or swelling of posterior knee, aggravated by Negative Foucher's sign; normal joint walking examination; positive Homan's sign in ruptured cyst History of inversion stress with audible pop, Swelling, soft tissue trauma, able to perform immediate swelling active ROM with ligament sprain none
Radiograph needed only with tendernes over lateral malleolus to rule out fracture Shin splints Ache or pain over medial tibia that is worse with tenderness over medial tibia AP and lateral radiographs may exercise, history of running show a stress fracture; a bone scan will be positive with increased uptake along the medial tibia Achilles tendinitis Pain and tightness over Achilles tendon, especially Tenderness over Achilles tendon; pain worse with Lateral ankle radiograph reveals with walking or running dorsiflexion of ankle, calf weakness enlarged posterosuperior tuberosity of calcaneus Plantar faciitis History of chronic weight bearing, aching feet, muscle Misalignment of foot structures, sepecially talus, none spasms, obesity calcanues, and plantar ligaments Viral serum titer Muscle Pain (Myalgia) Viral Hisotry of upper respiratory infection, malaise, chills, Fever, I;;-appearing adult or child Infections cold symptoms, general muscle aches Psychogenic Fibromyalgia Normal examination orpatient response to examination maneuvers disproportionate to physical findings or subjective complaints Female 20-50 yrs, history of depression, sleep Palpation of trigger points will produce pain; disturbance, chronic fatigue, general muscle and joint normal physical examination aches Fever, hepatosplenomegaly, bruising Acute Hip pain in children, refusal to walk Normal examination Pain is diffuse, varies in pattern of activity, setting; history of depressioin or anxiety none none CBC Hemoglobin S genotype
Systemic Disorders Leukemia Sickel cell disease
African-American, family history; appears after 6 mo of age; acute pain with swelling of hands and feet, abdominal pain, decreased appetite, malaise Systemic lupus erythematosus Female, transient arthritis of small joints, malar rash Lyme arthritis Neuroblastoma Osteogenic sarcoma
Normal examination may habe joint tenderness on palpation History of exposure to endemic areas of deer tick, Asymmetrical swelling, warmth of joint, erythema chills, diffuse joint pain and swelling, often the knee is migrans, may have myocardial involvement affected Under 5 yrs, pain in bones Unexplained fever Tenderness over affected area
Kidney function tests, antinuclear antibody, CBC Serum IgM and IgG antibodies, ESR
Persons 10-25 yr, intermittent pain of lower femur, upper tibia, limp Nerve Entrapment History of sleeping with arm against head, morning Syndromes Thoracic shoulder pain, pain worse with lifting, paresthesia; outlet syndrome rounded shoulder posture Carpal tunnel syndrome History of repetitive upper extremity motion; paresthesia, weakness, or clumsiness of hand; symptoms worse at nights
Bruit over supraclavicular fossa; pallor, decreased pulses of upper extremity, weakness, skin and nail atrophy Positive Phalen's and Tinel;s sign, weakness of none hand, dry skin over distribution of median nerve none
Urine for vannillylmandelic or homovanillic acid; CT scan Radiograph, serum alkaline phosphatase EMG
Peroneal nerve compression History of pressure to the knee from a cast, sports Unilateral foot drop injury, or trauma; pain over head of fibula; clumsy gait Tarsal tunnel syndrome Neuritis Pain in ankle and proximal foot, weakness of toe flexors, ill-fitting shoes Pain and sensory loss, usually of lower extremities; history of alcohol ingestion, diabetes Tapping posterior tibial nerve elicits pain Decreased sensory and pain sensation
none Liver function tets, hemoglobin A1C to rule out diabetes
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A subjective feeling of pain caused by a variety of intracranial and extracranial factors
What Clues Indicate This Is a Potentially Serious, Need to know if patient is fully oriented Observe the Patient Life-Threatening Headache? before proceeding. Can screen with a Mini- Any patient who complains Mental Staus Exam. If patient shows a of headache and exhibits mental status deficit, immediate an ataxic gait, emergency treatment is indicated uncoordinated movements, or reduced mental How did the headache begin? Onset of sudden severe headache with alertness should be neurological signs is an emergency; the immediately transported to patient needs immediate emergency an emergency center for treatment neurological evaluation What is your age? Have you had this type of New onset headache in children or elderly headache before? or persons over 50 years of age is a warning sign of a serious cause On a scale from 0 (no pain) to 10 (worst pain ever) New, severe headache or headache Take Vital Signs and how severe is the pain? different than prior occurences and Obtain Growth headache that progressively worsens are Parameters Fever warning signs of serious causes may be the only sign of infection. Bradycardia and Is there a history of recent trauma to the head? Trauma may cause subdural or eppidural bleeding. Anyone who experienced head narrowing of pulse pressure are signs of trauma must be carefully observed for at increased intracranial least 24 hours for signs of neurological pressure. In children, damage plotted height and weight Was there a loss of consciousness? Higher chance of neurological signs significantly below average Do you notice any other symptoms associated with Headache associated with infection considers hypothalamic headache pain? presents with fever and possibly stiff neck. neoplasm. Macrocephaly Intracranial hemorrhage associatedw ith may indicate confusion, vomiting, lethargy and focal hydrocephalus or brain neurological signs. Brain tumours in tumour children associated with vomiting, recurrent morning headaches, reflex asymmetry and papiledema Do you have any chronic health problems? Persons with AIDS have increased risk of cryptococcal meningitis, encephalitis or generalized sepsis. Persons treated with anticoagulants or elderly are at increased risk of headache from a serious cause. Headaches secondary to metabolic disorders can be result of hyponatremia, uremia, hypoglycemia or hypercapnia A moderately intense, constant throbbing headache is associated with dilatation of cervical arteries. Severe pain indicates an expanding lesion. Migraineor inflammation Pain secondary to trauma pain is steady is felt at near the site of trauma. Tension headaches can feel like a 'hatband' distribution. Orbital pain is present with increased intraocular pressure. Periorbital pain may be present with sinusitis, migraine or trigeminal neuralgia. TMJ pain may be present. COntraction of muscles of head and neck cause nonpulsatile pain. Triggers such as sound, odour and estrogen fluctuations are associated with migraine. Food triggers such as chocolate and cheese can trigger migraines. Migraines are worse with activity. Stress can trigger any type of headache. Tension type headaches and migraines last less than 24 hours. Cluster headaches are less than 3 hours Auras can occur before, during or after headaches and last no more than 30 minutes. Other prodromal symptoms include fatigue, depressed or euphoric mood, increased or decreased appetite, constipation or diarrhea and yawning. Activities: a person may adapt to chronic musculoskeletal problems by using an assistive device such as a cane or by A patient with constant headaches for more than 3 months may demonstrate papilledema, bilateral or unilateral cranial nerve VI palsies, gait or balance disturbances or spasticity of the lower extremities. Continuous headaches for four weeks or more without these symptoms is of psychogenic origin. headaches throughout the day indicate tension type.Sinus headache gets worse as the day goes on and when leaning forward then get better at night. Headaches associated with ypertension are occipital, worse on waking and lessen as the day goes on. Meningeal inflammation produces pain that fluctuates throughout the day with no clear pattern. Migraines are episodic. Cluster headache pain is short often less than one hour and intense. Palpate and Percuss the Skull Focal tenderness and induration seen on tension type headaches. Tenderness over nodular temporal arteries indicates temporal arteritis. Brain abcesses cause pain with localized traction and tenderness on percussion. Auscultate the Cranium Intracranial arteriovenous malformations mimic migraine. Evaluate for cranial bruits over orbit and skull
Complete Blood Cell Count Detects major blood dyscrasias. Hypoxia secondary to severe anemia can cause headache. Blood Cultures Do if patient has fever, headache, nuchal rigidity and altered mental status CT Scan Detects intracranial disease. DO for new-onset headache or if headache is associated with neurological signs. Lumbar Puncture Do if infection is suspected but contraindicated if increased intracranial pressure Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate Non-specific for temporal arteritis inflammation Skull Radiograph Do for post-traumatic headache
After Determining the Headache Is Not Serious, How Can I narrow Down the Causes? What does it feel like? Where does it hurt?
What makes it worse?
How long have you had this headache?
Can you tell when it is coming on?
Inspect the Ears, Eyes, Nose, Mouth and TMJ Looking for signs of sinusitis, infection, eye changes, TMJ problems, facial paralysis/weakness
How does the pain afect your activities? What Does the Chronicity of Pain Suggest? How frequently do you get a headache?
Perform Opthalmoscopy Look for papiledema and hemorrhage. Optic disc atrophy sugggests chronic intracranial pressure or lesion at optic chiasm.
Can you describe any pattern to the headache?
Assess Cranial Nerve Function May provide evidence for more serious causes of headaches secondary to inflammation, traction or metabolic imbalance.
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Primary Headache Without Common in adults, bilateral pain, general or localized Normal physical examination; neck muscle Structural or Systemic in bandlike distribution; history of anxiety, stress or tightness or fasciculations may be palpated Pathology Tension depression (muscle) headache
Migrain without aura (common)
More common in children; unilateral, throbbing pain; nausea
photophobia and phonophobia
Migraine with aura (classic)
Pain precipitated by environmental stimuli; visual disturbances (scintillating scotoma) precede pain
nausea and vomiting, photophobia and phonophobia
Throbbing, constant pain during waking hours; muscle Mix of findings related to tension and migraine tightness; family history of migraine headache pain
Rare in children; abrupt, nighttime onset; unilateral periorbital pain that is severe
Ipsilateral rhinorrhea, nasal stiffness, conjunctival None injection, sweating, ptosis May need to distinguish from subarachnoid hemorrhage with CT scan
Benign exertional headache
Sudden onset related to physical exertion, Valsalva or normal ysical exam coitus
Secondary Headaches With Structural or Systemic Pathology
Infectious Origin Sinusitis Dental Disorders
Frontal, upper molar, or periorbital pain: cough, rhinorrhea Localized pain in jaw and top of head
Radiographs (Waters view) Low or no fever, pain on palpation of frontal, maxillary sinuses; purulent nasal or postnasal discharge Malocclusion, caries, abcesses of teeth present, dental referral gum disease
Pharyngitis Otitis media Meningitis
Sore throat ear pain, pain with swallowing Severe headache, chills, myalgias, stiff neck; toxic child or adult
Fever; infection of the posterior pharynx Fever, red, bulging tympanic membrane Positive Kernig's and Brudzinski's signs; fever, photophobia, petechial rash may be present; mental status changes
Throat culture None Lumbar puncture
Neurogenic Origin Trigeminal neuralgia
Persons over 55 yrs; bursts of sharp pain over the face innervated by the affected nerve; triggered by stimulus to the affected nerve
Normal physical examination; stimulation of triggers may provoke pain
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How long does the headache last?
Examine the Neck Do full ROM and assess stiffness which may Have you had this kind of headache before? Acute-onset headaches must be evaluated indicate muscle tension or for organic causes. Subacute and chronic meningitis ones are usually caused by vascular Do you use alcohol? Take any medications? Test for Meningitis eg inflammation or muscle tension. Migraines Kernig's sign. Assess usually begin between 10 and 30 yrs. New Deep Tendon Reflexes onset migraines in adults over 50 yrs is for cerebral lesions. unusual. Tension headaches usually begin What Associated Symptoms Does the Patient Associated with migraines. Vomiting can Assess Motor Strength Have? be a sign of increased intracranial and Coordination of pressure. Headaches from tumours Extremities produces early morning vomiting without Asymmetrical increase in Do you have any nausea or vomiting? nausea. muscle tone on affected side, contralateral to the DO you notice any vision changes? Auras procede migraines. Cluster hemisphere lesion headaches associated with ipsilateral suggests a cerebral lesion. conjunctival injection, lacrimation and If person exhibits forearm edema of eyelid. drift with arms extended Does light bother you? Often present with migraines but not and eyes closed may have tension headaches. Present in meningitis a motor neuron or cerebellar disturbance with Are you dizzy? 1/3 people with migraines have vertigo expanding intracranial What Do the Aggravating and Alleviating Factors Meningeal irritation headaches are better lesion. Suggest? with lying down. Tension headaches respond to analgesics. Rest relieves migraines but not tension headaches in children. Sleep, rest in dark quiet room Does anything make the headache better? Have Children Draw a relieves migraines in adults. Increased Picture of Their headache with sneezing or coughing may Headache Help indicate benign headache or lesion at level to diagnose type of Does anything make the headache worse? of foramen magnum that is not clinically headache eg. Children will present yet. Migraines are worse withe draw flashes of light for What Does Family History Indicate? xertion. Cluster headaches are worse lying migraine aura. down. Headaches wrose in morning and better on rising indicate tumour. Benign Does anyone else in the family have headaches? Tension type headaches have no family history. Migraine headaches have positive family history Is There Anything Else That Woud Help narrow Meningitis indicated. Lumbar punctures the Cause or Causes? can cause headache in 25% of people. Chronic infection predisposes to brain Have you been ill recently? abcess. Penetratin skull fractures allow Have you taken any medications or vitamins? bacteria to enter. Melanomas can Could you have been exposed to carbon monoxide? Exposure may cause severe, throbbing, generalized headache. Occupation exposure to toxins should be assessed. Winter headaches may be due to faulty kerosene or gas heater.
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Optic neuritis Cervical spine disorders Temporal arteritis Metabolic Origin Carbon monoxide poisoning Severe hypoglycemia Drug withdrawal Dietary ingestion
Acute onset of pain with extraocular movement, followed by blurred vision
Diminished visual acuity, decreased pupillary opthalmology, referral reflec, hyperemia of the optic disk; pain with extraocular movement May have a history of trauma; occipital pain, muscle Normal physical examination or pain associated Cervical spine radiograph stiffness with neck motion Age>50 yr; sharp localized temporal pain; malaise, fever, weight loss; tender over a nodular temporal Elevated ESR (>50); immediate anorexia, history of polymyalgia rheumatica artery referral for treatment History of exposure, throbbing headache, mild nausea, vomitting, change in mental status, Blood gases and dyspnea lethargy, loss of consciousness carboxyhemaglobin level History of diabetes or medication, alcohol and food Normal physical examination or pallor, sweating, Blood glucose level; may need selfingestion; generalized headache, dizziness, sense of and weakness monitoring of blood glucose to not feeling well establish pattern normal physical exam blood chemistry Pattern of headache associated with stopping medication or substance use blood chemistry Mild to moderately severe headache after ingestion of normal physical exam foods or medication
Cardiovascular Origin Intracranial tumour Hydrocephalus Subdural hematoma
Sudden-onset headache that is progressive, exacerbated by coughing or exercise; worse in morning; history of trauma increases risk Progressive headache, vomiting, irritability History of head trauma, bleeding disorders, child abuse; adult over 35 yrs; sudden onset of 'worst ever' headache, often over the eye, transient loss of consciousness Teens, menopausal women, history of vitamin A or tetracycline ingestion; progressive headache teens, menopausal women, history of vitamin A or tetracycline ingestion; progressive headache Risk factors; persons over 50 yrs, with AIDS, on anticoagulation therapy, or with hypertension
Papilledema, vomiting, asymmetrical reflexes, weakness, sensory deficit, or other neurological deficit Rapid enlargement of head, bulging fontanels unequal pupils, photophobia, neurological chnges, seizures
CT scan CT scan and referral CT scan and neurosurgical referral
Papilledema may be present
Brain abcess Intracerebral hemorrhage
fever, seizures, focal neurological findings correlated with extent of the lesion If conscious, abnormal neurological findings correlated with extent of lesion
CT scan, neurology referral to assess risk related to lumbar puncture CT scan Emergency transport for immediate evaluation (CT scan) and possible surgical treatment
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Lower Back Pain
Do you have a fever?
The presence of a fever indicates an inflammation; spondyloarthropathy or systemic infection. Ask for chills, weight loss, fever. Also, may inquire about intravenous drug use or immunosuppressed conditions. Have you experienced any trauma? Acute trauma to the spinal cord can result in a fracture, dislocation or misalignment or the muscles, ligaments and IVD. Spinal cord injury should be suspected with anyone whose level of consciousness is impaired after an accident. Do you have any other health problems/been treated Assess for systemic diseases (metabolic, for cancer? inflammatory diseases and fibromyalgia). Patients with a history of cancer are more susceptible to spinal tumours.
Assess the overall Plain radiographs appearance of the patient. Bone Scan Gait, symmetry, posture. CT scan
Perform range of motion of the spine. Straight Leg Raising, Deep tendon reflexes, muscle strength
CBC - detect anemia as well as other conditions that might manifest as back pain, such as tumor or infection. Urinalysis - assess kidney and metabolic function, including infectious process, rule out pyelonephritis.
What is your age?
Have you had a loss of your bowels or bladder control?
In the absence of trauma a sudden and severe onset of middle back pain can be a sign of an aortic aneurysm in a patient above the age of 30. Patients above 50 are at risk of compression fractures and cancer. Assess for cauda equina or S1-S2 nerve root compromise secondary to a herniated disk, nerve entrapment, spinal stenosis, infection or tumor. A Surgical emergency is indicated if there is saddle anesthesia, urinary retention and fecal incontinence. Long-term use of corticosteroids can lead to compression fractures of te vertebrae. Use of intravenous drugs may suggest infection as a cause Sciatica is usually sharp, burning pain that radiates down the posterior of the leg to ankle. Back pain with neck stiffness can indicate cervical osteomyelitis. Rheumatoid arthritis produces pain in the upper back and neck. Localized pain that is unremitting with rest can be a sign of a tumor. Flank pain can be a sign of kidney infection. Pain that is mild and or short duration (1-2 weeks) is rarely serious. Back pain lasting longer than 4 weeks needs to be reevaluated for further diagnostic studies. In children back pain that is present for more than 3 weeks is often due to organic and serious causes. Night pain is often a worrisome symptom that often signals a serious problem such as tumor, infection or inflammation. Genreally muscular issues are relieved at night. Nighttime back pain is unusual and indicates the need for a complete and thorough work-up. 2 types - (1) pain referred from the spine into areas lying within the lumbar and upper sacral dermatomes. (2) pain referred from the pelvic and abdominal viscera to the spine. Pain from the upper lumbar spine usually radiates to the anterior aspects of the thighs and legs, and that of the lower lumbar spine radiates to the gluteal regions, posterior thighs and calves. Visceral disease usually stays with in the abdomnial cavity (flanks). Gallbladder pain radiates around the trunk to the right scapula. Position does not affect the pain.
Are you on any medications?
Where does it hurt?
When did the pain start?/Duration of the pain?
Does the pain interfere with your sleep?
Does the pain travel?
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major trauma, impact or fall, strenous lifting, elderly minor fall, treated as a medical emergency
palpable tenderness over site of fracture
considered an emergency; radiographs
Tumor (osteoblastoma, spinal Pain unremitting with rest, general poor health such metastasis, osteoid osteoma) as weight loss, fatigue, weakness and anemia.
weight loss, fever, tenderness near tumor
ESR; bone scan; plain film
Infection (osteomyelitis, diskitis).
Cauda Equina Syndrome
The spine is the most common site for osteomyelitis in acute onset presents with fever, diaphoresis; adults. Staph aureus is the most common bacteria. tenderness over affected disk; positive SLR Stiffness and pain over the site of the infection. Tender spinous process, positive SLR test, paravertebral muscle spasm. Often secondary to pharyngitis or otitis media, intravenous drug use, diabetes mellitus, immunosuppression positive SLR, motor weakness Compression of the S1 nerve. saddle anesthesia, urinary retention and fecal incontinence. Unable to heel or toe walk, asymmetrical knee and ankle deep tendon reflexes.
ESR; blood culture; bone biopsy; CT scan; MRI
acute back pain with radiculopathy; history of strain or paravertebral tenderness and spasm; positive trauma, relief with sitting SLR; sitting knee extension sensory findings
intact aneurysm will be a visible pulsatile midline emergency surgical referral upper quadrant abdominal mass; in a dissected aneurysm upper extremity pulse and pulse pressure are asymmetrical; posterior thoracic pain may be felt surgical referral Increased incidence with age; steady, intense pain in normal physical; positive Murphy's sign on RUQ with radiation to right scapula or shoulder; palpation of abdomen belching, bloating, fatty food intolerance severe acute-onset not related to activity or movement, increased risk in persons over age 30; anxiety, sweating confusion
ill-appearing, sweating, nausea, back/flank pain. H/A
fever; cloudy malodorous urine, CVA tenderness Urinalysis, urine culture
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Is This Really A Fever? How do you know you have a fever? Has the temperature been measured? How?
Fever in a Child Less Than 2 Months Old Fever in the first 2-3 months of life is relatively . uncommon but when it does occur it is usually Should be measured throughout day with a significant and often thermometer to monitor fever due to ominous diurnal variations in body temperature
An elevation of Should Sepsis or Meningitis Be of Concern? temperature above normal daily variation and Has there been any recent head traumas? is a symptom of an underlying process Have you had recurrent ear infections? Have you had contact with anyone else who had meningococcal disease?
Complete Blood Cell Count Leukocytosis with a left shift suggests bacterial infection. Atypical lymphocytes are characteristic if viral infection. Immature neutrophils suggest leukemia. Erythrocyte Observe the Patient Sedimentation Rate Do they appear ill, Elevation indicates Entrance for infection especially at base of dehydrated or lethargic? inflammatory condition, Look for toxic signs and skull responsiveness in children non-specific May have mastoiditis spreading to meninges Increased risk of contacting it Take Vital Signs and Note Temperature Adults - oral temp. Children and infants - rectal temp. Temp > 40 degrees celsius is a marker for bacterial infection though people with these high temps do not necessarily have major diseases. Extreme fever of > 41.5 degrees celsius is rarely due to infection and is more likely seen in drug fevers, CNS injury, malignant hyperthermia, stroke and HIV
Have you had any headache, lethargy, confusion or Characteristic meningitis symptoms. Any stiff neck? patient with minimal neurological signs and symptoms should be evaluated for meningitis If an infant: How old is the baby? Fever in infants less than 2 months is uncommon but is serious. May be infection or indicator of underlying anatomical defect. UTI and bacteremia are indications of abnormal urinary tract structure. Infants with galactosemia may present in first weeks to 1 month of life with gramnegative sepsis. Infants can get sepsis from delivery instruments. All infants younger than 2 months with fever are considered to have sepsis or meningitis until proved otherwise What Does a Pattern of Fever Tell Me? In adults, fevers in acute processes usually resolve in 1-2 weeks. Fevers that last 3 weeks or longer, that exceed temperatures of 38.4 degrees celsius and that remain undiagnosed after a week of intensive diagnostic study are classified as fevers of uknown origin. In children there are three types of fevers. Short-term fever is of short duration, readily diagnosed and resolves within 1 week. Fever without localizing signs is of brief duration and is not explained by history or physical exam findings. Fever of unknown origin is usually greater than 38.5 degrees celsius that lasts longer than 2 weeks o more than four occasions.
Observe Skin and Mucous Membranes Look for rashes. Presence of a petechial rash is a serious infection that requires immediate referral and hospitalization, may indicate meningococcemia or Rocky Mountain spoted fever.
How long have you had the fever?
Antistreptolysin Titer indicates streptococcal antigen HIV Testing Urinalysis Urine Culture and Sensitivity Stool for Leukocytes Stool Culture and Sensitivity Stool Sample for ova and Parasites Sputum for Acid-Fast bacilli Sputum for Gram Staining Sputum for Culture and Sensitivity Cultures of Discharge
What has the highest temperature been? When did Dehydration and febrile seizures are this occur? related to height of fever. Temperatures greater than 41.1 degress celsius seen in heat illness, central nervous system disease or these in combo with infection. Higher the fever, greater likelihood of bacteremia. Is the Fever Caused by a Localized Infection?
Examine the Head and Neck Sinuses, ears, tympanic membrane, eyes and fontanels
Do you have frequency, burning or urgency with urination? Are you having any unusual vaginal/penile discharge? Do you have any face or sinus pain?
Do you have nasal discharge? What colour?
Palpate Lymph Nodes Anterior cervical - suspect viral or bacterial pharyngitis. Preauricular or postauricular - suspect ear UTI commonly produces systemic infection. Posterior cervical symptoms including fever UTIs can produce discharge. So can pelvic - suspect mono. Supraclavicular - suspect inflammatory disease in women. These neoplasms. Axillary also produce fever suspect breast inflammation, local Acute sinusitis produces fever infection, neoplasm. Localized lymphadenopathy suspect local infectious process. Generalized lymphadenopathy suspect immunosuppression such Viral upper respiratory tract infections as HIV or neoplasm. produce fever
DNA Probe for Gonococcus and Chlamyia Blood Cultures for septicemia Lumbar Puncture for meningitis Radiographic Imaging May detect infiltrates, effusions, masses or nodes.
Do you have a cough? Is it productive? What colour is the sputum? Do you have ear pain? Fever can be present in otitis media Is your throat sore? Are you having any nausea/vomiting, diarrhea? Do you have any joint pain?
Examine the Lungs and Chest Check for respiratory Viral and bacterial pharyngitis produces infection. Sputum colour: fever. GI tract infection produces fever. yellow/green - bacterial. Connective tissue disorder, osteomyelitis Brown - check smoking and septic arthritis produce fever. Apthous history. Blood streaked ulcers with pharyngitis and cervical Uri or bronchitis. lymphadenopathy seen in children with Hemoptysis - tumour, periodic children. trauma, pulmonary emoblism.
Do you have any apthous ulcers? Can The Diagnostic Possibilities Be Narrowed or Prodromal Rash can occur with varicella, Palpate Breasts if a Cause Be Eliminated? rubella, erythema infectiosum (1 day), Indicated scarlet fever (2 days), rocky mountain Examine Gitonitourinary Have you noticed a rash? Perform spotted fever (3 days), measles (4 days), System if Indicated Neurological/Mental roseola infantum (5 days) Examine Musculoskeletal Status Exam system if indicated Do you ache all over? Fever localized to a site without general body manifestations are often bacterial in nature. Fever accompanied by muscle aches, malaise and respiratory symptoms are often viral in nature. Does the Patient Have a Increased Risk for Chronic conditions compromise immunity and increase susceptibility to infection. Recent surgical Complications? procedures can provide a locus for occult infection and also induce an inflammatory response which causes fever without infection Page 49 of 52
Any age group; systemic symptoms; often known contact with ill others
fever < 38.7 degrees C; cough; nonpurulent sputum; erythema of pharynx, viral exanthem
nausea, vomiting, diarrhea; abdominal cramping
Mild fever; abdomen may be diffusely tender
Female>male; burning urgency, frequencyin adults; systemic symptoms/bedwetting in children
CVA tenderness with upper UTI; fever with upper U/A; urine C and S; CBC if suspect UTI upper UTI
May have pelvic or lower abdominal pain
May have suprapubic tenderness; cervical discharge; CMT, adnexal tenderness Prostate tender to palpation; fever
CBC; culture, DNA probe
Perineal discomfort, frequent urination, chills and malaise
Segmental urine specimens; C and S of urine; C and S of prostate discharge
Sore throat; may or may not have other upper respiratory symptoms
Erythematous pharynx; may have pharyngeal or CBC; culture; rapid strep test if tonsillar exudate or ulcers; may have palatine suspect strep; Monospot if suspect petechiae in mononucleosis; lymphadenopathy mono
facial or sinus pressure or pain; headache
Purulent nasal discharge; sinuses tender to percussion; headache or pressure worsens on bending forward
Radiographs or CT scan of limited value
Earache, pain; may have upper respiratory symptoms; High or low grade fever, TM red, may bulge, child tugs at ear landmarks absent; TM mobility impaired; child irritable, restless
nonspecific symptoms; nausea, vomiting, irritability
Petechiae, nuchal rigidity, positive Kernig's and Brudzinski's signs, bulging fontanel in infant Swelling or tenderness over affected joint
Osteomyelitis Kawasaki disease
Pain in affected bone or joint Under 5 yrs; males>females; fall and spring
Vague or no symptoms
Culture; CBC; radionuclide scan, CT, MRI High fever, spikes; persists despite antibiotic WBC increased, shift to left, slight therapy; may have seizures; fever for 5 days with anemia, thrombocytosis, positive Cat least 4 of the following: bilateral conjunctival reactive protein, ESR increased, hyerpemia, mouth lesions, edema, erythema, serum IgM, IgE increased. Normal physical skin, no weight loss; pulse rate desquamation ofexam;nonvesicular erythematous Discrepancy betweel oral/rectal normal (not consistent with temperature temperature and urine temperature; rash, cervical lymphadenopathy elevation) repeated monitored temperaturetaking does not support previous findings
Irritable child with fever for 4-5 days
Fevers without localizing signs No other specific symptoms Enterovirus Occult bacteremia Periodic fever in children Mild nonspecific febrile illness lasting 2-5 days; summer and early fall peaks Fever in children older than 3 month Abrupt fever on periodic basis (about every 6 wks); last about 4 days; child aged 2-5 yrs, malaise
Normal physical examination; when fever breaks, None rash appears Physical exam usually normal initially, repeat Urinalysis, urine C/S, chets x-ray, exam in 24 hours as needed BC, rule out systemic disease, malignancy non-exudative pharyngitis with or without None lymphadenopathy frequently observed No localizing signs, child appears well Cervical adenopathy, apthous stomatitis Blood culture, WBC WBC and ESR elevated
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Do you have any chronic health problems? Have you had any recent surgery? Have you been diagnosed with an infectious disease Prone to relapse or reoccurrence recently? Are you sexually active? How many partners? Are immunizations up to date? Does anyone in the family have TB or hepatitis? Does the Parent Report a Behaviour Change in the Child? Is the child sleepier than normal? Is the child more irritable? How is the child acting? Could the Fever Be Caused by Something Acquired While Traveling? Have you been out of the country recently? Have you been in the woods or camping recently? Could the Fever Be Medication Related or Caused by Poisoning? What medications have taken recently?
Chronic conditions compromise immunity and increase susceptibility to infection. Recent surgical procedures can provide a locus for occult infection and also induce an inflammatory response which causes fever without infection
High-risk sexual activity increases risk of HIV and pelvic inflammatory disease More likely to contract illness if not immunized Exposure increases risk of infection. Inquire about constitutional symptoms such as cough or night sweats (TB) or malaise and abdominal discomfort (hepatitis) In infants and children, behaviour changes may be the only indication the hcild is ill. Mildy ill infants are alert, active, smile and feed well. Moderately ill infants may be fussy or irritable but continue to feed, are consolable and may smile. Severely ill infants appear listless, cannot be consoled and feed poorly or not at all
Risk of amoebiasis, malaria, schistosomiasis, typhoid fever or hepatitis Risk of ticks, Q fever, tularemia, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Giardia or Lyme disease
Describe the foods you have eaten in the past 3 days. Could the child have eaten a poisonous plant? Could Exposure to Animals Explain the Fever? Has a cat scratched you recently? Have you been around any other animals? Could This Be the Result of a Recent Immunization? What immunizations have you had recently? Could The Fever Be Caused by Heat Exposure? Were you overdressed? Is the infant overbundled?
Medications may hide an occult infection or induce a fever. Immunosuppressent medications predispose to infection. Some medication interfere with thirst recognition and sweating. Aspirin overdose can cause a fever. Food poisoning fever may occur up to 72 hours after ingestion of contaminated food Plants containing alkaloid atropine (Nightshade, Jessamine and Thornapple) cause dilated pupils, flushed skin and fever
Cat Scratch Disease is a bacterial infection of gram-negative bacillus transmitted by cats. Single node or regional adenopathy and low grade fever are present. Dogs - brucellosis and leptospirosis. Rabbits - tularemia. Birds - ornithosis, histoplasmosis, psittacosis. Hamsters and cats - lymphocytic choriomeningitis
History of immunization followed by 4 hours of high fever indicate adverse reaction. MMR may cause elevation of temperature 10-14 days after.
Classic heatstroke occurs when the person is unable to dissipate the environmental heat burden
Do you have air conditioning or windows that open? During a heat wave a person may become overheated if they don't have air conditioning How warm is the room you live/sleep in? Windows may not open due to safety reasons and cause overheating
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