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Wireless Networks
CDMA 3G-1X RF Engineering Guidelines
401-614-040
Issue 2
February 2003
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C O N T E N T S
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Issue 2, February 2003
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Contents
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
About
Purpose i
Reason for reissue ii
Related information products iii
Related training iii
To obtain technical support, documentation, and training or
send feedback iv
Notations used iv
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
1 Discussion of CDMA 3G-1X RF engineering 1-1
Introduction 1-2
Capacity and coverage for voice applications 1-4
Spectrum requirements 1-4
Link budget 1-4
Voice capacity 1-5
RF engineering for data 1-6
Introduction 1-6
Overview of traffic theory 1-7
Data link budget 1-8
Resource management 1-9
Deployment 1-9
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
2 Voice coverage, capacity and link budget 2-1
Introduction 2-2
Analysis 2-4
Reverse link 2-4
Forward link 2-20
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
3 RF engineering for data 3-1
Introduction 3-3
Traffic theory 3-4
Introduction 3-4
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C O N T E N T S
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General Erlang model 3-5
Special cases: Erlang B and Erlang C 3-7
Applications of Erlang C to 3G-1X data 3-10
Data capacity 3-13
Introduction 3-13
Data link budgets 3-19
Reverse link 3-19
Forward link 3-22
Resource management: RF scheduling 3-36
Introduction 3-36
Scheduling algorithm 3-36
Conclusions 3-43
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
4 System deployment 4-1
Introduction 4-2
Spectrum use: Carrier assignments and guard band 4-4
Cellular band 4-4
PCS band 4-8
Preferred channels 4-10
2G/3G-1X spatial and frequency design 4-11
Coverage (spatial) design: overlay and greenfield 4-11
Frequency design 4-13
Mixed 3G-1X voice/data capacity and coverage 4-19
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
5 Handoff 5-1
Introduction 5-3
Soft handoff definition 5-3
Procedure 5-3
IS-95B soft handoff algorithm 5-6
Signal combining 5-8
Coverage contour 5-8
Discussion 5-12
Soft handoff costs on channel elements and packet pipe 5-12
Soft handoff cost on forward link 5-12
Soft handoff advantages 5-13
Qualitative description of forward link soft handoff benefit 5-22
IS-95B parameters 5-25
SOFT_SLOPE, DROP_INTERCEPT, ADD_INTERCEPT 5-30
SCH anchor transfer vs. SHO 5-31
Hard handoffs 5-36
References 5-37
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6 Power control 6-1
Introduction 6-2
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Reverse power control 6-4
Reverse power control for voice traffic 6-5
RPC for packet data traffic 6-8
Reverse SARA for 3G-1X packet data calls 6-9
Forward power control 6-11
Forward power control for voice traffic 6-12
Forward power control for packet data traffic 6-15
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
7 Extended carrier 7-1
Introduction 7-3
Single extended carrier 7-6
Reverse link 7-6
Forward link 7-8
Forward Data Capacity 7-14
Growth strategies 7-15
Applications 7-18
Concentric carriers 7-19
Core carrier reverse link 7-20
Core carrier forward link 7-23
Traffic density 7-25
Determining mobile location 7-25
Growth strategies 7-26
Applications 7-26
Amplifier sharing - Quasi omni 7-28
Growth strategies 7-29
Amplifier sharing - Asymmetric cell 7-31
Growth strategies 7-32
Summary 7-33
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
8 Fixed wireless voice networks 8-1
Introduction 8-2
Parameters for fixed wireless analysis 8-3
Reverse link interference ratio (br) 8-3
Required reverse link Eb/Nt for 3G 8-4
Walsh code overhead 8-6
Recommended loading factor 8-8
Channel activity factor 8-8
Reverse link coverage 8-9
System capacity calculation 8-10
Capacity calculation methodology 8-10
Reverse link based capacity calculations 8-11
Power requirements of forward link 8-17
3G-1X RC3 8-17
3G-1X RC4 8-21
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3G-1X with SMV 8-21
Conclusions 8-23
References 8-24
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About this information product
Purpose This document, CDMA 3G-1X RF Engineering Guidelines, addresses
selected radio frequency engineering topics for the Lucent
implementation of CDMA2000-1X, also known as CDMA 3G-1X, or
simply 3G-1X.
3G-1X is a first-phase implementation of an IS-95 based, third
generation CDMA network that complies with the recommendations
for third generation wireless systems advanced by the ITU. In
particular, 3G-1X offers both voice and data capabilities that are
significantly improved with respect to IS-95 (second generation or 2G)
offerings. Voice capacity is increased, offering up to twice the Erlang
capacity per Hz achieved by IS-95. Features allowing burst speeds of
up to 153.6 kbps for packet-switched data are also provided, in contrast
to the maximum 14.4 kbps circuit-switched capability provided in
IS-95. Furthermore, voice and data users can coexist within the same
wideband carrier.
In spite of the differences, many RF engineering principles of 3G-1X
remain comparable to those of IS-95, particularly for voice
applications. For example, the frequency reuse remains at 1. Voice link
budget and voice capacity analyses are similar. Management of
cochannel interference remains key for both voice and data users, and
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is accomplished through application of familiar IS-95 principles such
as fast power control, variable-rate voice coding, and careful network
optimization.
Accordingly, this document does not offer extensive discussions of
topics with strong IS-95 counterparts; rather, in such cases, the
differences relative to 3G-1X implementation are emphasized. More
detailed information on IS-95 can be found in Lucent documents
401-614-012, AUTOPLEX
®
Cellular CDMA RF Engineering
Guidelines, 401-703-201, PCS CDMA RF Engineering Guidelines, as
well as TIA/EIA/IS-2000A standards. In contrast, much attention is
devoted to topics without clear IS-95 analogues, such as the RF
engineering issues associated with the advent of wireless packet data.
These include packet data coverage, coexistence of voice and data
users within the same carrier, and allocation of communication
resources such as power amongst competing data users.
Reason for reissue Starting from Issue 2, the information in this document is divided into
two parts. Part I includes the updated information for Issue 1 of this
document. Part 2 introduces the following new chapters.
• Chapter 5: Handoff
• Chapter 6: Power Control
• Chapter 7: Extended Carrier
• Chapter 8: Fixed Wireless Voice Networks
Intended audience This document is intended for engineers who will be responsible for
system design and performance analysis of a Lucent Technologies
3G-1X system.
How to use this information
product
This document is organized as follows:
• Part I, which consists of Chapters 1 through 4, provides a system-
level picture of 3G-1X RF engineering.
– Chapter 1, “Overview,” provides a brief overview of Part I
– Chapter 2, “Voice Coverage/Capacity/Link Budget,”
discusses the essential coverage and capacity issues for voice
applications
– Chapter 3, “RF Engineering for Data,” offers a discussion of
RF data issues for 3G-1X, including a contrast between the
Erlang B (voice) and Erlang C (data) models, analysis of
capacity and coverage, and an examination of resource
management
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– Chapter 4, “System Deployment,” describes deployment
issues, with focus on transition from 2G to 3G-1X
• Part II, which consists Chapters 5 through 8, provides more
specialized discussions on individual topics such as power control
and soft handoff.
– Chapter 5, “Handoff,” discusses the soft handoff procedures,
algorithms, coverage, cost and benefit for the CDMA 3G-1X
voice and packet data calls
– Chapter 6, “Power Control,” describes the power control
functions for both the forward link and reverse links for the
CDMA 3G-1X voice and packet data calls
– Chapter 7, “Extended Carrier,” provides guidelines for RF
planning for “extended” carrier deployment
– Chapter 8, “Fixed Wireless Voice Networks,” provides a
detailed analysis of the system performance of 2G and 3G-
1X CDMA fixed wireless voice networks.
Related information
products
The Lucent document 401-610-000, Flexent
®
/AUTOPLEX
®
Wireless
Networks Documentation Guide, provides a brief overview of each
information product that supports Flexent
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/AUTOPLEX
®
wireless
networks systems, products, and features.
The following Flexent
®
/AUTOPLEX
®
wireless networks information
products are either referenced in this information product or provide
additional information that relates to the Prepaid Services feature:
• 401-614-012, AUTOPLEX
®
Cellular CDMA RF Engineering
Guidelines
• 401-703-201, PCS CDMA RF Engineering Guidelines
• TIA/EIA/IS-2000A, family of standards for “CDMA2000
Standards for spread Spectrum Systems”
Global Engineering Documents
1-800-854-7179
1-303-397-7956
Related training Lucent Technologies offers the following training products that relate
to CDMA RF design and operation:
• CL3715, Understanding CDMA
• CL8301, CDMA IS-95 and 3G-1X RF Design and Growth
Engineering for Cellular System
• CL8302, CDMA IS-95 and 3G-1X RF Design and Growth
Engineering for PCS System
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• CL8303, CDMA IS-95 and 3G-1X Base Station Call Processing
• CL8304, 3G-1X RF Design Engineering and Base Station Call
Processing.
To obtain technical
support, documentation,
and training or send
feedback
The current release of the Flexent
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wireless networks
documentation is provided on the Lucent Technologies wireless
networks customer technical support web site to all customers free of
charge. To access the site, please visit:
https://wireless.support.lucent.com
To provide the most current, complete, and technically accurate
documentation to customers as quickly as possible, revisions and
updates of information products on the current release of the
401-010-001 Flexent
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Wireless Networks Electronic
Documentation CD-ROM are also provided on the site for all
customers free of charge.
For details on obtaining technical support, documentation, and training
or sending feedback, refer to document “To Obtain Technical Support,
Documentation, and Training or Send Feedback.”
Notations used Notations used in this document are listed below.
AG = Cell site antenna gain in dBi
BL/VL = Building or vehicle penetration loss in dB, whichever is applicable
CL = Cell site cable loss in dB
d = The Eb/Nt required for acceptable quality
Eb/Nt = The ratio of channel bit energy to spectral density of total channel
impairment
F = The receiver noise figure
F
mobile
= The mobile receiver noise figure
F
cell
= The base station receiver noise figure
Fade = Fade (in dB) at mobile location
g = The spread spectrum processing gain
g
net
= The net gain consisting of the product of mobile antenna gains, body
(head) loss, building/vehicle penetration loss, cell site antenna gain, and cell
site cable loss
HL = Head (body) loss in dB
int = The dB path loss at a 1 km reference point
k = The multiplier used in a Gaussian distribution to achieve a certain percen-
tile; for example, k=1.3 corresponds to a 1.3×σ choice which yields a 90
th
per-
centile
M = The length of queue for the general Erlang model
N = The number of active channels
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N
max
= “pole” capacity
N
o
= Thermal noise density
N
sect
= The total number of sectors
N
k
= The total number of mobiles in sector k
N
total
= The total number of mobiles within the network
N
links
= The number of links per sector
N
suppl
= The number of supplemental links
N
fund
= The number of fundamental links
P
host
= The mobile received power from its host or serving sector
P
other
= The mobile received power from surrounding non-serving sectors
PL = Point to point (average) path loss in dB between mobile antenna and cell
site antenna
Q
total
= The current (steady-state) average power radiated at the J4 port
Q
max
= The maximum average power allowed at the J4 port before overload
(blocking) occurs
Q
over
= The constant overhead power
r
i
= The random position of the ith mobile within the cell
R = The cell radius
R
i
= The channel bit rate of the ith mobile
S
i
= The base station received power from the ith mobile
S
min
= The minimum receiver sensitivity
s
ij
= The distance from the jth surrounding cell to the ith mobile
u = Loading factor
W = The carrier bandwidth
w
max
= The maximum mobile power into the mobile antenna
x
ij
= Link (traffic channel) power as measured at the J4 port for the jth mobile
in the ith sector
X
max
= Maximum mobile transmit power (in dBm) out of mobile antenna
x
i
= A sample drawn from a Gaussian (0,8) distribution, thus corresponding to
a dB fade drawn from lognormal fading statistics with a 0 dB mean and 8 dB
standard deviation
Y = A random number defined in Equation 2-19
α
i
= The channel activity factor for the ith mobile
α
ij
= The channel activity of the jth mobile in the ith sector
a
k;ij
= The attenuation from the kth sector to the jth mobile in the ith sector
β, β
reverse
= The ratio of other cell interference to serving cell interference for
the reverse link
β
i
= The ratio of other cell interference to serving cell interference plus
receiver noise floor for the forward link
β
omni
= The ratio of other cell interference to serving cell interference for the
forward link and omni antenna configuration
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δ
i
= The fraction of the mobile received host power dedicated to the ith traffic
channel
ε = r/R
ξ = The orthogonality factor
λ = The average arrival rate for the general Erlang model
η
a
= The mean of α
η
b
= The mean of β
σ
a
= The standard deviation of α
σ
b
= The standard deviation of β
γ = The fixed fraction of the maximum average power dedicated to the over-
head channels
χ = s/R
µ = The average server completion (of service) rate for the general Erlang
model
d i d
d
i
η ε / =
g i g
g
i
η ε / =
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1 Discussion of CDMA 3G-1X RF
engineering
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Overview
Objectives This chapter provides a brief overview of Part I of this document,
which consists of Chapters 1 through 4.
Contents Introduction 1-2
Capacity and coverage for voice applications 1-5
Spectrum requirements 1-5
Link budget 1-5
Voice capacity 1-6
RF engineering for data 1-7
Introduction 1-7
Overview of traffic theory 1-8
Data link budget 1-9
Resource management 1-10
Deployment 1-10
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Discussion of CDMA 3G-1X RF engineering
Introduction
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Introduction
The ITU-2000 recommendation calls for third generation wireless
communication systems with a number of features. These include
enhanced voice capacity as well as wireless packet data features, with
the latter offering rates of up to 144 kbps for outdoor mobile
subscribers.
CDMA2000 (also known as CDMA3G) is an IS-95 based standard that
satisfies ITU recommendations. This standard allows for a phased
implementation of 3G capabilities. CDMA 3G-1X RF Engineering
Guidelines summarizes the radio frequency engineering aspects of the
Lucent implementation of the first phase, known as CDMA2000-1X, or
CDMA3G-1X. This implementation offers enhanced voice capacity as
well as wireless packet data at burst speeds of up to 153.6 kbps. Voice
and data users can coexist within the same 3G-1X carrier.
The Lucent implementation of 3G-1X will support existing IS-95 (2G)
services of voice and circuit-switched data as well as 3G-1X voice and
packet switched data. The 3G-1X voice will provide improved
capacity, expected to be greater by up to a factor of two in terms of
supported Erlangs. The 3G-1X packet data service supports access to
the Internet via the IP protocol.
The 3G-1X and IOS (Inter-Operability Specification) Packet Data
services feature(s) provides a subscriber the ability to transmit and
receive data with raw rates of up to 153.6 kbps over a packet data
network via the 3G-1X IS-2000 air interface.
The 3G-1X Packet Data feature(s) enable mobile users with laptop
computers or other data devices conforming to the IS-2000 and
IS-707A1 standards to access various data applications, such as
Internet access, Intranet access, Database access, e-mail, and file
transfer at higher speed.
The 3G-1X physical layer incorporates a number of major
enhancements that provide for higher data rates and better spectral
efficiencies compared to second generation CDMA systems. A burst-
mode capability is defined to allow better interference management and
capacity utilization. An active high-speed packet data mobile always
has a traffic channel using a Fundamental Code. This channel is called
the Fundamental Channel (FCH). An active Packet Data call with the
need for higher bandwidth, either in the forward or reverse direction,
Discussion of CDMA 3G-1X RF engineering
Introduction
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could be allocated an additional channel for the duration of a data burst,
whose duration can be up to a few seconds. The additional channel
during this state is called the Supplemental Channel (SCH). A wide
range of data rates (raw data rates of 9.6 to 153.6 kbps) is supported
over each SCH. One SCH is assigned per data service. An SCH with a
data rate of 19.2 kbps or higher is equivalent to multiple voice calls
from the consideration of air interface capacity.
The assignment of the SCH, along with its data rate, is controlled by
the infrastructure based on system load and interference conditions.
Static allocation of multiple codes to a small number of users can result
in inefficient use of CDMA air interface capacity. Dynamic
infrastructure-controlled burst allocation makes it possible to
efficiently share the bandwidth among several high-speed packet data
mobiles. Efficient algorithms to support dynamic burst allocation have
been developed by Lucent. The burst allocation scheme is designed to
maximize utilization of CDMA channel bandwidth and system
resources. As has been determined during the extensive design process
for Lucent Technologies’ HSPD (High Speed Packet Data) Service, the
potential risks and issues that arise in designing the packet data service
(especially risks of voice quality impact) are minimal, and are easily
manageable with minimal impact on voice or data capacity.
The data rate and duration of the burst (i.e., the supplemental channel)
will be dynamically determined by the infrastructure, depending on
load, interference, and resource availability conditions. Therefore, the
supplemental channel does not offer any guaranteed bit rate. However,
the data rate offered by the fundamental channel with raw data rate of
9.6 kbps is always guaranteed to the 3G-1X data user. For the forward
direction, the burst allocation is triggered when data gets backlogged in
the network side of the system. For the reverse direction, data builds up
at the mobile, which in turn sends a supplemental channel request
message to the system, triggering the burst allocation procedure.
The new service can be asymmetric, i.e., the high speed packet data
mobile, at any given instant, may be assigned different bandwidths on
the forward and reverse links. This helps to maximize the efficient use
of bandwidth in both directions, still meeting the bandwidth demand of
the end-user in each direction. The 3G-1X CDMA HSPD product is
built on the 2G/3G CDMA Low Speed Packet Data (LSPD) software
since the operation of the fundamental channel and packet data call
setup and tear-down procedures are almost identical to the LSPD
service when there is no data burst in progress. To end users, the most
visible advantage of HSPD over LSPD releases is speed.
...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Discussion of CDMA 3G-1X RF engineering
Capacity and coverage for voice applications
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Capacity and coverage for voice applications
Spectrum requirements Spectrum requirements for 3G-1X are modest and identical to those for
an IS-95 carrier. 3G-1X requires a 1.23 MHz carrier in the cellular band
or a 1.25 MHz carrier in the PCS band, with a recommended guard
band of 270 kHz between the CDMA and AMPS carriers in the cellular
band, and a guard band of 625 kHz (~ ½ carrier) on either side of the
PCS block. The guard band recommended is typical, and may be
relaxed or expanded depending upon the specific wireless applications
in contiguous spectrum. In most cases, it is anticipated that the 270 kHz
for the cellular band or 625 kHz for the PCS band should be sufficient.
As in IS-95 engineering, no guard band is required between contiguous
3G-1X carriers. Additionally, no guard band is required between an IS-
95 carrier and an adjacent 3G-1X carrier. 3G-1X and IS-95 subscribers
may, in fact, share the same carrier frequency with concomitant effects
on each technology's capacity. This strategy is discussed further in
Chapter 4, "System deployment".
Link budget 3G-1X voice coverage is essentially determined via link budget
analysis, which follows a strategy comparable to that pursued in IS-95
applications. The cell footprint is first sized using the reverse link,
which properly takes into account the impact of limited mobile transmit
power. Forward link budget analysis focuses on ensuring that sufficient
forward power is available to support operations within the footprint
dictated by the reverse link.
The link budgets used for voice coverage follow a format similar to that
for IS-95; however, key parameters differ in value and meaning. For
example, the receiver Eb/Nt requirement used to determine cell site
receiver sensitivity is based on the total mobile transmit power, rather
than the fraction of mobile power dedicated to the traffic channel
(unlike IS-95, the uplink consists of both a traffic channel and a pilot
channel). In addition, a more aggressive loading with respect to the
pole point is allowed due to the inherently greater number of users
within a single carrier. These topics are discussed in greater detail in
Chapter 2, "Voice coverage, capacity and link budget", which derives
both forward and reverse link budgets. A comparison is also drawn
between 3G-1X and IS-95 coverage. The slight improvement offered
by 3G coverage is key to a 2G to 3G (i.e., IS-95 to 3G-1X) migration
strategy, as discussed in Chapter 4, "System deployment".
Discussion of CDMA 3G-1X RF engineering
Capacity and coverage for voice applications
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Voice capacity The analysis of 3G-1X voice capacity is also similar to that of IS-95,
albeit with different values of key parameters. In particular, relaxed Eb/
Nt requirements on both links drive Erlang capacity/Hz up to twice the
value available for IS-95, i.e., up to 26.4 Erlangs per 1.23 MHz carrier
for an 8 kbps vocoder. The improved Eb/Nt requirements derive from a
number of air interface features, such as enhanced convolutional
coding, faster power control, and a reverse link pilot channel that
provides a reference signal to aid in signal demodulation. The analysis
of 3G-1X capacity is coupled to that of 3G-1X coverage, since both are
ultimately driven by Eb/Nt requirements on each link. This analysis is
presented in some detail in Chapter 2, "Voice coverage, capacity and
link budget".
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Discussion of CDMA 3G-1X RF engineering
RF engineering for data
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RF engineering for data
Introduction Unlike voice applications, the analysis of RF engineering issues for
wireless packet data has no ready analogue in IS-95. This discussion
therefore occupies a major portion of these guidelines. Key differences
include the use of packet-switched rather than circuit-switched data
principles, subscriber time-sharing of the same data channel, and new
measures of capacity that vary widely with subscriber usage statistics.
From a simple overall perspective, a collection of 3G-1X data users
within the cell footprint are subscribers engaging in data sessions (e.g.,
web-browsing) that are inherently bursty in nature. Each user maintains
a constant low-rate data connection (fundamental channel) to the cell in
order to maintain the call, provide infrequent signaling frames, and
occasionally aid in data transmission. For example, in an 8 kbps
system, the fundamental channel operates at 1/8 rate on a 9.6 kbps
channel, powering to full-rate when signaling information is present.
In addition, each subscriber intermittently transmits bursts of data at a
much higher rate. This rate is negotiated for each burst between the
mobile and base station in a process that takes into account a number of
factors including the current interference background, the mobile’s RF
conditions, the amount of data that needs to be sent, and the history of
the data session (i.e., when the user was last served). These bursts take
place over supplemental channels that are set up and torn down as
necessary, with raw data rates ranging up to 153.6 kbps.
Since the system can simultaneously support only a limited number of
supplemental channels due to the higher data rate, this dynamic process
of allocating and removing supplemental channels to each user can be
viewed as time-sharing a small number of high-speed data pipes
amongst the users. In this model, the user transmissions “queue up” for
service until one of the high-speed pipes is available. Since the traffic is
bursty in nature (i.e., user need for the supplemental channels is brief
and not simultaneous across users), the time-sharing of resources is not
readily apparent to the end user. For example, wait time in the queue is
modest.
In this sense, the air interface is packet-switched rather than circuit-
switched, since channels are time-shared throughout the user session
(packet-switched) rather than completely dedicated to a user (circuit-
switched) for this time. Accordingly, performance criteria distinct from
those employed in voice networks (circuit-switched) must be used.
Discussion of CDMA 3G-1X RF engineering
RF engineering for data
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These include data throughput, average wait time, probability of being
delayed, and average length of the queue. The performance may also
vary considerably with user statistics, which are necessarily a function
of the data applications employed (e.g., e-mail, web-browsing, etc.)
and of user behavior (e.g., ‘think’ or idle time between the download of
each web page). Accordingly, performance predictions obtained by
employing user statistics that are significantly different from those
observed in commercial systems may not match the commercial
performance.
Overview of traffic theory IS-95 has typically employed a circuit-switched analysis of traffic,
since this body of theory is based on a dedicated resource (channel) per
user. The resource is held exclusively by the user for the duration of
service (i.e., for the duration of the call) and released upon call
completion.
The performance of this system approximates that of an Erlang B
model, which dictates the probability of blocking for a traffic load
incident upon a fixed number of servers. The probability of blocking
represents the probability that a user will be turned away because all
channels are occupied. Although IS-95 principles deviate in some
important ways from Erlang B assumptions, the use of circuit-switched
principles is correct in that each user occupies a channel resource that is
dedicated to its application for the duration of the user session.
In contrast, the packet-switched data feature of 3G-1X is not as readily
captured by Erlang B principles, since subscriber transmissions (data
messages waiting to be burst) can wait or queue up for service rather
than be blocked when all resources are busy. In packet-switched data,
high-speed data users are serviced by a small number of supplemental
channels capable of supporting a high data rate. These channels are
time-shared by a fairly large number of data users that transmit bursts
of data in turn when cued to do so by the network.
This situation is better (although still not precisely) described by an
Erlang C model, which relates the probability of delay and average wait
time for an incident traffic load funneled through an infinite queue to a
fixed number of servers. Since the queue is infinite, no blocking can
occur; however, arrivals wait in the queue for service when all channels
are busy. In this model, the supplemental channels are viewed as the
fixed number of servers. The arrivals are message bursts that are either
immediately transmitted (if a channel is idle), or wait in memory at the
mobile (reverse link) or cell site (forward link) for their chance at
transmission.
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The Erlang C model can be readily applied to estimate such
performance parameters such as wait time and throughput provided
that the number and data transmission rate of the servers are known.
For the 3G-1X air interface, these values must be determined from RF
analysis. This determination is complicated by the fact that the Erlang
C model requires a fixed number of servers each with a fixed data rate;
however, the number and rate of supplemental channels within the air
interface vary dynamically with factors such as user number, speed,
multipath, fade, and transmission history. Accordingly, numerical
analysis must be employed to obtain probability distributions of the
number and type of supplemental channels available within the cell
footprint. This information is then employed to drive an Erlang C
model in a manner that reflects the varying, statistical nature of the
servers.
The process described is computationally intensive, and must be
repeated for every design scenario where key input aspects such as
performance requirements (e.g., average delay, minimal data rate
supported at cell edge) are changed. Some baseline results (see Chapter
3, "RF engineering for data") have been established for a Lucent traffic
model, and may be used in planning in the absence of more specific
information regarding subscriber behavior and performance
requirements. If baseline results are employed, design scenarios can be
addressed by using link budget analysis to verify that the air interface
can support the total number of fundamental and average number of
supplemental channels required within the cell footprint.
Data link budget The data link budget serves two primary purposes. First, the analysis
dictates coverage by establishing a minimum data rate available at the
cell edge. Second, the analysis verifies that the system has sufficient
power to support the mix of fundamental and supplemental channels
that are required within this design footprint in order to achieve
performance (e.g., data throughput).
The reverse link budget for data applications is relatively
straightforward in that only the coverage of the supplemental channel
need be considered to establish a footprint. This strategy follows from
the fact that the high data rate of the supplemental channel renders its
coverage the limiting factor. The necessary coverage requirements are
typically expressed by requiring a minimum data rate at the cell edge
with a specified level of probability (e.g., 90%). For a high data rate,
the coverage is naturally limited, and is usually less than that of the
lower rate 3G-1X voice or fundamental channel. In these instances,
service providers may choose to locally or globally augment cell count
Discussion of CDMA 3G-1X RF engineering
RF engineering for data
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in order to achieve a ubiquitous coverage for high-rate users, or may
allow the network to naturally restrict the higher data rates to users
within the interior of the cell.
The forward link budget analysis is more complex, in the sense that
forward power must be appropriately shared between fundamental
(voice and low-speed data) and supplemental (high-speed data)
channels in order to provide coverage within the footprint. In addition,
the forward link supplemental channel does not enter soft handoff at the
boundary. This design strategy limits forward link interference by
ensuring that only one high-rate burst is simultaneously active to the
mobile. Supplemental channel performance at the cell edge is enhanced
by anchor transfer (essentially a fast hard handoff to the best serving
cell), which exploits the fact that the supplemental channel is bursty
rather than continuous in nature. The anchor transfer allows the mobile
to be served by the best cell for the burst duration.
Resource management The complexity of capacity analysis is a natural consequence of
resource allocation or resource management across data subscribers.
This strategy dictates the optimal use of available RF resources such as
power and data rate in light of the demands being made upon the
network. For example, each subscriber’s data rate can be adjusted
during the course of a call, and is a function of the subscriber’s reported
RF condition (e.g., interference, fading, multipath) as well as the
amount of data waiting (queued) for transmission. Although resource
management might not be properly regarded as an RF engineering
issue per se, the subject is so fundamental to overall performance that it
is discussed in detail. The throttling down of the rate of a high-speed
data call as it moves from the interior to the exterior of the cell, or as it
moves from benign RF conditions to poor RF conditions, is a
straightforward consequence of resource management.
Deployment Deployment of a 3G-1X system entails considerations such as carrier
spectrum assignment, overlay ratios, and 3G-1X channel element
provisioning. These issues are discussed in detail in Chapter 4, "System
deployment".
3G-1X may be deployed in a separate wideband carrier or within an
existing IS-95 carrier. The latter may be preferable in areas where
spectrum resources are constrained or a gentle migration from IS-95 to
3G-1X is desired; however, the former will result in somewhat greater
capacity per Hz within the 3G-1X carrier. A dedicated 3G-1X carrier is
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engineered simply by restricting carrier access to 3G mobiles only.
Restricted access is achieved via messages that can be read by 3G
mobiles only; i.e., the 3G carrier is ‘invisible’ to 2G mobiles.
The overlay ratio for upgrade of an existing IS-95 system to 3G-1X is
recommended to be at least 1:1 (i.e., one 3G-1X cell for every existing
IS-95 cell) since the 3G-1X voice coverage is slightly better than the
IS-95 voice coverage. The improvement is not enough to recommend
an overlay consisting of fewer 3G-1X cells than IS-95 cells, such as
1:1.5. Overlays that exceed 1:1 (e.g., such as two 3G-1X cells for every
IS-95 cell, or 2:1) are not generally recommended unless the service
provider desires to obtain a high-speed data coverage that entirely
matches the underlying (low-speed) voice coverage. A 1:1 overlay will
supply a low-rate data channel across the entire voice coverage area,
while confining higher-rate users to the interior of the cell.
Channel element provisioning, i.e., the determination of the number of
channel elements required at the cell site to support a traffic load that
can consist of 3G-1X voice users, 3G-1X data users, and IS-95 voice
users, is not straightforward, but facilitated by the fact that the dual-
mode 3G-1X channel element can support both 3G and IS-95 (2G)
calls. This feature reduces the problem difficulty somewhat, as the
exact proportion of 2G and 3G users need not be known in order to
produce a channel element number that is operationally sufficient.
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............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
2 Voice coverage, capacity and link
budget
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Overview
Purpose This chapter describes the essential coverage and capacity issues for
voice applications.
Contents Introduction 2-2
Analysis 2-4
Reverse link 2-4
Solution--Exact 2-6
Solution--Approximate 2-9
Link budget 2-14
Forward link 2-20
Solution--Exact 2-25
Solution--Approximate 2-29
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Voice coverage, capacity and link budget
Introduction
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Introduction
The 3G-1X principles of voice coverage and capacity are similar to
those of IS-95. This similarity is to be expected, as 3G-1X is a spread
spectrum system based upon IS-95. In the following sections, we
briefly review these principles. A more detailed discussion can be
found in Lucent documents 401-614-012, AUTOPLEX
®
Cellular
CDMA RF Engineering Guidelines, and 401-703-201, PCS CDMA RF
Engineering Guidelines, as well as TIA/EIA/IS-2000A standards.
In 3G-1X, all users share the same wideband carrier; i.e., the frequency
reuse is 1. Transmissions within this channel are distinguished by
coding. This approach stands in contrast to other approaches such as
frequency division multiple access (each user occupies a distinct
narrowband channel) or time division multiple access (each user
occupies a distinct time slot).
The simultaneous use of the same wideband carrier means that all users
interfere with one another. On both forward and reverse links, this
interference is tolerated but mitigated through means such as
processing gain, fast power control, variable-rate coding, and soft
handoff. Interference from other users is suppressed by the processing
gain (typically about 20 dB), which derives from the manner in which
each traffic channel is uniquely coded to allow ready identification.
Power control dynamically adjusts each traffic channel power to the
minimum required to maintain performance. Variable-rate coding
further suppresses the background interference level by powering down
the link (i.e., reducing the voice coding rate) whenever the user is not
speaking. Finally, soft handoff reduces overall interference levels by
allowing the call to be simultaneously supported by multiple base
stations, thereby introducing a diversity gain that lowers the net traffic
power required per mobile.
Soft handoff is also important in mitigating interference to the forward
link receiver (mobile) from a nearby base station that is not supporting
the call. Once the mobile enters into a soft handoff state with this base
station, this cell becomes a source of signal rather than of interference.
This effect of soft handoff is important in real-time applications such as
voice, but is less significant in data applications where real-time
decoding is not as critical since messages received in error are
retransmitted.
Voice coverage, capacity and link budget
Introduction
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The improvements to the air interface in 3G-1X have improved
capacity performance to the point where the limiting resource in some
cases will be the number of available Walsh codes, as opposed to air
interface resources.
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Voice coverage, capacity and link budget
Analysis
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Analysis
In the following sections, we outline the coverage and capacity analysis
for both the reverse and forward links. In each case, the governing
performance equations are presented and discussed.
Although exact solution of the equations via numerical simulation is
outlined, the focus of the discussion is directed towards simplifications
or approximations that can be used in planning processes such as
design. The exact solution is discussed only in order to illustrate the
complexity underlying accurate performance predictions, and to aid in
understanding some of the simulation results presented throughout the
document. The latter include offline simulation values employed as line
items in planning approximations such as the link budget, as well as
key performance results that are based upon numerical analysis outside
the scope of this document.
Note that in all cases, warrantable performance predictions must be
obtained via a mixture of numerical simulation as well as trial (field)
results.
Reverse link The key to reverse link analysis lies in assessing the receiver
sensitivity; i.e., the minimum power (usually expressed in dBm)
required per receive diversity branch at the cell site receiver input. This
input (the J4 port) lies at the end of the cable connecting receiver to
antenna; i.e., at the point where the incoming signal has already
suffered cable loss.
Consider a collection of mobiles within a sector. For the moment, we
presume a steady-state condition; i.e., one where all mobile positions
are fixed and the mobile conditions of voice activity factor, multipath,
and fade are unchanging. At the J4 port, each mobile must satisfy its
particular Eb/Nt (ratio of channel bit energy to spectral density of total
channel impairment) requirement, which is a function of mobile speed,
multipath, and required channel Frame Erasure Rate (FER).
For all mobiles within the sector:
Equation 2-1: Eb/Nt requirement
i
i
t
b
d
N
E

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|
.
|

\
|
Voice coverage, capacity and link budget
Analysis
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In this equation, the letter i is the index of the mobile in question. The
left-hand side is the achieved Eb/Nt at the cell site receiver (J4 port);
the right-hand side is the required median Eb/Nt corresponding to the
particular mobile’s condition (speed, multipath) at the design FER
(e.g., 1%).
For the sake of simplicity, we presume an isolated sector with N
mobiles. Expanding the above, we obtain:
Equation 2-2: Expanded Eb/Nt definition
This expression is the heart of system analysis for reverse link coverage
and capacity; accordingly, we consider it in some detail.
In the above, the energy per bit (numerator) is determined by the ratio
of received power S
i
to channel bit rate R
i
. The spectral density of
receiver interference plus receiver noise (denominator) is determined
by the sum of receiver noise density (the thermal noise density N
o
scaled by the receiver noise figure F) and the sum of power received
from the other N-1 mobiles.
In voice applications, the channel bit rate is constant for all users
provided that a single vocoder, either 8 or 13 kbps speech, is employed
within the mobile population; hence R
i
=R. This is not the case in data
applications, where the channel bit rate can vary per user. Additionally,
a voice network may contain a mixed population of 8 and 13 kbps
vocoders. These points are explored later on in this document.
W is the channel (carrier) bandwidth. The quantity W/R = g is the
spread spectrum processing gain. Equation 2-2 shows that the ratio of
signal power to impairment (noise plus interference) power, when
multiplied by the processing gain, must equal or exceed the Eb/Nt
requirement.
( )
i i
N
i J
j
j j o
i i
N
i J
j
j j o
i i
N
i J
j
j j o
i i i
i
t
b
i
d
S W FN
S g
S W FN
S R W
S
W
FN
R S
N
E
α
α
α
α
α
α
α
α =
+
=
+
=
+
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
∑ ∑ ∑

=

=

= 1 1 1
/
1
/
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Voice coverage, capacity and link budget
Analysis
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The variable α is the mobile voice or channel activity factor with
possible values ranging from 0 to 1 in discrete steps of 1/8, ¼, ½, and
1.0.
1
The last value applies when the user is speaking; the first applies
when the user is listening. Intermediate values are transitional rates
inserted to avoid a clipped sound to speech when the channel is
changing between the speak/listen states. The probability (relative
dwell time) of each value has been determined from analysis of
vocoder speech and is known. The statistics of alpha are therefore
completely characterized.
The d
i
is the median full-rate (i.e., α =1) Eb/Nt requirement. In the
above, we have explicitly made the assumption that the Eb/Nt
requirement is scaled by the voice activity; e.g., the Eb/Nt requirement
for a user in the 1/8 state (listen) is 1/8 of the full-rate Eb/Nt
requirement. The Eb/Nt requirement as a function of multipath, speed,
and Frame Erasure Rate (FER) is determined via a combination of link
level simulations and receiver tests.
Equation 2-2 represents a set of linear equations in the variables S
1
,
S
2
,…S
N
. These equations express the coupling between mobiles; i.e.,
the fact that each user’s signal is interference to all other users.
Solution--Exact
We presume an ideal power control, which would without error ensure
that all mobiles just achieve (rather than exceed) their Eb/Nt
requirement. Accordingly, we change the inequality in Equation 2-2 to
an equality. This expression can then be expanded to the matrix
equation:
Equation 2-3: Reverse link Eb/Nt matrix
...........................................................................................................................
1 The ½and ¼are transitional rates (fromspeak to listen), and are not always employed.
|
|
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|

− −
− −
− −
1
.
.
1
1
.
.
/ . .
. . . . .
. . . . .
. . /
. . /
2
1
2 1
2 1
2 1
W FN
S
S
S
d g
d g
d g
o
N N
N
N
α α
α α
α α
Voice coverage, capacity and link budget
Analysis
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Each value of S
i
can be replaced by a
i
x
i
, where a
i
is the total attenuation
(loss) from the transmit antenna of the ith mobile to the J4 port and x
i
is
the transmit power out of the ith mobile. Note that the former includes
total loss, and therefore could be computed by the dB sum of body
(head) loss, building/vehicle loss, (random) fade, point-to-point
(distance-dependent) path loss, receiver antenna gain, and receiver
cable loss. The latter constitutes the total mobile transmit power,
including the 3G-1X pilot signal that accompanies traffic power in
order to aid demodulation at the cell site receiver. The Equation 2-3
becomes:
Equation 2-4: Reverse link expanded matrix form
Note that the matrix containing the attenuations (a) is diagonal, with 0’s
in all nondiagonal entries.
The importance of Equation 2-4 cannot be overemphasized, since it
represents the key to analysis of system performance via numerical
simulation. In this Monte Carlo process, the performance limits of
capacity and coverage are established by computing performance for a
range of possible values of sector coverage and capacity.
In this process, a sector perimeter (footprint) and number of mobiles N
are first selected. A trial is conducted by randomly placing N mobiles
within the footprint, and assigning them random values of voice
activity, fade, and multipath. The multipath value and 0 velocity (fixed
position) dictate the full-rate requirement d for each mobile. The
expression Equation 2-4 is then solved for the transmit powers x. This
process is repeated over many trials until the statistics of the mobile
transmit powers can be determined for the selected perimeter and
capacity.
One or both of these values (perimeter, capacity) is then altered. The
process of determining mobile transmit power distributions by
conducting multiple trials is then repeated, thereby characterizing
performance for this new selection.
|
|
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|

− −
− −
− −
1
.
.
1
1
.
.
.
.
/ . .
. . . . .
. . . . .
. . /
. . /
2
1
2
1
2 1
2 1
2 1
W FN
x
x
x
a
a
a
d g
d g
d g
o
N N N
N
N
α α
α α
α α
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Voice coverage, capacity and link budget
Analysis
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This process is repeated for a number of selections (perimeter,
capacity). Given a target probability of outage for the mobiles, e.g., no
more than 5% of the transmit powers observed can exceed the mobile
maximum transmit power, this analysis can determine the best values
of coverage and capacity that can be supported.
For example, the maximum value of N that can be supported within a
given fixed footprint at a 5% outage can be determined by computing
the probability distribution of mobile transmit powers for each value of
N. At a small value of N, the probability distribution is unlikely to
exceed the mobile maximum transmit power x
max
at all; at a larger value
of N, a significant portion of observed values may be above x
max
. The
desired value of N is that which yields a probability distribution that
displays the value x
max
for its 95
th
percentile (i.e., the 95
th
percentile of
the mobile transmit power distribution can be no greater than the
maximum mobile transmit power).
Although the analysis outlined by Equation 2-4 has been pursued, the
results are generally not applicable to network performance unless the
model is expanded in two ways: The incorporation of the impact of
moving (non-fixed) mobiles, and the incorporation of the effects of
other sectors. For completeness, these are described below.
In the above, we have presumed that the mobiles are fixed. This
concept lends itself readily to the steady-state assumption, where
position, fade, multipath, and voice activity do not change with time. In
each trial, the required Eb/Nt, d
i
, for each mobile was obtained solely
as a function of the random choice made for multipath since the speed
was fixed at 0. The situation for moving mobiles is assessed by using a
randomly assigned value of speed as well as multipath to determine the
required Eb/Nt, (d
i
) in Equation 2-4. The performance of a system with
moving mobiles is thus determined by applying mobile Eb/Nt
requirements to an otherwise static situation. This approach, which
approximates the more complex situation where the mobile positions
are changing from instant to instant, is sometimes referred to as
analysis via a series of static snapshots.
The analysis embodied in Equation 2-2 and Equation 2-4 considered
only an isolated sector; in contrast, an embedded sector, i.e., a sector
surrounded by a sea of cells, is clearly a better model of real-world
conditions. The effects of other sectors can be included by expanding
the denominator of Equation 2-2 to include the interference at the
sector receiver from mobiles transmitting in other surrounding sectors.
These expressions expand and alter the matrix in Equation 2-4; in
Voice coverage, capacity and link budget
Analysis
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particular, the size of the matrix increases from N×N to N
total
× N
total
,
where N
total
is the number of mobiles in all sectors. The analysis
proceeds similarly but with considerably more computational
complexity, since for each trial the N
total
× 1 vector of transmit
strengths, representing the transmit strengths of all mobiles within the
network, must be solved for.
The techniques described have been used to simulate the performance
of IS-95 (2G) systems, achieving results that are supported by field
data. For example, the capacity of a fully mobile system within a
nominal cell footprint (i.e., a footprint dictated by the reverse link
budget analysis outlined in "Solution--Approximate" section on Page
2-9 and "Link budget" section on Page 2-14) is the equivalent of 13
channels (7.4 Erlangs at 2% block) and the equivalent of 20 channels
(13.2 Erlangs at 2% block) for 13 kbps and 8 kbps coding, respectively.
These values apply to the early version of the ASIC receiver chip (1.0),
and rise to 9.0 Erlangs and 16.6 Erlangs, respectively, with use of the
ASIC 1.1 chip in the cell site receiver.
The same techniques have been employed in predicting 3G-1X
capacity for nominal (link budget) footprint, indicating 26.4 Erlangs at
2% block (35 channels) for 8 kbps coding. This value is as yet
unsupported by extensive field data, since no 3G-1X commercial
systems have been deployed.
Table 2-1 Air interface capacity
Solution--Approximate
We now consider means of obtaining solutions to Equation 2-2 that are
approximate. Although any final performance prediction should rely
upon a mixture of exact solution (see "Solution--Exact" section above)
as well as trial results, the approximate solutions are useful for planning
as well as lending insight into performance trends.
We seek an approximate solution to Equation 2-2, repeated here for
convenience.
Air interface IS-95 at 13 kbps IS-95 at 8 kbps 3G/1X at 8 kbps
Capacity @ 2% block 7.4 Erlangs 13.2 Erlangs 26.4 Erlangs
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Analysis
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As discussed above, real-world conditions are better modeled by
incorporating the effects of other sectors. This can be done by altering
the summation term in the denominator appropriately. The interference
from other (outside) sectors can be viewed as the outer interference.
The interference from mobiles within the sector is the inner
interference, represented by the summation term over N-1 users in the
denominator of Equation 2-2. Simulations employing the techniques
described in the "Solution--Exact" section have shown that the ratio of
outer to inner interference can be approximated by a constant β, for an
embedded sector in a sea of cells with uniform sector loading. The
impact of outer cell interference is therefore captured by altering
Equation 2-2 to:
Equation 2-5: Reverse link Eb/Nt with interference ratio
The d
i
represents the per-path median Eb/Nt requirement of the i
th
mobile, which is dictated by conditions of multipath, speed, and FER.
At 1% FER, the range of possible values is not large; moreover, the
existence of at least two paths is guaranteed in the presence of two-
branch spatial diversity
2
. The analysis can therefore be considerably
simplified by making the conservative assumption that all mobiles
achieve the Eb/Nt for the worst-case (maximum) of the 2-path
multipath cases (d
i
=d
max
). The condition that all mobiles achieve the
same d= d
max
introduces a symmetry into the above expression that
requires all received powers be equal as well; i.e., S
i
=S:
( )
i i N
i J
j
j j o
i i
N
i J
j
j j o
i i
N
i J
j
j j o
i i i
i
o
b
d
S W FN
S g
S W FN
S R W
S
W
FN
R S
N
E
α
α
α
α
α
α
α
=
+
=
+
=
+
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
∑ ∑ ∑

=

=

= 1 1 1
/
1
/
...........................................................................................................................
2 The two-path existence is also guaranteed in some other diversity schemes such as
slant polarized diversity branches; however, these schemes are not applicable at all frequen-
cies.
i N
i J
j
j j o
i
i
t
b
d
S W FN
gS
N
E
=
+ +
=
|
|
.
|

\
|


=1
) 1 ( α β
Voice coverage, capacity and link budget
Analysis
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2 - 1 1 Lucent Technologies - Proprietary
See Notice on first page
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Equation 2-6: Reverse link Eb/Nt assuming worst case required Eb/Nt
This expression is readily solved for the single value of the key
parameter S, the required signal strength per diversity branch at the J4
port of the cell site receiver:
Equation 2-7: Required received reverse link power
The value S is a random variable, since the summation in the
denominator is a sum of the independent but identically distributed
values of channel (voice) activity. For planning purposes, we seek the
expected value of S for use as the minimum receiver sensitivity S
min
.
This value is conveniently expressed as:
Equation 2-8: Reverse link receiver sensitivity
Here, E denotes the expectation operator; also, the η
α
represents the
expected value of the channel activity.
The expectation on the far right of Equation 2-8 can be computed
analytically since the distribution of the random value of voice activity
is known. This value is close to 1. For large g/d
max
, this result can be
obtained by inspection; moreover, regardless of the value of g/d
max
, the
expected value is always 1 for very large N since the sum over (N-1)
voice activity values is equal to (N-1) times the mean voice activity. We
therefore approximate the mean receiver sensitivity as:
max
1
) 1 (
d
S W FN
gS
N
i J
j
j o
=
+ +


=
α β


=
+ −
=
N
i J
j
j
o
d
g
W FN
S
1 max
) 1 ( α β
{ }
¦
¦
)
¦
¦
`
¹
¦
¦
¹
¦
¦
´
¦
+ −
− + −

− + −
= =


=
N
i J
j
j
o
d
g
N
d
g
E
N
d
g
W FN
S E S
1 max
max
max
min
) 1 (
) 1 )( 1 (
) 1 )( 1 (
α β
η β
η β
α
α
...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Voice coverage, capacity and link budget
Analysis
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Lucent Technologies - Proprietary
See Notice on first page
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Equation 2-9: Reverse link receiver sensitivity - approximation
This expression shows that the receiver sensitivity is a monotonically
increasing function of N, the sector loading. Since increased sensitivity
clearly requires decreased cell radius, this expression illustrates the
fundamental trade-off between coverage and capacity that can be
pursued in CDMA systems. In addition, there is clearly a hard limit to
the loading N, since the denominator must be greater than zero. The
limit N
max
can be obtained by setting the denominator equal to zero,
obtaining the reference or “pole” point at which the required receiver
sensitivity grows without bound:
Equation 2-10: Pole capacity definition
The receiver sensitivity can be recast using N
max
as:
Equation 2-11: Reverse link receiver sensitivity in terms of loading
where u = N/ N
max
is the loading with respect to the pole point.
Equation 2-11 can be used to determine the receiver sensitivity for use
in a link budget, as discussed below. For:
Equation 2-12: Receiver sensitivity simplifying assumption
{ }

− + −
=
α
η β ) 1 )( 1 (
max
N
d
g
W FN
S E
o
1
) 1 (
1
max
max
+
+
=
β η
α
d
g
N
{}
|
|
.
|

\
|

|
.
|

\
|

=

− +
=

− +
=
max max max
1
1
1
1
1
1
) 1 (
1
) 1 (
1
N u
R dFN
u
W FN
N N N
W FN
S E
o
o o
β η β η
α α
) 1 (
max
β η
α
+ >>
d
g
Voice coverage, capacity and link budget
Analysis
...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
2 - 1 3 Lucent Technologies - Proprietary
See Notice on first page
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Issue 2, February 2003
Equation 2-11 can be simplified to:
Equation 2-13: Simplified reverse link receiver sensitivity
This approximation allows the receiver sensitivity to be determined by
the dB sum of Eb/Nt requirement, data rate, interference margin 1/(1-u)
and receiver noise floor. The reverse link budget format (see "Link
budget" section below) is based upon this approximation; however, the
underlying calculations rely upon Equation 2-11 since the
approximation Equation 2-12 may not always be satisfied.
Equation 2-11 suggests that any integer value of N less than N
max
(i.e.,
any value of u less than 1) is permissible provided that one is willing to
pay the penalty of reduced cell coverage associated with very high pole
loadings (e.g., u=0.95). In practice, loadings approaching u=1 are
avoided due to the possibility of associated instabilities. Such
instabilities exist regardless of the nature or form of power control, as
can be demonstrated by a sensitivity analysis that relates relative
changes in loading u to relative changes in required receiver sensitivity.
Differentiating Equation 2-11 with respect to u, we obtain:
Equation 2-14: Sensitivity of receiver sensitivity to loading
This expression indicates that relative changes in required receiver
sensitivity are related to relative changes in loading u by the sensitivity
factor u/(1-u). This factor indicates to what degree relative changes in u
are suppressed or amplified into relative changes in S
min
. The sensitivity
in Equation 2-14 increases with loading, rising from values <<1 (where
relative changes are suppressed) to 1 when u reaches u=0.5 (50%
loading). Loadings greater than 50% yield sensitivity factors greater
than 1, indicating that required relative changes in S are amplified
relative to changes in u; in particular, the sensitivity factor is greater
than 3 for loadings exceeding u=0.75 and rises rapidly thereafter.
{} W FN
u g
d
S E
o


=
1
1
max
|
.
|

\
|


=
|
|
.
|

\
|
u
du
u
u
S
dS
1
min
min
...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Voice coverage, capacity and link budget
Analysis
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Lucent Technologies - Proprietary
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Large sensitivities indicate that minor changes in loading can require
large changes in S
min
. In this region, the finite time and finite accuracy
associated with any power control loop can result in large overshoots
(instability) as the system tries to make the necessary large adjustments
in response to small, fast changes in loading. This effect constrains the
maximum loading that can be tolerated.
These concepts are illustrated in the curve in Figure 2-1 below.
Figure 2-1 The sensitivity factor maps relative changes in loading
into relative changes in receiver sensitivity. The factor is
a function of the design loading µ. For large values of µ,
small relative changes in loading are “amplified” into
large relative changes in receiver sensitivity. The choice
of design loading factor µ must avoid this region of the
curve.
Simulation and field results suggest that the maximum tolerable
loading falls within the range of u=0.5 to u=0.75. The allowed loading
improves with better power control and with lower d
min
(i.e., higher
pole point). The latter effect arises since a larger number of users
associated with any value of u tends to stabilize that value; i.e., the
relative change of u per the addition or deletion of a single user is less.
Link budget
The required receiver sensitivity S
min
in Equation 2-11 can be used to
obtain a reverse link budget. This budget dictates the maximum
allowable path loss between mobile transmit antenna and cell site
receive antenna. Provided further analysis indicates that the forward
Sensitivity Factor
0
5
10
15
20
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
mu
m
u
/
(
1
-
m
u
)
Voice coverage, capacity and link budget
Analysis
...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
2 - 1 5 Lucent Technologies - Proprietary
See Notice on first page
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Issue 2, February 2003
link can support performance at the same loss (See "Forward link"
section on Page 2-20), the loss can be used on a market-by-market basis
to perform RF design. This process employs algorithms that map loss
into cell radii via consideration of local variables such as tower height,
terrain, and clutter.
The allowed point-to-point path loss is determined by considering the
terms that dictate net loss from mobile to cell. Components of the net
loss are indicated in the following figure (head loss and fading are not
shown in the figure, but are included in the link budget equations).
Figure 2-2 Components of net path loss from mobile to base station
The terms characterizing the net loss are captured in the following
relation, which requires that at maximum mobile transmit power the
signal power achieved at the J4 port must equal or exceed 10log(S
min
):
Equation 2-15: Reverse link budget equation
where:
X
max
= Maximum mobile EIRP (Effective Isotropic Radiated Power) (in dBm)
HL = dB head (body) loss
Fade = dB fade at mobile location
BL/VL = dB building or dB vehicle penetration loss, whichever is applicable
PL = dB point to point (average) path loss between mobile antenna and cell
site antenna
AG = dBi cell site antenna gain
CL = dB cell site cable loss.
This expression is readily rewritten for the allowed maximum dB path
loss. This value dictates the edge (boundary) of the cell coverage.
CDMA
Mobile
CDMA Base
Station
Max. Path
Mobile
EIRP Receiver
Sensitivity
Building
Penetration
Loss
Antenna
Gain
Cable
Loss
) log( 10
min max
S CL - AG PL - BL/VL - fade - HL - X ≥ +
...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Voice coverage, capacity and link budget
Analysis
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Lucent Technologies - Proprietary
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Equation 2-16: Reverse link budget equation
Equation 2-16 can be viewed as constructing the allowed maximum
path loss as a dB sum of credits (e.g., mobile transmit power) and
deficits (e.g., cable loss). This dB process is captured in the reverse link
voice budget. Several examples are shown in Table 2-2 below. The link
budgets serve as examples only and will vary from market to market
per the service provider’s requirements. For instance, the cell site
antenna gain, cable loss, fade margin, and building penetration margin
could be modified, substantially altering the (bottom line) allowed path
loss to be used in design.
Table 2-2 shows PCS link budgets for second generation (2G) voice
coded at 13 kbps (total rate with overhead bits is 14,400) and at 8 kbps
(total rate with overhead bits is 9600). These are included for reference.
The 3G-1X budget for 8 kbps is shown in the right-hand column. The
2G budgets are created from parameters (e.g., noise figure) applicable
to the IS-95 Minicell and the ASIC 1.0 chip. The 3G-1X budget uses
parameters appropriate to the Flexent
®
Modular Cell.
In all cases, the format of the link budget is essentially obtained from
Equation 2-16, with Equation 2-13 used to create the value of S
min
. As
discussed above, the approximation Equation 2-13 is not always valid;
hence, in spite of the format the spreadsheet uses an embedded form of
Equation 2-11 to obtain the S
min
.
max
) PL 10log(S - CL - AG BL/VL - fade - HL - X PL
min max
= + ≤
Voice coverage, capacity and link budget
Analysis
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Table 2-2 Reverse PCS link budget for IS-95 9.6 kbps, IS-95 14.4 kbps, and 3G-1X 9.6 kbps voice,
mobility application
Item Units 2G Voice
14.4kbps
2G Voice
9.6kbps
3G-1X Voice
9.6kbps
Comments
(a) Maximum Transmitted power per
channel
dBm 21 21 21
(b) Transmit Cable, connector, com-
biner, and body losses
dB 2 2 2 Body loss
(c) Transmitter Antenna Gain dBi 2 2 2
(d) Transmitter EIRP per channel
(a - b + c)
dBm 21 21 21
(e) Receiver Antenna Gain dBi 18 18 18
(f) Receiver Cable and Connector
Losses
dB 3 3 3
(g) Receiver Noise Figure dB 5 5 4 PCS Minicell for 2G and
Modcell for 3G-1X
(h) Receiver Noise Density dBm/Hz -174 -174 -174
(i) Receiver Interference Margin dB 3.4 3.6 5.5 72% loading for 3G-1X
(j) Total Effective Noise plus Interfer-
ence Density = (g + h + i)
dBm/Hz -165.6 -165.4 -164.5
(k1) Information Rate (10log(Rb)) dB 41.6 39.8 39.8
(l1) Required Eb/Nt dB 7 7 4 Considering 2 spatial
receive diversity
branches
(m) Receiver sensitivity (j + k +l) dBm -117.2 -118.7 -120.7
(n) Hand-off Gain dB 4 4 4 For 90% cell edge cover-
age and 8 dB log-normal
standard deviation
(o) Explicit Diversity Gain dB 0 0 0 Diversity gain has been
included in required Eb/
Nt
(p) Log-normal Fade Margin dB 10.3 10.3 10.3 For 90% edge coverage
with 8dB log-normal stan-
dard deviation
(p') Building/Vehicle Penetration Loss dB 0.0 0.0 0.0 For outdoor coverage
(q) Maximum Path loss {d-m+e-
f+o+n-p-p'}
dB 146.9 148.4 150.4


...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Voice coverage, capacity and link budget
Analysis
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Lucent Technologies - Proprietary
See Notice on first page
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Note that the link budget creates the fade margin in Equation 2-16 as a
sum of two terms: The single-link (simplex) fade margin and the soft
handoff gain.
The simplex fade margin is obtained conventionally by selecting a dB
value from a normal distribution of possible values. For a simplex
connection, the path loss at the cell edge therefore accommodates all
values of fade up to and including this value. For example, a selection
of 10.3 dB means that at cell edge all fades up to and including 10.3 dB
can be tolerated without requiring that the mobile exceed its maximum
transmit power. Since the 10.3 dB is the 90
th
percentile within the
distribution of fades
3
, this choice corresponds to a 90% probability of
cell edge coverage. The probability of area coverage is greater, since
inside the cell boundary the path loss is less and the mobile has more
transmit margin to overcome deeper fades.
The fade margin required for 90% edge coverage is actually less than
the simplex value, since a CDMA mobile at the cell edge is in a soft
handoff state with at least two legs. The full simplex margin would
only be required if both legs faded simultaneously and equally. Since
the leg-to-leg fading is at least partly uncorrelated, the net fade margin
required to achieve a given probability of coverage is less. The soft
handoff gain is the difference between the simplex and actual fade
margin. The exact value is a weak function of probability of edge
coverage and is determined by offline calculations that are supported
by field data. Recommended values are tabulated, below. These values
correspond to a 60% correlation between soft handoff legs in a
lognormal fading environment (8 dB standard deviation).
Table 2-3 Reverse link soft handoff gains
...........................................................................................................................
3 This is true for lognormally distributed fades with 8 dB standard deviation, this distri-
bution is common and often observed in path loss measurements
Probability of Edge Coverage Soft Handoff Gain (dB)
75% 3
90% 4


Voice coverage, capacity and link budget
Analysis
...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
2 - 1 9 Lucent Technologies - Proprietary
See Notice on first page
401-614-040
Issue 2, February 2003
The differences between the 3G-1X and the IS-95 voice reverse link
budgets must be emphasized. They include the following:
• For 2G, the mobile transmitted power consists solely of traffic
channel power; however, for 3G-1X, the mobile transmitted the
power includes the traffic channel and reverse pilot channel
power. The analysis described in the "Solution--Exact" and
"Solution--Approximate" sections applies in either case since the
Eb/Nt requirements d
i
are adjusted appropriately. It is simply a
matter of interpretation of the transmit power x.
• The required Eb/Nt d (i.e., the traffic channel Eb/Nt requirements
for the 2G, and the total traffic plus pilot Eb/Nt requirement for the
3G-1X) to achieve 1% target Frame Erasure Rate (FER) differ. For
the 9.6 kbps voice, mobility application and 1% FER target, the
requirement for the 3G-1X is 4 dB, less than the 7 dB required for
the IS-95 system (ASIC 1.0 chip).
• The pole loading factor for 3G-1X is higher than the pole loading
factor for IS-95, due to a larger user base and slightly improved
power control (see the "Solution--Approximate" section). This
difference is reflected within the interference margin. The
example budgets employ the maximum loading recommended for
the scenarios chosen. Lower loadings are allowed, increasing
coverage at the expense of reducing capacity.
• The air interface capacity of the 3G-1X 8kbps voice application is
26.4 Erlangs per sector per carrier (corresponding to 35 channels
at 2% blocking) while that of the IS-95 8kbps voice is 13.2
Erlangs per sector per carrier (corresponding to 20 channels at 2%
blocking). This difference arises due to the 3G-1X reduced Eb/Nt
requirement, as well as the increased 3G-1X maximum pole
loading.
• The base receiver noise floor of the PCS CDMA Minicell is 5 dB
while that of the PCS CDMA Flexent Modular Cell is 4 dB. The
former has been extensively deployed within the field, and was
therefore used as a 2G reference in Table 2-2.
The examples above indicate that 3G-1X can tolerate more path loss
than IS-95 under identical (“normalized”) conditions; i.e., equal values
of antenna gain, fade margin, building penetration loss, etc. This
difference allows an IS-95 system to be upgraded to 3G-1X on a 1:1
basis without loss of coverage performance. Overlay strategies are
discussed in more detail in Chapter 4, "System deployment".


...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Voice coverage, capacity and link budget
Analysis
2 - 2 0
Lucent Technologies - Proprietary
See Notice on first page
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Issue 2, February 2003
Forward link Reverse link analysis is used to establish the cell footprint. This
analysis can be viewed as driven by the limit on mobile transmit power.
This limit is a key constraining factor in cell size, driven by market
demands for more compact subscriber units and longer battery life.
The objective of forward link analysis is to ensure that the forward link
has sufficient power to support performance within the footprint
dictated by the reverse link. Accordingly, the dB design path loss
determined by reverse link analysis is an input to the forward link
analysis process, which assesses whether the forward link has sufficient
resources to deliver adequate power to each mobile receiver within the
design path loss.
This analysis differs in three important ways from that of the reverse
link:
• First, the link transmitter power (forward link amplifier power)
considered in analysis is shared amongst multiple users. In
contrast, the transmit power employed in reverse link analysis (the
mobile transmit power) is dedicated to a single subscriber.
• Second, the effect of other sectors at the receiver is more
important, as a mobile receiver near the cell boundary can be
subjected to a significant amount of interference broadcast by
nearby neighbor sectors. In contrast, the other-cell interference
considered in reverse link analysis consisted of power from
modest transmitters at a greater distance from the cell site receiver.
• Third, the available link level information does not consist
(directly) of receiver Eb/Nt requirements; rather, the fractional
forward link power (“Ec/Ior”) as a function of mobile geometry is
used in analysis. The ‘geometry’ is defined as the ratio of the total
power within the active set to the sum of receiver noise and total
power received from all sectors not within the active set. A sector
is in the mobile’s active set when it is supporting the mobile call;
i.e., providing a signal or leg that the mobile is demodulating.
In order to ensure clarity, we provide a few examples of the last point.
The fractional forward link power requirement Ec/Ior (or x = Ec/Ior,
used here for convenience) is a pure (dimensionless) number and a
function of the mobile geometry G:


Voice coverage, capacity and link budget
Analysis
...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
2 - 2 1 Lucent Technologies - Proprietary
See Notice on first page
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Equation 2-17
For example, x may be 0.05, indicating that 5% of the total forward link
power broadcast by a sector is required to maintain forward link FER.
Note that this relationship says nothing about the total power broadcast
by the sector, but simply indicates what fraction of the power being
broadcast is required by the mobile in question.
The geometry must be defined with care. For a mobile not in soft
handoff, the numerator of the geometry consists only of the power
received from its host sector. For a mobile in soft handoff, the
numerator consists of the power received from the host as well as all
other sectors supporting the call. In each case, the denominator consists
of the sum of receiver noise and the received power from all other
sectors not supporting the call.
As a specific example, we consider the following. Without loss of
generality, we may denote the received host sector power P1 for a
mobile not in handoff. For a mobile in soft handoff with sectors 1 and
2, we denote the received host sectors’ power P1 and P2. Then:
Equation 2-18: Geometry calculation example
Note the contrast between the first (no soft handoff) and last (soft
handoff) definition of geometry. In the former case, only sector 1
supports the call; accordingly, only the received power from sector 1 is
in the numerator. In the latter case, both sectors 1 and 2 support the call.
In this case, the received power from sector 2 is removed from the sum
in the denominator and placed within the numerator.
) (
1 ; /
G f x
x Ior Ec x
=
< =
2 1 sec ;
1 sec ; ;
sec ; /
sec
3
2 1
sec
2
1
and tors with handoff soft in mobile
I FN
I I
G
is tor host handoff soft in not mobile
I FN
I
G
density power tor received or W P I Let
tors all
i
i t
tors all
i
i t
i i


=
=
+
+
=
+
=
=


...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Voice coverage, capacity and link budget
Analysis
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Lucent Technologies - Proprietary
See Notice on first page
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In all cases, the I represents the received spectral density from all
multipath reaching the mobile receiver from the sector in question. For
clarity, some sample mappings of x = Ec/Ior vs. geometry G are shown
below. The mapping is from an early study examining the impact of
power control, which, as expected, improves the link performance by
lowering the x required. The study per se will not be discussed further
here; the chart is used only to demonstrate the general shape of the
curve x = f(G).
Figure 2-3 Required fractional power versus geometry example
Note that, in general, the required x shrinks as the number of multipath
from the sector to the mobile increase.
We now consider the system-level analysis of forward link employing
this information. Consider a collection of mobiles within a sector. We
again presume a steady-state condition; i.e., one where all mobile
positions are fixed and the mobile conditions of voice activity factor,
multipath, and fade are unchanging. The sector is embedded,
surrounded by a sea of other sectors containing mobiles.
At the sector J4 port, the fractional transmit power allocated to each
mobile must be sufficient to reach or exceed the mobile receiver’s
Ec/Ior requirement, which is dependent upon its speed and geometry.
The geometry is dependent upon the host and other sector powers
received at the mobile; these, in turn, are dependent upon the mobile


Voice coverage, capacity and link budget
Analysis
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2 - 2 3 Lucent Technologies - Proprietary
See Notice on first page
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position and fading state. In order to support N links (including
primary, soft, and softer handoff links), the total fractional transmit
power required must not exceed the fraction of amplifier power that is
available for traffic:
Equation 2-19: Sum of powers less than available traffic power
In the above, α
j
represents the channel activity of the jth forward link,
and x
j
represents the fractional power required to support this link. The
values Q
max
and Q
over
are the maximum average available power and
the average power assigned to overhead channels (e.g., pilot),
respectively. This inequality must be satisfied for each sector within the
system.
For clarity, we write the value x
j
more completely to show its functional
dependence:
Equation 2-20: Required fractional power dependencies
The fractional transmit power requirement is a function of speed,
multipath, and mobile geometry. Geometry, in turn, is a function of
mobile location, powers broadcast by all surrounding sectors, fades
between the mobile and all sectors, and the mobile handoff state.
Given the randomness of location, speed, multipath, and fading, it is
clear that for fixed N, the sum Y is a random variable with an associated
probability distribution. As N varies, the distribution retains
(approximately) its shape but shifts to the right or left; see Figure 2-4.
For a given coverage footprint and given number of links, i.e., given
number of users, the computation of the associated probability
distribution provides the probability that the sum Y satisfies the
inequality (Equation 2-19). In particular, for a given footprint, the
forward link capacity limit can be obtained by finding the highest value
of N such that the sum Y still satisfies the inequality (Equation 2-19)
with acceptable probability. This probability should be high, e.g., 90%,
95%, in order to be consistent with the high probability of coverage
generally provided by the reverse link.
max
max
1
Q
O Q
x Y
over
N
j
j j

≤ =

=
α
]) , , , sec [ , , ( state handoff location fading powers tor all geometry multipath speed x x
j j
=


...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Voice coverage, capacity and link budget
Analysis
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Lucent Technologies - Proprietary
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Figure 2-4 Various probability distributions as a function of N
(number of users)
For fixed footprint, as N increases, the probability distribution associated
with the sum Y (total fractional transmit power) retains its shape (approxi-
mately) but shifts to the right. A maximum amount of fractional transmit
power (“max allowed”) is available for traffic. The maximum capacity Nmax
can be found by locating the highest value of N for which the probability dis-
tribution still has an acceptably small probability of violating the maximum
allowed fractional transmit power.
In order to conduct the above analysis, Equation 2-19 must be solved
for all sectors. This analysis is not straightforward; in particular, the
method of solution is not analogous to that employed in the reverse link
(linear algebra). The additional complexity arises from several factors,
including:
• The nonlinear mapping x = f(G) in Equation 2-17, which can be
tabulated but not readily expressed in analytical form
• The dependence of fractional transmit powers x on a number of
factors (Equation 2-20), including geometry
• The fact that the computation of geometry for a given location
depends upon knowledge of the radiated power from all
sectors…but the radiated power from all sectors cannot be
computed unless the fractional transmit powers x are known.
These, in turn, depend upon geometry. This circularity prevents a
straightforward solution; rather, an iterative approach that
eventually results in an answer with self-consistent sector powers,
fractional transmit powers, and geometries must be employed.
Total fractional power used
. . . . .
. . . .
Increasing links
probability
Max allowed
N links N +1 links N +2 links Nmax links


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This complexity has resulted in a number of forward link analysis
techniques, which vary depending upon the speed, accuracy, and extent
of information desired. We describe two examples below.
Solution--Exact
The exact solution of Equation 2-19 is complex, but nevertheless
employed in system performance simulations. We outline the method
of solution here.
The analysis can be done by collecting data from a number of
simulated snapshots, where within each snapshot a predetermined
number N
total
of mobiles are randomly distributed throughout the
sectors comprising the network. The snapshot is static in the sense that
the mobiles do not move; however, motion can be modeled in a limited
sense by randomly selecting a velocity for each mobile, and using the
geometry curves for that velocity to assign fractional transmit powers
to the (stationary) mobile. Given a sufficiently large number of
snapshots, the probability distribution for the sum Y (Equation 2-19)
can be obtained. This curve then allows specification of the probability
that the total fractional transmit power remains below an allowable
level.
As discussed above, the geometry associated with a given location
depends upon the total powers broadcast by the sectors. These total
powers cannot be determined unless the fractional transmit powers x
are known; however, these cannot be specified without knowledge of
the geometry. This interrelationship dictates an iterative approach to the
problem, which can be generally pursued as follows:
• Construct a nominal (i.e., hexagonal) arrangement of cells, with
per-sector footprint dictated by an allowable path loss and a path
loss law (e.g., Hata model). The former is usually dictated by the
reverse link budget
• Choose a value of N
total
users within the network, which
corresponds to a desired average value of users per sector.
• Choose an initial value (e.g., Q
max
) of power broadcast by all
sectors
• Create and solve a single static snapshot via the following steps:
1. Randomly place the N
total
users within the network
2. For each user, randomly select a multipath and velocity value
3. Specify a value of Q
max
power broadcast by all sectors


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4. Using these values, compute each user’s soft handoff state
5. Compute each user’s geometry
6. Using the appropriate curve for each user’s multipath and
velocity, map user geometry into required fractional transmit
power from its host sector
7. Compute actual user (link) power from host sector
8. Compute total power broadcast by all sectors, and compare
with values assumed in Step 3, above. If they do not match,
reassign sector broadcast powers in Step 3 to the new values
computed in this Step 8.
9. Repeat Steps 3 through 8 until convergence; i.e., until the
assigned sector powers in Step 3 match the computed sector
powers in Step 8.
10. Store the sector power for this value of N
total
as a single point
within the probability distribution of required power (see
Figure 2-4). This point corresponds to a single static snapshot
for N
total
users.
11. Repeat Steps 1 through 10 (i.e., run additional static
snapshots) until a sufficient number of points is obtained to
characterize the probability distribution of required power for
N
total
users (see Figure 2-4)
• Assess this distribution to ascertain whether the available power is
sufficient to support the capacity within the coverage footprint.
The list above summarizes the general steps to be taken in forward link
analysis. This process can be implemented in several ways; in
particular, it is possible to obtain a set of solutions for a normalized
network (e.g., unity power, unity coverage, etc.) and then scale these
solutions in a simple way to address a wide variety of design scenarios.
This strategy obviates the difficulty of running a computationally
intensive model for every design scenario; rather, solutions for a
normalized scenario can be scaled to a variety of other scenarios
through straightforward adjustments of antenna gain, cell radius, fade
margin, etc.
For this approach, the normalized results are captured in a set of
coefficients (Figure 2-5) that are used to reconstruct values relevant to
the design scenario at hand by using scenario-specific parameters such
as uplink coverage footprint, antenna gain, and available forward sector
power. The coefficients capturing baseline performance are sometimes
termed “Hong Yang” coefficients, after their author.


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Figure 2-5 “Hong Yong” coefficients
A set of coefficients that captures forward link performance for a
normalized case (e.g., unity coverage, unity power, etc.) can be
obtained via a computationally complex model. These coefficients can
then be used to scale results to a variety of design scenarios, using
design-specific parameters such as antenna gain and forward power.
Design scenarios that cannot be scaled from a normalized result
include those in which such underlying assumptions as fading and
voice statistics, velocity distribution, and path loss laws differ from
those employed in the normalized result. In these cases, a different set
of normalized results employing the new assumptions is required.
An example of a spreadsheet that functions as a link budget in that it
extrapolates normalized results is shown in Table 2-4.
CDMA
Forward
Link Solver
Distribution
of mobile
position
Distribution
of shadow
fading
Distribution
of soft
handoffs
E
c
/I
or
vs.
Geometry
curves
µ µµ µ(x
N
)
µ µµ µ(x
I
)
σ σσ σ(x
N
)
σ σσ σ(x
I
)
E(x
N
x
I
)


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Table 2-4 Forward link budget
Forward Link Budget for 3G PCS 3 Sector 8 kbps CDMA with ASIC 1.1 and Mobility Applications (on Street)
B C D E F G
Line # Description Power W Power Comments
Transmit Power calculations
5 Nominal available power at J4 point 10.5 W 40.2 dBm Max power available
6 Pilot Channel Power 1.575 W 32.0 dBm 15% of max. power
7 Sync Channel Power 0.2 W 22.0 dBm 10% pilot power
8 Paging Channel Power 0.6 W 27.4 dBm 35.1% pilot power
9 Power available for the traffic Channel 8.2 W 39.1 dBm 78.2% total power
10 Total Overhead 21.8 % C10 = 100*(1 - (c9/c5))
11 Overhead factor to convert from mobiles to the
number of active power channels
1.75 2.4 dB IS-95B new handoff
12 Cell site Cable Loss and combiner loss 2.0 3.00 dB
13 Cell site Transmit Antenna Gain 63.1 18.0 dBi
14 Propagation loss
15 Max. mean Propagation Path Loss 1.06E+15 150.2 dB
16 Mobile RX Signal power Calculations
17 Mobile Receive Antenna Gain 1.6 2.0 dBi
18 Mobile Body/Cable/Building Losses 1.6 2.0 dB
19 Thermal Noise Calculations
20 Mobile Noise Figure (F) 7.9 9.0 dB
21 Thermal Noise Density (No = KT) 3.98E-21 -174.0 dBm/Hz
22 Total thermal Noise power per Hz (NoF) 3.16228E-
20
-165.0 dBm/Hz
23 Spreading bandwidth (W) 1.23E+06 Hz 60.9 dB
24 Total thermal noise power (NoWF) 3.88581E-
14
W -104.1 dBm
25 External (intermod/spectrum clearance)
interference
1.58489E-
15
W -118.0 dBm
26 Number of Mobiles per Sector 36
27 Power Outage Probability 0.040


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A “Forward Link Budget” that extrapolates normalized results. Since
the assessment of forward link performance can be computationally
intensive, a few normalized scenarios (e.g., unity coverage, unity
power, etc.) are assessed and can be later extrapolated in a
straightforward way to design scenarios of specific interest. The
normalized results are captured in the Hong Yang coefficients. The
extrapolation uses design-specific values such as antenna gain, sector
power, and uplink coverage footprint. New coefficients must be
generated if the design scenario of interest has different fundamental
assumptions (e.g., fading statistics, path loss laws) from those
employed in generating the normalized results.
Solution--Approximate
Additional means may be used for forward link analysis. These are
simpler but approximate. Since the time required to obtain a solution by
extrapolating from a normalized baseline (see the "Solution--
Approximate" section) is usually comparable to the time required to
obtain an approximate solution, the former is preferred. Nevertheless,
approximate methods can provide useful insight. For completeness, we
briefly outline several methods below.
28 Pilot Ec/(No+Io) at cell edge 0.04 -13.7 dB
29 Voice Activity Factor
30 Mean of VAF 0.48
31 Variance of VAF 0.122725
32 Hong Yang's Coefficients
µ(x
N
) 0.0107
µ(x
Ι
) 0.0200
E(x
N
x
I
) 0.0003
σ(x
N
) 0.0368
σ(x
Ι
) 0.0064
µ(Ξ)
0.01025894
σ
2
(Ξ)
0.00008474
µ(Ψ)
0.64631291
σ
2
(Ψ)
0.00533881


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The method outlined in the "Solution--Approximate" section can be
simplified by placing all users at cell edge in an identical multipath and
handoff state. Given the specification of user number, cell radius (i.e.,
allowed path loss, usually from the reverse link budget), forward sector
power, and fading statistics, a geometry value for each user can be
computed. The distribution of these values is then examined to
determine whether it is appropriate to deliver performance; for
example, the range of user velocity that can be supported could be
assessed.
This approach has the value of reasonable simplicity, particularly since
the fades of the links from the host cell are assumed independent. Its
disadvantages are the inaccuracies stemming from several sources,
including the following:
• No fading can be assigned to the interference background
experienced by each mobile at cell edge…for simplicity, this
background is presumed constant
• The presumption of all users at the cell edge is very conservative
• The presumption of identical multipath for each user is not correct
Although these limitations introduce error, the result is usually
conservative, particularly if a high value of surrounding interference
background is used in computing user geometry. Accordingly, this
approximate method remains useful.
A simpler approximation may be obtained by analyzing a single mobile
at the cell edge, and assessing its performance when assigned the
maximum allowed value of single link traffic channel power. This
approach renders the forward link very similar to the reverse link, since
the fundamental issue of power-sharing amongst multiple mobiles is
removed. Although this approach also provides insight, it is less often
used since it completely decouples coverage from capacity; i.e., it is
difficult to extrapolate from the single-link result how many additional
mobiles may be served within the footprint.

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3 RF engineering for data
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Overview
Purpose This chapter offers a discussion of RF data issues for 3G-1X, including
a contrast between the Erlang B (voice) and Erlang C (data) models,
analysis of capacity and coverage, and an examination of resource
management.
Contents Introduction 3-3
Traffic theory 3-4
Introduction 3-4
General Erlang model 3-5
Special cases: Erlang B and Erlang C 3-7
Applications of Erlang C to 3G-1X data 3-10
Data capacity 3-13
Introduction 3-13
Data link budgets 3-19
Reverse link 3-19
Forward link 3-22
Symmetric forward data link analysis 3-23
Example forward link budget 3-31
Monte carlo forward link analysis 3-35
Resource management: RF scheduling 3-36
Introduction 3-36
Scheduling algorithm 3-36
Fundamental Channel (FCH) assignment and release 3-36
Forward link supplemental channel (F-SCH)

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assignment and release 3-38
Reverse link supplemental channel (R-SCH)
assignment and release 3-41
Load Balancing 3-42
Conclusions 3-43

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Introduction
The availability of packet data features introduces additional
complexity into the air interface. In voice-only applications, channel
rates are fixed and known; moreover, network influence on the channel
is limited to handoff decisions and power control. In contrast, packet
data features allow variable channel rates dictated by the network. In
addition, the network exerts further influence on the use of air interface
resources through instructing channels when to transmit (burst) and
when to wait. The role of the network in managing resources is
discussed in some detail in "Resource management: RF scheduling"
section on Page 3-36.
The performance impact of these differences must be added to the
already-present random effects of mobile speed, position, and fade. The
additional parameters of channel rate and network control increase the
complexity of performance prediction to the point where the situation
is best analyzed via detailed end-to-end simulations of the 3G network.
Simulators providing this level of detail have been developed to assess
the 3G performance. Approximate analyses via other methods, e.g.,
link budget, have also been developed, but are of less utility for packet
data than for voice. The use and limitations of approximate methods are
discussed below.
In the following sections, insight into 3G-1X performance is offered
via several discussions. In "Traffic theory" section, we overview the
differences between circuit-switched (voice) and packet-switched
(data) transmissions. This information provides a brief but necessary
framework for the performance discussions that follow. such as the
identification and computation of performance metrics applicable to a
data network. These are shown to depend upon the number and data
rates of channels available, which are obtained from RF analyses that
employ numerical modeling within an RF footprint. The design of this
footprint is addressed in the "Data link budgets" section, which
presents the 3G-1X data link budget for various data rates.

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Traffic theory
Introduction The 3G-1X air interface is packet-switched in the sense that a limited
number of high-speed RF data channels are shared across many users.
A packet-switched network may share channels across users for the
duration of the calls, or user sessions. In contrast, a circuit-switched
network dedicates a channel exclusively to the user for the duration of
the session. The latter model is frequently used in voice applications,
where a dedicated channel is allocated and held for the duration of the
voice call. The former model is used in packet data applications, where
multiple data sources transmit data intermittently over a group of
shared channels.
The “sharing” on the 3G-1X air interface does not entail the sharing of
a physically tangible resource; rather, the sharing concept derives from
the fact that users transmit high-speed data bursts only when cued to do
so by the network. Since channels at higher data rates produce more
interference, the network manages these bursts in a way that ensures
only a limited number of high-speed data bursts are simultaneously
active. This process prevents the interference background from rising
above acceptable levels while still allowing users to experience high
data rates. This resource management (see "Resource management: RF
scheduling" section on Page 3-36) can be viewed as time-sharing a
limited number of high-speed data channels amongst the users, and is
thereby characterized as a packet-switching process. The restricted
availability of the data channel for the duration of the user session
would be unacceptable for a real-time application such as voice, but is
an efficient means for data support since the user need for transmission
is at most intermittent for many data applications (e.g., web-browsing).
For our purposes, the packet-switched nature of the air interface can be
captured through use of the Erlang model. This model can also be used
to illustrate the differences between the more familiar circuit-switched
(voice) and packet-switched approaches, as well as to develop the
performance metrics that are relevant to a data network. Although this
model is well documented in a number of references,
4
it is overviewed
below in order to establish a framework for the performance
discussions that follow. A variation of this model shall be used to
estimate network performance, below (see "Data capacity" section on
Page 3-13).
...........................................................................................................................
4 See for example Mischa Schwartz; “Telecommunication Networks”

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General Erlang model The Erlang model applies to the following general scenario, applicable
to either voice or data:
Figure 3-1 General Erlang Model
The assumptions and results associated with this model are absolutely
essential in characterizing data performance. We review these briefly,
below.
The model shows service requests (arrivals) entering a waiting area
(queue). From the queue, the arrivals are vectored out into one of N
possible servers. Each server can serve only one arrival at a time. An
arrival has immediate access to any non-busy server.
If all servers are busy, the arrivals wait in the queue. The number of
arrivals waiting in the queue is therefore variable. The maximum size
accommodated by the queue, or queue length, is M arrivals. If the
queue reaches a size of M, further arrivals are turned away or blocked
until at least one arrival can exit the queue and enter a non-busy server.
The definition of arrivals is very general. For wireless purposes, we
view the arrivals as either voice calls requiring service (voice network)
or message bursts requiring transmission (data network). In either case,
the server is a transmission channel. In the former case, the server is a
Arrivals λ
Completions µ
Completions µ
Queue (length M)
N
servers

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dedicated channel that holds the voice call for its entire duration; in the
latter case, the server is a transmission channel that transmits the burst.
In either case, once service for the arrival is complete, the resource is
then freed up for the next arrival.
The rate of arrivals is characterized by a process in which the time of
arrivals is random and independent; i.e., the probability of an arrival in
any one instant is identical to and independent of the probability of an
arrival in any other instant. The average rate of arrivals is usually
characterized by λ (e.g., calls/minute, messages/hour).
The service process is similarly characterized. For a busy server, the
time of service completions is also random and independent. The
average rate of completions for each server is usually characterized by
µ (e.g., completed calls/minute, messages transmitted/hour). The per-
server completion rate is of course distinct from the system completion
rate, since the system rate is dependent upon the number of busy
servers. For example, the system average completion rate when N
servers are busy is N×µ.
Knowledge of the parameter µ can be used to compute the probability
distribution of the inter-completion time. For voice calls, the inter-
completion time is clearly the hold time. Its random distribution
reflects the random duration of voice calls. For messages, the inter-
completion time is simply the time required for the channel to transmit
the message. Given a fixed channel data rate (e.g., 64 kbps), this
random distribution reflects the random length of arriving messages. In
both cases, the average inter-completion time is computed to be 1/µ.
Within these very general assumptions, the model in Figure 3-1 can be
solved analytically for the probability of all possible states, where the
state is determined by the total number of arrivals within the system;
i.e., the sum of all arrivals being served as well as any arrivals waiting
in the queue. The possible states, therefore, range from 0 to (M+N).
The last state is the blocking state, since in this state no more arrivals
can enter the system. The probability of the state (M+N) is therefore the
probability of blocking.
The probability states are found to depend upon the ratio of λ /µ, rather
than the value of either alone. This ratio is a system load parameter
measured in Erlangs. Since 1/µ is the average inter-completion time,
this load measure may be viewed as the arrival rate weighted by the
average “stress” (average hold or average transmit time) each arrival
places on the system.

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The computations described above produce an analytical relation
between the Erlang load, number of channels, queue length, and state
probabilities. This relation has been extensively tabulated for the
special case where the queue length is zero. This Erlang B table
demonstrates the relation between the Erlang load, the number of
channels, and the probability of state N. The latter is the probability of
blocking in this case: since there is no queue, the probability of new
arrivals being turned away or blocked is simply the probability that all
N servers are occupied. The Erlang B model is discussed in more detail
below, and contrasted to an alternate special case of infinite-length
queue (Erlang C).
The above concepts are summarized in the table below.
Table 3-1 Summary of Erlang model
Special cases: Erlang B
and Erlang C
In any situation, the collection of state probabilities depends upon the
Erlang load as well as the values of M (queue length) and N (servers).
Two limiting cases are of especial interest.
In the first case, the queue length is set to 0. Arrivals are therefore
blocked as soon as all servers are busy; i.e., the probability of blocking
is probability of the state N. The blocking probability is entirely
determined by the Erlang load and the number of servers N. The
relation between the three is captured in an Erlang B table, which
allows computation of any one (e.g., Erlangs) from specification of any
other two (e.g., probability of block, number of servers).
Average arrival rate
λ
Average server completion (of service) rate µ
Average server inter-completion time 1/µ
System load (Erlangs)
λ /µ
Number of servers N
Length of queue M
Maximum system occupancy N+M
Probability of block = Probability of state (M+N)
Average system completion (of service) rate nµ, where n = current system state
Special case Erlang B (M = 0 or no queue)
Special case
Erlang C (M → infinity or infinite queue)

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The Erlang B table is widely used for voice calls, since its underlying
model captures the scenario where voice users make a single call
attempt (a single arrival) and are either immediately served or blocked.
In the latter case, the user may try again at a later time, but the elapsed
time is sufficient to ensure that the next attempt resembles a new,
independent arrival to the system.
In the second case, the queue length is presumed infinite. Arrivals are
therefore never blocked; however, there is a probability of delay. The
probability of being delayed (i.e., of waiting some nonzero time in the
queue for service) is the probability of the state N, where all servers are
busy. The delay probability is entirely determined by the Erlang load
and the number of servers N. The relation between the three is captured
in an Erlang C table, which allows computation of any one value (e.g.,
Erlangs) from specification of any other two (e.g., probability of delay,
number of servers). Since the average wait time in the queue can be
determined from the probability of delay (and vice-versa), an alternate
3-way relation of Erlangs, average wait, and number of servers may be
tabulated.
The Erlang C table may also be used for voice calls, since its
underlying model captures the scenario where voice users make
repeated, multiple attempts as necessary to be served. In this
interpretation, each arrival is a single voice user attempting to access
the system. The user is either served on the first attempt, or not; in the
latter case, the user continues to attempt to access the system until
served. These continuous reattempts place the user in the system queue,
“waiting” for service. Note that the queue in this application is
conceptual, representing the collection of users attempting but not yet
achieving access.
The use of this model for voice calls is less prevalent than that of
Erlang B, since it requires that each user continuously attempt access
until finally served; in contrast, Erlang B requires a single access
attempt per user. Neither model can therefore accommodate scenarios
where each user may execute 1 or 2 immediate re-access attempts
before being served or blocked, but Erlang B is frequently considered
to be a better approximation of this situation than Erlang C.
The Erlang C model is more typically used for packet data, since the
presence of a queue lends itself to modeling the management of data
resources over shared channels. In this application, a large number of
data sources time-share a modest number of transmission channels N.
The data sources send brief data transmissions (bursts) as permitted by

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the network, which attempts to share the transmission channel
resources in some efficient manner. Bursts (messages) undergoing
transmission are being served by one of the N servers in the Erlang C
model (see Figure 3-1). Messages waiting their turn for transmission
are in the queue, regardless of whether these messages are stored at
each data source (a conceptual queue) or stored in a single intermediate
physical buffer between the data sources and the servers (physical
queue).
The random nature of the arrival process into the queue is driven by the
fact that the data source does not require the sending of continuous
messages; rather, the arrival of messages is randomized by the bursty,
interactive nature of the data application (e.g., web-browsing). Indeed,
this randomness is exploited in order to efficiently serve the data users
with a number of servers that is less than the total number of active data
sessions. The random nature of the service process at each server
derives from the random variations in message length. For a server of
fixed transmission rate, these random variations in length randomize
the service or hold time for each arrival.
In Erlang C, the net rate at which arrivals exit the system after being
served depends upon the number of busy servers. For n busy servers,
the net rate is n×µ, where n can vary from 0 to N. Since the probability
of all states is known, the average net rate at which arrivals exit the
system (the throughput) can be computed as:
Equation 3-1: Throughput equation
The units of throughput are messages/second or more conventionally
bits/sec. In the above, the average rate is computed by weighing the
service rate at each state by its state probability. For n less than N, the
service rate associated with each state is n×µ, since for these states, the
queue is empty and n servers are busy. For n greater than or equal to N,
all servers are busy and the service rate becomes fixed at N×µ. This rate
is therefore weighted by the probability of delay, since the probability
of all servers busy is simply the probability that an arrival will be
delayed (i.e., will need to wait in the queue). The concept of throughput
is directly applicable to 3G-1X traffic planning, as described below.
delay
N
n
p N n p n throughput ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ =


=
µ µ
1
0
) (

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Applications of Erlang C to
3G-1X data
We now consider specific use of the Erlang C model for 3G-1X data.
Identity of the model components, as well as specific measures of
performance for planning and analysis, are discussed below.
In 3G-1X data, high-speed or supplemental channels are dynamically
set up for the users when a burst is cued, and torn down when the burst
is complete (see "Resource management: RF scheduling" section on
Page 3-36). In order to control interference, only a limited number of
supplemental channels may be simultaneously active; accordingly, we
may view the process as simply time-sharing a fixed number N of high-
speed servers. These high-speed channels are the servers within the
Erlang C model. (The number of servers is determined via RF analysis
in "Data link budgets" section on Page 3-19).
Message bursts requiring transmission are either immediately
transmitted, or stored awaiting transmission. At the reverse link,
storage occurs within the mobile data device. At the forward link,
storage occurs at a buffer in the cell site. In both cases, this storage
corresponds to the queue in the Erlang C model where arrivals are
waiting for access to the servers. The forward link queue is physical in
that a single buffer can be identified where messages arrive and await
service. The reverse link queue is more conceptual in that it consists of
the collection of stored messages across the mobile data devices. In
both cases a large number of arrivals can be stored; hence, the queue
length is approximated as infinite.
For this queue and these servers, a three-way relation between Erlang
load, number of servers, and average wait time in the queue is readily
determined from the Erlang C model. Once these values are
determined, the throughput can also be calculated (see Equation 3-1).
Accordingly, the load that can be accommodated by a sector can be
obtained by specifying the number of servers and the average wait
time.
In 3G-1X, the determination of the number of servers per sector is a
constraint dictated by the RF interface. The average wait time (e.g., 5
seconds) is specified as a requirement and corresponds to the average
time between actual message transmission and the time at which data
enters the buffer (mobile or cell) to await service. Given these values,
the Erlang load that the sector can accommodate follows directly from
the Erlang C model. This load can then be compared to the load offered
from the subscriber population to assess how many sectors are
required.

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Traffic theory
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This process is followed in 3G-1X traffic planning with a slight
modification: the offered load is assessed in throughput rather than in
Erlangs. This approach differs from that employed in Erlang B, since in
the Erlang B model the subscriber load in Erlangs can be determined in
a manner independent of the network; i.e., the load depends only upon
the characteristics of the subscriber population. In Erlang C, the
subscriber load in Erlangs depends upon transmission properties of the
network as well as upon characteristics of the subscriber population.
This difference, which drives the use of throughput as an alternate load
measure in planning data networks, is described below.
In a voice network modeled by Erlang B, the load in Erlangs is the
product of arrival rate and of average hold time (see "General Erlang
model" section on Page 3-5 and "Special cases: Erlang B and Erlang C"
section on Page 3-7). Arrival rates (e.g., calls/minute) are clearly a
function of the subscriber characteristics alone. Hold times (e.g.,
minutes/call) are also a function of the subscriber characteristics alone
provided that any additional network processing time is negligible by
comparison (a very good assumption for hold times that are typically
measured in minutes). The Erlang load offered to a sector can therefore
be determined from subscriber characteristics alone; indeed, since
Erlangs from different sources add together to yield net Erlang loads
5
,
the total load offered to an unspecified voice system can be determined
by multiplying the estimated average subscriber contribution (typically
expressed as milliErlangs per subscriber) by the estimated subscriber
population. In planning, this offered load is readily compared to the
accommodated load per sector in order to determine the number of
sectors needed within any geographic area.
Accordingly, we seek an alternative measure of load that is a function
of subscriber characteristics alone. Since Erlang loads from multiple
data sources add, we view the subscriber population as a large
collection of data sources, each contributing a modest Erlang load to
the data network. The arrival rate (e.g., messages/second) for the ith
data user is λ
i
. The average hold time per message is identical at 1/µ,
which can be expressed as the average message length in bits divided
by the server capacity of C bits/second:
...........................................................................................................................
5 This addition property for multiple sources holds provided that each source has iden-
tical hold time statistics. This assumption holds well for voice users.

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Traffic theory
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Equation 3-2: Total Erlang calculation
In the above equation, the expression within the final sum has the units
of messages/sec * bits/message or bits/sec. This measure represents the
total data transmission load (usually expressed in kbits/sec) or
throughput offered by the subscriber population. This measure of load
is proportional to the Erlang load via the transmission capacity C as
shown above, and is a property of the subscriber population alone.
Since the throughput accommodated by the network can be readily
computed from the Erlang C model (see Equation 3-1), this value can
be compared to the throughput offered by the subscriber population in
much the same way that the Erlang load possible on a voice network
can be compared to the Erlangs offered by the subscribers.
Traffic planning for 3G-1X data networks can therefore be done as
follows:
1. Establish the number and rate of servers available on the air
interface per sector via RF analysis
2. Specify average wait time required
3. Compute the throughput that can be accommodated by the sector
by using the Erlang C model
4. Estimate the throughput offered by the subscriber population
through estimating the messages/sec and the average message
length (see Equation 3-2)
5. Compare the accommodated throughput to the offered throughput
to determine how many sectors are required.
For example, if a sector can accommodate 100 kbps satisfying the wait
time constraint specified, 10 sectors are needed to address an area
offering a total 1000 kbps. More sectors might be needed to address
other requirements, such as RF coverage throughout the area.
Steps 1 through 3 are addressed in the Lucent modeling described
below. This information establishes a throughput per sector for an
average wait time of 5 seconds and various other assumptions on the
data traffic encountered. The value obtained varies as wait time and
data statistics are altered.
∑ ∑ ∑
= = = =
i s subscriber data
i
i s subscriber data
i
i s subscriber data
i total
L
C C
L
Erlangs Total λ λ
µ
λ
µ
λ 1

RF engineering for data
Data capacity
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Data capacity
Introduction In this section, we determine the capacity offered by a 3G-1X sector.
Although this capacity is best determined by detailed time-dependent
simulations, considerable insight can be gained by less computationally
intensive modeling that exploits the Erlang C model. The essential
details of this modeling are overviewed below.
In summary, information obtained from standards is used to develop
link level simulations. This data is input to a system simulation. This
simulation determines the number and rate of channels available from
RF considerations. This information, coupled with end-user traffic
models and system performance constraints, is used to determine
capacity via an Erlang C model (see Figure 3-1).
We focus our attention on the capacity calculation.
An average wait time for a message is specified as a requirement. The
throughput for the sector can then be calculated from the Erlang C
model provided that the other components within the model are
specified. These include hold time per server, rate of server, and
number of servers.
To determine this information, we presume a forward-link limited
situation within a cell coverage area. This presumption divorces the
analysis from specific output powers and specific cell radii. The power
required to balance the links is discussed separately in "Data link
budgets" section on Page 3-19.
Within the coverage area, one of the possible 3G-1X supplemental data
rates (e.g., 19.2 kbps) is selected and fixed. Given a presumed average
message size, the average supplemental channel hold time required per
message is computed. The number of channels accommodated by the
air interface at this rate is a random function depending upon a number
of variables including mobile position, speed, multipath, and fade.
Monte Carlo analysis is therefore employed to produce a probability
distribution function of the number of channels at this rate.
For each possible number of channels within the distribution, a
throughput is calculated from the Erlang C model. The probability of
this throughput is the probability of the associated number of channels.
An overall average throughput for this data rate is computed by
weighing each value of throughput by its probability.

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Data capacity
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The process is repeated for each 3G-1X data rate of interest, yielding an
average throughput for each rate. Using estimated average throughput
per subscriber (where the averaging interval includes delays between
transmissions required to read or think about a downloaded message),
the number of subscribers accommodated at each rate is calculated.
The results for each data rate are tabulated and then combined in a
weighted fashion that reflects the anticipated mix of users at different
data rates. The thoughputs calculated are then compared to offered
subscriber loads to determine how many sectors are required.
This process is summarized in Figure 3-2, and described in greater
detail below.
Figure 3-2 Overview of computation process for capacity
Estimation of data capacity From an air interface perspective, we anticipate that the 3G-1X packet
data capacity and throughput will be governed by several interlocking
factors including:
• The number of users (fundamental and supplemental channels)
that can be supported
• The number of users that share the supplemental channels
LINK LEVEL
SIMULATION
Power Requirements
per Channel
Physical
Layer
Specs.
User Mobility
Channel
Structure
Data
Protocols
SYSTEM LEVEL
SIMULATION
Number of Channels
End User
Traffic Model
QoS
Requirements
QUEUING MODEL
CAPACITY
IS-2000 STANDARD

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Data capacity
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• The relative position of the users within the cell site coverage area.
This information is key since the maximum data rate supported by
the link can clearly increase when the user is closer to cell center.
• The average throughput per data user
• The associated FER target
• The Automatic Repeat Request (ARQ)
• The link channel activity and packet call size.
Several studies have been done to examine aspects of these elements.
For example, analysis on the air interface limit of supplemental
channels has been done for each supplemental channel data rate by
conducting link level and system level simulations. The air-interface
limit of supplement channels derived in this analysis is the distribution
of the simultaneous active channel number that depends on the target
Frame Error Rate (FER), mobile locations, mobile speeds, propagation
environments, other user interference and the base station power
allocated to each traffic channel. Once the distribution of the number of
supplemental channels is determined, the M/M/m queuing model
(Poisson arrival, exponential distribution of service time and m servers)
is used to compute the average total throughput and data user capacity
that can be supported for a given data traffic model including average
packet call size, target queuing delay, and supplemental channel rate.
More specifically, the link level simulations are performed to obtain the
required base station power fraction for a traffic channel versus the
geometry that is a function of the mobile location and propagation
environments. The geometry is defined as the ratio of the mobile
received serving sector power to the mobile received other interfering
sector power plus noise power. In the link level simulation, we consider
the following parameters:
• Radio Configuration 3 (RC3)
• 9.6kbps at 1% FER, 19.2kbps at 2% FER, 38.4kbps at 2% FER,
76.8kbps at 3% FER, and 153.6kbps at 5% FER
• No handoff on the forward link for supplemental channels.
In order to obtain the Probability Density Function (PDF) of
supportable supplemental channels from the system level simulator, the
following assumptions are made:
• Snapshot simulation technique
• 3-sector configuration, 19 cells and 57 sectors
• Randomly generate data user location within center cell
• ITU vehicular propagation model

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Data capacity
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• 8 dB log-normal standard deviation and 0.5 site-to-site correlation
• Mobile speed distribution: 50% for Additive White Gaussian
Noise (AWGN) and 50% for 1 path Rayleigh fading at 3 kmph
(pedestrian speed)
• 5% outage probability
• Turbo code gain is considered for data rates greater than or equal
to 19.2 kbps.
Having determined the distribution of the supplemental channel
number, we employ the M/M/m queuing theory to derive the average
throughput and data user capacity based on the data traffic model for
web browsing (illustrated in Figure 3-3). In the data traffic model, a
session is defined as the interval between the time instant when a data
user logs in the web site and the time instant when the user logs off the
web. A session consists of a number of packet calls (web pages for the
web browsing application), each of which is comprised of several
packets. For the web browsing application, the total delay per page is
defined as the time interval between a mouse click and the completion
of a web page download. In other words, the total delay per page is the
sum of the access time, network delay, queuing delay and download
time. The average packet call inter-arrival time between two adjacent
mouse clicks equals the total delay per page plus the think time.
Think time is the duration between the time instant when starting
reading a web page and the time instant when clicking a mouse for the
next page. Therefore, the average throughput is obtained by dividing
the average packet call size by the average packet call inter-arrival
time.
In the following, we will provide the average throughput and data user
capacity in terms of simultaneous data sessions for the case where
5 sec is selected as the queuing delay per packet. To characterize the
data session fully, some additional assumptions are made:
• Exponentially distributed packet call (web page) size with a mean
of 41.1 kBytes
• Exponentially distributed “think” time between packet calls (page
downloads) with a mean of 40 sec
• Packet Call Inter-Arrival Time = Access & Network Delay (3 sec)
+ Target Queuing Delay (5 sec) + Download Time (dependent on
the channel rate) + Think Time
• Average number of packet calls per session = 20
• “Equal user throughput” scheduling policy

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Data capacity
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Figure 3-3 Data traffic model for web browsing application with the
3G-1X packet data users
Feeding the system level simulation results into the queuing model
with the data traffic scenario, we obtain that average throughput per
user for 3G-1X packet data. The packet data capacity is shown in
Table 3-2 as a function of supplemental channel data rate. In the table,
the average total delay per page is defined as the sum of the access
time, network delay, queuing delay, and download time. The average
number of simultaneous data sessions can be calculated by dividing the
average sector throughput by the average user throughput. It is
observed that as the supplemental channel data rate decreases, the
average total delay increases but the average sector throughput and the
average number of simultaneous data sessions are comparable.
The average data user capacity is determined by several dominant
factors: average packet call size, supplemental channel rate, think time,
and Quality of Service (QoS) including the target FER and queuing
delay.
38.4
76.8
SCH
153.6
SCH
Supplemental
Channel
Bursts
Access
Time
76.8
SCH
9.6 kbps FCH
76.8
SCH
153.6
SCH
153.6
SCH
9.6 FCH
Web Browsing Session
Active Dormant Active
Mouse
Click
Mouse
Click
Network
Delay
Queuing Delay
( incl. SCH Setup Delay)
First
Data
Arrived
at IWF
"Think" Time
Dormancy Timer
Duration
Download
Time
Fundamental
Channels
Dormant
Start
Reading
Web Page

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Data capacity
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Table 3-2 Average data user capacity and throughput with an
average packet call size of 41.1 kBytes and a target
queuing delay of 5 seconds
Note that the above values indicate that the throughput per sector is
robust with respect to the data rate. This result indicates that an
anticipated throughput of 109 to 112 kbps is robust with respect to
whatever weighting is employed to combine the results at individual
data rates into an overall estimate. This observation is useful in
planning, but could change as components of the underlying traffic
model or requirements (e.g., think time and the average wait in queue)
are altered.
Channel
Rate
(kbps)
Total Delay
per Page
(sec)
Average User
Throughput
(kbps)
Number of
Simultaneous Data
Sessions
Throughput per
sector per
carrier(kbps)
19.2 25.1 4.9 23 111
38.4 16.6 5.7 20 112
76.8 12.4 6.1 18 111
153.6 10.3 6.4 17 109
Average 16.1 5.8 20 110.8

RF engineering for data
Data link budgets
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Data link budgets
Reverse link The reverse link data budget for 3G-1X data is readily obtained by
recognizing that coverage is dictated by the data rate desired at the
edge of the data coverage; i.e., the edge of the coverage of the reverse
link supplemental channel used to transmit high-speed data bursts. This
edge may or may not correspond to the physical edge of the cell, which
could for example be designed to support voice rate at its perimeter and
higher data rates only within its interior. With the data rate desired at
the edge of data coverage specified, the data coverage footprint is
determined by presuming that all users within this footprint operate at
this data rate when transmitting on a supplemental channel. The
analysis outlined in Chapter 2, "Reverse link" section on Page 2-4, for
voice therefore applies directly with only a few simple modifications.
These are:
• The voice activity for the supplemental channel is presumed to be
1. This high usage reflects the assumption that the few
supplemental channels supported by the air interface will be
almost continuously busy as they are shared from user to user.
• The information rate is higher, corresponding to the data rate (e.g.,
19.2 kbps) selected for cell edge
• A voice user certainly requires a body (head) loss; e.g., 2 dB. A
data user employing a data device may encounter little or no loss.
In the below, a 0 dB loss for data users is assumed.
• The Eb/Nt requirement is lower for the data application due to the
relaxed target FER. The relaxed FER is permissible since the data
application is not real time; i.e., frames received in error can be
retransmitted.
The PCS Modcell reverse link budget examples for 3G-1X 19.2 kbps to
153.6 kbps packet data, mobility applications and 9.6 kbps voice
application are shown in Table 3-3. Note that the target FER relaxation
for the data application is used to increase the maximum path loss (or
cell coverage). Simulation results indicate that the increased FER does
not cause significant TCP/IP throughput degradation.

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Data link budgets
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Table 3-3 Reverse link budget for PCS 3G-1X 9.6 kbps voice, 19.2 kbps to 153.6 kbps packet data,
mobility applications
Item Units 3G-1X
Voice
9.6kbps
3G-1X
Data
19.2kbps
3G-1X
Data
38.4kbps
3G-1X Data
76.8kbps
3G-1X
Data
153.6kbps
Comments
(a) Maximum Transmitted
power per traffic channel
dBm 21 21 21 21 21
(b) Transmit Cable, connec-
tor, combiner, and body
losses
dB 2 0 0 0 0 No body loss for data user
(c) Transmitter Antenna
Gain
dBi 2 2 2 2 2
(d) Transmitter EIRP per
traffic channel (a-b+c)
dBm 21 23 23 23 23
(e) Receiver Antenna Gain dBi 18 18 18 18 18
(f) Receiver Cable and Con-
nector Losses
dB 3 3 3 3 3
(g) Receiver Noise Figure dB 4 4 4 4 4 For Modcell
(h) Receiver Noise Density dBm/Hz -174 -174 -174 -174 -174
(i) Receiver Interference
Margin
dB 5.5 5.5 5.5 5.5 5.5 72% loading for 3G-1X
(j) Total Effective Noise plus
Interference Density
= (g + h + i)
dBm/Hz -164.5 -164.5 -164.5 -164.5 -164.5
(k1) Information Rate
(10log(Rb))
dB 39.8 42.8 45.8 48.9 51.9
(l1) Required Eb/Nt dB 4 3.4 2.6 1.8 1 With Turbo code gain for
data; 1% target FER for
9.6kbps, 2%for 19.2kbps,
2% for 38.4 kbps, 3% for
76.8kbps and 5% for
153.6kbps; considering 2
spatial receive diversity
branches
(m) Receiver sensitivity
(j + k + l)
dBm -120.7 -118.5 -116.5 -114.5 -112.7
(n) Hand-off Gain dB 4 4 4 4 4 90% cell edge coverage
(o) Explicit Diversity Gain dB 0 0 0 0 0 Diversity gain has been
included in required Eb/Nt
(p) Log-normal Fade Margin dB 10.3 10.3 10.3 10.3 10.3 For 90% edge coverage
with 8dB log-normal stan-
dard deviation
(p') Building/Vehicle Pene-
tration Loss
dB 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 For outdoor coverage
(q) Maximum Path loss
{d - m + e + o + n - p - p'}
dB 150.4 150.2 148.2 146.2 144.4

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Data link budgets
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If the design goal of a newly deployed 3G-1X system is to provide a
ubiquitous coverage for a high-rate data service, then the link budget
based on the supplemental channel rate should be used for RF design.
In this case, the physical edge of the cell is determined by the edge of
data coverage. In contrast, if the voice link budget is used, then the
high-rate data service will be available with the same probability of
coverage as voice coverage in an inner circle of the cell coverage. In
this case, the supportable packet data rate, or alternatively the
probability of achieving a higher data rate, will reduce when the mobile
moves close to the cell edge. The maximum allowable path loss for the
packet data can be extended by employing the data terminals with
higher antenna gain and transmitted power and increasing the base
station transmit power.
In the above examples, the interference margin is retained at a constant
5.5 dB in spite of the fact that the number of supplemental channels
available at each data rate decreases as the data rate increases. A
reduced number of supplemental channels could force a reduction in
loading in order to ensure system stability; however, the interference
background is stabilized by the constant (1) value of voice activity for
the few channels present (see Chapter 2, "Solution--Approximate"
section on Page 2-9).
The link budgets shown above can be applied to the situation of
ubiquitous coverage at a given data rate. For example, if 76.8 kbps is
desired throughout the coverage area, the cell footprint would be
designed by employing the 76.8 kbps budget: since this cell spacing
extends the 76.8 kbps to the cell edge, this rate is by extension available
throughout the interior of the cell. Since each data rate has equal
interference margin, the budgets shown can also be used to map out the
relative coverage areas for a mix of supplemental channels within a
larger footprint. For example, the outer physical perimeter of the cell
could be established using the 9.6 kbps link budget. Within this
perimeter, the restricted dB losses shown for the link budgets at higher
rates establish the inner coverage areas where the higher rates are
available as shown in the following figure:

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Data link budgets
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Figure 3-4 Inner coverage areas for higher supplemental channel
data rates
Forward link Analysis of the forward link is best conducted by numerical simulation;
however, the computational load associated with such calculations
drives the need for simpler planning tools. In the following, we briefly
consider several alternatives for simplified forward link analysis. The
relative merits of each are discussed.
All techniques can be employed in two basic planning configurations.
The first or embedded configuration is determined by a single data rate,
e.g., 76.8 kbps. This data rate corresponds to the physical edge of the
cell and thus determines the physical cell footprint. The second or
concentric configuration is determined by two data rates, e.g., 76.8
kbps and 9.6 kbps. The lower data rate determines the physical edge of
the cell, i.e., the outer boundary. The higher data rate corresponds to the
boundary of an inner footprint within the cell where the higher data rate
can be supported. The inner footprint is thus a subset of the overall cell
coverage.
This concept is illustrated in Figure 3-5. The concentric configuration
is more common, since upgrades to 3G-1X frequently involve overlay
on existing networks where the outer physical boundary is determined
by the IS-95 voice data rate.
- 9.6 kbps Fundamental Voice or Data Coverage
- 19.2 kbps Supplemental Coverage
- 153.6 kbps Supplemental Coverage
- 38.4 kbps Supplemental Coverage
- 76.8 kbps Supplemental Coverage
Cell Cite
gamma
alpha
beta

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Data link budgets
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Figure 3-5 Concentric configuration: inner and outer boundaries
dictated by two data rates
In the following, we consider the application of symmetric link budget
analysis and Monte Carlo link analysis to the forward link. Note that
the former is essentially identical in form to a spreadsheet analysis in
which all terms (including symmetric terms common to each link) are
employed; however, the discussion below focuses on the symmetric
approach in order to more compactly indicate the concepts involved. In
each case, application to embedded and concentric configuration is
discussed.
Symmetric forward data link analysis
The purpose of symmetric forward link analysis is to establish the path
loss within which a given data rate can be supported. This analysis
might be done to assess whether a footprint established by reverse link
can be supported, or to establish limits on path loss imposed by forward
link considerations alone. The latter is useful in situations where, by
design, the forward link is expected to carry higher data-rate traffic
than the reverse link. In this case, support of the footprint established
by the lower-rate reverse link would not be relevant; rather, the design
footprint would be established solely by forward link limitations.
The data rate to be supported at the cell edge is chosen. This rate is the
rate desired for the supplemental channel. A path loss to the cell
boundary is computed (e.g., from reverse link considerations), or
simply presumed as a starting point for analysis. All forward links are
presumed to burst at this data rate, and the mobile receivers are
symmetrically arranged in a worst-case situation at the cell edge. The
analysis then determines whether the available forward link power is
Outer boundary; e.g., 9.6 kbps
Inner boundary; e.g., 76.8 kbps

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Data link budgets
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sufficient to achieve the required forward link Eb/Nt at the mobile
receiver in light of fading phenomena across the links. The symmetric
arrangement of the mobiles ensures that the Eb/Nt requirement for each
link is identical, and renders the problem soluble without extensive
numerical computation.
Although the approach is conceptually similar to voice analysis,
important differences exist. Unlike voice, the rates of all links are not
identical. The analysis must consider mobiles employing both the low-
rate fundamental and the high-rate supplemental channels. The former
are mobiles transmitting at low levels while waiting to burst, i.e.,
waiting for a supplemental channel. The latter are mobiles bursting,
i.e., transmitting on a supplemental channel. In addition, soft handoff is
only available for the fundamental channel. No soft handoff exists on
the forward link supplemental channel.
Furthermore, the definition of “cell edge” in this analysis depends upon
the configuration employed. In the embedded configuration, there is no
ambiguity: the cell edge corresponds to the physical outer perimeter of
the cell. In the concentric configuration, the cell edge in analysis
corresponds to the physical edge of an inner coverage circle where the
data rate of interest can be supported. The outer coverage boundary of
the cell is dictated by a lower data rate and corresponds to the physical
edge of the actual cell footprint (see Figure 3-5). To avoid confusion,
we will refer to the edge corresponding to the high data rate of interest
as the data cell edge. The data cell edge is the boundary of cell
footprint in an embedded configuration, but is the edge of the inner
boundary in the concentric configuration.
With these definitions, we proceed as follows for both configurations.
We first establish the path loss corresponding to the data cell edge by
noting the sensitivity required for the uplink at the data rate of interest
(e.g., 76.8 kbps):
Equation 3-3
{ }

− + −
= =
α
η β ) 1 )( 1 (
max
min
N
d
g
W FN
S E S
t
) (
max
min
fade g w
S
a
net
=

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Data link budgets
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The above expression essentially corresponds to reverse link analysis
for the supplemental channel data rate of interest (see "Reverse link"
section on Page 3-19). Note that the processing gain g must equal the
ratio of bandwidth to data rate, R, as in voice. However, the processing
gain may well be modest (in comparison to voice) since the
supplemental channel data rate can be as high as 153.6 kbps. The
receiver sensitivity is used to solve for the attenuation (path loss) a,
which will serve as a starting point for forward link analysis.
Alternatively, a value of a could be assumed. We compute the value in
this way for this example under the presumption that it is desired that
both links achieve the same supplemental channel data rate at the data
cell edge, regardless of whether concentric or embedded configurations
are employed.
We now proceed by placing all mobiles at the data cell edge. Mobile
receiver Eb/Nt requirements and total forward power constraints are
then used to produce the governing relationship that must be satisfied
with high probability.
Equation 3-4
This form of Equation 3-4 is essentially identical to that employed for
voice. In spite of this similarity, the value and meaning of many of the
underlying parameters are different. The summation is over both
supplemental and fundamental links. Accordingly, the values of
channel activity α, forward link Eb/Nt requirement d, interference ratio
β, and processing gain g extend across both supplemental and
fundamental channels. This extension is the reason behind the subscript
i on the processing gain. Unlike voice, this value is not constant per
link, but varies in accordance with whether the link is fundamental or
supplemental.
Accordingly, we alter the form as follows:
[ ]
total
i i i
N
i i
i i i
Q
Q
g d
g
d
links
max
1
) 1 (
) / / 1 ( 1
γ
β η
β α −
≤ − +

=
[ ] ( ) [ ]
) 1 ( ) / / 1 ( 1 ) / / 1 ( 1
1 1
γ η η η β ξ β α η η η β ξ β
ε
ε
α η − ≤ − + = − +
|
|
.
|

\
|
∑ ∑
= =
g g d i i
N
i
new
i d g d i i
N
i gi
d
i d
links links
i

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Data link budgets
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where:
and
Equation 3-5
Presuming that the total number of links N
links
is composed of N
suppl
and
N
fund
links, the means of d and g are readily computed by using constant
values of d and g for supplemental links and constant values of d and g
for fundamental links:
Equation 3-6 Composite means over fundamental and
supplemental channels for processing gain and required Eb/Nt
The newly defined channel activity has statistics defined by the
fundamental and supplemental channel activities, weighted by the
deviations of Eb/Nt, d, and processing gain g from their means. This
random variable is independent of others in the sum. The solution for
satisfying this relation with high probability, provided that it is
understood that the channel activity variable in this solution is the
newly defined channel activity above is:
Equation 3-7 Forward link budget statement
Satisfaction of this inequality indicates that the supplemental and
fundamental channels can indeed be supported at the data cell edge.
The forward link budget essentially evaluates the left-hand side
g g g i
d d d i
i i
i i
g E g
d E d
η ε ε
η ε ε
= =
= =
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
gi
d
i
new
i
i
ε
ε
α α
pl fund total
fund
total
fund
pl
total
pl
g
fund
total
fund
pl
total
pl
d
N N N
where
g
N
N
g
N
N
d
N
N
d
N
N
sup
sup
sup
sup
sup
+ =
+ =
+ =
η
η
[ ]
d g d
links
links
g
N
k
N
η η η η ξ
η
σ
η
σ
η η
σ σ
η η
γ
η
β
α
α
β
β
β α
β α
β α
≥ − +

+ + +



1
) 1 (
2
2
2
2
2 2
2 2
) / / 1 ( 1 1
) 1 (

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Data link budgets
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expression, and ensures that it is greater than or equal to the right hand
side. This analysis, encapsulated in the spreadsheet, can be used to
solve for alternate values, given others.
For example, the current format uses an assumed path loss and total J4
power to assess the Eb/Nt that can be achieved with high probability in
order to compare this value to the right hand side requirement in
Equation 3-7. Alternatively, the required Eb/Nt and J4 power can be
used as inputs to solve for the path loss that can be tolerated while still
satisfying Equation 3-7 with high probability.
Equation 3-7 can also be evaluated using a more detailed calculation
that simply includes symmetric terms like antenna gain. As expected,
the results are identical since the precise value of the symmetric terms
has no effect in establishing forward link viability. Nevertheless, the
more detailed spreadsheet (see Table 3-4) is sometimes preferred since
it lists such terms explicitly.
With the exception of terms related to the interference ratio β and
newly defined channel activity α, all other factors required to evaluate
Equation 3-7 can be found in Equation 3-6. We now consider the
evaluation of these channel activity and interference ratio terms.
The computation of the mean and variance of the newly defined
channel activity can be done in a conventional way provided that the
statistics of this random variable are known. These are readily
developed as follows. We presume that the shared supplemental
channel(s) are continuously employed; accordingly, their activity is 1.
In contrast, the fundamental channels operate at 1/8 of the fundamental
channel rate of 9.6 kbps, i.e., a low rate sufficient to maintain the call
between bursts. Considering the definition in Equation 3-5, the
statistics underlying the newly defined channel activity are:
Equation 3-8 Voice activity for data link budget
With probability N
suppl
/N
total
:
g pl
d pl new
g
d
η
η
α
/
/
) 1 (
sup
sup
=
With probability N
fund
/N
total
:
g fund
d fund new
g
d
η
η
α
/
/
) 8 / 1 ( =

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Data link budgets
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Note that the former is simply the value of new channel activity for a
supplemental channel. The latter is the value of new channel activity
for a fundamental channel. The Equation 3-8 completely characterizes
the statistics of the newly defined channel activity; accordingly, mean
and variance can be computed in the standard fashion.
We assume that the values and statistics of interference ratio are
identical for both fundamental and supplemental channels. This
assumption generally follows from the symmetric placement of all
mobiles at data cell edge, and is either accurate or simply conservative
depending upon the configuration employed (see below).
In the embedded configuration, the value of P
other
/P
host
for the
supplemental channel is larger than in voice applications, since the
forward link supplemental channel does not enter into soft handoff at
the data cell edge. Accordingly, the value of P
other
is raised since the
broadcasts from the neighbor cell(s) can no longer be treated as a
source of signal rather than of interference. (In voice, the power from
neighbor cell[s] does not contribute to P
other
since these cells contribute
a soft handoff link). The value for supplemental channel thus increases
from –4 dB (voice) to nearly +2 dB. The latter value can also be used as
a very conservative estimate for the fundamental channels, which do
enter into soft handoff in a manner similar to a voice channel.
In the concentric configuration, the value of P
other
/P
host
for both
fundamental and supplemental channels varies depending upon the
data rates that establish the inner boundary (data cell edge) and outer
boundary (physical perimeter) of the cell. Generally, the outer
boundary is well removed from the inner; accordingly, neither
fundamental nor supplemental channels are in soft handoff and the
properties of P
other
/P
host
are identical for both. In the forward link
budget, the constant value of P
other
/P
host
is determined in an offline
fashion by simply computing the sum of received interference from
neighbor cells. The relevant path loss in this computation is not the loss
from neighbor cell to host cell boundary, but the path loss from
neighbor cell to the data cell edge (i.e., inner boundary). This value is
determined by presuming a simple path loss law; e.g., 38 dB/decade.
The distance between inner boundary (data cell edge) and outer
boundary (physical perimeter) is essentially determined by examining
difference in high and low data rates (e.g., 76.8 kbps, 9.6 kbps)
characterizing the two.
These considerations are illustrated in Figure 3-6 and Figure 3-7 below.

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Data link budgets
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Figure 3-6 Embedded configuration cell boundaries
In an embedded configuration, the physical boundary of the cell
corresponds to the data cell edge. A mobile at cell edge receives power
from its host and power (interference) from other surrounding cells.
The interference from all surrounding cells must be considered, as the
forward link supplemental channel is not in soft handoff with any cell.
In contrast, for a voice channel, surrounding cells supporting the
mobile in soft handoff would be sources of signal, and not contribute
interference. The value of beta for the supplemental channel is
therefore greater than the values employed for voice.
mob
X
X X
Host
Other Cell
Other

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Data link budgets
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Figure 3-7 Concentric configuration cell boundaries
In a concentric configuration, the data cell edge corresponds to an inner
boundary where the higher data rate is available. The outer (physical)
boundary of the cell corresponds to a lower data rate. This
configuration is common for upgrades/overlays of 3G-1X data on a
2G-voice footprint, since the 2G voice data dictates the outer (physical)
boundary of the cell. A mobile at the data cell edge receives power
from its host and power from surrounding cells; however, the
interference from surrounding cells is proportionately less than the host
power since the mobile is no longer equidistant to all cell sites. The
value of beta for the supplemental channel varies according to the inner
and outer data rates.
The computation of P
other
/P
host
for the embedded configuration ignores
the effect of supplemental channel anchor transfer. This transfer is
essentially a very fast hard handoff in which the forward data link is
dynamically switched to the best serving cell. This switching is
facilitated by information provided by the mobile’s forward link
fundamental channel, which can enter soft handoff with surrounding
cells as appropriate. The presence of anchor transfer should reduce the
effects of other cell interference by ensuring that the strongest cell is
mobile
Host Cell
Other Cell
Other Cell

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Data link budgets
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always a source of signal rather than of interference; nevertheless, in
link budget analysis, we make the conservative assumption of ignoring
any anchor transfer gain.
An example forward link spreadsheet for the 3G-1X fixed 153.6 kbps
data application is shown below. The spreadsheet uses the approaches
described above, but with symmetric terms (e.g., antenna gain) added
for example completeness. The example is conservative in that:
• The embedded configuration is employed. As described above,
the embedded configuration establishes the data cell edge as the
physical cell boundary. The symmetric arrangement of mobiles at
this cell edge maximizes the interference from surrounding cells
while minimizing host signal power.
• The chosen rate of 153.6 kbps minimizes the spread spectrum
channel processing gain (W/R). The ability of the supplemental
channel to reject interference from surrounding cells is therefore
reduced.
• No gains are allowed for anchor transfer.
In spite of these restrictions, the spreadsheet indicates 11 fundamental
channels (i.e., 11 mobiles) can be supported at data cell edge. In
addition, a single supplemental channel can be simultaneously
supported. This channel essentially operates at a channel activity of 1,
downloading high-speed (153.6 kbps) bursts of data to each mobile in
turn. Note that the specific mobile served by the supplemental channel
at any time is not relevant to the link budget calculation due to the
symmetric arrangement of the mobiles.
Example forward link budget

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Data link budgets
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Table 3-4 Example forward link budget for PCS 3G-1X 3-sector Melodizes with fixed 153.6 kbps
packet data application
Line # Description Power W Power Comments
Transmit Power calculations
5 Nominal available power at J4 point 16 W 42.0 dBm Maximum power available
6 Pilot Channel Power 2.4 W 33.8 dBm Set at 15% of max. power
7 Sync Channel Power 0.2 W 23.8 dBm Set at 10% of pilot power
8 Paging Channel Power 0.8 W 29.3 dBm Set at 35.1% of pilot power
9 Power available for the traffic Channel 12.5 W 41.0 dBm 78.2% of total power
10 Total Overhead 21.8 % C10 = 100*(1 - (c9/c5))
11 SCH rate 153.6 kbps 51.9 dB
12 FCH rate 9.6 kbps 39.8 dB
13 Required SCH Eb/Nt 1.8 2.5 dB No SHO on SCH
14 Required FCH Eb/Nt 2.5 4.0 dB
15 Number of FCHs per sector 11 Total number of simulta-
neously active data users
16 Number of SCHs per sector 1 Total number of simulta-
neously active supplemental
channels users
17 Overhead factor for FCH 1.75 2.4 dB Due to users being in 2 way
and 3 way hand-off; from IS-
95B new handoff algorithm
18 Total number of active FCH power channels 19.3 # of Fundamental channels
supported by the transmitter
19 Overhead factor for SCH 1
20 Total number of active SCH power channels 1.0 0.0 dB # of Supplemental channels
supported by the transmitter
21 Mean Voice Activity Factor (VAF) for Fundamental
Channel
0.125
22 Mean Voice Activity Factor (VAF) for Supplemental
Channel
1
23 Average Traffic Channel Power for Fundamental Chan-
nel
0.14 W 21.4 dBm
24 Average Traffic Channel Power for Supplemental
Channel
9.9 W 39.9 dBm
25 Peak Traffic Channel Power per Fundamental Channel 1.1 W 30.4 dBm
26 Peak Traffic Channel Power per Supplemental Channel 9.9 W 39.9 dBm
27 Cell site Cable Loss 2.0 3.0 dB
28 Cell site Transmit Antenna Gain 44.7 16.5 dBi
29 Fundamental Traffic Channel EIRP per user at full rate 24.6 W 43.9 dBm
30 Supplemental Traffic Channel EIRP per user at full rate 221.1 W 53.4 dBm
31 Total EIRP 358.2 W 55.5 dBm
32 Propagation loss
33 Maximum Path Loss 6.46E+12 128.1 dB
34 Lognormal Fade Standard Deviation 6.3 8.0 dB 90% edge coverage;
Assume no SHO for SCH
35 Multiplier for fading standard deviation (e.g., 1.3 for
90th percentile)
1.3
36 Mobile RX Signal power Calculations
37 Mobile Receive Antenna Gain 1.6 2.0 dBi
38 Mobile Body Loss & Building Penetration Loss and
Cable Loss
31.6 15.0 dB

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39 Mobile Rx Fundamental Channel Signal power at full
rate
1.91E-13 W -97.2 dBm
40 Mobile Rx Supplemental Channel Signal power at full
rate
1.72E-12 W -87.7 dBm
41 Mobile Rx Total pwr from the Serving cell 2.78E-12 W -85.6 dBm
42 Interference Power Calculations
43 Orthogonality Factor for Other users in Serving Cell 0.16 -8.0 dB From same sector's other
Walsh channels
44 Standard Deviation of SCH Activity Factor 0.0
45 Standard Deviation of FCH Activity Factor 0.20
46 Ratio of mean other sector interference to same sector
power at cell edge
1.8 2.6 dB for SCH
47 Other Cells Interference Power 5.06E-12 W -83.0 dBm
48 Thermal Noise Calculations
49 Mobile Noise Figure (F) 8 9 dB
50 Thermal Noise Density (No = KT) 3.98E-21 -174.0 dBm/Hz
51 Total thermal Noise power per Hz (NoF) 4.07E-20 -163.9 dBm/Hz
52 Spreading bandwidth (W) 1.23E+06 Hz 60.9 dB
53 Total thermal noise power (NoWF) 5.01E-14 W -103.0 dBm
54 External (intermod/spectrum clearance) interfer-
ence
1.58E-15 W -118.0 dBm
55 Noise Floor and Other Cell Interference to the
Fundamental traffic channel
5.33E-12 W -82.7 dBm
56 Noise Floor and Other Cell Interference to the Funda-
mental traffic channel per Hz
4.34E-18 W/HZ -143.6 dBm/Hz
57 Noise Floor and Other Cell Interference to the Supple-
mental traffic channel
5.33E-12 W -82.7 dBm
58 Noise Floor and Other Cell Interference to the Supple-
mental traffic channel per Hz
4.34E-18 W/Hz -143.6 dBm/Hz
59 Mean of Other Cell to Serving Cell Interference Ratio
for SCH
1.92 2.8 dB
60 Mean of Other Cell to Serving Cell Interference Ratio
for FCH
0.49 -3.1 dB
61 Standard Deviation of Other Cell to Serving Cell Inter-
ference Ratio for SCH
0.53 -2.8 dB
62 Standard Deviation of Other Cell to Serving Cell Inter-
ference Ratio for FCH
0.53 -2.8 dB
63 Aggregate Margin for SCH Interference Ratio and
Activity Factor
1.32 1.2 dB
64 Aggregate Margin for FCH Interference Ratio and
Activity Factor
1.32 1.2 dB
65 Adjustment for SCH due to Serving Cell Interference
and Orthogonality Factor
1.05 0.2 dB
66 Adjustment for FCH due to Serving Cell Interference
and Orthogonality Factor
1.32 1.2 dB
67 Bit Energy to Interference calculations
68 Fundamental Traffic Channel Bit Rate 9600 bps 39.8 dB
69 Fundamental Channel Energy per bit at full rate 1.99E-17 W/Hz -137.0 dBm/Hz
70 Fundamental Traffic Channel Eb/(No+Io) 2.6 4.19 dB
71 Supplemental Traffic Channel Bit Rate 153600.0 bps 51.9
72 Supplemental Channel Energy per bit at full rate 1.12E-17 W/Hz -139.5 dBm/Hz
73 Supplemental Traffic Channel Eb/(No+Io) 1.859258 2.69 dB

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Data link budgets
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In this example, a 128 dB path loss (line 33) has been analyzed. This
path loss corresponds to the reverse link budget for a 153.6 kbps
reverse supplemental link under the conditions of:
• 0 dB head loss
• 16.5 dBi antenna gain
• 3.0 dB cable loss
• 4.0 dB noise figure
• 0.8 dB Eb/Nt requirement
• 10.3 dB fade margin
• 15 dB building penetration margin
• 5.5 dB interference margin.
Accordingly, the spreadsheet indicates that the fundamental and
supplemental channel numbers listed above can be supported within
this footprint since the average forward link Eb/Nt requirement is met.
(This requirement is the right-hand side of the condition Equation 3-7).
Since the analysis employs very conservative assumptions (see above),
the actual number could be larger.
The average forward link Eb/Nt requirements for all data rates are
tabulated below for reference. These values can be used in symmetric
forward link analysis (embedded or concentric) for any rate chosen.
Note that the values employed can be used for mobile or fixed
applications; in the latter case; improvements in power control relative
to 3G suggest that any Eb/Nt advantage for a fixed user may be
negligible.
Table 3-5 Average Eb/Nt requirements for forward link budget data
channel analysis (8 kbps RC3)
The symmetric link budget analysis has the advantages of
computational simplicity; however, the approach may be overly
conservative. This conservatism is especially evident in the embedded
configuration, since all high-rate supplemental channels must be
supported at the physical cell boundary without allowance for anchor
transfer gain. In contrast, the Monte Carlo analysis allows for random
distribution of the data subscribers but adds complexity to the planning
analysis. This approach is further discussed, below.
Channel Data Rate (kbps)
Average Eb/Nt Require-
ment (dB)
TBD TBD TBD TBD TBD

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Data link budgets
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Monte carlo forward link analysis
This work is in progress.

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RF engineering for data
Resource management: RF scheduling
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Resource management: RF scheduling
Introduction In the above sections, the essential strategy of the network in managing
RF resources has been used in order to assess performance. Such
strategies include the sharing of high-rate supplemental channels and
the exploitation of “bursty” subscriber behavior (e.g., idle think time
between web page downloads) to maximize the number of data
sessions served. In the followings, we consider the aspects of resource
management in greater detail.
Efficient radio resource management is critical for the success of 3G
wireless data in the multi-user environment. The CDMA2000-1X
standard defines physical channels with transmission rates of up to
153.6 kbps, more than a 10-fold increase compared with IS-95A.
However, the ultimate end-user data experience depends to a large
degree not only on data rate capability, but also on transmission latency,
resource availability, and service coverage. Complex interactions are
expected within the radio resource management function due to
competition between multiple user demands and due to the self-
regulating delay-sensitive nature of upper layer data protocols such as
TCP. Additionally, resource management has to support both voice and
data services on the same frequency carrier without compromising
voice quality achieved in 2G systems.
Scheduling algorithm Fundamental Channel (FCH) assignment and release
A fundamental channel (FCH) is mandatory for the data call and is
needed for carrying signaling and control information. This channel
must be established for each user before a high-rate connection can
start. The FCH is set up in both directions, forward and reverse, and it
uses the same modulation and coding for data and voice. Lucent 3G-1X
implementation supports data FCH using Radio Configurations 3 and 4
(RC3 and RC4) on the Forward link and RC3 on the Reverse link. As
for voice service, the data FCH reduces its rate according to the data
source activity in order to reduce co-channel interference to other users.
In other words, the FCH reverts to the 1/8 rate when there is no data or
signaling to transmit. Figure 3-8 (reproduced here for convenience)
depicts an example of how data (e.g., web pages) can be transmitted
over the 1X air interface in the Lucent implementation. In the following
sections, the details of channel management are discussed in greater
detail.

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Resource management: RF scheduling
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Figure 3-8 Data traffic model for web browsing application with 3G-
1X packet data
FCH assignment
The Fundamental channel is set up every time a data call enters an
Active state. This occurs in the beginning of the call, or when the user
returns from a Dormant state. The Dormant-to-Active transition may
happen due to both mobile origination and termination. The data FCH
is established in the same way as the voice traffic channel after
exchanging signaling messages on Paging and Access channels.
FCHs are assigned to users on a first come, first served basis. User
admission algorithms are designed to maximize the number of
simultaneous active users while protecting the system from overload.
To achieve this goal, the system continuously monitors performance
and resource availability and takes appropriate corrective measures
when resource utilization becomes sub-optimal. A set of admission
thresholds is designed to provide acceptable level of service to all
existing and incoming users. A decision whether to establish the FCH
is based, among other things, on current power (forward) and
interference (reverse) loading, frame error rate performance,
38.4
153.6
SCH
Supplemental
Channel
Bursts
Access
Time
76.8
SCH
9.6 kbps FCH
76.8
SCH
153.6
SCH
9.6 FCH
Web Browsing Session
Active Dormant Active
Mouse
Click
Mouse
Click
Network
Delay
Queuing Delay
( incl. SCH Setup Delay)
First
Data
Arrived
at IWF
"Think" Time
Dormancy Timer
Duration
Download
Time
Fundamental
Channels
Dormant
Start
Reading
Web Page
76.8
SCH

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availability of base-station and back-haul hardware resources, etc. In
the first implementation of Lucent 3G-1X, the system treats FCH
assignment for voice and data calls in the same way.
FCH assignment and resource allocation for both voice and data calls
takes precedence over the Supplemental Channel allocation to ensure
coverage for signaling and minimum rate data traffic over the same cell
area as voice. If resources needed for setting up an FCH are unavailable
due to their utilization by an existing SCH, the system releases the SCH
to make room for the incoming FCH (early SCH release is discussed in
"Early F-SCH termination" section on Page 3-40). The probability of
this scenario can be made low by providing sufficient margins when
allocating SCH resources such that in the majority of cases, there are
enough resources to admit a new FCH during SCH operation without
triggering the early SCH termination.
The FCH is used for transmitting signaling information and may also
be used for transmitting data traffic. For example, if the Supplemental
channel is not active, the data traffic is transmitted on the Fundamental
channel. On the forward link, the system prefers transmission of new
traffic data on the high-rate Supplemental channel. However, the
retransmit data may be sent over the Fundamental channel even if the
Supplemental channel is active. On the reverse link, it is left up to the
mobile station to decide whether to send data over FCH and SCH
simultaneously.
Active-to-dormant transition and FCH release
Data users go into a Dormant state after a period of inactivity. When
Active-to-Dormant transition occurs, the user loses any air-interface
connection with the base station. However, the PPP connection is
maintained throughout the transition. The transition is triggered by the
expiration of the Dormancy timer. The value of the timer setting is the
same for all users and can be adjusted by the operator via translation.
Forward link supplemental channel (F-SCH) assignment and
release
Forward link SCH (F-SCH) can be established using the following
physical transmission rates: 19.2 kbps, 38.4 kbps, 76.8 kbps, and 153.6
kbps of Radio Configurations 3 and 4. The duration of F-SCH
allocation can span multiple 20-ms frames, depending on the amount of
the data buffered for transmission. F-SCH transmission may be
continued beyond this initial duration if more data is buffered, and if
resource availability conditions permit.

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Resource management: RF scheduling
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F-SCH rate and duration allocation
There are a number of factors used by the scheduling algorithm when
choosing transmission rate and duration of the F-SCH assignment.
Some of the most important factors considered by the algorithm are
listed below:
• Fraction of amplifier power required by the supplemental channel.
This metric is determined as a result of RF measurements, service
negotiations and translation settings in the following areas:
• Mobile RF environment including fast and shadow fading
effects
• Propagation path loss between the mobile and the base
station
• Interference level experienced by the mobile
• Radio Configuration used for the supplemental channel
• Turbo coding support
• Target Frame Error Rate for each data rate
• Fraction of amplifier power consumed by other voice and data
users and a corresponding power fraction available for
establishing the supplemental channel (power computation
provides sufficient margins for ensuring a low probability of
overload during SCH operation and therefore a low probability of
early SCH termination)
• Channel element, back-haul, Walsh function and other hardware
and system resource availability at the serving base station that
can be assigned to the supplemental channel
• Amount of data buffered for transmission to the mobile
• Scheduling policy that prevents monopolizing system resources
by one or a small group of users for an extended period of time.
The system makes the best effort to satisfy above constraints/
requirements when assigning a forward SCH rate. The duration of SCH
assignment is determined by the amount of data in the transmit buffer,
the handoff state of the user, and the transmission rate resulting from
the algorithm described above.
F-SCH continuation
If, at the end of current F-SCH transmission, the user still has data in
the transmit buffer, the F-SCH burst may be continued using the same
rate. This happens only if the system determines that the available

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resources are sufficient to proceed with such continuation. The duration
of continuation burst is determined using the same calculation as for
initial burst transmission.
The number of consecutive continuations is limited to prevent one, or a
small number of users, from monopolizing system resources for a long
period of time. The number of allowed continuations is a translation
parameter. This limit takes effect if there is a contention for SCH
resources from other users. Otherwise, continuation beyond the limit is
allowed.
Transmission rate of the supplemental channel may be increased if,
after certain number of continuations, the system determines that a
significantly larger amount of resources have become available for the
data user.
Normal F-SCH termination
The Supplemental channel is terminated normally if transmission on
this channel spans exactly the duration assigned to the mobile in the
Extended Supplemental Channel Assignment Message (E-SCAM)
before the start of the F-SCH burst.
Early F-SCH termination
F-SCH may be terminated earlier than specified in the E-SCAM. Early
termination may be caused by power overload reached during F-SCH
operation due to power control operation or due to the increased
loading and/or interference. Early termination may also occur due to a
need to free up base station resources to admit new of handoff F-FCH
channel (data and voice). SCH resource management provides
sufficient margins to make the probability of early termination low. In
the event that early termination does occur, the user may be assigned a
new SCH at a lower rate based on the re-evaluation of resources
available at the time of termination.
Note that F-SCH operation will not be terminated early if soft handoff
adds or soft handoff drops occur, or some combination of them. This is
because the F-SCH resides on only one leg and is not effected by
changes in the mobile’s active set unless the serving cell itself drops.

RF engineering for data
Resource management: RF scheduling
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Reverse link supplemental channel (R-SCH) assignment and
release
Reverse link SCH (R-SCH) may be established using the following
physical transmission rates: 19.2 kbps, 38.4 kbps, 76.8 kbps, and 153.6
kbps of Radio Configurations 3. The duration of R-SCH allocation can
span one or more 20-ms frames, depending on the amount of data in the
mobile’s transmit buffer.
R-SCH rate Allocation
Unlike the single-leg F-SCH operation, the operation of the R-SCH
will be on all legs of the call. Therefore, the rate of the burst is
determined by the minimum rate that can be supported among all legs.
Some of the most important factors considered by the reverse
supplemental channel rate allocation algorithm are listed below:
• Maximum mobile transmit power available for R-SCH
• Additional loading that would be produced by the supplemental
channel after it is assigned. This projected loading increase is
determined as a result of RF measurements, service negotiations
and translation settings in the following areas:
– Mobile RF environment including fast and shadow fading
effects
– Propagation path loss between the mobile and all sectors in
the Active set
– Target Frame Error Rate for each data rate
– Turbo coding support
• Current loading and interference levels on all handoff sectors
(Active set) of the call and corresponding loading and interference
budgets available to support a new SCH (interference budget
computation provides sufficient margins for ensuring a low
probability of overload during SCH operation and therefore a low
probability of early SCH termination)
• Channel element and back-haul availability at all handoff sectors
of the call
• Amount of data buffered for transmission by the mobile.
System makes the best effort to satisfy the above
constraints/requirements when assigning a Reverse SCH rate.

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R-SCH normal termination
Normal termination is triggered when the mobile station completes
transmission of data in its buffer. Mobile station requests the R-SCH
release by sending a Supplemental Channel Request Message (SCRM),
specifying that zero amount of data needs to be transmitted.
R-SCH early termination
R-SCH could be terminated by the system prior to mobile requesting
such termination. This early termination may be caused by reverse link
interference overload reached during R-SCH operation due to power
control operation or due to the increased loading. Early termination
may also occur due to a need also to free up base station resources to
admit new or handoff R-FCH channels (data and voice). SCH resource
management provides sufficient margins to make the probability of
early termination low. In the event when the early termination does
occur, the user may be assigned a new SCH at a lower rate based on the
re-evaluation of resources available at the time of termination.
Unlike in the single-leg only F-SCH case, early R-SCH termination
may also happen as a result of handoff activity, e.g., adding new
handoff legs.
Load Balancing
Overview
System supports carrier load balancing on origination. With this
algorithm, the system directs originating users to a different carrier if
the load of initial carrier is larger than the load of that new carrier by
more than a translation-defined delta load. Handoff calls are admitted
on the carrier independently of carrier load.
Dual 3G/2G deployments
There is also a mechanism providing load balancing in dual 3G/2G
deployments. Specifically, the system may be configured with the
translation to give preference to 3G carriers for originating 3G mobiles,
and to 2G carriers for originating 2G mobiles. A degree of allowed load
imbalance between 2G and 3G carriers resulting from this approach is
limited through the translation parameter that can be adjusted by
system operator. This parameter specifies the maximum load imbalance
between carriers beyond which 2G mobiles are directed to a 3G carrier,
or 3G mobiles capable of 2G are directed to a 2G carrier, to mitigate the
imbalance.

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Resource management: RF scheduling
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Additional load delta parameter is provided for handling load balancing
for data calls. This translation parameter specifies the additional load
imbalance between carriers beyond which 3G data mobiles are directed
to a 2G carrier.
Conclusions RF resource scheduling is an essential part of the Lucent
CDMA2000-1X data system. It consists of a set of call admission, load
balancing, channel and rate assignment algorithms designed to
optimize resource utilization, system capacity and performance. Future
enhancements will provide even greater flexibility in carrier
scheduling, non-assured QoS support, and throughput optimization.

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4 System deployment
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Overview
Purpose This chapter describes the deployment issues, with focus on transition
from 2G to 3G-1X.
Contents Introduction 4-2
Spectrum use: Carrier assignments and guard band 4-4
Cellular band 4-4
General considerations 4-4
Frequency planning for systems with 3G-1X and AMPS 4-7
PCS band 4-8
Preferred channels 4-10
2G/3G-1X spatial and frequency design 4-11
Coverage (spatial) design: Overlay and greenfield 4-11
Frequency design 4-13
Estimating capacity: Mix of 3G-1X voice and 2G voice 4-13
Planning: Mixed vs. dedicated carriers for 3G-1X 4-15
Mixed 3G-1X voice/data capacity and coverage 4-19


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System deployment
Introduction
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Introduction
Implementation of 3G-1X is straightforward. The key points include
the following:
• Most existing Lucent 2G systems may be upgraded to 3G via
addition of the 3G channel card and the appropriate software
release
• The 3G-1X channel card (CCU-32) is dual-mode, supporting both
3G-1X and 2G calls. The card automatically makes this decision,
depending upon the nature of the mobile trying to originate a call.
• Since the 3G-1X and 2G voice footprints are comparable, a 1:1
upgrade provides 3G-1X coverage that is better than or equal to
that of 2G voice coverage
• 3G-1X may be implemented in spectrum cleared for this purpose
(dedicated 3G carrier), or within spectrum already serving 2G
subscribers (shared 2G/3G carrier). In the latter case, the net voice
Erlang capacity is intermediate between that of a 3G-only carrier
and a 2G-only carrier.
• Mobile standards specify that the 3G-1X mobile be dual-mode,
supporting both 2G and 3G-1X calls
• 3G-1X need not be deployed ubiquitously. The 3G-1X
infrastructure supports 3G to 2G handoffs for mobiles exiting a
2G/3G area into a 2G-only area.
Given the above, an existing 2G system can be gradually upgraded to
3G-1X simply by implementing the appropriate software release,
seeding the subscriber population with 3G-1X mobiles, and deploying
the appropriate channel cards. The last may be done selectively (limited
3G/2G area) or ubiquitously (3G throughout). The 3G-1X mobiles may
operate in the same spectrum as an existing 2G carrier. Since both
mobiles and cards are dual-mode, exact knowledge of the proportion of
3G-1X voice users is not required in order to properly provision the cell
site. Alternatively, the 3G-1X mobiles could be deployed within a
carrier dedicated to that purpose.
3G-1X can also be implemented as a greenfield design, i.e., within an
area that does not already possess 2G service. In this case, the
processes of spectrum clearance, system design, and cell provisioning
are analogous to that of 2G. Furthermore, if designed for full 3G voice
capacity and ubiquitous 3G voice (as opposed to high-speed data)


System deployment
Introduction
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coverage, the cell count should be virtually identical to that of a 2G
design. This comparison is useful for service providers that desire to
specify the coverage design prior to deciding whether to initially
implement 2G or 3G service.
In the following sections, we provide further detail on deployment
issues, such as carrier assignments, underlay/overlay considerations,
and the mix of 2G and 3G within available radio spectrum. The mix of
3G voice and data is also considered.


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System deployment
Spectrum use: Carrier assignments and guard
band
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Spectrum use: Carrier assignments and guard band
Carrier assignments and guard band remain the same as in 2G. The
recommendations for carrier assignments are provided for two band
classes: Band Class 0 (i.e., the cellular band) and Band Class 1 (i.e., the
PCS band) defined by the IS-2000. For detailed information, please
refer to Lucent documents 401-614-012, AUTOPLEX
®
Cellular CDMA
RF Engineering Guidelines, and 401-703-201, PCS CDMA RF
Engineering Guidelines.
Cellular band This section will address frequency planning considerations in dual
mode systems, which support AMPS and IS-95 standards as well as
3G-1X. This section assumes that the reader is familiar with the
frequency planning considerations and techniques used in AMPS, and
is not intended to be a tutorial in basic frequency planning. It will
address only those frequency-planning issues that are the result of dual
mode system operations.
General considerations
Table 4-1 lists the five bands of 832 channels available to the A- and B-
Band service providers. Valid channels for 3G-1X assignments are
designated by “CDMA” in the “Valid CDMA Frequency Assignments”
column, and invalid assignments by “//////////”. This information is
taken from the IS-2000 and provided here for convenience. Note that
Band Class 0 is also referred to as the cellular band in North America.


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Table 4-1 AMPS and 3G-1X channel numbers and corresponding
frequencies for Band Class 0
System Band Valid CDMA
Frequency
Assignments
Number of Analog
Channels
AMPS/CDMA
Channel
Number
Transmitter
Frequency
Assignment (MHz)
Mobile Base
A''
(1 MHz)
///////////////// 22 991
1012
824.040 869.040
824.670 869.670
A''
(1 MHz)
CDMA 11 1013
1023
824.700 869.700
825.000 870.000
A
(10 MHz)
CDMA 311 1
311
825.030 870.030
834.330 879.330
A
(10 MHz)
///////////// 22 312
333
834.360 879.360
834.990 879.990
B
(10 MHz)
////////////// 22 334
355
835.020 880.020
835.650 880.650
B
(10 MHz)
CDMA 289 356
644
835.680 880.680
844.320 889.320
B
(10 MHz)
////////////// 22 645
666
844.350 889.350
844.980 889.980
A'
(1.5 MHz)
///////////// 22 667
688
845.010 890.010
845.640 890.640
A'
(1.5 MHz)
CDMA 6 689
694
845.670 890.670
845.820 890.820
A'
(1.5 MHz)
///////////// 22 695
716
845.850 890.850
846.480 891.480
B'
(2.5 MHz)
///////////// 22 717
738
846.510 891.510
847.140 892.140
B'
(2.5 MHz)
CDMA 39 739
777
847.170 892.170
848.310 893.310
B'
(2.5 MHz)
///////////// 22 778
799
848.340 893.340
848.970 893.970


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Spectrum use: Carrier assignments and guard
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The non-allowed bands of channels are 22 AMPS channels in width
and are dictated primarily by the 1.23 MHz bandwidth (41 AMPS
channels) of the 3G-1X channel. These valid 3G-1X assignments do
not take into account practical considerations such as guard-band needs
and/or the channel needs for AMPS in dual mode systems. The
subsections below discuss the channel needs for AMPS and 3G-1X that
should also be considered when allocating the spectrum in dual mode
systems.
Because of the need for guard bands and/or channels in dual mode
systems, it should be understood that allocations of spectrum channels
to a specific standard should be done as much as possible in terms of
contiguous channels/bands for each (AMPS/3G-1X) technology. By
using contiguous channels/bands for one standard, there is only a single
guard band penalty for the overall spectrum allocation given to the
standard in question. For example, if an A-Band, dual mode, 3G-1X
application required two 3G-1X channels, a good first 3G-1X channel
selection would be channel 283. In the case of a dual mode (AMPS/3G-
1X) system, this is the highest available channel in the 10 MHz
A-Band that could be selected without concern for interference in the
A-Band setup channels (313-333). This channel selection already
provides a 0.27 MHz guard band of channels between the nominal 1.23
MHz 3G-1X channel band and the AMPS setup channels (313-333)
required for the A-Band service provider.
The logical choice for the second 3G-1X channel would be channel
242, which that is 41 channels away from 283 for a carrier frequency
separation of 1.23 MHz. Any selection resulting in a carrier frequency
separation of less than 41 channels would result in the two 3G-1X
carriers being separated by less than the nominal 1.23 MHz 3G-1X
channel bandwidth and would cause excessive interference between the
two carrier bands. Using a separation of greater than 41 channels
results in inefficient use of the spectrum.
Two preferred channel assignments specified in the IS-2000 are:
• Primary Setup Channel - Channels 283 and 384 for A- and
B-Band, respectively
• Secondary Setup Channel - Channels 691 and 777 for A- and
B-Band, respectively.
If the 3G-1X mobile supports the preferred roaming list feature defined
by the IS-683, then any valid channel assignment can be used by the
mobile station for initial acquisition. Otherwise, an operational CDMA
system must use at least one of the two channels, primary and/or


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Spectrum use: Carrier assignments and guard
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secondary in every CDMA cell, and therefore, the selection for CDMA
frequencies in any start up system requiring only one CDMA channel
per cell is quickly narrowed to one of these two preferred channels.
Frequency planning for systems with 3G-1X and AMPS
It is recommended that for the 3G-1X and AMPS operating in the same
cellular band (A Band or B Band), the guard band of 270 kHz be
implemented on both sides of the consecutive 3G-1X carriers and no
guard band between the 3G-1X carriers be required. For the derivation
of the 270 kHz guard band, please refer to Lucent document 401-614-
012, AUTOPLEX
®
Cellular CDMA RF Engineering Guidelines.
Table 4-2 and Table 4-3 below show frequency assignments for dual
mode AMPS and 3G-1X operations in the A- and B-Band spectrums.
These assignments are given for various numbers of 1.23 MHz
bandwidth 3G-1X channels. As highlighted by the asterisks (*) in the
AMPS columns, the frequency assignments and number of available
channels includes the 21 setup channels.
Table 4-2 Recommended A-Band 3G-1X center frequency
assignments for Band Class 0
Number of
CDMA Channels
CDMA
Center Frequency
Assignments
Number of AMPS
Channels*
AMPS Channel
Assignments*
1 283 356 1-252, 313-333,
667-716, 991-1023
2 242, 283 315 1-211, 313-333,
667-716, 991-1023
3 201, 242, 283 274 1-170, 313-333,
667-716, 991-1023
4 160, 201, 242, 283 233 1-129, 313-333,
667-716, 991-1023
5 119, 160, 210, 242, 283 192 1-88, 313-333,
667-716, 991-1023
6 78, 119, 160, 201, 242,
283
151 1-47, 313-333,
667-716, 991-1023
7 37, 78, 119, 160, 201,
242, 283
110 1-6, 313-333,
667-716, 991-1023
8 691, 37, 78, 119, 160,
201, 242, 283
60 1-6, 313-333,
991-1023


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Spectrum use: Carrier assignments and guard
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Table 4-3 Recommended B-Band 3G-1X center frequency
assignments for Band Class 0
In both the A- and B-Band cases, the Secondary Setup Channel was the
last 3G-1X channel added. The reason for this is that this channel
incurs the greatest AMPS channel loss because it requires its own
guard band penalty in addition to the 0.54 MHz guard band penalty for
the other 7 CDMA channels. If added setup channel capacity is needed,
this channel may have to be implemented sooner than assumed here.
PCS band Although the 3G-1X channel numbering algorithm with 50 KHz
channel spacing implies the availability of 1200 of 50 kHz for 3G-1X
carriers, not all 1200 are actually usable. Table 4-4 indicates the
availability of the channels by classifying them as valid (usable)
channels, conditionally valid, or not valid.
The designation of channels 0-24 and 1176-1199 as being not valid
eliminates the possibility of interference between PCS systems and the
services allocated to the spectrum above, below, and between the two
60 MHz spectrum allocations comprising the PCS spectrum.
The channels specified as conditionally valid are the 25 lowest (except
for Block A) and the 25 highest (except for Block C) channels in each
block. These channels are valid only under the condition that the
service provider also owns the adjacent block of spectrum.
Looking at it another way, all channels are valid for use as 3G-1X
carriers except for the 25 lowest channels and the 25 highest channels
in each block. Thus, there are 251 channels unconditionally available
Number of
CDMA
Channels
CDMA
Center Frequency Assignments
Number of
AMPS
Channels*
AMPS Channel Assign-
ments*
1 384 356 334-354, 415-666, 717-799
2 384, 425 315 334-354, 456-666, 717-799
3 384, 425, 466 274 334-354, 497-666, 717-999
4 384, 425, 466, 507 233 334-354, 538-666, 717-999
5 384, 425, 466, 507, 548 192 334-354, 579-666, 717-799
6 384, 425, 466, 507, 548, 589 151 334-354, 620-666, 717-799
7 384, 425, 466, 507, 548, 589, 630 110 334-354, 661-666, 717-799
8 384, 425, 466, 507, 548, 589,
630, 777
57 334-354, 661-666, 717-746


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(i.e., “Valid”) for designation as carrier frequencies in each of
Frequency Blocks A, B, and C, and there are 51 unconditionally
available channels for each of Blocks D, E, and F. If a service provider
were to obtain licenses in two adjacent blocks, then an additional 50
channels would become available from the conditionally available
channels. Note that Band Class 1 is also referred to as the PCS band in
North America.
Table 4-4 3G-1X channel allocation availability for Band Class 1
Not all of the valid and conditionally valid channels can be used
simultaneously as carriers in a given system. Once a channel number
has been specified for use as the first carrier in a system, there are
minimum spacing rules for carriers in use, which limit how close the
new carrier can be above or below the previously existing carrier(s).
While the classification of channels as valid and conditionally valid is
Frequency CDMA Frequency CDMA Transmit Frequency (MHz)
Block Assignment Validity Channel Number Personal Station Base station
A Not Valid 0-24 1850.000-1851.200 1930.000-1931.200
(15 MHz) Valid 25-275 1851.250-1863.750 1931.250-1943.750
Conditionally Valid 276-299 1863.800-1864.950 1943.800-1944.950
D Conditionally Valid 300-324 1865.000-1866.200 1945.000-1946.200
(5 MHz) Valid 325-375 1866.250-1868.750 1945.600-1948.750
Conditionally Valid 376-399 1868.800-1869.950 1948.800-1949.950
B Conditionally Valid 400-424 1870.000-1871.200 1950.000-1951.200
(15 MHz) Valid 425-675 1871.250-1883.750 1951.250-1963.750
Conditionally Valid 676-699 1883.800-1884.950 1963.800-1964.950
E Conditionally Valid 700-724 1885.000-1886.200 1965.000-1966.200
(5 MHz) Valid 725-775 1886.250-1888.750 1966.250-1968.750
Conditionally Valid 776-799 1888.800-1889.950 1968.800-1969.950
F Conditionally Valid 800-824 1890.000-1891.200 1970.000-1971.200
(5 MHz) Valid 825-875 1891.250-1893.750 1971.250-1973.750
Conditionally Valid 876-899 1893.800-1894.950 1973.800-1974.950
C Conditionally Valid 900-924 1895.000-1896.200 1975.000-1976.200
(15 MHz) Valid 925-1175 1896.250-1908.750 1976.250-1988.750
Not Valid 1176-1199 1908.800-1909.950 1988.800-1989.950


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by FCC decree, the minimum spacing between active carriers is
determined by 3G-1X technology considerations. Generally, the
channels are specified as dictated by the minimum carrier spacing of 25
3G-1X channels, which is consistent with the nominal 1.25 MHz
bandwidth for 3G-1X.
Preferred channels The preceding subsection specified the channels which are valid, or at
least conditionally valid, carrier frequencies that the service provider
can specify for use in the system's frequency plan. The selection of
these frequencies might be dictated by issues dealing with inter-system
or intra-system interference. If these issues are not significant factors in
the system performance, the number of channels that the service
provider might consider for carrier frequencies can be reduced
significantly to the list of “preferred channels” in the table below.
These are the channel numbers that a personal station will “scan” when
looking for service. Thus a system must use at least one (or more) of
these carriers at each site in the system if the sites are to be capable or
providing (CDMA) access to the system.
Table 4-5 Preferred CDMA channels for Band Class 1
Conditionally valid channels 300, 400, 700, 800, and 900 are excluded
from the above list because they can only be used if the service
provider has licenses for both the frequency block containing the
channel and the immediately adjacent frequency block, e.g., Channel
300 is a likely carrier channel if the service provider has licenses for
both Blocks A and D. If conditionally valid channels are used, they
should be used for traffic only and not access.
For details about intra-system and inter-system frequency planning,
please refer to Lucent document 401-703-201, PCS CDMA RF
Engineering Guidelines.
Frequency Block Preferred Channel Numbers
A 25, 50, 75, 100, 125, 150, 175, 200, 225, 250, 275
D 325, 350, 375
B 425, 450, 475, 500, 525, 550, 575, 600, 625, 650, 675
E 725, 750, 775
F 825, 850, 875
C 925, 950, 975, 1000, 1025, 1050, 1075, 1100, 1125, 1150, 1175


System deployment
2G/3G-1X spatial and frequency design
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2G/3G-1X spatial and frequency design
Coverage (spatial) design:
overlay and greenfield
A PCS Modcell reverse link budget example for 3G-1X 9.6 kbps voice
application was presented in Chapter 2, "Link budget" section on Page
2-14. This example indicates a fundamental governing principle in
deployment planning for 3G-1X, that the 3G-1X voice coverage
(footprint) is (slightly) better than or equal to the 2G footprint.
Accordingly, a new or “greenfield” 3G deployment will have
essentially the same cell count as a greenfield 2G deployment. In
addition, upgrade or migration of a 2G network to a 3G network can be
accomplished through a 1:1 overlay of 3G on 2G, i.e., 3G voice
coverage is obtained by upgrading each 2G cell to 3G functionality.
The resulting 3G coverage will match or slightly better that of the
underlying 2G network.
This comparison applies to the situation where 3G-1X and 2G are each
fully loaded. A lighter design loading on 3G-1X will expand the voice
coverage at the expense of cell capacity. This design trade-off is
identical to the coverage-capacity trade-off that exists in 2G systems.
Since full 3G-1X loading is required to reach the full 3G-1X voice
capacity (see Table 2-1, "Air interface capacity" on Page 2-9), we
presume a fully loaded system in the following discussions.
Link budgets for the 19.2 kbps - 153.6 kbps packet data applications
have also been presented in Chapter 3, "Data link budgets" section on
Page 3-19. These examples show that the radio coverage (footprint) for
3G high-rate packet data can be considerably less than that of (2G or
3G) voice. This difference is fundamental, and a straightforward
consequence of the higher rates at which the supplemental channel
must operate.
The coverage difference between data and voice is a key issue in
design. We consider two scenarios, overlay and greenfield deployment,
below.
Consider a 2G system upgraded to (overlaid by) 3G-1X. The physical
outer perimeter of the cell is determined by the existing 2G design. The
3G-1X voice coverage extends to this perimeter. Since the link budget
comparison indicates that the voice system supports a greater
maximum path loss than the 3G-1X high-rate packet data, the high-rate
data service will be available only within an inner circle of cell
coverage. In this case, the supportable packet data rate for a call
originated within the inner circle will dynamically reduce when the


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2G/3G-1X spatial and frequency design
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mobile moves closer to the cell edge. This reduction will be controlled
by the radio resource management algorithms (see Chapter 3,
"Resource management: RF scheduling" section on Page 3-36), which
assign data rates based on reported RF conditions as well as other
factors, e.g., mobile history. Similarly, the data rate will dynamically
increase as the mobile moves closer to the cell center.
Now consider the scenario where the overlaid 3G-1X system must
provide an ubiquitous coverage for the high-rate 3G-1X data. In this
case, the link budget based on the high-rate supplemental channel is
used for 3G cell layout since the design coverage of the high-rate data
channel must extend out to the 3G cell edge. The footprint of these cells
is modest compared to a voice footprint. A 1:1 overlay would not be
feasible since the high data rate could not be supported at all locations
between the cells. Additional 3G cells must be added to obtain
ubiquitous high-rate data coverage. The overlay would increase from
1:1 to N:1 (i.e., N 3G cells required for each 2G cell). The N:1
restriction could be relaxed under several conditions. These include
scenarios where:
• High-rate data subscribers possess an additional advantage, such
as a directional antenna, to compensate for the lack of coverage.
This advantage must be symmetric, i.e., applicable to both link
directions; for example, the provision of higher mobile transmit
power to the high-rate subscribers would not be effective since
this change would not provide a forward link benefit as well.
• The underlying 2G system is not coverage but capacity-driven. In
urban or dense urban areas where the cell count is driven by the
capacity, the actual path loss between a 2G mobile and the serving
base station in the existing 2G network could be less than the
maximum allowable value dictated by the 3G link budget. Under
such a circumstance, the 1-to-1 overlay of CDMA2000 on the IS-
95 may still be a feasible migration.
• The design restriction of extending high-rate data coverage to the
3G cell edge is removed. If voice rate coverage to the 3G cell edge
is acceptable, then a 1:1 overlay becomes feasible (see above). In
this case, mobile data rates would be dynamically adjusted,
depending upon their location within the coverage area.
Further means for extending data coverage relative to voice are
discussed in “Mixed 3G-1X voice/data capacity and coverage” section
below.


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The issue of achieving comparable coverage at high data rates is
obviated in greenfield deployments, since there is no underlying
network for comparison. In these scenarios, the cell design is driven by
selecting the data rate required out to the cell edge and then using the
appropriate link budget in design. Selection of a very high data rate
decreases the cell footprint and increases the design cell count
considerably. Design alternatives employing a more modest data rate at
cell edge may be more cost-effective, especially if the coverage of
anticipated high-rate users is enhanced by the use of subscriber
directional antennas.
Frequency design The implementation of 3G-1X within available radio spectrum offers a
rich array of possibilities. 3G-1X can be deployed as 1.23 MHz
wideband carriers within spectrum cleared for this purpose.
Alternatively, 3G-1X can be deployed within an existing 2G carrier,
yielding a net per-carrier capacity that lies between that achieved by
3G-1X alone and that achieved by 2G alone.
Decisions regarding specific implementation paths depend upon
several factors, including the availability of radio spectrum, the
prediction (and accuracy) of voice and data demands, and the priority
placed upon obtaining maximum air interface capacities and maximum
channel element efficiency. Some insight into these factors is supplied
in the discussions below.
Estimating capacity: Mix of 3G-1X voice and 2G voice
We consider a scenario where the anticipated demand is a known mix
of 3G-1X traffic and 2G traffic. For simplicity, we examine the case
where all 3G-1X traffic is voice only; the extension of concepts to
include data traffic as well is straightforward, although computationally
more difficult.
In scenarios where 2G and 3G are implemented as distinct carriers, the
total Erlang capacity per sector is readily computed as an appropriately
weighted sum of the two. For example, let:
E
3G
= Total voice Erlangs per carrier per sector for 3G-1X
E
2G
= Total voice Erlangs per carrier per sector for 2G
N
2G
= Total number of 2G carriers per sector
N
3G
= Total number of 3G carriers per sector.
Then, the total Erlangs per sector is readily computed as:


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Equation 4-1: Total Erlang calculation for 2G-3G mix
Equation 4-1 can be used in planning situations where the demand of
3G and 2G traffic is known. In these situations, the best fit of the
integer numbers N
2G
and N
3G
are obtained to ensure that the demand is
met.
In scenarios where 2G and 3G are mixed within each carrier, the total
Erlangs are best determined by simulation but can be approximated in
the following manner. The total number of 2G voice Erlangs is an
upper bound that cannot be exceeded when the subscriber population
consists of 2G users alone. Trivially:
Equation 4-2
Let fraction x of the total Erlangs be 2G, and fraction (1-x) of the total
Erlangs be 3G. Assume that the Erlang values E
2G
and E
3G
that can be
achieved by each population alone are proportional to the total
interference that can be tolerated. The equivalent 2G Erlangs generated
by each 3G user is therefore the 3G Erlangs scaled by the ratio E
2G
/E
3G
.
For example, a 3G user generates about half the interference as a 2G
user; accordingly, the 3G usage must be scaled by a factor of ½ in
totaling equivalent 2G usage. The total 2G Erlangs can therefore be
computed and limited by the upper bound E
2G
:
Equation 4-3
In Equation 4-3, the first term on the left hand side is the number of 2G
Erlangs, which is a fraction x of the total. The second term is the
number of 3G Erlangs (a fraction 1-x of the total) scaled to an
equivalent number of 2G Erlangs. The sum of (equivalent) 2G Erlangs
is then limited to the same upper bound as a population consisting
entirely of 2G users. Equation 4-3 can be solved for E
total
:
G G G G total
E N E N E
3 3 2 2
+ =
G total
E E
2

G
G
G
total total
E
E
E
E x xE
2
3
2
) ( ) 1 ( ≤ − +


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Equation 4-4: Total Erlang capacity based on 2G & 3G capacities
The result Equation 4-4 is a planning approximation, and requires a
modification in the interpretation of E
3G
and E
2G
in order to be
employed. Specifically, in order to convert Erlangs from one
population into equivalent Erlangs of another, the values of E
3G
and E
2G
employed must each correspond to the same interference margin, i.e.,
the same loading with respect to pole. This requirement ensures that
each population see the same interference rise under full load. Since the
2G population tolerates a lower (~55%) loading than the 3G population
(~72%), the 2G loading must be used. Use of a higher loading could be
tolerated by the 3G population, but would require the 2G population to
operate within a background interference that is too high, thereby
compromising 2G performance.
The E
3G
employed within the above calculation therefore must be the
3G Erlangs that can be achieved when a 3G carrier is loaded to the
lower (55%) point, rather than its maximum of 72%. The restriction of
3G to a lower loading in a mixed carrier scenario influences the
decision of deploying 3G in a mixed or dedicated mode, as described
below.
Planning: Mixed vs. dedicated carriers for 3G-1X
The decision regarding deployment via mixed or dedicated carriers is
driven by several factors. The relative importance of each of these
factors ultimately drives the decision. These factors are discussed
below.
Accurate mixing proportions
Employment of dedicated carriers naturally restricts the possible mixes
of subscribers. For instance, if only two carriers are available for two
populations, the only possible mix is to dedicate one carrier to the first
population and the other carrier to the second population. This
combination cannot reflect all possible target mixes of the two
population. In contrast, mixing populations within the same carrier
allows tailoring to a much larger set of possibilities.
G G
total
E x E x
E
3 2
/ ) 1 ( /
1
− +
=


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For example, suppose that only two carriers are available and the
principle of dedicated carriers is employed. Further suppose that the
anticipated subscriber Erlangs are 2/3 3G voice and 1/3 2G voice. This
mixture of total Erlangs is readily addressed by devoting one carrier to
2G voice and one carrier to 3G voice, since the 3G voice carrier
handles twice as many Erlangs as the 2G voice carrier. However, this
solution would not be adequate if the anticipated mix was 60% 2G
voice and 40% 3G voice. Within the two-carrier limit, there is no
combination using dedicated carriers that would support these
proportions when both carriers were fully loaded.
In contrast, this mix could be achieved within each of the two carriers
individually if non-dedicated carriers are allowed (see Equation 4-4).
The sum across the two carriers would then match the design 60/40
target.
Accordingly, the decision of dedicated vs. mixed carriers can be
influenced by the desire to accurately achieve a design or target mix of
subscribers. Mixing carriers allows more degrees of freedom in
achieving specific values. If only approximate values relative to a
target need be achieved, this distinction becomes less important.
Further, if many carriers rather than few are available, the ability to
achieve a specific mixture improves since more design degrees of
freedom are available.
Maximum total capacity
The computation of capacity for any combination of dedicated carriers
is straightforward (See “Estimating capacity: Mix of 3G-1X voice and
2G voice” section). The total capacity achieved is simply the linear
combination of the capacities offered by each carrier.
The computation of total capacity for mixed carriers is more complex,
since a truly accurate result for mixed subscribers within the carrier
must account for nonlinearities. The impact of these nonlinearities
depends upon the differences between the subscriber populations; for
example, if two populations are distinguished solely by a small
difference in Eb/Nt requirement, the impact of nonlinearities becomes
negligible. In contrast, these effects can become important for large Eb/
Nt differences.
Presuming that the achievement of an exact mix of subscribers (see
above) is unimportant, the presence of nonlinear effects means that the
total Erlang capacity in a mixed subscriber situation is always less
than or equal to the total Erlang capacity that can be achieved with


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dedicated carriers. The latter is actually an upper bound on the
former, and often used as a reasonable approximation in planning
scenarios. The validity of this approximation decreases as the
differences between the populations become more distinct.
These concepts were outlined in “Estimating capacity: Mix of 3G-1X
voice and 2G voice” section and are expanded upon here. Consider the
reverse link. A 13 kbps 2G population can tolerate about 3 dB
interference rise over the noise floor. An 8 kbps 3G-1X population can
tolerate about 5 dB interference over the noise floor. In a dedicated
carrier scenario with all carriers full, each population experiences and
tolerates its maximum rise. In contrast, in a mixed carrier scenario, the
3G population must be limited to (roughly) a 3 dB interference rise,
since a larger value would result in a background interference that
compromises the ability of the accompanying 2G population to reach
the cell site. More 3G users could be added without loss of 3G
performance since each 3G user can tolerate a higher interference level,
but this higher level would degrade the performance of the 2G
population. Since the 3G population is constrained by the presence of
the 2G users, the total capacity (2G plus 3G) must be less than what
could be achieved by dedicating carriers to each group. For 55%
loading (the typical 2G value) the 3G capacity is reduced from 26.4
Erlangs (see Table 2-1, "Air interface capacity" on Page 2-9) to 18.4
Erlangs.
The effects described above are mitigated somewhat by other factors
(e.g., the 2G population benefits somewhat by the statistical benefits of
more total users within a single carrier), but in all cases the dedicated
carrier scenario remains an upper bound on achievable capacity. Since
these effects depend upon the extent and nature of the differences in
properties between the populations mixed, they are best assessed on a
case-by-case basis. In the situation of small differences, the mixed
carrier scenario may indeed approach the upper bound of performance.
Efficient use of channel elements
A 2G channel element can accommodate only 2G calls. In contrast, a
3G channel element is dual-mode, accommodating both 2G and 3G
calls. In addition, the 3G channel elements are offered in packs with
higher density than 2G elements, e.g., 32 per pack vs. 20 per pack.
From a provisioning point of view, the choice of mixed or dedicated
carriers has little impact for fully loaded carriers. In the dedicated case,
a requisite number is employed per carrier. In a mixed case, the total
number required can be calculated from the anticipated subscriber


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mixture. The calculation need not be that accurate, since 3G CE will
support both 2G and 3G calls. A conservative estimate of 3G
requirements, i.e., overprovision rather than underprovision, minimizes
the impact of any inaccuracy. Extra 2G cards in this process can be
removed, thereby using all elements to best advantage.
In contrast, the mixed/dedicated choice becomes important in a growth
scenario where the 3G population is slowly becoming a sizable
percentage of the total traffic. In the dedicated case, this small 3G
population is placed on a dedicated carrier, requiring 3G channel
elements. Since the density of each 3G pack is large, a sizable fraction
of the CE present may be idle, particularly when the nascent 3G traffic
is low. In contrast, CE are used to better efficiency if the emerging 3G
traffic is mixed into a 2G carrier. Within this scenario, a 3G pack is
added to accommodate the 3G traffic. The existence of any extra idle
CE can be balanced by removing the corresponding number of 2G CE,
since the 3G CEs are dual-mode. The use of mixed carriers therefore
uses hardware resources more efficiently in the traffic growth stages.
This distinction may not be important if growth on a dedicated 3G
carrier is expected to be rapid.
Conclusions
The decision regarding dedicated vs. mixed carriers is therefore driven
by several factors. These must be weighted in overall importance since
all do not indicate the same decision. As an example, a possible
deployment scenario could entail mixing 3G users into 2G carriers in
the early stages of 3G growth. As 3G traffic becomes significant, 3G
users could be migrated to a dedicated carrier(s). This scenario could
apply in a situation where there is need to accurately meet in early
growth a forecasted target demand (target mixture of total capacity)
within the constraint of available spectrum, and to use CE as efficiently
as possible. This scenario also provides for the maximum possible
capacity in later phases of growth, as dedicated carriers are then
employed. These advantages must be weighed against the
disadvantages of not providing the maximum possible capacity in early
phases, and against the difficulty of migrating 3G users to a separate
carrier later on.


System deployment
Mixed 3G-1X voice/data capacity and coverage
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Mixed 3G-1X voice/data capacity and coverage
In the following discussion, we presume that 3G-1X is deployed within
a dedicated carrier, and consider the impact of mixing voice and data
within the carrier. We further assume that the 3G-1X is an upgrade (1:1
overlay) of an existing 2G network, where the cell spacing is dictated
by the 2G voice footprint. This scenario is of particular interest since
many service providers desire to upgrade their current 2G networks to
3G.
When the 3G-1X packet data service is introduced into the voice
network, the high speed data will have an impact on the voice capacity
and coverage. Analysis of the 3G technology indicates that the
requirement of ubiquitous high rate packet data coverage is generally
more stringent than that of voice coverage for comparable assumptions
on RF parameters. This difference mainly comes from the decrease in
processing gain. As mentioned in Chapter 3, “Data link budgets” and
“Coverage (spatial) design: overlay and greenfield” sections of this
chapter, if the design goal of a 3G-1X system is to provide an
ubiquitous coverage for a high-rate data service, then the link budget
based on the supplemental channel rate should be used for cell layout.
If the voice link budget is used, then the high-rate data service will be
available in an inner circle of the cell coverage. In this case, the
supportable data rate will reduce when the mobile moves close to the
cell edge.
In order to extend the data coverage, the following methods may be
employed:
• Relaxing the target FER for the data application without causing
significant TCP/IP throughput degradation
• Considering less body loss when using a data terminal
• Using higher gain antenna at the data terminal
• Increasing the base station transmit power and data terminal
transmit power
• Implementing a scheduling policy to provide fair access to data
users on the cell edge
• Increasing the number of cell site to provide additional coverage.
This could also require re-design of the network and re-location of
some of the existing sites and addition of new cell sites.


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The total capacity for the mixed voice and data system is expressed as
two numbers, the data throughput capacity and voice Erlang capacity.
The higher data subscriber percentage, the more data throughput and
the fewer voice erlangs. Data throughput and voice Erlang capacity will
clearly vary depending upon the mix of voice and data users. Based on
the voice and data traffic projection for a service area, a service
provider can calculate the percentages of voice Erlang and data
sessions, and then determine the trade-off between voice capacity and
data throughput.
Calculating the capacity values for the mixed voice and data capacity is
a somewhat involved process. In both cases, capacities are calculated
from maximum number of channels from the traffic (Erlang) model.
The general model is described in Chapter 3, “General Erlang model”
section, and is characterized by random arrivals at a system with finite
queues and fixed number of channels (servers).
For voice, the Erlang B (a.k.a, blocked calls cleared) version of the
traffic model is typically used. The Erlang B version is the General
Erlang model with no (zero length) queue. No queue implies no
waiting. When a call arrives it is either served or turned away
(blocked). The carried load on N channels is measured in Erlangs
(average active channels). The associated performance is measured by
probability of blocking, i.e., all channels busy.
For data, the Erlang C (a.k.a., blocked calls delayed) version of the
traffic model is typically used. The Erlang C version is the General
Erlang model with infinite length queue. An infinite length queue
implies that all arrivals are (eventually) served: hence, there is no
blocking in the Erlang C model. The carried load on N channels (N data
pipes) is measured by throughput (kbits/sec). The associated
performance is measured by average wait in queue.
The specification of throughput and Erlangs for a particular mix
therefore depends upon the performance requirements (blocking
percentage for voice, average delay for data) imposed on each
population within the mix.


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The methodology used to estimate the capacity for mixed voice-data
networks uses the following steps:
• Select mix (e.g., 70% voice, 30% data)
• Treat mix as forward power constraints, i.e., 70% is used for voice
and 30% is used for data
• For data portion:
• For each assigned channel rate:
• Obtain probability distribution of number of supplemental
channels over the coverage area from system level simulation
• For each possibility, compute throughput under average wait
time constraint using Erlang C
• Obtain throughput via weighted sum
• Then obtain overall average throughput by using probability
of seeing each rate.
• For voice portion:
• Determine the number of RF channels the forward link
power can support
• Compute carried Erlangs at required probability of block for
the number of RF channels.
• Repeat for different mixes.
Following this methodology yields a collection of (Erlang, throughput)
points for the range of mixes. A different curve can be generated by
varying the performance specifications, either wait time constraint for
data or blocking for voice. Typically, voice blocking is held constant
across all curves and average data delay time is varied to produce a
family of curves. However, there is no inherent reason that the
performance specifications must be the same across the family of
curves. Varying the performance specifications will change the shape
of the curve. Figure 4-1 shows two curves. The straight line is obtained
by varying the wait time specification for the data services for the
different mix ratios, i.e., longer wait times for lower percentage of data
versus voice. The straight line is an approximate upper bound and is
recommended for provisioning purposes (i.e., packet pipe and CEs).
The lower curve represents a constant wait time specification (5
seconds) and is recommended for capacity planning purposes.


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Figure 4-1 Voice capacity versus packet data throughput in a mixed
carrier
For example, if the demand for a typical sector was expected to be 18
voice Erlangs and 70 kilobits, the RF engineer would start by plotting
this point on the figure above. Clearly, the point lies above the capacity
curve and cannot be supported by a single carrier. The RF engineer
would then divide both demand numbers by N until he got a point that
fell below the curve. N is then the number of carriers required to
support the capacity demand. In this N=2 gives 9 voice erlangs and 35
kilobits per carrier, which falls below the capacity curve, and hence,
can expect to be supported.

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5 Handoff
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Overview
Purpose This chapter discusses the soft handoff procedures, algorithms,
coverage, cost and benefits for the CDMA 3G-1X voice and packet
data calls.
Contents Introduction 5-3
Soft handoff definition 5-3
Procedure 5-3
IS-95B soft handoff algorithm 5-6
Signal combining 5-8
Forward link 5-8
Reverse link 5-8
Coverage contour 5-8
Discussion 5-12
Soft handoff costs on channel elements and packet pipe 5-12
Soft handoff cost on forward link 5-12
Soft handoff advantages 5-13
Qualitative description of reverse link
soft handoff gain 5-14
Quantitative description of reverse link
soft handoff gain 5-19
Qualitative description of forward link
soft handoff benefit 5-21
Quantitative description of forward link
soft handoff benefit 5-24
IS-95B parameters 5-24

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T_ADD, T_DROP 5-26
T_TDROP 5-28
T_COMP 5-29
SOFT_SLOPE, DROP_INTERCEPT, ADD_INTERCEPT 5-29
SCH anchor transfer vs. SHO 5-30
Fundamental Channel (FCH) – voice and data 5-30
Data Supplemental Channel (SCH) 5-31
Hard handoffs 5-35
References 5-36

Handoff
Introduction
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Introduction
Soft handoff definition In soft handoff, multiple cells simultaneously support the mobile's call.
In softer handoff, the mobile's call is simultaneously supported by
multiple sectors of the same cell. The mobile continuously scans for the
pilot signals transmitted by each cell/sector (site), and establishes
communication with any site/sector (up to 6
6
) whose pilot power
exceeds a given threshold. Communication with the site/sector is
terminated when the pilot power drops below a threshold for a time
period.
These types of handoff do not require an interruption of the
communication link as a new link (“leg”) is added before an old leg is
dropped. In contrast, a hard handoff (e.g., AMPS) requires a brief
interruption of the link as the single supporting link is switched from
one cell to another. Hard handoffs can also occur in CDMA when the
mobile executes a handoff between carriers.
Procedure The soft and softer handoff procedures dictate the way in which a call is
maintained as a mobile crosses boundaries between CDMA cells. In
soft handoff, multiple cells simultaneously support the mobile's call; in
softer handoff, multiple sectors of the same cell simultaneously support
the mobile's call. The distinction between soft and softer handoff is
important since the same Channel Element (CE) is shared to support
the handoff legs in the softer handoff case, but a separate CE is required
to support each handoff leg in the soft handoff case. Each sector
transmits a pilot signal of sufficient power to be detected by mobiles
within its vicinity. The mobile continuously scans for pilots, and
establishes communication with any sector (up to six) whose pilot
exceeds a given threshold. Similarly, communication with sectors
whose pilot drops below a threshold is terminated. The identification of
distinct pilot signals by the mobile relies on the fact that each pilot
exhibits a different time offset within the same PN code.
...........................................................................................................................
6 Typically, mobiles only have three “fingers” that demodulate three different
signals (soft handoff legs or multipaths of a single leg). In six-way soft handoff,
signals are transmitted from six different sectors. The mobile chooses the best
three to demodulate, so not all signals are used by the mobile. Previously, only
three-way soft handoff hand been supported. Even in three way soft handoff the
mobile’s three fingers might demodulate different multipaths of the same trans-
mission and not use a signal from one of the transmitting sectors. The six-way
handoff feature is useful in pilot pollution areas. The feature needs to be carefully
optimized so as to not compromise systemcapacity - see CDMA Translation Application
Note #4: Handoff.

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Introduction
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The mobile's search for pilots is facilitated by the fact that these offsets
are in integer multiples of a known time delay. The pilots identified by
the mobile, as well as other pilots specified by the serving sector(s), are
categorized by the mobile as follows:
• The Active Set consists of those pilots whose sites are currently
supporting the mobile's call
• The Candidate Set consists of those pilots whose sites, based on
the received strength of their pilots, could also support the
mobile's call
• The Neighbor Set consists of those pilots whose sites are not in the
active set or the candidate set, but are nevertheless likely
candidates for soft handoff; for example, these sites may be in
known geographic proximity. Each sector in the network has an
associated “neighbor list” provisioned. As sectors are added to the
active set the network sends a Neighbor List Update message with
the “best” 20 neighbors from the combined neighbor lists of all
active set participants. The mobile uses the information from the
network, as well as the normal movement of pilots (i.e., pilots in
the candidate for longer than T_TDROP seconds), to populate the
neighbor set.
• The Remaining Set consists of those pilots within the CDMA
system but not within the other three sets. The mobile may move
pilots from the remaining set to the candidate set. However, the
mobile typically uses more resources on the neighbor set than the
remaining set; hence, it is less likely for pilots in the remaining set
to move into the candidate set, than it is for the pilots in the
neighbor set. Furthermore, because of the possible confusion
about the unique identification of a sector by PN offset, the
network does not add pilots from the remaining set to the active
set that do not appear on the neighbor list. The undeclared
neighbor list feature can be used to track these occurrences so that
neighbor lists can be optimized. Note that provisioning of
neighbor lists is one of the most important optimization activities
to assure system performance.
Movement of pilots among the sets is determined by the mobile's
assessment of pilot signal strength and a set of (adjustable) thresholds.
This movement is coordinated with the serving sector. The mobile
assesses pilots by comparing pilot strengths to one another, and by
comparing each pilot's power to the total received forward link power.
The latter comparison (normalized pilot strength) is the ratio of the

Handoff
Introduction
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pilot energy in a time chip to the spectral density of total received
forward link power. This ratio is called pilot channel E
c
/I
o
and is
defined as:
Equation 5-1: Pilot channel Ec/Io definition
where:
µ = Fraction of sector power allocated to the pilot channel
P
i
= The power received from the ith sector
F = Mobile receiver noise figure
N
o
= Thermal noise density
W = The carrier bandwidth.
Pilots in the neighbor and/or remaining set whose E
c
/I
o
exceeds a
threshold are associated with sites that can support the call;
accordingly, these pilots are moved to the active or candidate set. The
threshold is a fixed number (T_ADD) in IS-95A and a dynamic number
in IS-95B that depends on the quality of the pilots in the active set.
Similarly, pilots in the active and/or candidate set whose E
c
/I
o
drops
below a threshold (T_DROP for IS-95A and dynamic for IS-95B) for a
period of time exceeding the parameter T_T_DROP are moved to the
neighbor or remaining set. Finally, a candidate set pilot whose strength
exceeds an active set pilot by at least T_COMP (and an additional
dynamic criteria for IS-95B) will be moved to the active set, possibly
displacing that pilot, as shown in Figure 5-1.

+

=
|
|
.
|

\
|
j all
j o
i
i
o
c
P W FN
P
I
E
_
µ

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Figure 5-1 Simplified Pilot Set transactions (diagram does not show
all possible transitions)
Figure 5-1 is a simplified diagram showing the movement of pilots
between sets. Rather than attempting to show every possible event, we
focus the diagram on those events most influenced by the translatable
handoff parameters.
IS-95B soft handoff
algorithm
The field data shows that under some conditions there may be more
soft handoffs occurring than are necessary when using the current IS-
95A handoff algorithm. Such handoff overheads may also overuse
system resources, thereby degrading total system capacity. An
improved soft handoff algorithm was defined in IS-95B and will be
used for 3G-1X. The new soft handoff algorithm is intended to improve
these situations by introducing the dynamic handoff threshold
determined by combining the pilot strengths from all pilots in the active
set. IS-95B added the following three new parameters to the soft
handoff algorithm:
• SOFT_SLOPE
• ADD_INTERCEPT
• DROP_INTERCEPT.
Active
Candidate
Neighbor
Remaining
Pilot replaced
by Candidate
pilot
Pilot is below T_DROP for
T_TDROP seconds
T_TDROP
expires
Pilot exceeds
T_ADD
Active set not full and
Pilot exceeds T_ADD
Or
Active set full but swap
criteria met (see text)

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These parameters lead to a variable threshold for adding and dropping
pilots as opposed to the fixed threshold in IS-95A (i.e., T_ADD and
T_DROP). The threshold is a function of the mobile's measure of the
strength of the pilot's in the active set. The stronger the sum of the
pilots strength the less likely a mobile is to add a pilot to the active set
and more likely the mobile is to drop a pilot from the active set.
The equations for the thresholds are:
where PS
i
is the mobile's measure of pilot E
c
/I
o
and the sum is
performed over all pilots in the active set. The threshold is plotted as
function of combined active set pilot strength below.
Figure 5-2 IS-95B dynamic add/drop thresholds
Under this algorithm, the mobile will send out a PSMM message to
request the base station to add a pilot into the active set only when the
pilot is worthy of being added. This benefit can be seen in the figure as
the gray area of pilot strengths that are not added in IS-95B that would
have been added to the active set in IS-95A. The better the pilots the
mobile is currently using (further to the right on combined active set
pilot strength axis), the less likely is that a pilot will be added to the
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+ × × =

∈A i
i
ADD T INT ADD PS SLOPE SOFT THRESH ADD _ , _ log 10 _ max _
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+ × × =

∈A i
i
DROP T INT DROP PS SLOPE SOFT THRESH DROP _ , _ log 10 _ max _
IS-95A
T_ADD
Add
Threshold
IS-95B
Combined Active Set Pilot Strength
Pilots not added
in IS-95B that
would have been
added in IS-95A

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active set (higher add threshold). A similar figure can be drawn for the
drop threshold. The mobile will request the base station to drop a pilot
from the active set if the pilot contributes little. These improvements
will reduce the time a call is in soft handoff and also filter out
unnecessary handoffs from each call; therefore, the average number of
legs for each call is reduced and the forward link capacity is increased.
Intuitively this makes sense since additional base station power should
not be spent on a mobile that is receiving strong signals elsewhere.
Improving forward link power utilization efficiency will lead to
increased system capacity. Simulations have shown a range of
improvements for the soft handoff power overhead factor used in
forward link budgets. For forward link budget planning purposes, a
reduction from the typical value of 1.85 for IS-95A to 1.75 for IS-95B
is recommended.
Signal combining Forward link
On the forward link, all of the signals from the sectors in soft and softer
handoff are combined in the mobile in a Maximum Ratio Combining
(MRC) technique (see CMDA Systems Engineering Handbook, Jhong
Sam Lee & Leonard E. Miller). In MRC, each of the soft handoff legs,
in addition to any discernible multipaths, are added together with a
weighting for the channel quality, which for IS-95 based systems is the
pilot channel E
c
/I
o
.
Reverse link
For sectors involved in softer handoff the signals from the mobile are
combined in the Channel Element in a MRC fashion as described for
the forward link.
For cells involved in soft handoff, the signals from the mobile are not
actually combined, but a “frame selector” at the MSC chooses the
“best” signal. The CRCs for the physical layer frames are examined,
and the frame without an error is chosen as the best. If neither packet
has an error, the decision is made randomly.
Coverage contour Mobiles evaluate base stations' suitability for providing a serving
traffic channel by measuring the base stations' pilot signal strengths
relative to total forward link power, or E
c
/I
o
, as described above.
One criteria for determining a coverage contour is that the mobile have
at least one pilot with E
c
/I
o
that is equal to the value of T_ADD: Values
of E
c
/I
o
within the contour will be greater than T_ADD; values outside
the contour will be less. Accordingly, a mobile crossing the boundary

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into the cell will add that cell's pilot to its active set. (A mobile crossing
the boundary out of the cell will not necessarily drop the pilot, as this
function depends on the values of T_DROP and T_T_DROP.)
Coverage areas also change with varying T_ADD.
Figure 5-3 T_ADD coverage contour
Consider the sequence shown in Figure 5-3 (note the figure is drawn so
that the T_ADD boundary for both cells exactly coincides. In practice
the boundaries overlap given the geometry of the cell layout). As a
mobile moves from Cell 1 to Cell 2, it will go through the following
sequence:
1. As the mobile moves past the T_DROP boundary for Cell 2,
nothing happens
2. When the mobile reaches the T_ADD boundary, it will add Cell 2
to its active set and will be in soft handoff with Cell 1 and Cell 2
3. When the mobile moves past the T_DROP boundary for Cell 1, it
will drop Cell 1 from its active set and leave the soft handoff state.
A mobile moving in the opposite direction, from Cell 2 to Cell 1, goes
through the following sequence, as shown in Figure 5-4.
Figure 5-4 T_ADD contour mobile moves opposite direction
1. As the mobile moves past the T_DROP boundary for Cell 1,
nothing happens
2. When the mobile reaches the T_ADD boundary, it will add Cell 1
to its active set and will be in soft handoff with Cell 1 and Cell 2
3. When the mobile moves past the T_DROP boundary for Cell 2, it
will drop Cell 1 from its active set and leave the soft handoff state.
X
Cell 1
X
Cell 2
T_DROP - Cell 2
T_DROP - Cell 1
T_ADD - Both
Mobile in
soft
X
Cell 1
X
Cell 2
T_DROP - Cell 2 T_DROP - Cell 1 T_ADD - Both
Mobile in
soft handoff

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Note that designing coverage contours for pilot channel E
c
/I
o
values of
T_DROP will lead to coverage holes. Consider the following
Figure 5-5:
Figure 5-5 T_DROP coverage contour leads to coverage holes
As a mobile moves from Cell 1 to Cell 2, it will go through the
following sequence:
1. As the mobile moves past the T_ADD boundary for Cell 1,
nothing happens
2. When the mobile reaches the T_DROP boundary, it will drop Cell
1 from its active set. The pilot signal from Cell 2 will still be
below T_ADD, and hence, should not be in the active set. The
mobile will not drop the pilot since it is its only active pilot, but
because the pilot is weak, the mobiles performance (FER) will
degrade and the call may drop.
Of course given the geometry of cell site coverage, it is impossible to
have T_ADD contours matching exactly between cells. Therefore, it is
important that in designing a network that all areas receive at least one
pilot that is above T_ADD. This design approach will lead to most
areas having overlapping pilots above T_ADD. In these overlapping
areas, the mobile will be expected to be in soft handoff. The mobile will
also be expected to be in soft handoff outside these overlapping
T_ADD contours, but the specifics of the soft handoff locations depend
on the mobile direction of travel.
For networks with fixed subscribers, the soft handoff areas will be
solely the areas of overlapping pilot strength above T_ADD. The areas
of soft handoff in a mobile with one pilot below T_ADD (but above
T_DROP) and another above T_ADD will not be soft handoff areas in
a fixed network.
Note that this discussion uses IS-95A terminology (i.e., T_ADD and
T_DROP) but is applicable to IS-95B as well. As discussed earlier
(“IS-95B soft handoff algorithm” section), the add and drop thresholds
in IS-95B are a function of aggregate pilot Ec/Io. However, the IS-95B
X
Cell 1
X
Cell 2
T_ADD - Cell 1 T_ADD - Cell 2 T_DROP - Both
No pilot!!!

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thresholds will equal the IS-95A fixed thresholds for areas without
strong pilot coverage, i.e., low aggregate pilot Ec/Io. The cell edge is
expected to fall into this category of low aggregate pilot Ec/Io, and
hence, the thresholds for an IS-95B network at the cell edge are
expected to be T_ADD and T_DROP.

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Discussion
Soft handoff costs on
channel elements and
packet pipe
The cost of soft-handoff is two-fold:
1. Increased number of channel elements (CE). A CE is required at
every cell that supports a soft handoff leg. In the case of softer
handoff
2. Increase in backhaul network capacity required. Since multiple
cells support the call and the frame selector that chooses the best
soft handoff leg resides at the MSC, backhaul capacity will be
required from all cells supporting soft handoff legs.
However, the benefit of soft handoff is increased coverage. Therefore,
fewer base stations are required to cover the same area. The reduction
in base station count outweighs the increase in CE and backhaul facility
count. For example, for 95% probability of area coverage, the reverse
link soft handoff gain is 4.0 dB. For a typical path loss slope of
38.5 dB/decade, the increase in cell radius is 27%, which equates to an
increase of 61% in cell area. The same area can be covered with 38%
fewer cells. This reduction in cell count typically outweighs the cost
associated with the extra CEs and backhaul facilities for those cells.
Softer handoffs require fewer resources than soft handoff in terms of
channel elements and packet pipe bandwidth, since the signals are
combined in a single channel element. The differentiation is important
for provisioning required channel element and packet pipe resources.
Soft handoff cost on
forward link
The cost of soft handoff is forward link capacity in that the soft handoff
legs on the forward link require power that cannot be used to support
other users. This cost is captured in the forward link budget with the
line item “Overhead factor to convert from mobiles to the number of
active power channels”, commonly referred to as the “power overhead
factor”. The value used is a function of soft handoff algorithm (IS-95A
vs. IS-95B), terminal mobility, and cell site antenna configuration. The
following table captures values typically used for planning purposes,
which are rounded to nearest 5/100ths.

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Table 5-1 Soft handoff overhead factors for voice link budgets
The soft handoff legs also consume Walsh codes. The power overhead
factor is slightly different than the overhead for Walsh codes. However,
the Walsh code overhead is only an issue when there are insufficient
Walsh codes. Typically, Walsh codes are not a limiting factor. Networks
with fixed subscribers that have high capacities are cases where the
Walsh codes may be limiting.
Note also that the power overhead factor is not the same as the Channel
Element (CE) overhead factor. Since softer handoff does not require
extra CEs, the CE overhead factor is less than the power overhead
factor.
Soft handoff advantages Further insight into soft handoff operation can be gained by contrasting
this process with the hard handoff process used in an analog system. In
an analog system, each cell is assigned a set of narrowband channels
for use in communication links. Co-channel interference is controlled
by not reusing the same channels in adjacent cells. A mobile
proceeding out of one cell into another must switch to an available
channel in the new cell. This switch requires a brief interruption of the
communication link. In a CDMA system, the same wideband channel
is reused in every cell. Co-channel interference is accepted but
controlled so as to achieve greater capacity. Accordingly, soft/softer
handoff does not require channel switching and its associated link
interruption.
Moreover, with proper threshold settings, the acquisition of new sites is
accomplished before the old (serving) sites are too far away to be
useful. The soft handoff procedure is more robust because the
connection with the new host(s) is made before the connection with the
old is broken. This process is often referred to as a make-before-break
connection, as opposed to the analog break-before-make. The make-
before-break handoff is more robust and leads to fewer dropped calls at
handoff boundaries.
Cell Antenna Terminal Mobility
Mobile Indoor Fixed Outdoor Fixed
IS-95A Omni 1.50 1.35 1.0
3-sector 1.85 1.60 1.25
IS-95B Omni 1.45 1.30 1.0
3-sector 1.75 1.55 1.25

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Soft handoff also provides for advantages in terms of coverage and
capacity. These advantages appear on both the forward and reverse
links.
Soft handoff provides a diversity gain without which some areas at the
cell boundary (the locations furthest from base stations) would be
regions of poor link quality because of shadow fading. The mobiles in
these fringe areas would also be more susceptible to base station
interference (see Chapter 2). Furthermore, the soft handoff state assures
that the mobile is in a two-path channel. Two-path channels generally
have lower Eb/Nt requirements relative to own-path channels.
These effects increase the probability that a call will be dropped, since
a hard handoff procedure would typically not be initiated until a mobile
reached this area; that is, until the mobile noted a drop in signal
strength from its host cell. In addition, the use of power control without
soft handoff could create a situation where a mobile generates
considerable amounts of interference to neighbor cells. Such
interference would reduce capacity.
The last situation arises because the mobile would detect a drop in
received signal strength before it requested a handoff. Since cell
boundaries overlap, this reporting point could be well into the boundary
of the neighbor cell. Within this area, power control would boost the
mobile's transmit signal strength in an attempt to maintain the link with
the (distant) serving cell. This call-dragging phenomenon reduces the
capacity of the neighbor cell because the mobile 's transmissions
increase the level of interference at the neighbor cell. In contrast, if the
mobile were in soft handoff, power control commands from both cells
would ensure that the mobile did not produce undue interference; in
fact, the reverse link could be maintained at a lower level of mobile
transmit power due to the gain involved in combining the signals
received at the two base stations.
Qualitative description of reverse link soft handoff gain
The effect of soft handoff gain can be understood by considering a
simple case of a mobile driving from one base station to another base
station, as shown in the following figure.

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Figure 5-6 Mobile traveling between two base stations
The mobile must generate enough signal (S
mob
) to overcome the path
loss (L
p
) and provide the required signal (S
req
which accounts for
interference from other users) at the base station. This can be expressed
mathematically as:
S
mob
= S
req
+ L
p
Clearly, as the path loss increases, the required power from the mobile
will increase. In an ideal case, the path loss profiles would look
something like the following.
Figure 5-7 Mobile required power with and without soft handoff
The following are shown in the above figure:
• The dashed line shows the path loss to base station A
• The solid line shows the path loss to base station B
• The heavy dashed line shows the required mobile power for a
system without soft handoff
Base Station A Base Station B
Pathloss to Base Station B Pathloss to Base Station A
Base Station A Base Station B

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• The heavy solid line shows the required mobile power for a
system with soft handoff.
The system with soft handoff decides frame by frame which path is the
better one, allowing the switch from base station A to base station B to
happen immediately. The switch can be immediate since both base
stations, A and B, are receiving and processing the signal from the
mobile and the MSC is deciding which signal is best - hence the “soft”
part of the handoff. In a system without soft handoff, the switch will be
made later since it needs to have some hysteresis and has delay
associated with signaling, etc. The difference in power during the delay
in switching is not the gain claimed for soft handoff, but demonstrates
the critical factor of a soft handoff: the fact that the decision of the best
path is done frame by frame allowing the best path to always be chosen.
The specific gain for soft handoff is shown in the following example
that shows the effect of a fade.
Figure 5-8 Mobile required power during fade with soft handoff
The following are shown in the above figure:
• The dashed line shows the path loss to base station A
• The solid line shows the path loss to base station B
• The heavy solid line shows the required mobile power for a
system with soft handoff.
The figure demonstrates the benefit of soft handoff. As the mobile goes
into a fade to base station A, it does not have to increase its power to
the level of the fade, even for a short period. The mobile only has to
increase its power to the level to reach base station B, which is unlikely
to be also faded with respect to the mobile. The difference between
Pathloss
to Base
Station B
Pathloss
to Base
Station A
Base Station A
Base Station B
Fade to Base
Station A

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these two levels is what leads to “soft handoff gain”, which is a
function of the extent of dissimilarity (decorrelation) between the
fading processes with respect to A and B.
It is difficult to definitively measure soft handoff gain in the same way
that other link budget parameters such as antenna gain can be
measured. This difficulty arises from the fact that the specific gain is
variable. The gain depends upon the decorrelation of the fading
processes, which can vary by market/morphology, and even by drive
routes within a market.
However, for planning purposes, a gain based upon a conservative
decorrelation can be used in link budget analysis (see "Link budget"
section on Page 2-14). Furthermore, this gain can be shown to map
directly into reduction in mobile transmit strength, thus enhancing
coverage as the link budget dictates. This demonstration is discussed
further below.
Lucent’s lab environment allows us to set up a specific path loss for a
mobile. Utilizing this capability, the following path loss profile was
created.
Figure 5-9 Path loss profile

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The mobile was then put through this simulated path loss environment
and the mobile transmit power was measured. The following figure
focuses in on the area called “Jump #6” in Figure 5-9 (note that the
time scales are different).
Figure 5-10 Observed mobile power without soft handoff
As one would expect, the mobile power increases by 12 dB, the same
magnitude as the fade (increase in path loss).
A second path loss profile for a different sector was also created as
shown in the following figure.

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Figure 5-11 Additional path loss profile for second soft handoff leg
The test was rerun with the mobile receiving from and transmitting to
the two separate base stations through the two path loss profiles shown
above. The mobile power transmit power was measured and is plotted
in the figure below.
Figure 5-12 Measured mobile power with soft handoff

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In this case with soft handoff, the mobile power only increases by 6 dB.
As can be seen from the two plots, the soft handoff case reduces the
mobile power by the difference between the fade magnitude and the
difference in path loss to the two base stations.
Quantitative description of reverse link soft handoff gain
In a CDMA system, there is an advantage due to soft hand-off gain that
results in effectively lowering the fade margin required to obtain a
specific probability of edge coverage, as compared to other
technologies. The soft handoff gain calculation methodology sketched
out below follows the development in Reference [1] of this chapter. For
a CDMA system that admits soft handoff, for any given frame, the
better, or alternatively, stronger of two or more base stations’ reception
will be utilized at the switching center. For simplicity, consider that the
decision will depend only on the attenuation, and that the base station
with lesser of the two or more attenuations will control the AT. The
attenuation of an AT to base station i is given by
Equation 5-2
Where:
α(d
i

i
) represents a function of d and ζ
d
i
is the distance to the i
th
base station
ζ is the corresponding lognormal shadowing
µ is the path loss exponent.
One problem is that the random component of the attenuation to the
different base stations [the various ζs (i=0,1,2,...)] could be correlated
with one another. To get around that problem, theζs are alternately
expressed in terms of two independent random variables. Following
along the same lines as the development in Reference [2] of this
chapter, we define ζ
i
= aΣ+ bΣ
i
, where, a
2
+b
2
= 1. The idea here is that
by using different values for a and b, we can vary the correlation
between the ζ’s. a = 1, b = 0 is the completely correlated case, while a =
0, b = 1 represents the completely uncorrelated case. For numerical
calculations, values of a =b=1/√2, a partially (50%) correlated case, will
be considered. Next, we evaluate the excess link margin required in this
i i i i
d d ζ γ ζ α + = ) log( 10 ) , ( log( 10

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case. Consider the scenario when a AT is in two way soft handoff. Link
outage will occur in this case only if attenuation to both soft handoff
sectors is greater than the margin γ. Hence,
Equation 5-3
Even before we evaluate the above expression, a review of the equation
gives us an idea of why we have gain due to soft handoff. Instead of a
single random variable, ξ, being greater than a fixed value resulting in
an outage, we now need two partially independent random variables,
each of which has to be greater than the fixed value to have an outage.
The probability of the later event occurring is certainly less than the
former, or alternatively, for the same outage probability, we need less
margin in the later case. This is the advantage of the soft handoff
capability in reducing the margin required, which effectively translates
into soft handoff gain.
We do not go into the details of evaluating Equation 5-3. The interested
reader is referred to Reference [2] of this chapter. For a = b = 1/√2, path
loss exponent of 4, and fading standard deviation of 8 dB, and
probability of edge coverage the soft handoff gain numerically works
out to 4 dB. For probability of edge coverage of 75%, the handoff gain
is less and a value of 3 dB is used in the link budget.
Due to the soft handoff feature, excess link margin requirement has
dropped by 4 dB, from 10.3 dB to 6.3 dB. The soft handoff gain for the
case of fading standard deviation equal to 8 dB, but probability of edge
coverage of 75% (probability of area coverage of 90%) works out to
approximately 3 dB. Due to the soft handoff feature, the excess link
margin requirement has dropped by 3 dB from 5.4 dB to 2.4 dB. This
reduction in link margin is the advantage due to soft handoff that results
in increased coverage. Reverse link budgets typically contain the fade
margin entered for the no-soft handoff case. Then, a separate line called
soft handoff gain is included to capture the effect of soft handoff. The
values typically used in the reverse link budget are conservatively
rounded down from the values calculated by the methodology above,
since the precise correlation is not known. The values used in the
reverse link budget for fading standard deviation of 8 dB are shown in
the following table.
} ] log 10 , log 10 [ Pr{
1 1 0 0
γ ζ µ ζ µ > + + = d d Min P
out

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Table 5-2 Reverse link soft handoff gain
For standard deviations other than 8 dB, the required margin to achieve
a specified outage (probability of edge coverage) criteria can be
numerically determined using the methodology outlined in Reference
[1] of this chapter. The soft handoff gain to be entered in the link
budget is just the difference between the computed required margin and
fade margin.
Qualitative description of
forward link soft handoff
benefit
The co-channel nature of CDMA makes soft handoff critical for the
forward link. A mobile at the cell edge will see equal strength signals
from at least two base stations. In a non-CDMA system, the adjacent
base station would not be using the same frequency channel. In CDMA
the adjacent will be using the same frequency channel. Soft handoff
allows for these co-channel signals that would be interferers to
contribute to supporting the call. Consider this simplified case of a
mobile receiving equal signals from two different base stations, no
thermal noise and perfect orthogonality.
Figure 5-13 Mobile in soft handoff
Probability of
Edge Coverage
Reverse Link
Fade Margin
Reverse Link Soft
Handoff Gain
75 5.4 3.0
80 6.7 3.3
85 8.3 3.5
90 10.3 4.0
Base Station 1 Base Station 2

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In the no-soft handoff case, the Eb/No at the mobile is:
where g is the processing gain and µ is the fraction of power from base
station 1 required to support the traffic channel for the mobile. If we
assume that the signals from the two base stations of are equal strength,
we can solve for µ as follows:
In the soft handoff case, we know from the theory of maximum ratio
combining that the achieved Eb/No is the sum of the Eb/No's (linear)
from the different soft handoff legs. Therefore, the combined Eb/No at
the mobile is:
If we assume that the total power (S
i
) from each base station is the same
and the power fraction for the two base stations are equal, i.e., µ
1
equals
µ
2
, µ can be solved as:
Therefore, the power required from each base station in the soft
handoff case is half of what would have been required without soft
handoff. Of course, Base Station 2 is now transmitting power (utilizing
its forward link capacity) to support the call, which it was not doing in
the no soft handoff case; however, the net power received by other
mobiles in the vicinity is unchanged since each base station is
transmitting half of the original power.
The benefit of soft handoff on the forward link comes from the fact that
the mobile receives signals from different base stations that provide a
diversity gain against fading. When a mobile enters a fade with respect
to one base station, it is unlikely that it will be also be in the same fade
with respect to the other base stations in its active set. Hence, the base
2
1
S
S g
N
E
o
b
⋅ ⋅
=
µ
o
b
sho no
N
E
g
1
_
= µ
( )
2 1
2
2 2
2
1 1
1
2 2
2
1 1
S S
g S S
S
S g
S
S g
N
E
o
b

⋅ ⋅ + ⋅
=
⋅ ⋅
+
⋅ ⋅
=
µ µ µ µ
o
b
sho
N
E
g ⋅
=
2
1
µ

...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Handoff
Discussion
5 - 2 4
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Issue 2, February 2003
station will not require power to overcome the deepest fade a mobile at
the edge may enter, since during that fading period the mobile can rely
on signals from other base stations in its active set.
We can consider the same example with the mobile entering a fade (F)
to Base Station 1, the benefit of soft handoff becomes very clear.
The combined Eb/No is then:
If we assume equal power from both base stations, the equation
simplifies to:
If we assume that F is large, the µ
1
term can be expected to be much
less than the µ
2
term. If then compare to the previous (non-faded case)
Eb/No and require that the Eb/No be maintained at the same level:
we see that the traffic fraction must be:
The traffic fraction will not increase if the fade is greater than 2 (3 dB)
and actually decreases for deeper fades. This analysis makes it appear
that fading is beneficial, due to the assumptions of perfect
orthogonality and no thermal noise leading to the single cell being the
only interference term for the given leg. Hence, the deeper the fade the
interferer is in, the better. If that perfect orthogonality assumption is
removed, the self-interference (from the same cell) will become the
predominant interference term for the non-faded leg during a fade to
2
1
1
1
S
F
S
g
N
E
o
b
⋅ ⋅
=
µ
F
S
S g
N
E
o
b
1
2 2
2
⋅ ⋅
=
µ
and
2
1
2
2 2 2
2
1
1
S
F
S
S
F
S
N
E
o
b

|
.
|

\
|
⋅ + ⋅
=

µ µ
|
.
|

\
|
⋅ + =

|
.
|

\
|
+
=

2
1
2 2
1
1
µ
µ
µ
µ
F
F
g
F
g
F
N
E
o
b
nofade SHO
g g F

⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅ µ µ 2
2
F
nofade SHO−

=
µ
µ
2
2

Handoff
Discussion
...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
5 - 2 5 Lucent Technologies - Proprietary
See Notice on first page
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Issue 2, February 2003
other soft handoff legs. Of course, the faded leg will benefit from
having the self-interference reduced by the same fade amount as the
traffic signal.
Quantitative description of forward link soft handoff benefit
The impact of soft handoff is captured in the Monte Carlo simulations
used to derive parameter values for the forward link budget. These
simulations capture the benefit of lower power per handoff leg due both
to the diversity gain against fading and maximum ratio combining at
the mobile.
The forward link budget contains a term for the soft handoff power
overhead factor. This term increases the number of traffic channels the
forward link is supporting. For IS-95A, empirical data shows that a
value of 1.85 to be a good estimate. No empirical data exists for IS-
95B. However, simulations suggest a reduction in this value to 1.75 as
a good estimate for planning purposes.
IS-95B parameters IS-95B added the following three new parameters to the soft handoff
algorithm. Lucent's 3G-1X system supports the IS-95B handoff
algorithm and hence has these parameters.
• SOFT_SLOPE
• ADD_INTERCEPT
• DROP_INTERCEPT.
These parameters lead to a variable threshold for adding and dropping
pilots as opposed to the fixed threshold in IS-95A, i.e., T_ADD and
T_DROP. The threshold is a function of the mobile's measure of the
strength of the pilot's in the active set. The stronger the sum of the
pilots strength, the less likely a mobile is to add a pilot to the active set
and more likely the mobile is to drop a pilot from the active set.
Intuitively this makes sense since additional base station power should
not be spent on a mobile that is receiving strong signals elsewhere.
Improving forward link power utilization efficiency will lead to
increased system capacity.

...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Handoff
Discussion
5 - 2 6
Lucent Technologies - Proprietary
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Issue 2, February 2003
The equations for the thresholds are as follows:
where PS
i
is the mobile's measure of pilot E
c
/I
o
, and the sum is
performed over all pilots in the active set.
Figure 5-14 IS-95B dynamic threshold
These thresholds are also applied when applying the T_COMP (see
"Procedure" section on Page 5-3) criteria.
T_ADD, T_DROP
Lower T_ADD and T_DROP thresholds lead to the mobile having
more pilots in its active set. More pilots mean that mobile will have
more forward link legs to support it. More forward links can help a
mobile in disadvantageous RF conditions. However, this must be
traded off against the cost of supporting those forward links. The power
required to support those soft handoff legs will not be available to
support other calls, thereby possibly lowering capacity. There are two
factors that mitigate those costs.
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+ × × =

∈A i
i
ADD T INT ADD PS SLOPE SOFT THRESH ADD _ , _ log 10 _ max _
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+ × × =

∈A i
i
DROP T INT DROP PS SLOPE SOFT THRESH DROP _ , _ log 10 _ max _
IS-95A
T_ADD
Add
Threshold
IS-95B
Combined Active Set Pilot Strength
Pilots not added in
IS-95B that would
have been added
in IS-95A

Handoff
Discussion
...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
5 - 2 7 Lucent Technologies - Proprietary
See Notice on first page
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Issue 2, February 2003
First, the IS-95B dynamic thresholds, as described above, reduce the
number of soft handoff legs by not assigning legs to mobiles that have
high good pilots already. The quality of the pilots the mobile is seeing
is determined by the aggregate E
c
/I
o
term.
Second, the faster forward link power control in 3G-1X allows the
sectors involved in soft handoff to realize a greater gain from soft
handoff. When a soft handoff leg is added in 3G, the mobile will see an
immediate improvement in Eb/No and ask for less power from all base
stations involved in the handoff. The base stations can quickly reduce
the power for those links. In IS-95, the impact of adding a soft handoff
leg was realized much more slowly as the power control is EIB based.
The power is reduced slowly while no errors are reported from the
mobile.
The impact of faster power control is illustrated in the following
simulations. Figure 5-15 and Figure 5-16 show time series plots of the
2G EIB based power control and the 3G-1X Eb/Nt (800 Hz) based
power control. The top sub-plot of each figure shows mobile received
Ec/Io from various pilots. Bolded lines indicate the pilots in the active
set. As shown in the figures, the mobile gets into 3-way hand-off
around the 82
nd
second. Hence, the geometry increases dramatically
from simplex to 3-way handoff. However, the EIB based power control
method cannot track the geometry changing very efficiently. This
results in transmitting excessive power. On the other hand, the 3G Eb/
Nt (800 Hz) based power control can fully take advantage of tracking
capability and results in saving transmit power.

...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Handoff
Discussion
5 - 2 8
Lucent Technologies - Proprietary
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Figure 5-15 2G EIB based power control

Handoff
Discussion
...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
5 - 2 9 Lucent Technologies - Proprietary
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Issue 2, February 2003
Figure 5-16 3G-1X Eb/Nt based power control
T_TDROP
A timer is started when the strength Ec/Io of an active or candidate set
pilot falls below T_DROP (or dynamic threshold for IS-95B). An
active set pilot that falls below T_DROP for a period exceeding
T_TDROP is moved to either the candidate or neighbor set (the
decision is based on the serving site direction). A candidate set pilot
that falls below T_DROP for a period exceeding T_TDROP is moved
to the neighbor set. It is expected that the settings for T_TDROP for
both the IS-95B and IS-95A implementations will be similar.

...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Handoff
Discussion
5 - 3 0
Lucent Technologies - Proprietary
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Issue 2, February 2003
T_COMP
The parameter T_COMP controls movement of pilots from the
candidate set to the active set. A candidate set pilot with strength Ec/Io
exceeding that of an active set pilot by T_COMPx0.5dB is moved to
the active set, replacing that pilot. T_COMP is measured in units of
0.5 dB.
SOFT_SLOPE,
DROP_INTERCEPT,
ADD_INTERCEPT
The SOFT_SLOPE, DROP_INTERCEPT, and ADD_INTERCEPT
terms determine the dynamic portion of the add/drop threshold. Higher
values will lead to fewer pilots in the active set, while lower values will
lead to more pilots in the active set. More SHO legs can benefit a call
and lead to fewer dropped calls and possibly lower error rates.
However, more SHO legs will reduce base station capacity as more
forward link power is used for SHO legs. These parameters need to be
optimized to find the correct trade-off. Such optimization can be done,
for example, in pre-commercial drive test.
Insight into the initial settings for the new IS-95B parameters can be
gained by plotting the improvement in aggregate pilot channel Ec/Io
(i.e., the linear sum of Ec/Io's of pilots in the active set) for a given
initial aggregate pilot channel Ec/Io and additional leg Ec/Io.
Figure 5-17 Improvement in aggregate pilot strength
0.0
1.0
2.0
3.0
4.0
5.0
6.0
7.0
8.0
9.0
10.0
-18 -16 -14 -12 -10 -8 -6 -4 -2 0
Aggregate Ec/Io (dB)
I
m
p
r
o
v
e
m
e
n
t
(
d
B
)
-6
-7
-8
-9
-10
-11
-12
-13
Pilot
Strength
(dB)

Handoff
Discussion
...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
5 - 3 1 Lucent Technologies - Proprietary
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Issue 2, February 2003
Following any one specific line representing an additional pilot at a
fixed Ec/Io, the plot shows the benefit of adding that pilot decreases as
the aggregate Ec/Io increases. The knee of the curve defines a logical
point for deciding whether to add that pilot or not. The knee is not
precisely defined, but an approximate inflection point can be
determined where the benefit of adding the additional pilot diminishes.
SCH anchor transfer vs.
SHO
While soft handoff is clearly beneficial for voice communications, the
cost benefit trade-off is not as clear for bursty data transmissions on the
SCH (see Chapter 3, "RF engineering for data"). For this reason,
Lucent has chosen not to implement soft handoff for the SCH forward
link. Lucent instead has implemented an optimized fast switching
algorithm (i.e., anchor transfer) that provides similar performance to
soft handoff without the drawbacks. In contrast, soft handoff is
provided for the fundamental channel that serves voice and provides a
continuous support link for the supplemental channel bursts. More
detail is provided below.
Fundamental Channel (FCH) – Voice and data
A fundamental channel is defined as a circuit-switched 9.6 kbps
channel, supporting either voice or data.
An FCH for voice is required to maintain a target Quality of Service
(QoS) in terms of FER over the duration of a call. Call holding times
can be several seconds to tens of minutes. During the call, the user most
likely moves through a variety of RF conditions, crosses multiple cell
boundaries, changes speed, etc. Soft handoff is designed to reliably
maintain the call without speech quality degradation during any part of
the call through these changing conditions.
An FCH for data provides underlying support for data bursts on the
supplemental channel (SCH), as well as to transmit low speed data.
Similarly to voice calls, the FCH for data may stay active for durations
of several seconds to durations of hundreds of minutes. The FCH is
used to reliably deliver signaling and to guarantee minimum rate data
services throughout the coverage area. Therefore, Lucent has
implemented soft handoff for the FCH for both voice and data.

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Handoff
Discussion
5 - 3 2
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Issue 2, February 2003
Data Supplemental Channel (SCH)
Data service requirements
High rate packet data transmissions are bursty in nature. SCHs are set
up for durations expected to be much shorter than the typical voice call,
in the range from hundreds of milliseconds to a few seconds.
Additional reliability for SCH is provided by the RLP protocol that
automatically retransmits physical layer frames in error. Therefore, the
SCH does not have the same requirement for a continuous, low error-
rate channel.
Soft handoff cost
Soft handoff has a built-in cost in terms of both backhaul facilities
between the base station and the Internet infrastructure and channel
elements. Facilities, which are one of the highest operating expenses
for network providers, would be required between every cell in the soft
handoff and the MSC. This cost of facilities and channel elements is
worthwhile for voice that requires a continuous, low latency channel.
Qualitative performance impact of soft handoff
Supporting forward link soft handoff would increase the setup time for
the channel, and hence the latency any given transmission would see.
TCP flow control is very sensitive to round trip delay. At high data
rates, even if the pipe is large (i.e., high bandwidth channel), it will not
be fully utilized unless the end-to-end latency is minimized. Providing
higher rate channels provides no advantage unless latency is controlled.
But setting up a data burst in soft handoff would necessarily take longer
and introduce more delay. Soft handoff requires coordination among
the different base stations for the following:
• Channel element availability
• Backhaul facility availability
• RF resource availability
• Time synchronization of the transmission of the burst.
Furthermore, to support soft handoff requires that all base stations
providing a forward link as a soft handoff leg have sufficient power.
Data channels are expected to require, on average, more power than
voice channels. Therefore, it is more likely in data, as opposed to voice,
that sufficient power will not be available to support the desired
forward link rate. The channel rate would have to be reduced to support
the weakest leg with the least available power.

Handoff
Discussion
...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
5 - 3 3 Lucent Technologies - Proprietary
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Issue 2, February 2003
Lucent anchor transfer solution
Lucent has implemented an anchor monitoring and transferring
solution for the forward link SCH. “Anchor” means the sector that is
determined to provide the best server for a given mobile. The mobile
monitors the pilot E
c
/I
o
s of the nearby base stations, and reports these
measurements to the network on the reverse link. The network can then
determine which base station will provide the best forward link
performance. In this manner, most of the diversity advantage of soft
handoff is maintained. Currently, the mobile reports its measurements
up to every 2 seconds. Enhancements to the standard provide for
mobile reporting when significant changes in pilot strengths are
observed.
Quantitative comparison of capacity and coverage impact of anchor
transfer
Lucent has performed performance simulations to study the
performance of ideal anchor transfer compared to soft handoff. The
simulation had the following assumptions:
• Cell layout is based on 3G-1X voice link budget
• Lognormal shadow fading with standard deviation of 8dB and
50% site-to-site correlation
• Maximum supplemental channel transmission power fraction is
-3dB with respect to full power.
• Due to load variation (voice and/or data), half of the time the
maximum Supplemental channel transmission power fraction for
calls in handoff is restricted to -6 dB in at least one of the legs. The
rest of the time, all handoff legs have up to -3dB available. This
assumption is the most critical for the performance comparison.
Different distributions for available power among the proposed
handoff legs will yield different results.
• No transmission diversity
• Turbo codes for SCH
• Mobile environments: AWGN, 3kmph one-path Rician (K=2,
K=5)
• IS-95B handoff algorithm.
The first plot shows the average SCH power, relative to total power, as
a function of RF environment and SCH channel rate. Lower values are
clearly better, as less power per user means that more users can be

...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Handoff
Discussion
5 - 3 4
Lucent Technologies - Proprietary
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401-614-040
Issue 2, February 2003
supported. From the plot, it is clear that handoff does not provide a
capacity advantage, and in many cases, provides a capacity
disadvantage.
The second plot shows the SCH coverage area, relative to FCH
coverage, as a function of RF environment and SCH channel rate. In all
cases, the no handoff case provides equal or better coverage compared
to the handoff case.
Figure 5-18 Simulation results 1 - soft handoff impact on data
performance
Figure 5-19 Simulation results 2 - soft handoff impact on data
performance
Average SCH Power as a Function of RF Environment and Rate
-
1
2
.
2
-
1
3
.
9
-
1
5
.
1
-
1
0
.
0
-
1
1
.
2
-
1
2
.
4
-
8
.
0
-
8
.
9
-
9
.
6
-
6
.
3
-
6
.
4
-
6
.
9
-
1
1
.
5
-
1
4
.
2
-
1
6
.
5
-
9
.
6
-
1
1
.
7
-
1
4
.
3
-
8
.
2
-
9
.
9
-
1
1
.
7
-
8
.
1
-
8
.
0
-
9
.
5
-18.0
-16.0
-14.0
-12.0
-10.0
-8.0
-6.0
-4.0
-2.0
0.0
K=2
19.2
K=5
19.2
AWGN
19.2
K=2
38.4
K=5
38.4
AWGN
38.4
K=2
76.8
K=5
76.8
AWGN
76.8
K=2
153.6
K=5
153.6
AWGN
153.6
A
v
e
r
a
g
e
S
u
p
p
l
e
m
e
n
t
a
l
C
h
a
n
n
e
l
E
c
/
I
o
r
(
d
B
Handoff
No Handoff
SCH Area Coverage as a Function of RF Environment
d R t
10
0%
10
0%
10
0%
99
%
10
0%
10
0% 94
%
98
%
10
0%
81
%
87
%
91
%
10
0%
10
0%
10
0%
99
%
10
0%
10
0%
96
%
99
%
10
0%
85
%
92
%
99
%
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
90%
100%
K=2
19.2
AWGN
19.2
K=5
38.4
K=2
76.8
AWG
76.8
K=5
153.6
S
C
H
C
o
v
e
r
a
g
e
(
%
o
f
F
C
H
C
o
v
e
r
a
g
e
)
Handof
No
K=5
19.2
K=2 AWGN AWGN K=5 K=5
38.4 38.4 76.8 153.6 153.6

Handoff
Discussion
...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
5 - 3 5 Lucent Technologies - Proprietary
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R-SCH
Lucent’s equipment does support soft handoff on the reverse SCH.
Reverse link soft handoff has no cost from an air capacity point of
view, and does provide benefit in reducing the mobile required power.
The mobile is only broadcasting a single channel that is received by
multiple base station receivers. Compare this to the forward link where
the different base stations in soft handoff are transmitting separate
signals, consuming part of their power and hence capacity. Supporting
reverse link soft handoff does require extra channel elements and
backhaul facilities, but given the expected asymmetrical nature of data,
the cost is expected significantly less than if forward link soft handoff
were supported.

...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Handoff
Hard handoffs
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Issue 2, February 2003
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Hard handoffs
Although the focus of this chapter is on soft handoff, it should be noted
that, hard handoffs also occur in a 3G network. Briefly, hard handoffs
would occur in the following cases:
• From 3G-1X to 3G-1X on a different carrier
• From 3G-1X to 2G on the same carrier
• From 3G-1X to 2G on a different carrier
• From 3G-1X to AMPS on a different carrier.
Note that hard handoffs from 2G to 3G and AMPS to 3G are not
currently supported.
Of course, hard handoffs from 3G-1X to either 2G or AMPS require the
mobile to support the other technology being handed to (i.e., dual mode
mobile).
The reliability of hard handoffs is enhanced by carrying forward all of
the improvements in hard handoff that Lucent has made for 2G IS-95.
These improvements include:
• CDMA Inter-frequency Handoff Trigger Improvement (IFHOTI)
• Pilot-Only Carriers
• CDMA Multiple Pilots Interfrequency Handoff (CMPIFHO).
The combination of these features has led to extremely robust inter-
frequency handoff performance. Further information can be found in
the Reference [2] of this chapter.

Handoff
References
...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
5 - 3 7 Lucent Technologies - Proprietary
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............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
References
[1]. “Soft Handoff Extends CDMA Cell Coverage and Increases
Reverse Link Capacity,” Andrew Viterbi, Audrey Viterbi, Klein
Gilhousen, Ephraim Zehavi, IEEE Journal On Selected Areas in
Communications, Vol. 12, No. 8, October 1994.
[2]. “CDMA Multi-Carrier Performance Enhancements,” Neil
Berstein, October 1998.

...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Handoff
References
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6 - 1 Lucent Technologies - Proprietary
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............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
6 Power control
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Overview
Purpose This chapter describes the power control functions for both the forward
link and the reverse link for the CDMA 3G-1X voice and packet data
calls.
Contents Introduction 6-2
Reverse power control 6-4
Reverse power control for voice traffic 6-5
RPC open loop for voice traffic 6-6
RPC closed loop for voice traffic 6-6
RPC for packet data traffic 6-8
Reverse SARA for 3G-1X packet data calls 6-9
Forward power control 6-11
Forward power control for voice traffic 6-12
FPC inner loop for voice 6-13
FPC Outer Loop for Voice 6-14
Forward power control for packet data traffic 6-15
F-FCH power control for packet data 6-16
Forward SARA for 3G-1X packet data calls 6-18


...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Power control
Introduction
6 - 2
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............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Introduction
This chapter describes the power control functions for both the forward
link (base station transmitting signal to mobile) and the reverse link
(mobile to base station) for the CDMA 3G-1X voice and packet data
calls.
The primary objective of power control mechanism is to maintain
satisfactory traffic channel quality and reliability with minimal required
power while maximizing system capacity within the design coverage
area. The quality of each channel depends strongly on the ratio of
signal power to the interference power, or E
b
/N
t
, E
b
being the energy
per signal bit and N
t
the spectral density of the interference and noise.
The required E
b
/N
t
is a function of vehicle speed and channel
conditions. In addition, the forward link E
b
/N
t
requirement can also be
affected by the mobile location with respect to the serving cell and
other mobiles. This varying signal-to-noise ratio influences the frame
error rate (FER) and the measured FER values can best characterize the
voice quality for the CDMA system providing voice services. The
power control algorithm is formulated based on tracking the measured
FER values and comparison against the FER design target.
The reverse power control (RPC) is more complex than that of the
forward link. The RPC consists of an open loop and a closed loop. The
latter consists of an inner loop and an outer loop. The open loop power
control algorithm primarily resides in the mobile. This serves to adjust
the mobile transmit power level to compensate for larger scaled, slow
varying effects such as propagation loss and shadow fading. The closed
loop algorithm involves both the base station and the mobile, and
mainly serves to compensate for fast power fluctuation such as
Rayleigh fading. The outer loop algorithm continuously updates the
appropriate target E
b
/N
t
value required to maintain a desired average
reverse FER for signals received at the serving cell. The inner loop then
compares the measured E
b
/N
t
value with the target value. As the base
station examines each reverse traffic frame reported by the mobile via
the inner loop with each frame subdivided into 16 power control groups
(PCG) having 1.25 msec time duration. The reported FER value is used
as a reference in the outer loop to determine a new E
b
/N
t
target value.
Both 2G and 3G RPC algorithms support the same basic open and
closed loop functions, although the 3G algorithm offers significant
enhancement over the 2G. The 2G average reverse link output power


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for sub-rate frames (non-voice frames) is reduced by gating off PCG’s
in the reverse traffic channel while maintaining the same power level
per PCG. This reduces the reverse link power control speed for
sub-rate frames. For instance, for 1/8-rate frames, the power control
speed is reduced from 800 Hz (for full–rate frames) down to 100 Hz.
The 3G reverse power control allows for continuous transmission
rather than the gated transmission for the sub-rate frames, thus
maintaining the 800 Hz power control speed regardless of the frame
rate.
In addition, the 3G fundamental and supplemental channels are
adjusted using a simple integrated scheme, established by introducing
the reverse link pilot channel (R-PICH), which serves as a reference in
the inner closed loop for measuring the mobile E
c
/I
o
level and for
scaling.
The forward link power control (FPC) algorithm is less complex than
that of the reverse link. The mobile measures the FER statistics over a
time frame and reports that to the base station. The measured FER is
then compared with the FER target value. Upon comparison, the base
station increases the forward link output power level if the measured
FER is higher than the target, and vice versa.
Unlike the 2G FPC, which was not designed to effectively mitigate
fading, the 3G-1X FPC algorithm adopts a faster FPC scheme
operating at a higher rate up to 800 Hz. The 3G power control
mechanism facilitates a faster tracking of RF fades and provides a
tighter gain adjustment to satisfy the minimum required E
b
/N
t
per call,
thereby enhancing forward link capacity. The 3G FPC algorithm for
voice calls operates at 800 Hz. For packet data service, the forward
fundamental channel (F-FCH) power control operates at 800 Hz when
the power control function for forward supplemental channel (F-SCH)
is off. The F-FCH power control rate reduces to 400 Hz during the
F-SCH bursts while F-SCH power control is on, also at a rate of
400 Hz.


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Reverse power control
The primary objective of reverse link power control is to resolve the
near-far issue, where a mobile that is near the serving cell yields a
better signal path than a mobile that is far away from the cell. Thus the
mobiles near the cell may possibly raise too much RF interference to
allow for the mobiles far away to reach the serving cell with sufficient
signal-to-noise ratio. This issue can be resolved by dynamically
controlling the mobile transmit power such that the serving cell
observes the same signal-to-noise ratio from each mobile.
The 3G-1X reverse power control (RPC) algorithm consists of an open
loop as well as a nested closed loop. The RPC supports the integrated
fundamental and supplemental channel power control algorithms by
introducing the R-PICH. The R-PICH provides a phase reference to the
base station on a per-PCG basis for coherent detection of the reverse
fundamental channel (R-FCH). The power allocated to the R-PICH is
related to the R-FCH power by a translation value. The R-PICH Ec/Io
is also closely correlated with the transmission of the estimated R-FCH
Eb/Nt value and other power control commands from the base station
to the mobile.
In the 3G reverse open loop, the mobile estimates the required
transmitted power of the reverse link channels based on the measured
aggregate received power. Similar to the 2G RPC algorithm, the 3G
RPC open loop function is performed in the mobile, using necessary
operating parameters supplied by the base station via signaling
messages in the overhead channels and the forward traffic channel. The
3G system applies several new open loop parameters, which were not
included in the 2G RPC algorithm before. These include, for example,
the mobile determined R-PICH mean output power (as a function of the
access channel power) and a gain-adjusting cell translation parameter,
RLGAIN_ADJ. This parameter is set by the base station and sent to the
mobile via the Extended Channel Assigned Message (ECAM). These
allow for the mobile to compute the R-FCH mean output power to be
transmitted based on the R-PICH mean output power.
Both the 2G and 3G reverse closed loop power control algorithms
consist of nested inner and outer loops, although there is a major
difference between the 2G closed loop function and the 3G. In the 2G
inner loop algorithm, the mobile reduces the average power for sub-rate
frames by gating off certain PCGs, thus reducing the output power


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Reverse power control
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level per frame. For example, for half-rate frames, eight PCGs are
gated off. For ¼-rate frames, twelve PCGs are gated off. As the 2G
mobile outputs the same power level for each non-gated PCG, the base
station only measures the traffic channel E
b
/N
t
for the non-gated PCGs.
Although the average reverse link power is regulated as required, such
gating reduces the closed loop operating speed. In lieu of such PCG
gating, the baseline 3G RPC algorithm applies a continuous
transmission scheme by reducing power level per PCG, and avoids
reducing the power control speed during sub-rate frame transmission.
It should be noted that the IS-2000 protocol allows for a reverse
eighth-rate gating feature, also known as R-FCH gating. When
transmitting the R-FCH at 1/8 rate, in order to reduce the mobile power
consumption and conserve the battery, the mobile may request for such
R-FCH gating via the page response message or the origination
message. The base station shall then address its response to such a
request via the signaling messages.
If the R-FCH gating is enabled for the 1/8-rate frame transmission, the
FPC inner loop at the base station only receives half the PCGs in the
reverse PC sub-channel. For the gated PCGs, the base station receives a
noisy signal without any knowledge of the frame rate and gating
situation. This prevents the CMS-5000 ASIC from locking the finger
energy for those gated PCGs, but rather maintaining the previous
F-FCH gain and thus preventing the FPC inner loop function from
being impaired. In this case, the effective FPC inner loop speed for the
1/8-rate frame R-FCH is reduced by half.
In the RPC inner loop, up power control commands will be sent to the
mobile as the base station measures noisy finger energy for the gated
PCGs. The frame rate information being available, the mobile will
execute only the PC commands associated with non-gated PCGs and
ignore those gated while the gated PC commands are discarded. This is
based on information concerning the relative delay between the
R-PICH PCG number and the F-FCH PCG carrying the PC commands
associated with the R-PICH measurement, as per the IS-2000 standard.
Reverse power control for
voice traffic
For 3G-1X voice service, the RPC algorithm consists of an open loop,
and nested inner and outer closed loops. The details for the open loop
and the closed loops are provided below.


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RPC open loop for voice traffic
The primary algorithm for the open loop resides in the mobile. This
serves to adjust the mobile transmit power level to compensate for
larger scaled, slow varying effects such as propagation loss and shadow
fading.
As per IS-2000.2, for voice calls, two equations are used for computing
the open loop mean R-PICH and R-FCH output power levels from
mobile respectively.
First, the mean R-PICH power is computed via:
where RLGAIN_ADJ is a base station translation parameter for initial
power variation, sent to the mobile via ECAM signaling message.
The mean output power of the R-FCH can then be computed based on
the mean R-PICH power and other parameters as per the IS-2000
standard. These parameters include the band class constant, channel
power adjustment parameters, and a parameter that is set by the base
station and a power offset parameter, RLGAIN_TRAFFIC_PILOT.
RLGAIN_TRAFFIC_PILOT is a translation parameter set at the base
station and transmitted to the mobile via signaling messages for
updating the relative power between R-PICH and R-FCH power. The
detailed translation information is described in CDMA Translation
Applications Note #3V.
RPC closed loop for voice traffic
As stated in the “Introduction” section of this chapter, the 3G-1X
reverse power control closed loop consists of a nested inner /outer loop.
The inner loop algorithm primarily determines and regulates the
R-FCH output power level based on the detected R-PICH signal
strength and the outer loop adjusted full rate Eb/Nt set point value. This
new Eb/Nt set point value is determined in the outer loop based on the
monitored reverse FER. The following is a functional block diagram of
the RPC closed loop function for 3G-1X voice traffic.
ADJ RLGAIN dBm P dB dBm P
CH ACCESS PICH R
_ ) ( 5 . 8 ) ( + + − =
− −


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Figure 6-1 RPC closed loop for 3G-1X voice
As shown in the above diagram, the reverse outer loop computes a new
R-FCH Eb/Nt set point iteratively based on the base station detected
reverse frame errors at full rate. The base station then converts this
Eb/Nt set point value to a R-PICH signal-to-noise ratio (Ec/Io) set point
value. This updated R-PICH Ec/Io set point is mapped to an R-PICH
energy threshold provided in a lookup table in the ASIC. As an
embedded ASIC function, the inner loop algorithm compares the
measured R-PICH pilot energy with the above threshold and
determines the reverse power control bits to be sent to the mobile via
the forward power control sub-channel.
As a voice call is initially set up, the F-FCH is assigned prior to the
R-PICH and R-FCH assignments and this F-FCH also carries the
forward power control sub-channel. During this initial period, the
forward power control sub-channel sent to the mobile from each leg
alternating up and down commands to maintain a zero net gain in
mobile transmit power in the inner loop. If the call starts in multiple
legs, the first leg acquiring the R-PICH sends special preamble frames
to the frame selector, which echoes the best frame to all active legs. The
outer loop is initialized upon the cell receiving the first R-FCH with a
good frame, and meanwhile, the inner loop stops sending the
alternating PC commands to the mobile. Consequently, upon
Forward
Power Control
Sub-Channel
in F-FCH
REVERSE LINK POWER CONTROL CLOSED LOOP FOR 3G1X R-FCH
ATTRIBUTE_ADJUSTMENT_GAIN
RLGAIN_TRAFFIC_PILOT
FROM BASE STATION
NOMINAL_ATTRIBUTE_GAIN
FROM MOBILE STATION
MEASURE
RECEIVED S/N OF
REVERSE PILOT
CHANNEL
OUTER
LOOP
CONVERT
R-FCH Eb/Nt
SETPOINT
TO
REVERSE
PILOT ENERGY
THRESHOLD
BASE STATION MOBILE STATION
REVERSE
PILOT
MOBILE STATION
REVERSE
POWER CONTROL
R-FCH
INNER LOOP
OUTER LOOP
REVERSE PILOT
AND R-FCH
CHANNEL
TRANSMITTER R-FCH FER
ESTIMATION
INNER
LOOP


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receiving the R-PICH measurement, the inner loop begins its normal
routine. For Simplex calls, the inner loop starts as soon as the R-PICH
is measured.
The R-PICH Ec/Io set point value used in the voice R-FCH inner loop
is determined as follows:
where:
ξ is the R-FCH set point in dB, as R-FCH outer loop output,
G
F
= 1228800/R-FCH (full information rate),
G
F
is the R-FCH processing Gain,
η
F
is the R-FCH power to R-PICH power offset at the mobile.
F in the above equation denotes the R-FCH at full rate with the data
rate equal to 9.6 kbps for RC3 and 14.4 kbps for RC4. The frames are
each 20 msec in length, with convolution coding.
RPC for packet data traffic The reverse power control algorithm for packet data traffic is capable
of performing power control functions on the R-FCH and the R-SCH
separately. When the data session is an active mode, the base station
regulates the mobile output power levels for the R-FCH and R-SCH
when assigned. During the dormancy periods, the RPC function is
disabled.
Similar to that for voice services, the RPC algorithm for packet data
services consists of an open loop and a nested inner/outer closed loop.
The R-FCH power control open loop algorithm for packet data is
analogous to that for voice service. During the R-SCH bursts, the open
loop algorithm determines and regulates the R-SCH output power.
The mean R-SCH transmit power is computed based on the mean
R-FCH power, mean R-PICH power and parameters similar to those for
determining R-FCH power. The data calls involve an offset translation
parameter that defines different percentages for reverse pilot power
required for voice calls and for data to achieve the desired FER.
, ) ( log 10 ) int( _
10 F F o c
G dB setpo I E PICH R η ξ − − = −
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
t
F
b
N
E
10
log 10 ξ
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
P
C
F
C
F
E
E
10
log 10 η


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For 3G-1X packet data services, there is only one inner loop in the
reverse power control algorithm. This inner loop is controlled by the
R-FCH RPC outer loop. Similar to that for the R-FCH, an R-SCH outer
loop is designed to meet the R-SCH target frame error rate. The R-SCH
outer loop detects the R-SCH frame errors and generates an updated R-
SCH Eb/Nt set point value according to the correlation between the
target R-SCH FER set point and that measured. Although the output
from the R-SCH outer loop does not affect the reverse inner loop and
the R-FCH outer loop, the R-SCH outer loop function depends on the
performance of the inner loop and the R-FCH outer loop.
The detailed R-SCH outer loop algorithm is implemented via two steps.
In the first step, if the based station is in soft or softer handoff, it detects
the R-SCH frame quality and sends a quality indicator to the FCH
frame selector in the switch via R-FCH. The frame selector determines
the best R-SCH frame and sends back to the base station via F-FCH.
Based on this frame quality, the R-SCH outer loop algorithm
determines an updated R-SCH Eb/Nt set point value. If in simplex
mode, the R-SCH outer loop directly uses the frame quality bit for
deducing a new Eb/Nt set point and bypasses the frame selector
process.
In the second step, the R-SCH Eb/Nt and R-FCH Eb/Nt set point values
are compared in a frame-by-frame basis. If the difference for a frame
relative to the difference for the previous frame is greater than an offset
threshold, a signaling message will be sent to the mobile to adjust for
the R-SCH mean output power relative to the R-FCH mean output
power.
Reverse SARA for 3G-1X
packet data calls
The R-SCH bursts typically transmit much higher power than that of
the low-rate R-FCH for voice or for low speed packet data traffic. As
the base station receives much greater RF power from such SCH bursts
than that from weaker mobiles, the reverse links for the latter may
possibly be impaired. The reverse supplemental air resource allocation
(R- SARA) mechanism functions to assess the impact of admitting a
new R-SCH burst on the current system performance and regulate any
possible new R-SCH assignments.
For each new R-SCH burst request, the call-processing algorithm
identifies the highest rate that may possibly be assigned based on the
hardware and software resources available and other service
constraints. Each leg then independently executes the R-SARA
algorithm for this call, and determines the maximum R-SCH rate that
can be supported based on the assessed RF performance while


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considering the impact of adding this new R-SCH. To assess the impact
of adding a new R-SCH, the RF loading must be evaluated. The
contribution to the loading from active R-SCH bursts can be
significant, and this is greatly dependent on how strongly it is received
at the sector.
Contrary to using the assumed constant receive Eb/Nt for RC3 for the
active fundamental channel, an actual measurement of the received
reverse link pilot signal strength is used to estimate the loading
contribution from an active R-SCH burst at each of the active legs.
Such estimate is based on the number of the current active Walsh codes
on the sector under consideration. Also included are the reverse
fundamental active channels along with any R-SCH bursts.
If the difference between the strongest pilot Ec/Io among the
non-active set and that of the current strongest active set is greater than
a threshold, the R-SCH request will be rejected.


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Forward power control
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Forward power control
As discussed above, in the 3G-1X forward link, each serving sector
transmitter must ensure that the required E
b
/ N
t
is achieved at each
mobile within that sector.
The required E
b
/N
t
range is significantly influenced by mobile speed
and multipath conditions due especially to the fact that the mobile
receiver does not employ antenna diversity.
The 3G-1X forward power control algorithm is designed to compensate
for the fast varying E
b
/N
t
and other cell interference via a fast tracking
closed loop in a sub-frame interval in place of the slower FER based
algorithm used in the 2G FPC algorithm. Thus, tighter base station
transmit gain adjustment can be achieved and this results in an
increased forward link capacity.
The 3G forward power control feature is highlighted below:
• Compatible with TR45 TIA/EIA/IS-2000 Standard
• Supports voice and low speed data (9.6 kbps and sub-rates) in
F-FCH and high speed data (up to 153.6 kbps) in F-SCH
• Supports Convolution and Turbo coding for F-SCH data rates of
19.2 kHz, 38.4 kHz, 76.8 kHz and 153.6 kHz. For Release 20 and
higher, 307.2 kbps will be supported as well.
• F-FCH can be in soft or softer handoff, while F-SCH is currently
designed for single leg (anchor leg) condition namely Reduced
Active Set. Softer handoff for F-SCH will be available for future
release.
• Supported by first release of 3G-1X product for voice and data
traffic.
The forward closed loop power control algorithm consists of an outer
loop and an inner loop and the algorithm is implemented effectively at
a rate of up to 800 Hz.
As per IS-2000, the FPC algorithm for 3G-1X voice and packet data
traffic is designed for the mobile station to support up to two inner
loops. One is the “primary inner loop” that controls operation of the
F-FCH for voice and the low speed packet data (at 9.6 kbps data rate);
the other is the “secondary inner loop” that controls the F-SCH packet
data traffic with data rates of 19.2 kbps, 38.4 kbps, 76.8 kbps and 153.6
kbps. Additionally, if a forward link dedicated control channel


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(F-DCCH) is assigned, its output power is also controlled by the same
inner loop algorithm. Any other F-SCH assigned will also be controlled
by the secondary inner loop. Though the closed loop algorithm in the
mobiles has not been standardized, the most common procedure for the
primary inner loop is based on the power control bits (PCB), which is
corresponding to the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) measured at the
mobile. The secondary inner loop function is based on the mobile
measured F-SCH traffic S/N.
In the forward link, the base station configures the mobile and passes
the following information to the traffic channel:
• Forward Target FER values for the F-FCH and the F-SCH
• Initial, minimum and maximum E
b
/ N
t
set point values
• Ratio of PCB power in primary channel over primary channel
traffic power at full rate (denoted as FPC_SUBCHAN_GAIN)
• Primary channel (F-FCH or F-DCCH) and secondary channel (F-
SCH) with possible inner loop rates at (800,0), (400, 400) Hz or
(200, 600) Hz.
Forward power control for
voice traffic
The FPC functional diagram for voice service is illustrated in
Figure 6-1. As shown in this diagram, the main functionality of both
inner and outer loops resides in the mobile. The key functional blocks
include the following:
• The F-FCH E
b
/N
t
detector
• The primary inner loop block that generates the PC commands
sent to the base station
• The F-FER detector
• The main outer loop block, which adjusts the E
b
/N
t
target value at
the mobile.
More detailed description for the voice FPC inner and outer loops are
provided below.


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Forward power control
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Figure 6-2 Forward power control function for voice service
FPC inner loop for voice
The voice FPC inner loop algorithm is an iterative procedure. As the
F-FCH traffic channel power is being transmitted from the base station
to the mobile, the mobile monitors the F-FCH received PCB and
estimates the E
b
/N
t
for the full-rate traffic bit based on the value of the
base station provided FPC sub-channel gain (denoted as
FPC_SUBCHAN_GAIN). When compared with the current E
b
/N
t
target
value, if the performance degrades, the inner loop commands the base
station (via the RPC sub-channel) to increase the traffic channel
transmit power gain. On the contrary, if the forward link quality
exceeds the updated E
b
/N
t
target value, then it commands the based
station to reduce the transmitting power. The base station ASIC detects
the forward link power control commands in the reverse power control
sub-channel via R-PICH at a rate of 16 per 20 msec frame, or 1.25
msec, which amounts to 800 Hz. This 1.25 msec is the time interval of
each power control group (PCG).
The following initial parameters are required for executing the voice
FPC inner loop algorithm:
• Forward power control initial gain, FPC_INI_GAIN
BASE STATION
MEASURE
RECEIVED Eb/Nt OF
FUNDAMENTAL
CHANNEL
F-FCH FER
ESTIMATION
F-FCH
OUTER
LOOP
MOBILE STATION
FORWARD LINK POWER CONTROL CLOSED LOOP FOR 3G1X F-FCH
INNER LOOP OUTER
LOOP
FORWARD
FUNDAMENTAL
CHANNEL
TRANSMITTER
Reverse Power
Control Sub-
Channel in
Reverse Pilot
Channel
BASE STATION
FORWARD
POWER
CONTROL
FPC_MODE
FPC_PRI_CHAN
FPC_FCH_FER
FPC_MIN_SETPT
FPC_MAX_SETPT
FROM BASE STATION
FPC_FCH_INIT_SETPT
FPC_SUBCHAN_GAIN
FROM BASE STATION
Forward Power
Control Sub-
Channel
in F-FCH
PRIMARY
INNER LOOP
F-FCH Eb/Nt SETPOINT


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• Forward minimum gain
• Forward maximum gain
• Gain adjustment step size (up step size and down step bias).
The units of the initial, minimum, and maximum gain values are in dB,
relative to the forward pilot power. The initial gain setting is not as
critical because the inner loop operates at a speed of 800 Hz which is
sufficient for adjusting the forward gain to meet the updated E
b
/N
t
set
point without much delay. However, the values for the minimum and
maximum gains are critical. The values required for achieving optimal
capacity are dependent on the radio configuration and the number of
soft handoff legs of the call. In soft handoff, the primary leg passes the
above four parameters to each active leg thus allowing for different
gain constrains and power control steps for different calls in the same
cell/sector.
For troubleshooting and/or RF optimization, one may disable the F-
FCH inner loop by setting the inner loop power control step sizes (both
up step and down step bias) to 0 dB via translation parameter settings.
With such settings, the power control commands received and
processed by the cell allows the F-FCH forward gain to remain
constant via the cell ASIC. By disabling the inner loop, the forward
power control is effectively turned off, regardless of the on/off status of
the outer loop.
FPC Outer Loop for Voice
Because the primary objective for the FPC for voice traffic is to
maintain an acceptable voice quality while maximizing the system
capacity, and FER is a performance measure that well characterizes the
voice quality, maintaining an acceptable FER is an important part of the
FPC. However, given that there is no direct close mapping between
FER and the measured E
b
/N
t
, some adjustment in the inner loop is
required in order to maintain an acceptable averaged forward link FER.
Specifically, the F-FCH E
b
/N
t
target value used in the inner loop
function must be continuously adjusted based on the detected FER
value. This FER detection is performed in the outer loop. In addition,
the outer loop algorithm also includes estimating FER and dynamically
determining the appropriate E
b
/N
t
target value. These outer loop
functions are implemented in the mobile on a per-frame basis at a rate
of 50 Hz.


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At the time a call is just being set up, the outer loop is configured by the
cell via layer 3 signaling via the paging channel and continuously
updated via the F-FCH. The following are the required parameters for
configuring the outer loop:
• Forward target FER
• Initial E
b
/N
t
target value
• Minimum E
b
/N
t
target
• Maximum E
b
/N
t
target.
These parameters are passed to the mobile during call setup via the
ECAM signaling messages, the service connect messages, and the
forward power control message when the mobile is assigned an F-FCH.
In handoff, the outer loop parameters are updated to reflect the new
number of soft and softer handoff legs that affects the minimum and
maximum E
b
/N
t
target values.
For troubleshooting and/or RF optimization, one may disable the outer
loop regardless of the inner loop status. This is achieved by “freezing”
the output E
b
/N
t
set point value, either to the current target value or a
specific base station determined value that is passed to the mobile via
the power control message. The outer loop function will be resumed as
the cell sends to the mobile a new power control message with updated
minimum and maximum E
b
/N
t
set point values.
Forward power control for
packet data traffic
In 3G-1X packet data mode, the forward traffic data is transmitted via
the F-FCH and F-SCH channels, where the F-FCH transmits signaling
and low rate data (at 9.6 kbps) and F-SCH transmits packet data at
higher rates as discussed above. A data session consists of one or more
active periods where data is transmitted over the air interface. These
active periods are separated by periods of inactive mode, or dormant
mode. In dormant mode, neither the F-FCH nor the F-SCH is assigned
and thus any information stored in the base station associated with the
previous data call is erased. When in active mode, the F-FCH is on at
all times, while F-SCH may be on or off, depending on the availability
of the air interface resources and the amount of data in the buffer
awaiting to be sent. For trouble shooting and/or optimization, the 3G-
1X F-FCH and F-SCH FPC functions can be disabled separately by
setting the inner loop power control step sizes to 0 dB.


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F-FCH power control for packet data
When the 3G-1X packet data calls are in active mode, the F-FCH
power control algorithm follows the same closed loop process, which
consists of nested inner and outer loops as that for the 3G-1X voice
calls. However, some of the required translation parameter values must
be set differently because of the following reasons:
• The FER target for a voice call is dictated by the voice quality
requirement, while the FER target for a packet data call is
established by signaling traffic requirements (delay and reliability)
as well as the radio link protocol (RLP) performance.
• The minimum and maximum gain values are dependent on the
rate at which the power control operates. The F-FCH forward
power control (FPC) for voice calls operates at 800 Hz, while for
packet data calls only operates at 800 Hz when the F-SCH is off.
The F-FCH FPC rate reduces to 400 Hz during an F-SCH burst.
As per IS-2000, the closed loop may operate in several modes. The
base station selects the mode and configures the mobile via the layer 3
messages at the instance when the F-FCH is first assigned. It also
updates the mobile configuration via an in-band signaling during the
F-FCH operation. The packet data FPC algorithm is designed such that
the base station may configure up to two reverse power control
sub-channels via the R-PICH and this closes up to two independent
inner loops. When there is no F-SCH assigned, mobile is configured to
support only one reverse power control sub-channel, operating at 800
Hz. During an F-SCH burst, two reverse power control sub-channels
are configured in a time-multiplexed fashion via the single R-PICH,
such that the combined speed of these two inner loops becomes 800 Hz.
Two traffic channels, defined as primary and secondary traffic channels
(as per IS-2000), are mapped to the above two inner loops. The primary
channel refers to the forward traffic channel that carries the FPC
sub-channel used by the primary FPC inner loop. The secondary traffic
channel is only meaningful when there are two co-existing inner loops.
When the secondary FPC inner loop is active, the mobile performs the
Eb/Nt measurements via the secondary traffic channel.
At a data rate of 9.6 kbps, the packet data FPC algorithm is basically
operating with F-FCH inner/outer nested power control loops, similar
to that for the voice FPC. The packet data also F-FCH supports soft
handoff. As an F-SCH is assigned (with a data rate higher than 9.6
kbps), for Release 20 and below, it only operates in a simplex mode so


Power control
Forward power control
...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
6 - 1 7 Lucent Technologies - Proprietary
See Notice on first page
401-614-040
Issue 2, February 2003
as to optimize the burst setup time. The packet data FPC algorithm
consists of two inner loops and two outer loops, whether the F-FCH is
in the simplex mode or in handoff.
The Primary and Secondary power control loops are shown in
Figure 6-3 and Figure 6-4 respectively.
Figure 6-3 Forward packet data primary closed loop for FCH FPC
BASE STATION
MEASURE
RECEIVED E
b
/N
t
OF
FUNDAMENTAL
CHANNEL
F-FCH FER
ESTIMATION
F-FCH
OUTER
LOOP
MOBILE STATION
INNER LOOP OUTER
LOOP
FORWARD
FUNDAMENTAL
CHANNEL
TRANSMITTER
Reverse Power
Control Sub-
Channel in
Reverse Pilot
Channel
BASE STATION
FORWARD
POWER
CONTROL
FPC_MODE
FPC_PRI_CHAN
FPC_FCH_FER
FPC_MIN_SETPT
FPC_MAX_SETPT
FROM BASE STATION
FPC_FCH_INIT_SETPT
FPC_SUBCHAN_GAIN
FROM BASE STATION
Forward Power
Control Sub-
Channel
in F-FCH
PRIMARY
INNER LOOP
F-FCH E
b
/N
t
SETPOINT


...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Power control
Forward power control
6 - 1 8
Lucent Technologies - Proprietary
See Notice on first page
401-614-040
Issue 2, February 2003
Figure 6-4 Forward packet data secondary closed loop for SCH FPC
Forward SARA for 3G-1X packet data calls
The forward supplemental air resources allocation (F-SARA) is a
mechanism residing at the base station and it determines whether the
air interface resources are sufficient to be appropriately assigned to an
F-SCH when the anchor cell receives a request for F-SCH assignment.
Prior to invoking the F-SARA, the call-processing algorithm estimates
a maximum F-SCH data rate based on CE availability, Walsh code,
packet data, and other required hardware and software resources
without accounting for the RF air interface resources. This maximum
F-SCH data rate serves as initial input to the F-SARA algorithm for
determining a more accurate F-SCH maximum data rate that can be
supported by the current RF conditions in the anchor sector/carrier.
This new output data rate may be less than or equal to the earlier input
data rate. Also predicted by F-SARA are the initial, the minimum, and
the maximum transmitted F-SCH power, and the initial, the minimum,
and the maximum F-SCH Eb/Nt set point values corresponding to the
output F-SCH data rate.
BASE STATION
MEASURE RECEIVED
E
b
/N
t
OF
SUPPLEMENTAL
CHANNEL
F-SCH FER
ESTIMATION
F-SCH
OUTER
LOOP
MOBILE STATION
INNER LOOP OUTER LOOP
FORWARD
SUPPLEMENTAL
CHANNEL
TRANSMITTER
Reverse Power
Control Sub-Channel
in Reverse Pilot
Channel
BASE STATION
FORWARD POWER
CONTROL
FPC_MODE
FPC_FSCH_FER
FPC_FSCH_MIN_SETPT
FPC_FSCH_MAX_SETPT
FROM BASE STATION
FPC_FSCH_INIT_SETPT
FROM BASE STATION
Forward Power
Control Sub-Channel
in F-FCH
SECONDARY
INNER LOOP
F-SCH E
b
/N
t
SETPOINT


Power control
Forward power control
...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
6 - 1 9 Lucent Technologies - Proprietary
See Notice on first page
401-614-040
Issue 2, February 2003
Under certain conditions, the call-processing algorithm may update the
data rate to a rate lower than that previously determined via the F-
SARA algorithm. The F-SARA reassesses the power commitment as it
determines an updated, maximum-allowable data rate iteratively.


...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Power control
Forward power control
6 - 2 0
Lucent Technologies - Proprietary
See Notice on first page
401-614-040
Issue 2, February 2003


7 - 1 Lucent Technologies - Proprietary
See Notice on first page
401-614-040
Issue 2, February 2003
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
7 Extended carrier
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Overview
Purpose This chapter provides guidelines for RF planning for “extended” carrier
deployment.
Contents Introduction 7-3
Single extended carrier 7-6
Reverse link 7-6
Forward link 7-8
Forward link pilot channel 7-9
Forward link traffic channel 7-10
Forward Data Capacity 7-14
Growth strategies 7-15
Multiple extended carriers with traffic growth 7-15
Additional cell sites with traffic growth 7-15
Applications 7-18
Low traffic areas 7-18
Building penetration 7-18
Concentric carriers 7-19
Core carrier reverse link 7-20
Core carrier forward link 7-23
Traffic density 7-25
Determining mobile location 7-25
Growth strategies 7-26
Applications 7-26
Amplifier sharing - Quasi omni 7-28


...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Extended carrier
7 - 2
Lucent Technologies - Proprietary
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Issue 2, February 2003
Growth strategies 7-29
Amplifier sharing - Asymmetric cell 7-31
Growth strategies 7-32
Summary 7-33


Extended carrier
Introduction
...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
7 - 3 Lucent Technologies - Proprietary
See Notice on first page
401-614-040
Issue 2, February 2003
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Introduction
This chapter provides guidelines for RF planning for “extended” carrier
deployment.
An extended carrier, as used here, is a CDMA carrier that is
intentionally designed to carry a limited amount of traffic in order to
increase the coverage area, or reap other benefits such as enhancing
building penetration or better matching the offered traffic density to
subscriber demands.
The concept of reducing design capacity in order to achieve extended
coverage is not new; indeed, this fundamental trade-off exists in 2G
CDMA and has occasionally been exploited to advantage (e.g., a
modest number of large, lightly loaded cells covering a low-traffic rural
area). These 2G trade-offs have been naturally limited by the low
reverse link interference margins
7
(about 3 to 4 dB) used in 2G designs.
For example, an interference margin of 3.5 dB (55% loading with
respect to pole) means that at most the cell can be expanded 3 dB
relative to this footprint, with associated reduction of the interference
margin to 0.5 dB (10% loading with respect to pole). Further expansion
of the footprint by sacrificing capacity is not possible, since the cell
capacity would be driven to zero.
The use of higher (i.e., typically 5.5 dB) nominal interference margins
in 3G-1X opens several new possibilities for design. These include:
• Single extended carrier. This concept embodies the standard
design trade-off of capacity for coverage. This trade-off can be
more extensive, since there is more dB of interference margin
(loading) to trade for coverage.
• Concentric extended. This configuration uses a modest number of
large, lightly loaded single carrier cells for initial deployment. The
expanded footprint of the cells is achieved by trading off capacity
(interference margin) for coverage. Traffic growth is
accommodated by adding fully loaded carriers (of smaller
footprint) to each cell as needed. The first (extended) carrier
provides ubiquitous coverage, whereas the additional (smaller
footprint) carriers provide localized capacity relief.
...........................................................................................................................
7 Note that reverse link will be left off the name of the interference margin
throughout the rest of this chapter. The interference margin referenced here is al-
ways a reverse link term.


...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Extended carrier
Introduction
7 - 4
Lucent Technologies - Proprietary
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401-614-040
Issue 2, February 2003
• Quasi-omni. This strategy services a 3-sectored configuration with
a single (as opposed to three) transmitter/receiver. The coverage
penalties inherent in sharing the single transceiver via a splitter
and combiner are offset by reducing the loading (the interference
margin). This lightly loaded configuration can later be upgraded to
full capacity at the same footprint by adding two transceivers (the
additional equipment offsets the coverage penalties introduced by
the additional loading).
• Asymmetric cell (“split sector”). This strategy is similar to the
previous one but services a 3-sectored configuration with two
transmitters/receivers instead on just one. The first (dedicated)
transceiver services the cell busy sector, which offers full capacity.
The second transceiver services the remaining two sectors. The
coverage of these two sectors is identical to that of the busy sector,
since the penalties inherent in sharing (splitting) the transceiver
are offset by reducing the sector loading. This configuration
provides full (nominal) coverage for cells with asymmetric traffic
distributions, at reduced cost.
In the following sections, we consider each of these methods in turn. In
the "Single extended carrier" section on Page 7-6, the mechanics of
basic capacity-coverage trade-offs are reviewed, with particular
attention paid to required forward link adjustments in an expanded cell.
The concentric configuration is discussed in "Concentric carriers"
section on Page 7-19. The quasi-omni and asymmetric cell
configurations are discussed in "Amplifier sharing - Quasi omni"
section on Page 7-28 and "Amplifier sharing - Asymmetric cell"
section on Page 7-31.
Note that all strategies discussed provide a potential means for
reducing the cost of initial deployment either through reducing cell or
equipment (transceiver) count. The optimal strategy for a given
deployment depends largely upon traffic needs and projected traffic
growth. For example, a single extended carrier may not be feasible for
an area with aggressive traffic growth, since the small design capacity
per (large) cell would necessitate rapid addition of carriers. In such an
area, a configuration that begins with quasi-omni and is later upgraded
to normal (3 transceiver) configuration may be a more suitable way to
contain initial deployment costs and smoothly migrate as needed to
higher capacity cells. Alternatively, if the projected traffic within the
area is likely to be asymmetric (one busy sector), then the best solution


Extended carrier
Introduction
...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
7 - 5 Lucent Technologies - Proprietary
See Notice on first page
401-614-040
Issue 2, February 2003
may be deployment of the split-sector configuration. Finally, if the
traffic growth is likely to be highly localized close to the cells, then
concentric carrier may offer the best answer.


...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Extended carrier
Single extended carrier
7 - 6
Lucent Technologies - Proprietary
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401-614-040
Issue 2, February 2003
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Single extended carrier
This section describes the deployment of a carrier with extended
coverage. If capacity demands exceed the capacity of the extended
carrier, then either more extended carriers or more cells are required.
Reverse link The design trade-off for capacity and coverage in the reverse link is
embedded in the interference margin term. The interference margin is
defined as:
(see Lucent document 401-703-201, PCS CDMA RF Engineering
Guidelines, equation 7.6)
where:
µ is the ratio of the planned number of RF channels to the “pole
capacity”.
The reduced interference margin directly translates to an increased
maximum allowable path loss. The cell radius is proportional to the
maximum allowable path loss raised to the path loss slope. Therefore,
changes in maximum allowable path loss can be translated to changes
in cell radius as follows:
where the R
s
are the respective cell radii, P
s
are the respective
maximum allowable path losses (in dBs), and S is the path loss slope
(in dB/decade).
For a typical 3G-1X system with 3-sector cells and Radio
Configuration 3 (RC3), the pole capacity is 48.5 channels. The
following table summarizes the capacity coverage trade-off.
µ −
=
1
1
im
R
|
.
|

\
| −
=
S
P P
R
R
2 1
10
2
1


Extended carrier
Single extended carrier
...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
7 - 7 Lucent Technologies - Proprietary
See Notice on first page
401-614-040
Issue 2, February 2003
Table 7-1 Capacity versus coverage
Channels % load rela-
tive to pole
Erlangs Interference
Margin (dB)
Area rel to
72% loading
1 2% 0.02 0.1 191%
2 4% 0.223 0.2 189%
3 6% 0.602 0.3 187%
4 8% 1.09 0.4 185%
5 10% 1.66 0.5 183%
6 12% 2.28 0.6 181%
7 14% 2.94 0.7 179%
8 16% 3.63 0.8 176%
9 19% 4.34 0.9 173%
10 21% 5.08 1.0 171%
11 23% 5.84 1.1 169%
12 25% 6.61 1.2 166%
13 27% 7.4 1.4 164%
14 29% 8.2 1.5 162%
15 31% 9.01 1.6 159%
16 33% 9.83 1.7 157%
17 35% 10.7 1.9 154%
18 37% 11.5 2.0 152%
19 39% 12.3 2.1 149%
20 41% 13.2 2.3 147%
21 43% 14 2.4 144%
22 45% 14.9 2.6 142%
23 47% 15.8 2.8 139%
24 49% 16.6 2.9 136%
25 52% 17.5 3.2 132%
26 54% 18.4 3.4 129%
27 56% 19.3 3.6 126%
28 58% 20.2 3.8 123%
29 60% 21 4.0 120%
30 62% 21.9 4.2 117%
31 64% 22.8 4.4 114%
32 66% 23.7 4.7 110%
33 68% 24.6 4.9 107%
34 70% 25.5 5.2 103%
35 72% 26.4 5.5 100%


...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Extended carrier
Single extended carrier
7 - 8
Lucent Technologies - Proprietary
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401-614-040
Issue 2, February 2003
The following figure shows the trade-off of capacity versus cover
graphically where the coverage is expressed as a percentage of the
nominal case (72% reverse link pole loading):
Figure 7-1 Capacity vs. coverage
Of course it is important to remember that supportable Erlang density
(traffic Erlangs divided by area) falls faster than the plot above (Erlang
capacity), since as the cell footprint grows the capacity decreases.
Thus, the density (ratio of capacity to area) is negatively impacted
twice. The following plot illustrates supportable density relative to
nominal case of 72% loading, versus area gain:
Figure 7-2 Traffic density versus coverage
Forward link It is necessary to verify that the forward link will support the extended
coverage area by examining the impact on the forward link pilot and
traffic channels.
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
100% 120% 140% 160% 180% 200%
Area Relative to Nominal Case
E
r
l
a
n
g
C
a
p
c
i
t
y
0%
20%
40%
60%
80%
100%
100% 120% 140% 160% 180% 200%
Area Relative to Nominal Case
T
r
a
f
f
i
c
D
e
n
s
i
t
y
R
e
l
t
o
N
o
m
i
n
a
l


Extended carrier
Single extended carrier
...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
7 - 9 Lucent Technologies - Proprietary
See Notice on first page
401-614-040
Issue 2, February 2003
Forward link pilot channel
As the maximum allowable path loss increases, pilot power must also
be increased to maintain a constant pilot channel Ec/Io at the cell edge.
Pilot Ec/Io is defined as follows:
where:
E
c
= The time chip energy received at the mobile
I
o
= The total noise and interference from all sectors
δ = The fraction of sector power allocated to the pilot channel
P
j
= The power received from the j
th
sector
i = Index of serving sector
F = Mobile receiver noise figure
N
o
= Thermal noise density
W = The carrier bandwidth.
For insight, we can consider two simple cases analytically: The
completely interference-limited case, and the completely noise-limited
case.
In the interference-limited case, we assume the thermal noise power to
be small compared to the interference power (i.e., FN
o
W<< ΣP
j
). In
this case, as the maximum allowable path loss is increased, both the
pilot signal and the interference are reduced by the same amount.
Hence, in the interference-limited case, no increase in pilot power is
required, as the cell area is increased by decreasing the loading.
In the noise-limited case, we assume that the interference power is
small compared to the thermal noise power (i.e., ΣP
j
<< FN
o
W). In this
case, the pilot power will need to be increased by the same amount as
the increase in path loss to maintain the same pilot Ec/Io at the cell
edge.
Intermediate cases (the most likely scenario) require the pilot channel
power to be increased somewhere between zero and the increase in
maximum allowable path loss.
The actual pilot power required, as a percentage of total amplifier
power, to maintain a given Ec/Io at the cell edge, was computed (via
spreadsheet) for the typical 3G-1X case for various values of
interference margin (resulting in various cell footprint sizes), with the
following results:

+

=
|
|
.
|

\
|
j all
j o
i
i
o
c
P W FN
P
I
E
_
δ


...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Extended carrier
Single extended carrier
7 - 1 0
Lucent Technologies - Proprietary
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401-614-040
Issue 2, February 2003
Figure 7-3 Required pilot percentage of total power versus capacity
As can be seen from the graph, the pilot percentage only increases from
the standard value of 15 percent at full loading of 26.4 Erlangs (72% of
pole capacity) to a little less than 18 percent at no loading. The
additional amount of power required for the pilot channel can be
calculated on a case-by-base basis and will reduce the power available
for the traffic channels. The impact on capacity is examined in the next
section.
Forward link traffic channel
The traffic channel is more complicated than the pilot channel since
two effects of lighter loading must be accounted for: The increase in
path loss, and the decreased number of users. In our analysis, we
assume that all mobiles have an equal share of total base station power,
which can be interpreted as all mobiles are located at the cell edge.
Where:
i is the index of the serving sector
P' is the transmitted power for all traffic channels
L
p
is the maximum allowable path loss
n is the number of mobiles
P
i
= The power received from the i
th
sector
γ is the orthogonality factor
15.0%
15.5%
16.0%
16.5%
17.0%
17.5%
18.0%
100% 120% 140% 160% 180% 200%
Area Relative to Nominal Case
P
i
l
o
t
%
o
f
T
o
t
a
l
P
o
w
e
r


⋅ + +


=
|
|
.
|

\
|
i j
i j o
p
i
o
b
P P W FN
L n
P
N
E
γ


Extended carrier
Single extended carrier
...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
7 - 1 1 Lucent Technologies - Proprietary
See Notice on first page
401-614-040
Issue 2, February 2003
F = Mobile receiver noise figure
N
o
= Thermal noise density
W = The carrier bandwidth.
Again, for insight, we can consider two simple cases analytically: The
completely interference-limited case, and the completely noise-limited
case.
In the interference-limited case, as the maximum allowable path loss is
increased, the P' terms stays the same since the pilot channel does not
require any extra power, as discussed above. The increase in path loss
reduces both the serving signal and the interfering signals equally. The
number of users (n) decreases to provide the reduced loading that
allows for the increase in maximum allowable path loss. Therefore, the
Eb/No for this case will necessarily increase. Alternatively, the total
power required to maintain a given Eb/No will decrease. Accordingly,
less power is required to support fewer users, even though the footprint
is enlarged.
In the noise-limited case, the P' term will be decreased by amount
equivalent to the increase in pilot power, which, from above, would
equal the increase in path loss. If we assume that the Eb/Nt achieved for
the nominal case is acceptable, we can compare the achievable Eb/Nt
for the expanded carrier case. Here, the achieved Eb/Nt is the Eb/Nt
that is calculated for a mobile at the edge of a sector’s coverage area if
that mobile receives 1/n of the available traffic power, where n is the
number of channels supported by the sector. If the ratio of the extended
carrier achievable Eb/Nt to the nominal achievable Eb/Nt is greater
than one, we can assume that the extended carrier case has sufficient
power to close the forward link.
Let case 1 be the “nominal carrier case”, supporting n
1
RF channels and
case 2 be the “extended carrier case”, supporting n
2
RF channels.
If the overhead fraction is δ, then power available for all the traffic
channels is:
|
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
.
|

\
|


=




=
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
2
1
2
1
1
2
1 1
1
2 2
2
1
2
n
n
L
L
P
P
n L
P
n L
P
N
E
N
E
p
p
p
p
o
b
o
b
( )
tot
P P ⋅ − = ′
1 1
1 δ
and ( )
tot
P P ⋅ − = ′
2 2
1 δ


...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Extended carrier
Single extended carrier
7 - 1 2
Lucent Technologies - Proprietary
See Notice on first page
401-614-040
Issue 2, February 2003
As stated above, the overhead fraction for this noise limited case
increases by an amount equal to the increase in path loss:
Therefore, the ratio of total traffic powers can be expressed as:
Substituting back into the Eb/No ratio and simplifying gives:
The ratio of path losses can be related to the number of channels as
follows:
Substituting into the Eb/No ratio equation gives:
For 3G-1X, the loading for the nominal case is 72%, or µ is 0.72. Also,
the pilot fraction for the nominal case (δ) is equal to 15%, or 0.15.
1
1
2
2
δ δ ⋅ =
p
p
L
L
( )
( )
1
1
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
1
1
1
δ
δ
δ
δ

⋅ −
=
⋅ −
⋅ −
=


p
p
tot
tot
L
L
P
P
P
P
|
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|


=
|
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|

⋅ −
=
|
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
.
|

\
|


=
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
2
1
1
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
1
1
1
2
2
1
2
1
1
2
1
2
1 1
1
n
n
L
L
n
n
L
L L
L
n
n
L
L
P
P
N
E
N
E
p
p
p
p p
p
p
p
o
b
o
b
δ
δ
δ
δ
2
1
1
2
1
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
µ
µ
µ
µ


=


= =
im
im
p
p
R
R
L
L
|
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|




=
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
2
1
1
1
2
1
1
2
1
1
1
n
n
N
E
N
E
o
b
o
b
δ
δ
µ
µ


Extended carrier
Single extended carrier
...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
7 - 1 3 Lucent Technologies - Proprietary
See Notice on first page
401-614-040
Issue 2, February 2003
A plot of this function is shown in the figure below.
Figure 7-4 Eb/Nt versus loading
From the above figure it can be observed that the achieved Eb/No for
the extended carrier case will be less than for the nominal case for
loadings between nominal (0.72) and about 0.16. Therefore no general
conclusion that the traffic channel will achieve the required Eb/Nt for
the noise limited case can be drawn. Therefore a full link budget
analysis is required to examine real scenarios that fall between the
noise limited and interference limited cases.
The actual achieved forward link Eb/No at cell edge was computed (via
spreadsheet) for a typical case (i.e. not either extreme of interference or
noise limited) with the results shown in the following figure.
|
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
.
|

\
|


=
|
|
.
|

\
| ⋅

|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|




=
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
2 2 2
max 2
1
2
72 . 0
18 . 0
1
33 . 0 72 . 0
15 . 0 1
15 . 0
1
72 . 0 1
µ µ
µ
n
n
N
E
N
E
o
b
o
b
2
2 2
2
2
2
2 2
13 . 0 11 . 0 72 . 0 18 . 0 72 . 0 33 . 0
µ µ
µ
µ µ µ −
⋅ +
=




=
-2
-1
0
1
2
3
4
5
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8
Loading (mu)
E
b
/
N
o
r
e
l
a
t
i
v
e
t
o
n
o
m
i
n
a
l
c
a
s
e
(
d
B
)


...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Extended carrier
Single extended carrier
7 - 1 4
Lucent Technologies - Proprietary
See Notice on first page
401-614-040
Issue 2, February 2003
Figure 7-5 Achieved forward link Eb/Nt versus capacity
As can be seen from the above figure, the achieved Eb/Nt grows with
the decrease in Erlang capacity, which is to say that the required Eb/Nt
is achieved, and the forward link should close.
Forward Data Capacity One would also expect that as the cell radius is increased, the data
capacity of the cell would decrease. There is no simple analytical
approach to deriving a data capacity versus cell radius relation; hence,
simulations were run to model the behavior. The simulations focused
on the impact to the forward link since data applications are expected to
be asymmetric and have much lower reverse link demands relative to
forward link demands. The simulations assumed a typical link budget.
The simulation was a set of single rate simulations, whose outputs (per
rate throughputs) were combined with a standard rate distribution. The
single rate distribution was a typical forward link simulation where the
number of users was increased until a certain probability of outage
(defined as exceeding max amplifier power) was exceeded. The results
of the simulation are shown in Figure 7-6.
0
5
10
15
20
25
100% 120% 140% 160% 180% 200%
Area Relative to Nominal Case
A
c
h
i
e
v
e
d
F
L
E
b
/
N
o
(
d
B
)


Extended carrier
Single extended carrier
...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
7 - 1 5 Lucent Technologies - Proprietary
See Notice on first page
401-614-040
Issue 2, February 2003
Figure 7-6 Forward link data capacity versus cell size
Growth strategies Multiple extended carriers with traffic growth
The simplest way to add capacity is to add carriers. Carrier additions
provide a linear growth in capacity, i.e., two carriers doubles Erlang
capacity, and three carriers triples Erlang capacity, etc.
8
However,
adding cells has some advantage, as will be discussed next.
Additional cell sites with traffic growth
Adding cells enhances capacity in two ways:
1. The greater the number of cells, the less area per cell, and hence, a
higher interference margin can be tolerated.
2. The additional cell can carry additional capacity.
The network capacity is the product of the capacity per cell and the
number of cells. Adding cells increases both of these terms, and hence,
provides a double benefit to network capacity. For example, doubling
network capacity by adding carriers requires adding an additional
carrier to all cells in the network. Doubling network capacity by adding
cells does not require a doubling of cell count. For example, if the
starting point was cells designed for 1.5 times the nominal cell area by
reducing the capacity to 12.3 Erlangs per sector, the network capacity
could be theoretically doubled by reducing cell area to 1.23 times
90
92
94
96
98
100
102
104
106
108
110
112
100% 120% 140% 160% 180% 200%
Area Relative to Nominal Case
F
o
r
w
a
r
d
L
i
n
k
A
g
g
r
e
g
a
t
e
S
e
c
t
o
r
T
h
r
o
u
g
h
p
u
t
(
k
b
p
s
)
...........................................................................................................................
8 The capacity growth versus number of carriers is slightly greater than strictly
linear due to trunking efficiency. The trunking efficiency is not the full value pre-
dicted by Erlang B, but is greater than 0.


...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Extended carrier
Single extended carrier
7 - 1 6
Lucent Technologies - Proprietary
See Notice on first page
401-614-040
Issue 2, February 2003
nominal with a capacity of 20.2 Erlangs per sector, since
2*12.3/1.5=20.2/1.23. The increase in cell count would be 1.5 divided
by 1.23, or 22%. Whether this approach is more cost effective than
simply adding carriers depends on the relative costs of the hardware to
support the additionally carriers versus the cost associated with the new
cells (hardware, real estate, backhaul, etc.).
Although the above example demonstrates the nonlinear (more than
linear) gain that can be achieved by cell addition, the result is at best
approximate since it assumes that the cell count is simply the total
network area divided by the area per cell. However, once a network is
deployed, it is unlikely that cells will be moved. So the actually
increase in number of cells would probably be higher than the 22%
computed. Consider the following figure that shows the typical
hexagonal geometry for a 7-cell cluster. The cells are spaced at 1.5
times the nominal cell spacing. The borders shown are the nominal cell
size borders.
Figure 7-7 Cell deployment at 1.5X typical cell radius
To fill the coverage holes would require on the order of 6 new cells, as
shown in heavy red on the following figure.
-3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3
-3
-2
-1
0
1
2
3
Cell/Mobile Map
1 2
3 4
5
6 7


Extended carrier
Single extended carrier
...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
7 - 1 7 Lucent Technologies - Proprietary
See Notice on first page
401-614-040
Issue 2, February 2003
Figure 7-8 Cell deployment to fill holes at full capacity
This method of cell addition can clearly be inefficient in the sense that
coverage overlay inevitably occurs; however, from a traffic
perspective, this method of adding cells allows selective focus on areas
where traffic demand is highest. Accordingly, the net cell count for a
coverage-driven area with isolated hot traffic spots is likely to be less
than the number required if an initial dense array of cells were
uniformly deployed.
Another issue associated with adding cells is that the network may
require reoptimization. However, the costs of reoptimization maybe
minimized through the use of Lucent's Ocelot tool. Ocelot uses a
general nonlinear optimization procedure to adjust certain parameters
(e.g., antenna tilts, forward powers) of cellular networks in order to
maximize a particular “objective function”. The current objective
function is various combinations of coverage (the percentage of the
served area where a call can be made from) and capacity (how much
traffic can be carried simultaneously). When Ocelot runs an
optimization, the user sees a Trade-off Curve window with different
coverage/capacity points; clicking any point affords a detailed
examination of the proposed design in a graphical display of the market
area. It is expected that the original design and optimization will
provide a baseline set of data that will allow Ocelot to generate
accurate predictions of the revised optimization settings appropriate for
additional cell sites.
-3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3
-3
-2
-1
0
1
2
3
Cell/Mobile Map
1 2
3 4
5
6 7


...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Extended carrier
Single extended carrier
7 - 1 8
Lucent Technologies - Proprietary
See Notice on first page
401-614-040
Issue 2, February 2003
Applications Low traffic areas
The simplest application of extended carriers is to serve low traffic
areas. Using larger cells will reduce cell count, reducing expenses
associated with each cell such as:
• Cell site hardware
• Real estate
• Backhaul facilities.
If traffic grows beyond the planned capacity coverage holes will occur
unless steps (e.g., added cell count) are taken. Of course this statement
is true regardless of whether the carrier is “extended” or not. However,
the lower capacity of an extended carrier means that the planned
capacity is lower than frequently employed, and hence, extra attention
must be paid to traffic growth to ensure the extended carrier does not
suffer overload.
Building penetration
Another use for the extended carriers is to provide building penetration
margin. The extra interference margin on the reverse link and extra
power on the forward link are used to provide building penetration
margin rather than extended radius in this case. It would be expected
that concentric carriers would be used, with the core carrier serving
pedestrian traffic and vehicular traffic (and indoor traffic close to the
cell site), while the extended carrier serving in-building traffic toward
the cell edge. Arguably, if buildings that are important are known, it is
better to place cells near or in those buildings.


Extended carrier
Concentric carriers
...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
7 - 1 9 Lucent Technologies - Proprietary
See Notice on first page
401-614-040
Issue 2, February 2003
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Concentric carriers
Another application for extended carriers is a multi-carrier cell with
carrier-dependent coverage. In this scenario, an extended carrier is
used to extend the coverage of the cell and a “core” carrier to provide
the bulk of the capacity of the cell as shown in the following figure:
Figure 7-9 Core and extended carriers
In this scenario, the extended (first) carrier provides ubiquitous
coverage across the region of interest with a modest number of cell
sites. Each extended carrier offers low capacity only, since its capacity
has been traded away for expanded coverage. As traffic increases,
smaller full-capacity carriers are added as needed at selected cells. The
smaller carriers address the additional capacity, which is presumed to
be locally concentrated around the cell sites. Handoffs between the core
and extended carriers allow mobiles to traverse between cells, while
restricting the number of active mobiles on the extended carrier.
This configuration alters a number of RF engineering considerations,
which typically apply to carriers of identical footprint. These are
discussed below, and include:
• Core carrier reverse link
• Core carrier forward link
• Core and extended carrier traffic densities.
Note that the RF engineering issues associated with the extended
carrier reverse and forward link are identical to those in the "Single
extended carrier" section of this chapter and are not re-examined here.
Core Carrier
Extended Carrier


...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Extended carrier
Concentric carriers
7 - 2 0
Lucent Technologies - Proprietary
See Notice on first page
401-614-040
Issue 2, February 2003
Core carrier reverse link As explained in the Lucent documents 401-614-012, AUTOPLEX
®
Cellular CDMA RF Engineering Guidelines and 401-703-201, PCS
CDMA RF Engineering Guidelines, the pilot Ec/Io at the edge of a cell
should be equal to T_ADD
9
. The handoff zone is the area where one
cell's pilot is above T_ADD and another cell’s pilot is above T_DROP.
Therefore, it is expected that handoff zone is an area where the pilot Ec/
Io changes by the difference between T_ADD and T_DROP, which is
typically 2 dB. Changes in pilot Ec/Io are not precisely equal to
differences in path loss, but can be taken as an approximation. The
difference between the core and extended carriers is expected to be
greater than 2 dB. Therefore, little soft handoff is expected in the core
carrier coverage area. The impact of no soft handoff on the link budget
is to shrink the reverse link coverage by an amount equal to the soft
handoff gain. The actual carrier coverages will look something like the
following figure, where:
• The extended carrier coverage is increased by reducing the
interference margin and maintaining full soft handoff gain
• The nominal carrier coverage is the coverage of a carrier with
nominal interference margin (i.e., corresponding to 72% loading)
and full soft handoff gain
• The core carrier coverage is the coverage of a carrier with nominal
loading (i.e., corresponding to 72% loading) but with no soft
handoff gain.
Figure 7-10 Core, nominal, and extended carriers
...........................................................................................................................
9 For simplification the IS-95Aterms are used here, but the same discussion ap-
plies to networks utilizing the IS-95B soft handoff algorithm.
Extended Carrier
Nominal Carrier
Core Carrier
Difference in
Interference
Margin
Loss of
Soft
Handoff
Gain


Extended carrier
Concentric carriers
...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
7 - 2 1 Lucent Technologies - Proprietary
See Notice on first page
401-614-040
Issue 2, February 2003
Since the coverage areas of the core carriers do not overlap or even
touch the expected interference ratio is less. The reduced interference
ratio will lead to an increase in reverse link capacity. This increase can
be advantageous since the core carrier by design services localized
areas of high traffic demand.
In the following we estimate the reverse link interference ratio in order
to compute the core carrier pole capacity. The loss of soft handoff gain
will cause the core carrier to be 4.3 dB less in maximum allowable path
loss than a nominal carrier. The difference between the nominal carrier
coverage and the extended carrier coverage is the difference in
interference margin and is a design parameter. If we consider 3 dB to be
a typical amount for the reduction in interference margin for the
extended carrier, the total difference in path loss between the core and
extended carrier is 7.3 dB.
Figure 7-11 Definition of different distances
Therefore the ratio of the radius of the extended carrier in terms of the
radius of the core carrier is:
where P
ec
is the maximum allowable path loss for the extended carrier,
P
core
is the maximum allowable path loss for the core carrier, and S is
the path loss slope. The difference between extended carrier and core
carrier maximum allowable path losses is 7.3 dB, as stated above.
Therefore, the extended carrier radius is 1.55 times the radius of the
core carrier (assuming a path loss slope of 38.5 dB per decade). The
distance between the centers of the cells, R
c-c
, is 3.10 times the core
carrier (twice the radius of the extended carrier). Therefore, the path
loss from the center of one cell to the other cell in terms of the path loss
to the edge of the core carrier is:
R
core
R
ext
R
c-c
S
P P
core ext
core ec
R R

⋅ = 10


...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Extended carrier
Concentric carriers
7 - 2 2
Lucent Technologies - Proprietary
See Notice on first page
401-614-040
Issue 2, February 2003
For the nominal case (72% loading), the center-to-center distance is
simply twice the core carrier distance and hence the center-to-center
path loss is:
Therefore, the extended carrier case has 7.3 dB more path loss between
a cell and its first tier interferers. The reverse link interference ratio, β,
is defined as the ratio of the other cell to same cell interference. As a
first order approximation, we can treat the interference from other cells
as coming from a point at the center of the other cells. By increasing the
path loss by 7.3 dB to those other cells from the nominal case, the
interference from those other cells should be reduced by 7.3 dB. So the
interference ratio, β, should also be reduced by 7.3 dB. For the 3-sector
case the interference ratio would then be reduced from 0.85 to 0.16.
The pole capacity for this reduced interference ratio is:
If the typical 3G-1X loading of 72% is assumed, the core carrier will
support 55 RF channels. Since no soft handoff is expected on the core
carrier, this number of channels needs to be increased by only a factor
to account for the softer handoff links, which is 1.3. Therefore, the
number of channels is 72. This value exceeds the number of Walsh
codes available, which is 59. Given the 1.3 factor for softer handoff
links, the Walsh code limit translates to a limit of 45 “primary” RF
channels per sector. The loading cannot simply be reduced to the value
associated with this number of channels since as the loading, as a
percentage of pole capacity is reduced, the interference margin is
decreased. However, this will change the coverage of the core carrier,
and hence, our computed interference ratio. Therefore, the optimum
solution can only be found through an iterative trial and error process.
A solution was found for the following conditions.
( ) 9 . 18 1 . 3 log 5 . 38 log + = ⋅ + =
|
|
.
|

\
|
⋅ + =

− core core
core
c c
core c c
P P
R
R
S P P
( ) 6 . 11 2 log 5 . 38 log + = ⋅ + =
|
|
.
|

\
|
⋅ + = ′

− core core
core
c c
core c c
P P
R
R
S P P
( )
( )
77 1
16 . 0 1 10 58 . 0
128
1
) 1 ( 10
4 max
= +
+ ⋅ ⋅
= +
+ ⋅ ⋅
=
β α d
g
n RF channels


Extended carrier
Concentric carriers
...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
7 - 2 3 Lucent Technologies - Proprietary
See Notice on first page
401-614-040
Issue 2, February 2003
The process outlined above can be repeated for different values of
extended carrier interference margin reduction with the following
results:
Core carrier forward link The core carrier forward link must be assessed on a case-by-base basis
to ensure link balance. The issues affecting the ability of the forward
link to support the reverse link are discussed below.
The forward link traffic channel coverage of the core carrier will also
suffer due to the loss of soft handoff gain. Soft handoff gain is not
explicitly listed in the forward link Eb/Nt analysis, but instead is
Parameter Value
Interference Ratio 0.22
Pole capacity 73
Loading 61%
RF channel capacity 45
Erlang capacity 35.6
Interference Margin (dB) 4.1
Extended Car-
rier
Core Carrier
Interference
Margin Reduc-
tion (dB)
Forward Link
Interference
Ratio (linear)
Pole
Capacity
Loading
(% of pole
point)
RF Chan-
nel
Capacity
Erlang
Capacity
Interference
Margin (dB)
0.5 0.329 67.06 67.1% 45 35.6 4.8
1 0.304 68.32 65.9% 45 35.6 4.7
1.5 0.281 69.64 64.6% 45 35.6 4.5
2.0 0.257 70.73 63.6% 45 35.6 4.4
2.5 0.237 72.14 62.4% 45 35.6 4.2
3.0 0.217 73.25 61.4% 45 35.6 4.1
3.5 0.197 74.22 60.6% 45 35.6 4.0
4.0 0.180 75.46 59.6% 45 35.6 3.9
4.5 0.164 76.54 58.8% 45 35.6 3.8
5.0 0.148 77.40 58.1% 45 35.6 3.8


...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Extended carrier
Concentric carriers
7 - 2 4
Lucent Technologies - Proprietary
See Notice on first page
401-614-040
Issue 2, February 2003
embedded in a reduced fade margin for the forward link. The fade
margin listed in the forward link is actually reduced fade margin. The
reduction is due to both soft handoff gain and other effects. The
reduction for 95% area coverage is 6.0 dB. While the Eb/Nt analysis
does not state what proportion of this is due to soft handoff and what is
due to other effects (independence of fading within the cell, limited
dynamic range of forward link transmit power), it is expected that the
soft handoff gain would be no greater than the value for the reverse link
soft handoff gain, which is 4.0 dB.
However, the forward link benefits from the lack of soft handoff in that
no power must be allocated for the soft handoff legs. The impact of the
lack of soft handoff is manifested in the forward link Eb/Nt analysis by
setting the soft handoff overhead factor to 1.3 (value for softer handoff)
instead of 1.75 typically used for 3G-1X. This difference in soft
handoff overhead factor leads to a corresponding increase in traffic
channel power of 1.3 dB. The net impact of no soft handoff on the
received traffic channel signal in the Eb/Nt analysis is a loss of 2.7 dB
(4.0 -1.3).
The forward link of the core carrier also benefits in terms of forward
link interference ratio. The lack of soft handoff increases the
interference ratio since the power from all the sectors involved in the
soft handoff are excluded from the interference term. However, the fact
that the border of the core carrier is within the cell border reduces the
interference ratio more than the lack of soft handoff increases it. The
reduction in interference ratio for the case considered here (no soft
handoff on inner border and inner border 5 dB inside outer border) is
believed to be up to 6 dB. The reduction in the interference ratio
reduces the other cell interference term.
The overall effect on the core carrier forward link depends on to the
ratio of the other cell interference to the thermal noise. In a
noise-limited system, the reduction in other cell interference will
provide little benefit and the forward link will fall short of power. In an
interference-limited system, the reduction in other cell interference will
more than make up for the reduced received traffic channel signal. The
typical case considered here was analyzed, and the forward link did
balance.


Extended carrier
Concentric carriers
...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
7 - 2 5 Lucent Technologies - Proprietary
See Notice on first page
401-614-040
Issue 2, February 2003
The forward link pilot channel does not have a soft handoff gain. So the
loss of soft handoff gain does not penalize the core carrier pilot
coverage. The reduced interference ratio will benefit the core carrier
pilot channel, and hence the pilot channel coverage in the core carrier
area is not an issue.
Traffic density By design, the traffic density in the extended carrier coverage area must
be less than the traffic density of the core carrier area. The difference
depends upon the extent to which the extended carrier capacity has
been lowered in design in order to expand coverage. The plot below
shows the design traffic density, relative to the design density in the
core carrier coverage area, versus the design area of the extended
carrier relative to the nominal carrier design area. As coverage of the
extended carrier grows, the traffic density between the core and
extended carriers becomes more imbalanced.
Figure 7-12 Extended carrier traffic density versus coverage
Determining mobile
location
To make the concentric carrier approach work, it is necessary to avoid
violating the design capacities of the core and extended carrier. To keep
the extended carrier lightly loaded, all mobiles in the coverage area of
the core carrier need to be served by the core carrier. Also, mobiles
outside the core carrier coverage area need to be served by the extended
carrier or they will suffer degradation (e.g., high FER, call drop, etc.).
Extended Carrier Erlang Density
0.00
0.20
0.40
0.60
0.80
1.00
1.00 1.20 1.40 1.60 1.80 2.00
Extended Carrier Area Relative to Nominal
Carrier
E
x
t
e
n
d
e
d
C
a
r
r
i
e
r
E
r
l
a
n
g
D
e
n
s
i
t
y
R
e
l
a
t
i
v
e
t
o
C
o
r
e
C
a
r
r
i
e
r


...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Extended carrier
Concentric carriers
7 - 2 6
Lucent Technologies - Proprietary
See Notice on first page
401-614-040
Issue 2, February 2003
Through call processing, it is possible to have the mobile report
(PPSMM message) pilot strength as measured in terms of Ec/Io and
overall interference in the band, Io. Multiplying these two terms
together will provide the mobile's received energy per pilot chip, Ec.
The base station knows the transmitted energy per chip. The difference
between transmitted and received energy per chip is the path loss. The
base station can then use this path loss value to estimate whether the
mobile is in the core carrier's coverage area or the extended carrier's
coverage area
10
.
The same measurement of path loss would also be used for triggering
inter-frequency handoffs at the boundaries between the core and
extended carriers.
Currently, the capability to make this estimate of path loss does not
exist in the Lucent products. A new feature is required to support this
capability.
The deployment of concentric carriers will cause an increase in inter-
frequency hard handoff. While Lucent has implemented several
features that increase the robustness of inter-frequency handoffs, inter-
frequency handoffs are still hard handoffs are hence inherently less
reliable than soft handoffs. Therefore, it is possible that some increase
in call drop rate could result from the deployment of concentric
carriers. This increase could be minimized by careful optimization,
particularly in an area where the mobile locations are concentrated
(e.g., along rural highways) and the locations of hard handoffs are well
known.
Growth strategies As traffic demand grows in the core carrier region, clearly the growth
path is to add carriers. As traffic demand grows in the extended carrier
region the same alternatives (adding carriers or adding cells) and trade-
offs apply as in the simple extended carrier case, as discussed in
"Growth strategies" section on Page 7-15. Note that since the core
carriers are placed at traffic hot spots, the pattern of growth could well
dictate that multiple additional core carriers are added well before a
second extended carrier is required.
Applications The concentric carrier approach makes sense for regions of low traffic
density punctuated by localized hot spots, such as scattered small towns
or villages surrounded by a rural area. The town would have to be small
enough to fit within the footprint of the core carrier. The traffic demand
...........................................................................................................................
10 One caveat to this approach is that IS-98 does not specify how accu-
rately the mobile must measure Io.


Extended carrier
Concentric carriers
...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
7 - 2 7 Lucent Technologies - Proprietary
See Notice on first page
401-614-040
Issue 2, February 2003
from within the town would have to be small enough to be served by
the number of carriers available. The areas around the town are
expected to generate light traffic demand, and hence, be ideal for the
extended carrier.


...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Extended carrier
Amplifier sharing - Quasi omni
7 - 2 8
Lucent Technologies - Proprietary
See Notice on first page
401-614-040
Issue 2, February 2003
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Amplifier sharing - Quasi omni
One novel application for extended carriers is amplifier sharing.
Schematically, amplifier sharing can be illustrated by the following
figure:.
Figure 7-13 Quasi-omni illustration
In this configuration, a single amplifier and single receiver service 3
sectors (“quasi-omni”). The splitter splits the power from the linear
amplifier three ways, reducing the power per antenna by
1/3 or -4.8 dB.
11
The combiner combines the signals from the three
faces (alpha, beta, and gamma), and hence, increases the reverse link
noise figure by a factor of 3 or 4.8 dB. The coverage advantage gained
by reducing capacity can be used to overcome the combiner and splitter
disadvantages instead of extending the cell radius. Each sector is lightly
loaded but the footprint of the cell remains the same as that of a fully
loaded, conventional 3-sector cell.
In the reverse link budget, the increased noise figure directly translates
to a decrease in maximum allowable path loss. In the forward link, as
shown previously, the decrease in capacity will be sufficient to offset
the loss in power (i.e., the link will balance), typically with some
margin.
Radio
LA
S
p
l
i
t
t
e
r
C
o
m
b
i
n
e
r
Tx Rx Rx Tx Rx Rx Tx Rx Rx
Alpha
Beta
Gamma
...........................................................................................................................
11 Note that no insertion loss is considered here since values of insertion loss
may vary widely. Once hardware is chosen and the insertion loss is known, it
should be considered as well.


Extended carrier
Amplifier sharing - Quasi omni
...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
7 - 2 9 Lucent Technologies - Proprietary
See Notice on first page
401-614-040
Issue 2, February 2003
To fully overcome the combiner/splitter disadvantage of 4.8 dB would
require reducing the capacity to 2.9 Erlangs per cell. As traffic demand
increase past this capacity, more radios and amplifiers are added and
the splitter/combiners removed. The penalty for the splitters and
combiners is removed from the link budget so there is no longer any
need to reduce capacity. The cell can then run at full capacity of 26.4
Erlangs per sector, or 79.2 Erlangs per cell, in the same footprint. This
approach has the advantage of lowering initial cost in a deployment
(one as opposed to 3 transmitters/receivers per 3-sectored cell), and
selectively paying over time as needed for the additional equipment
required to address traffic growth.
In the case analyzed here, the forward achieved Eb/No is 7.1 dB higher
than the nominal case (note that the pilot was increased to 16.8% of
total power); clearly, the forward link has more than enough power.
This asymmetry can be reduced by the use of Tower Top Low Noise
Amplifiers (TTLNA). As discussed in Chapter 8 of the PCS CDMA RF
Engineering Guidelines, TTLNAs reduce the reverse link noise figure.
The reduction depends on the value for cell site cable loss. Taking 2 dB
as a typical value for cell site cable loss, the typical reduction in reverse
link noise figure is 1.9 dB. Thus, the net increase between the signal
combiner and TTLNA is 2.9 dB (4.8 - 1.9). To achieve this reduction in
interference margin requires that the cell capacity be reduced to 14
Erlangs per face, or 42 Erlangs per cell. The forward link shows that
there is sufficient power to achieve the same pilot channel Ec/Io and
traffic channel Eb/No as the nominal case. Again, as traffic demand
increases past the capacity of the cell, the combiner/splitters can be
removed, as well as the TTLNA. The degree to which this approach is
advantageous depends on the relative cost of a single TTLNA versus
the cost of 2 amplifiers and radios.
Growth strategies The benefit of this approach is that it delays the cost of the second and
third amplifiers and radios until they are needed, while maintaining the
same cell footprint. Thus, a network provider can “pay as they grow”,
by simply adding hardware to existing sites.
As traffic increases on the cell the network operator can either grow to
two amplifiers (see next section) if the traffic demand is asymmetric
among the three sectors or to three amplifiers if the traffic demand is
roughly equal among the sectors. This decision requires some
knowledge of the traffic distribution amongst the sectors. Since all
three sectors are served by the same radio, they have the same PN code,
and hence, traditional service measurements will not capture per-sector
traffic information. However, a network operator can use the Lucent


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Extended carrier
Amplifier sharing - Quasi omni
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On-Demand PSMM Collection (ODPC) feature in conjunction with
post processing to determine traffic demand patterns. The ODPC
feature allows the network operator to collect periodic (period from 1
to 10 minutes) pilot strength information from each mobile on several
(up to 20) cells for a specified time period (up to 2 hours). The pilot
strength information is stored in a file at the OMP. Post-processing of
the pilot strength measurement data, for example using the Lucent
EFLT (Enhanced Forward Link Triangulation) algorithm, can
determine the mobile location to accuracy sufficient to determine per-
sector traffic demand.
Another issue associated with adding amplifiers is that the network
may require reoptimization. This process could be required since the
addition of amplifiers will clearly impact the internal interference
distribution throughout the network, thus necessitating changes in such
parameters as antenna downtilts, neighbor lists, and pilot power.
However, the costs of reoptimization can be minimized through the use
of Lucent's Ocelot tool. Ocelot uses a general nonlinear optimization
procedure to adjust certain parameters of cellular networks in order to
maximize a particular “objective function”. The current objective
function is various combinations of coverage (the percentage of the
served area where a call can be made from) and capacity (how much
traffic can be carried simultaneously). When Ocelot runs an
optimization, the user sees a Trade-off Curve window, with different
coverage/capacity points; clicking any point affords a detailed
examination of the proposed design in a graphical display of the market
area. It is expected that the original design and optimization will
provide a baseline set of data that will allow Ocelot to generate
accurate predictions of the parameter changes required when additional
equipment is added.


Extended carrier
Amplifier sharing - Asymmetric cell
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Amplifier sharing - Asymmetric cell
An approach similar to the quasi-omni approach of the last section is
the asymmetric cell configuration. Instead of sharing a single amplifier
among all three sectors, two total amplifiers are employed. One
amplifier is shared among two of the three of sectors, while the
remaining amplifier is devoted to the third sector. This approach is
appropriate for a cell that has high traffic demand on one sector, and
low traffic demand on the other two sectors. For a case of high demand
on the alpha sector and low demand on beta and gamma sectors, the
scheme would schematically look like the following figure.
Figure 7-14 Asymmetric cell illustration
The splitter splits the power from the linear amplifier two ways,
reducing the power per antenna by 1/2 or -3.0 dB in the lightly loaded
beta and gamma sectors. The remaining amplifier services the fully
loaded alpha sector. The combiner combines the signals from the two
lightly loaded faces (beta and gamma) and hence increases the reverse
link noise figure by a factor of 2 or 3.0 dB. In this configuration, the
coverage footprint of all three sectors is the same. In beta and gamma,
the coverage advantage gained by reducing capacity can be used to
overcome the combiner and splitter disadvantages instead of extending
the cell radius.
Radio
LA
S
p
l
i
t
t
e
r
C
o
m
b
i
n
e
r
Tx Rx Rx Tx Rx Rx Tx Rx Rx
LA
Radio


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Amplifier sharing - Asymmetric cell
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In the beta/gamma reverse link budget, the increased noise figure
directly translates to a decrease in maximum allowable path loss. In the
forward link, as was shown previously, the decrease in capacity helps
offset the loss in power. The standard link budget cannot be used since
the standard link budget uses an interference ratio that assumes that all
sectors are at equal power. The problem is under study and we’re not
currently prepared to deliver a split-sector budget, even though we’re
introducing the concept here.
To fully overcome the combiner/splitter disadvantage of 3.0 dB would
require reducing the capacity to 14 Erlangs for the two lightly loaded
sectors. The third sector that is equipped with its own amplifier would
support the full capacity of 26.4 Erlangs. Thus, the cell's total capacity
is 40.4 Erlangs.
Growth strategies If traffic demand grows in the same pattern, i.e., the busy sector
remains significantly higher loading than the other two sectors, then the
logical growth path is to add carriers in the same arrangement of
amplifier sharing. If traffic grows and the sectors are more uniformly
loaded, then a third amplifier should be deployed with each sector
being supported by its own amplifier. The penalty for the splitters and
combiners is removed from the link budget, so there is no longer any
need to reduce capacity. The cell can then run at full capacity of 26.4
Erlangs per sector, or 79.2 Erlangs per cell, in the same footprint.
If amplifiers are added, the network may require reoptimization.
However, the costs of reoptimization can be minimized through the use
of Lucent's Ocelot tool, as described before.


Extended carrier
Summary
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Summary
In CDMA, cell design capacity can be lowered in order to expand cell
coverage. A carrier in which this design trade-off occurs is termed an
“extended carrier”. Although this design trade-off exists in 2G systems,
it is of greater interest in 3G systems since the allowed higher loading
of 3G yields more dynamic range in which to trade off capacity for
coverage.
The concept of extended carrier may be used in several ways, lowering
deployment costs by better tailoring the design to the specific needs of
the network. These include:
Single extended carrier. This concept embodies the standard design
concept of lowering capacity to extend coverage. Such expanded, low-
capacity cells may reduce deployment costs in lightly loaded (e.g., rural
areas) where traffic demand is slight. Additional extended carriers are
added when needed to address growth.
Concentric extended carrier. This concept uses a base-extended carrier
to achieve ubiquitous, low capacity coverage over a large area. Traffic
growth is addressed by adding reduced coverage, high capacity (core)
carrier at the cell sites, which are centered in the traffic hot spots.
Coverage is thus carrier-dependent. Mobiles crossing the boundary
between core and extended carriers will hard handoff between the two
carriers. This configuration is useful for large low traffic areas
punctuated by traffic hot spots. To fully realize the benefits of this
configuration, feature development is required to determine mobile
location to trigger handoffs between core and extended carriers.
Quasi-omni. This configuration services a 3-sector arrangement with a
single transmitter/receiver by lowering the design capacity and using
the benefit to overcome splitter/combiner losses rather than expand the
coverage. The quasi-omni footprint is thus identical to that of a
standard 3-sector serviced by 3 transmitters/receivers. Traffic growth
can be accommodated within the footprint by adding additional
transmitters/receivers as needed, thus “paying as you grow”.
Asymmetric cell (split-sector). This configuration services a 3-sector
arrangement with two transmitters/receivers. One transmitter/receiver
services 2 sectors with low capacity, exploiting the benefit of lower
traffic to overcome splitter/combiner losses rather than expanding the
footprint. The split-sector footprint is thus identical to that of a standard


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Summary
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3-sector serviced by 3 transmitters/receivers. This configuration
minimizes deployment costs for cells where the traffic tends to be
concentrated on a single sector.
In each of the above scenarios, case-by-base analysis of the forward
link is required in order to ensure link balance. Additionally, some of
the growth scenarios may require re-optimization; however, use of the
Lucent’s Ocelot tool to specify recommended parameter settings can
minimize any associated costs.


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8 Fixed wireless voice networks
Purpose This chapter provides detailed analysis of system performance of 2G
and 3G-1X CDMA fixed wireless voice networks.
Contents Introduction 8-2
Parameters for fixed wireless analysis 8-3
Reverse link interference ratio (βr) 8-3
Required reverse link Eb/Nt for 3G 8-4
Walsh code overhead 8-6
Recommended loading factor 8-8
Channel activity factor 8-8
Reverse link coverage 8-9
System capacity calculation 8-10
Capacity calculation methodology 8-10
Reverse link based capacity calculations 8-10
Indoor 8-11
Outdoor 8-14
Power requirements of forward link 8-17
3G-1X RC3 8-17
3G-1X RC4 8-21
3G-1X with SMV 8-21
Conclusions 8-23
References 8-24


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Fixed wireless voice networks
Introduction
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Introduction
This chapter provides detailed analysis of system performance of 2G
and 3G-1X CDMA fixed wireless voice networks.
The method of calculating voice Erlang capacity for 2G and 3G CDMA
systems (i.e., IS-95, and CDMA2000 or 3G-1X) is well understood and
well documented (see Lucent document 401-614-012, AUTOPLEX
®
Cellular CDMA RF Engineering Guidelines, and 401-703-201, PCS
CDMA RF Engineering Guidelines). The same methodology can be
used to estimate the capacity of a CDMA system when the constraint is
added that the subscriber units are fixed. The capacity of a fixed system
is expected to be greater than for a full mobility system since the fixed
condition of the subscriber unit leads to a relaxed requirement for Eb/
Nt (signal power to impairment power) of both the cell site and
subscriber receiver.
Fixed wireless networks are categorized into two types of applications
based on whether the subscriber unit is located within a building or
outside a building. For the indoor application, the subscriber unit with
conventional omni-directional antenna is placed in fixed position
within a building. Here, the building penetration loss has to be taken
into account in network design due to signal attenuation through the
wall of the building. For outdoor application, the subscriber unit with
narrow beam directional antenna is likely to be on mounted at a
elevated location on a building wall or roof-top and connected to
telephone terminal within the building through a wired connection. The
narrow beam antenna at the subscriber unit reduces the interference
from a given subscriber to cells other than the serving cell. The narrow
beam antenna also reduces the average number of handoff legs
subscribers will use, which will benefit forward link capacity. The
outdoor application has coverage and capacity advantages over the
indoor application due to both the directional antenna at the subscriber
location and the lack of building penetration loss.


Fixed wireless voice networks
Parameters for fixed wireless analysis
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Parameters for fixed wireless analysis
Reverse link interference
ratio (β
r
)
For indoor applications, the interference ratio is the same as the mobile
case because omnidirectional antenna is used at the subscriber unit. It is
well known that the reverse link interference ratio of a mobile system is
0.6, 0.85, and 1.2 for omni cell, 3-sector, and 6-sector, respectively.
Figure 8-1 Directional antenna points to desired base station
For outdoor application, as discussed earlier, the main effect of the
directional antenna is to reduce interference to cells other than the
serving cell. In order to determine how β
r
depends on the antenna
beamwidth and cell site sectorization, simulations were done that
modeled a network like that pictured in Figure 8-1with the following
assumptions:
• A total of 19 cell sites consisting of two tiers
• Subscriber units are randomly placed over the entire service area
• The subscriber unit antenna is correctly oriented toward the
serving antenna
• Hata propagation mode is employed and the correlated log-normal
shadowing effects is added in calculating path loss
• Perfect power control is assumed
• The horizontal and vertical antenna patterns as well as antenna
downtilt in base station and uptilt in subscriber unit are included.
Figure 8-2 shows the simulated interference ratio as function of
antenna beamwidth from 30
0
to 60
0
and cell site sectorization. As we
can see, β
r
increases with increasing antenna beamwidth. At 60
0
of
antenna beamwidth, the interference ratio of omni cell (β=0.2) is lower
+
+
+
+
+
+
+


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Fixed wireless voice networks
Parameters for fixed wireless analysis
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than that of 3-sector (β
r
=0.3) and 6-sector (β
r
=0.27), at 45
0
, β
r
of
6-sector is the same as omni cell (β
r
=0.15) which is lower than that of
3-sector (β
r
=0.22), and at 30
0
, β
r
of 6-sector is slightly less than 0.1,
which is interference ratio of omni cell. A explanation why 6-sector
configuration has low interference ratio is that for given antenna
beamwidth of subscriber unit the 6-sector configuration can suppress
the interference from all other sectors due to using narrow beam
antenna at base station. Compared to the indoor or mobile scenario, the
interference ratio of directional antenna is significant lower in the fixed
wireless system. For estimation and comparison purposes, the
capacities in this paper for outdoor fixed wireless applications will
assume a 50
0
beamwidth for the subscriber unit which leads to the
following values of reverse link interference ratio (omni-directional or
indoor applications are included to make the table complete):
Table 8-1 Reverse link interference ratios
Figure 8-2 Interference ratio as function of antenna beamwidth of
subscriber unit and cell site sectorization
Required reverse link Eb/Nt
for 3G
Reverse link required Eb/Nt is used both in capacity calculations (pole
capacity equation) and in coverage calculations (link budgets).
Required Eb/Nt is a function of channel condition. One of the main
Subscriber Antenna Cell Sectorization
Omni 2-sector (linear highway) 3 -Sector 6-Sector
Omni 0.6 0.3 0.85 1.2
Directional 0.15 0.09 0.25 0.2


Fixed wireless voice networks
Parameters for fixed wireless analysis
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characteristics of the channel condition is subscriber speed. Subscribers
at zero velocity are typically thought of being in an Additive White
Gaussian Noise (AWGN) channel. However, field experience shows
that the AWGN value of required Eb/Nt may not properly reflect the
subscriber conditions due to the fact that the subscriber receiver sees
some apparent motion due to movement of its surrounding
environment. Therefore we derive a required Eb/Nt for the fixed case
from an interpolation of the link level simulation results for the AWGN
and slow speed channel models.
Link level simulation results for the 3G ASIC (CSM5000) at 1% FER
show that the worst-case total reverse link traffic Eb/Nt for 2 paths at
9.6 kbps is 5.4 dB. This value corresponds to 5.4 –3 =2.4 dB traffic
Eb/Nt per diversity branch, and shall be used in further calculations for
the full mobility case. Note that the bit energy Eb in this value
corresponds only to the traffic energy and does not include the energy
embedded in the reverse link pilot signal.
The total per-branch Eb/Nt that must be applied in capacity or coverage
applications must include the pilot. The pilot is 3.75 dB below the
traffic channel, or 42% of the traffic channel. The total per-branch
Eb/Nt can be obtained from the traffic per-branch Eb/No by scaling the
numerator to contain both traffic and pilot energy:
We therefore take the full mobility total per-branch Eb/Nt as 4 dB.
Similar calculations establish that the fixed Additive White Gaussian
Noise (AWGN) total per-branch Eb/Nt is 2.15, or approximately
2.2 dB.
As stated previously, the AWGN value may not properly reflect the
subscriber conditions since the receiver sees some apparent motion due
to movement of its surrounding environment. For example, Qualcomm
2G ASIC simulations indicated that the per-branch Eb/No for 0
velocity AWGN was 3 dB. Later field measurements indicated that the
value for fixed subscribers was higher: 4.6 dB. This difference suggests
that the AWGN model underestimates the fixed receiver requirements.
This information can be used to estimate a reasonable 3G fixed Eb/Nt
from available information. The 2G ASIC values for required Eb/Nt for
the cases of AWGN and full mobility are 3.0 dB and 7.0 dB,
respectively. The observed fixed receiver Eb/Nt of 4.6 dB can be
( )
393 . 0
10 42 . 0 1 = +
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
traffic
t
b
traffic
t
b
total
t
b
N
E
er TrafficPow
PilotPower er TrafficPow
N
E
N
E


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Fixed wireless voice networks
Parameters for fixed wireless analysis
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viewed as the Eb/Nt corresponding to a partial or limited mobility that
corresponds to the situation of a fixed receiver within a surrounding,
moving environment. Each of these values can be associated with a
relative mobility index varying between 0 and 1, where AWGN
corresponds to index 0 and full mobility corresponds to index 1. The
mobility index for a fixed receiver in a moving environment (i.e., the
mobility index corresponding to the observed Eb/Nt of 4.6 dB) can be
estimated from a line fit to the AWGN and full mobility values.
Table 8-2 Eb/No values and mobility index for 2G/ASIC 1.0
The equation is a linear fit to the values in the table. The equation can
be solved for the value of mobility index, x (x=0.3) that corresponds to
the 4.6 dB associated with the fixed receiver in a moving environment.
A line can also be fit to the data from the CSM5000 in the same
manner, since the endpoints for 0 relative mobility (AWGN) and full
relative mobility (1) are known. Since x=0.3 or 30% relative mobility
appears from the above to be the proper choice for a fixed receiver in a
moving environment, the appropriate Eb/Nt requirement for 3G fixed
wireless can be estimated by substituting x=0.3 into this equation.
Table 8-3 Eb/No values and mobility index for 3G ASIC
The substitution of x=0.3 into this equation yields Y=1.92, or an
estimated per-branch Eb/Nt of 10*log(1.92)=2.8 dB. This value will be
used to compute uplink fixed wireless capacity for 3G.
Walsh code overhead Each soft/softer handoff leg requires a Walsh code. Based on IS-95A
handoff probabilities in Reference [1] of this chapter, we can calculate
the Walsh code overhead factors for 3-sector and omni configurations.
Condition Per-branch Eb/Nt (dB) Mobility Index
AWGN 3.0 0
Full 7.0 1
Fixed, moving environment 4.6 x?
( )
3 . 0 3 . 0 7 . 0 46 . 0
10 10 10 10 + ⋅ − = x
Condition Per-branch Eb/Nt (dB) Mobility Index
AWGN 2.2 0
Full 4.0 1
Fixed, moving environment Y? 0.3 (from above)
22 . 0 22 . 0 4 . 0
10 3 . 0 ) 10 10 ( + ⋅ − = Y


Fixed wireless voice networks
Parameters for fixed wireless analysis
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The maximum number of primary Walsh codes is the maximum
number of Walsh codes available divided by this Walsh code overhead
and then rounded down to the nearest integer. Note that the soft handoff
Walsh code overhead differs from the forward link soft handoff power
overhead (note that the latter term, power overhead, is the one that
appears in forward link budgets). This difference is due to the fact that
the legs consume Walsh codes in the same manner regardless of the soft
handoff state, but the amount of power consumed by a leg is a function
of its soft handoff state. For 3G-1X, IS-95B handoff algorithm is used.
Due to the improvement in the IS-95B handoff algorithm, a 10%
handoff reduction is applied to the IS-95A handoff probabilities. The
Walsh code limit for traffic channels in 2G and 3G-1X is 60 (four
overhead channels: pilot, sync, paging and quick paging (although
quick paging is not used in 2G, the Walsh Code is reserved to avoid any
possible conflicts with bordering 3G systems)). The addition of dual
paging channels (FID2064) will reduce the number by 1 to 59. The
calculated Walsh code overhead and the number of primary traffic
channels supported with Walsh code limitation (61 for 2G and 60 for
3G) are listed in Table 8-4 and Table 8-5 below.
Table 8-4 Walsh code overhead
Table 8-5 Walsh Code limitation to primary traffic channels for max
of 60 available
Subscriber Application 2G (IS-95 A) 3G
Omni 3-sector Omni 3-sector
mobility (for comparison) 1.4 1.76 1.36 1.68
indoor fixed 1.29 1.54 1.26 1.49
outdoor fixed 1.00 1.25 1.00 1.25
Subscriber Application 2G (IS-95 A) 3G
Omni 3-sector Omni 3-sector
mobility (for comparison) 42 34 44 35
indoor fixed 46 38 47 40
outdoor fixed 60 48 60 48


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Fixed wireless voice networks
Parameters for fixed wireless analysis
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For the 3G-1X system, the Walsh code limit can be greatly increased
(more than doubled) by using Radio Configuration 4 (RC4) on the
forward link. Note that RC3 is still used for the reverse link, so any
reverse link air interface limit still exists. The cost of the extra Walsh
codes for the forward link is an approximate 1 dB penalty in required
Eb/Nt. The impact of the increase in required Eb/Nt will be examined
later in "Power requirements of forward link" section on Page 8-17. A
single 3G-1X carrier can support both RC3 and RC4 on the forward
link. Lucent has developed proprietary algorithms (FID 3747.2) that
maximize forward link capacity optimizes the system capacity based
on the instant value of multiple parameters such as RF Power, RC3
Walsh code usage, voice vs. data call, etc. The feature will make the
RC3/RC4 assignment decision at call setup time.
Recommended loading
factor
In a fixed wireless system, the recommended loading factors (relative
to pole capacity) are:
• 72% for 3G-1X systems (the standard 3G value)
• 65% for 2G systems with pole capacities greater than or equal to
69 (the higher values of channels allows for higher loadings
without risk of system instability since the larger number of
subscribers tends to smooth potential instabilities)
• 55% loading otherwise (the standard 2G value).
Channel activity factor The channel activity factor for 2G voice systems is 0.40. The value for
3G-1X must also account for the reverse link pilot and is 0.58. The
Selectable mode vocoders (SMV) will result in lower channel activity
factors. The following values are used by Lucent for estimating
capacities of a SMV system:
Table 8-6 Reverse link channel activity factors for different SMV
modes
Mode Reverse Link VAF
Mode 0 0.58 (same as EVRC)
Mode 1 0.51
Mode 2 0.47


Fixed wireless voice networks
Reverse link coverage
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Reverse link coverage
Reverse link coverage for fixed wireless networks is estimated in the
same manner as for mobile networks (see "Link budget" section on
Page 2-14). However, some of the parameters for fixed wireless
networks will be different, typically leading to larger predicted
coverage areas. The differences that expand coverage include:
• Lower Eb/Nt requirements
• Higher subscriber unit antenna gains for outdoor fixed wireless
networks
• Lower interference margins for cases when Walsh codes are the
limiting resource
• Lower building penetration margins for outdoor fixed wireless.
The differences that shrink coverage include:
• Higher interference margins for some 2G scenarios since the
higher values of channels allows for higher loadings without risk
of system instability since the larger number of subscribers tends
to smooth potential instabilities (note that this item shrinks
coverage as opposed to the other items that expand coverage)
• Possibly higher building penetration margins or fade margins for
indoor wireless case. Some customers may require higher building
penetration losses for indoor fixed systems since all subscribers
are indoors. Other customers may require that the fade margin
term be increased to account for the variability of building
penetration values.
For a typical indoor fixed wireless system, the coverage advantage over
a mobile network will be just the difference in Eb/Nts, which is 1.2 dB
for 3G-1X. For outdoor fixed wireless systems, the coverage advantage
can be quite large, since it includes both the gain of the directional
subscriber antenna as well as the gain due to not having a building
penetration loss.


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Fixed wireless voice networks
System capacity calculation
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System capacity calculation
Capacity calculation
methodology
The RF Engineering Guidelines (Lucent document 401-614-012,
AUTOPLEX
®
Cellular CDMA RF Engineering Guidelines, and 401-
703-201, PCS CDMA RF Engineering Guidelines) explain the
methodology for computing system capacity, which is a five step
process as follows:
1. Compute the “pole capacity”:
where:
g is the processing gain (bandwidth divided by channel rate)
α is the channel activity factor
β
r
is the reverse link interference ratio
d is the required Eb/Nt expressed as a linear ratio (as opposed
to dB)
2. Choose a loading factor, which is a relative amount of the pole
capacity to determine maximum number of simultaneous RF
channels. This loading factor is directly related to the predicted
coverage through the interference margin term (sometimes called
noise rise). The higher the loading, the higher the interference
margin and the smaller the coverage area.
3. This maximum number of channels must be checked against the
forward link Walsh Code limit. If the Walsh Code limit is less than
the computed value, the Walsh Code limit is the maximum
number of channels.
4. Choose a grade of service and use that to translate maximum
number of channels to voice capacity in terms of Erlangs. Erlang
B tables are typically used for this mapping.
5. The forward link air interface capacity is then verified by
checking that the forward link has sufficient power to support the
number of users.
For a fixed system, two parameters (reverse link interference ratio and
required Eb/Nt) of the pole capacity equation are different than the
mobile case, as explained below.
1
) 1 (
+
+ ⋅ ⋅
=
r
pole
d
g
n
β α


Fixed wireless voice networks
System capacity calculation
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Reverse link based
capacity calculations
The capacities considering just reverse link air interface limits and
Walsh code limits (to Step 4 in the 5-step process described above) are
presented below.
Indoor
Table 8-7 2G ASIC 1.0 reverse link capacity of indoor fixed application
Table 8-8 2G ASIC 1.1 reverse link capacity of indoor fixed application
ASCI 1.0 Voice Indoor Fixed
Configuration 3-sector BS, omni terminal omni BS, omni terminal
Vocoder 8K 13K 8K 13K
Data rate 9600 14400 9600 14400
Eb/Nt in dB 4.6 4 4.6 4
d = Eb/Nt|rqd in ratio 2.9 2.5 2.9 2.5
g, processing gain 128 85.3 128 85.3
α, voice activity factor 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4
reverse beta 0.85 0.85 0.6 0.6
Nmax = g/(alpha*d*(1+beta))+1 61.0 46.9 70.3 54.1
% of loading 55% 55% 65% 55%
N = Nmax*% of loading 33 25 45 29
Reverse Link Channel Capacity with Walsh code limitation 33 25 45 29
Reverse Link Erlang Capacity @ 1% blocking 22.9 16.1 33.4 19.5
Reverse Link Erlang Capacity @ 2% blocking 24.6 17.5 35.6 21.0
ASCI 1.1 Voice Indoor Fixed
Configuration 3-sector BS, omni terminal omni BS, omni terminal
Vocoder 8K 13K 8K 13K
Data rate 9600 14400 9600 14400
Eb/Nt in dB 4 3.4 4 3.4
d = Eb/Nt|rqd in ratio 2.5 2.2 2.5 2.2
g, processing gain 128 85.3 128 85.3
α, voice activity factor 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4
reverse beta 0.85 0.85 0.6 0.6
Nmax = g/(alpha*d*(1+beta))+1 69.9 53.7 80.6 61.9
% of loading 65% 55% 65% 55%
N = Nmax*% of loading 45 29 52 34
Reverse Link Channel Capacity with Walsh code limitation 38 29 46 34
Reverse Link Erlang Capacity @ 1% blocking 27.3 19.5 34.3 23.8
Reverse Link Erlang Capacity @ 2% blocking 29.2 21.0 36.5 25.5


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Fixed wireless voice networks
System capacity calculation
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Table 8-9 RC3 reverse link capacity of indoor fixed application
Table 8-10 3G-1X RC4 Reverse Link capacity of indoor fixed application
3G-1X Voice RC3 Indoor Fixed
Configuration 3-sector BS, omni terminal omni BS, omni terminal
Vocoder 8K 13K 8K 13K
Data rate 9600 14400 9600 14400
Eb/Nt in dB 2.8 2.6 2.8 2.6
d = Eb/Nt|rqd in ratio 1.9 1.8 1.9 1.8
g, processing gain 128 85.3 128 85.3
α, voice activity factor 0.58 0.52 0.58 0.52
reverse beta 0.85 0.85 0.6 0.6
Nmax = g/(alpha*d*(1+beta))+1 63.6 49.7 73.4 57.4
% of loading 72% 72% 72% 72%
N = Nmax*% of loading 45 35 52 41
Reverse Link Channel Capacity with Walsh code limitation 40 35 47 41
Reverse Link Erlang Capacity @ 1% blocking 29.0 24.6 35.2 29.9
Reverse Link Erlang Capacity @ 2% blocking 31.0 26.4 37.5 31.9
3G-1X Voice RC4 Indoor Fixed
Configuration 3-sector BS, omni terminal omni BS, omni terminal
Vocoder 8K 8K
Data rate 9600 9600
Eb/Nt in dB 2.8 2.8
d = Eb/Nt|rqd in ratio 1.9 1.9
g, processing gain 128 128
α, voice activity factor 0.58 0.58
reverse beta 0.85 0.6
Nmax = g/(alpha*d*(1+beta))+1 63.6 73.4
% of loading 72% 72%
N = Nmax*% of loading 45 52
Reverse Link Channel Capacity with Walsh code limitation 45 52
Reverse Link Erlang Capacity @ 1% blocking 33.4 39.7
Reverse Link Erlang Capacity @ 2% blocking 35.6 42.1


Fixed wireless voice networks
System capacity calculation
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Table 8-11 3G-1X RC4 with SMV Mode 1 reverse link capacity of indoor fixed application
Table 8-12 3G-1X RC4 with SMV Mode 2 reverse link capacity of indoor fixed application
3G-1X Voice RC4 & SMV Mode 1 Indoor Fixed
Configuration 3-sector BS, omni terminal omni BS, omni terminal
Vocoder 8K 8K
Data rate 9600 9600
Eb/Nt in dB 2.8 2.8
d = Eb/Nt|rqd in ratio 1.9 1.9
g, processing gain 128 128
α, voice activity factor 0.51 0.51
reverse beta 0.85 0.6
Nmax = g/(alpha*d*(1+beta))+1 72.4 83.6
% of loading 72% 72%
N = Nmax*% of loading 52 60
Reverse Link Channel Capacity with Walsh code limitation 52 60
Reverse Link Erlang Capacity @ 1% blocking 39.7 46.9
Reverse Link Erlang Capacity @ 2% blocking 42.1 49.6
3G-1X Voice RC4 & SMV Mode 2 Indoor Fixed
Configuration 3-sector BS, omni terminal omni BS, omni terminal
Vocoder 8K 8K
Data rate 9600 9600
Eb/Nt in dB 2.8 2.8
d = Eb/Nt|rqd in ratio 1.9 1.9
g, processing gain 128 128
α, voice activity factor 0.47 0.47
reverse beta 0.85 0.6
Nmax = g/(alpha*d*(1+beta))+1 78.5 90.6
% of loading 72% 72%
N = Nmax*% of loading 56 65
Reverse Link Channel Capacity with Walsh code limitation 56 65
Reverse Link Erlang Capacity @ 1% blocking 43.3 51.5
Reverse Link Erlang Capacity @ 2% blocking 45.9 54.4


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Fixed wireless voice networks
System capacity calculation
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Outdoor
The capacity improvement of a sector is an important benefit obtained
from the reduced in the outer sector interference when the directional
antenna is used.
Table 8-13 2G ASIC 1.0 reverse link capacity of outdoor fixed application
Table 8-14 2G ASIC 1.1 reverse link capacity of outdoor fixed application
ASCI 1.0 Voice Outdoor Fixed
Configuration 3-sector BS, directional
terminal
omni BS, directional
terminal
Vocoder 8K 13K 8K 13K
Data rate 9600 14400 9600 14400
Eb/Nt in dB 4.6 4 4.6 4
d = Eb/Nt|rqd in ratio
2.9 2.5 2.9 2.5
g, processing gain 128 85.3 128 85.3
α, voice activity factor 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4
reverse beta 0.25 0.25 0.15 0.15
Nmax = g/(alpha*d*(1+beta))+1 89.8 68.9 97.5 74.9
% of loading 65% 65% 65% 65%
N = Nmax*% of loading 58 44 63 48
Reverse Link Channel Capacity with Walsh code limitation 48 44 60 48
Reverse Link Erlang Capacity @ 1% blocking 36.1 32.5 46.9 36.1
Reverse Link Erlang Capacity @ 2% blocking 38.4 34.7 49.6 38.4
ASCI 1.1 Voice Outdoor Fixed
Configuration 3-sector BS, directional
terminal
omni BS, directional
terminal
Vocoder 8K 13K 8K 13K
Data rate 9600 14400 9600 14400
Eb/Nt in dB 4 3.4 4 3.4
d = Eb/Nt|rqd in ratio 2.5 2.2 2.5 2.2
g, processing gain 128 85.3 128 85.3
α, voice activity factor 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4
reverse beta 0.25 0.25 0.15 0.15
Nmax = g/(alpha*d*(1+beta))+1 102.9 79.0 111.8 85.8
% of loading 65% 65% 65% 65%
N = Nmax*% of loading 66 51 72 55
Reverse Link Channel Capacity with Walsh code limitation 48 48 60 55
Reverse Link Erlang Capacity @ 1% blocking 36.1 36.1 46.9 42.4
Reverse Link Erlang Capacity @ 2% blocking 38.4 38.4 49.6 44.9


Fixed wireless voice networks
System capacity calculation
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Table 8-15 3G-1X reverse link capacity of outdoor fixed application
Table 8-16 3G-1X reverse link capacity of outdoor fixed application
3G-1X Voice RC3/RC2 Outdoor Fixed
Configuration 3-sector BS, directional
terminal
omni BS, directional
terminal
Vocoder 8K 13K 8K 13K
Data rate 9600 14400 9600 14400
Eb/Nt in dB 2.8 2.6 2.8 2.6
d = Eb/Nt|rqd in ratio 1.9 1.8 1.9 1.8
g, processing gain 128 85.3 128 85.3
α, voice activity factor 0.58 0.52 0.58 0.52
reverse beta 0.25 0.25 0.15 0.15
Nmax = g/(alpha*d*(1+beta))+1 93.7 73.1 101.7 79.4
% of loading 72% 72% 72% 72%
N = Nmax*% of loading 67 52 73 57
Reverse Link Channel Capacity with Walsh code limitation 48 48 60 57
Reverse Link Erlang Capacity @ 1% blocking 36.1 36.1 46.9 44.2
Reverse Link Erlang Capacity @ 2% blocking 38.4 38.4 49.6 46.8
3G-1X Voice RC4 (FL) Outdoor Fixed
Configuration 3-sector BS, directional
terminal
omni BS, directional
terminal
Vocoder 8K 8K
Data rate 9600 9600
Eb/Nt in dB 2.8 2.8
d = Eb/Nt|rqd in ratio 1.9 1.9
g, processing gain 128 128
α, voice activity factor 0.58 0.58
reverse beta 0.25 0.15
Nmax = g/(alpha*d*(1+beta))+1 93.7 101.7
% of loading 72% 72%
N = Nmax*% of loading 67 73
Reverse Link Channel Capacity with Walsh code limitation 67 73
Reverse Link Erlang Capacity @ 1% blocking 53.4 58.9
Reverse Link Erlang Capacity @ 2% blocking 56.3 62.0


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Fixed wireless voice networks
System capacity calculation
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Table 8-17 3G-1X RC4 with SMV Mode 1 reverse link capacity of indoor fixed application
Table 8-18 3G-1X RC4 with SMV Mode 2 reverse link capacity of indoor fixed application
As we see, the capacity of outdoor is significant higher than that of
indoor with or without Walsh code limitation.
3G-1X Voice RC4 & SMV Mode 1 Indoor Fixed
Configuration 3-sector BS,
omni terminal
omni BS, omni
terminal
Vocoder 8K 8K
Data rate 9600 9600
Eb/Nt in dB 2.8 2.8
d = Eb/Nt|rqd in ratio 1.9 1.9
g, processing gain 128 128
α, voice activity factor 0.51 0.51
reverse beta 0.25 0.15
Nmax = g/(alpha*d*(1+beta))+1 106.7 115.9
% of loading 72% 72%
N = Nmax*% of loading 76 83
Reverse Link Channel Capacity with Walsh code limitation 76 83
Reverse Link Erlang Capacity @ 1% blocking 61.7 68.2
Reverse Link Erlang Capacity @ 2% blocking 64.9 71.6
3G-1X Voice RC4 & SMV Mode 2 Indoor Fixed
Configuration 3-sector BS,
omni terminal
omni BS, omni
terminal
Vocoder 8K 8K
Data rate 9600 9600
Eb/Nt in dB 2.8 2.8
d = Eb/Nt|rqd in ratio 1.9 1.9
g, processing gain 128 128
α, voice activity factor 0.47 0.47
reverse beta 0.25 0.15
Nmax = g/(alpha*d*(1+beta))+1 115.7 125.6
% of loading 72% 72%
N = Nmax*% of loading 83 90
Reverse Link Channel Capacity with Walsh code limitation 83 90
Reverse Link Erlang Capacity @ 1% blocking 68.2 74.7
Reverse Link Erlang Capacity @ 2% blocking 71.6 78.3


Fixed wireless voice networks
Power requirements of forward link
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............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Power requirements of forward link
3G-1X RC3 To assess the forward link, we begin with the fundamental forward link
equation that conserves power at the J4 (antenna connector) port at the
base station (see "Forward link" section on Page 2-20):
where α and x are the forward link voice activity and forward link
power allocation, respectively, for the jth link (user). The allocation is
the fraction of total transmit power allocated to the link, and is
frequently referenced as Ec/Ior. Q
max
is the maximum power (e.g., 16
watts for PCS Modcell) broadcast at the J4 port. The fraction µ is the
(fixed) percentage of maximum power provided for overhead functions
(e.g., pilot, page). At full power, the expression above reduces to:
The capacity is determined by the allowed number of links in the sum;
i.e., for a given distribution of the random variables α and x, there is a
maximum number N of links that can be supported in order to satisfy
the equation above with a high degree of probability. We will use the
equation above to estimate the difference between fixed and fully
mobile capacity by projecting the allowed change in N when the
distribution of x’s is shifted from fully mobile to fixed only. This
process requires estimation of the x values for both conditions.
To proceed further, we conservatively assume that all subscriber units
are located at the edge of cell coverage, where “edge” in this context
denotes a cell exit or entry point. This assumption can be exploited in
two ways:
• At the design edge, the ratio of received pilot strength to total
background interference (Ec/Io) must be optimized to be greater
than the handoff add threshold T_ADD.(e.g., -12 dB). The
physical boundary of the cell must correspond to this value (as
opposed to T_DROP) in order to ensure that a subscriber entering
the cell adds a new pilot before dropping the old one (the “make
before break” rule of soft handoff).
• Given the subscriber placement, all subscribers are in a handoff
state, which (conservatively) establishes a minimum of two paths.
max max max
Q Q Q x
j
links all
j
≤ +

µ α
µ α − ≤

1
j
links all
j
x


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Fixed wireless voice networks
Power requirements of forward link
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The value of x (Ec/Ior) for each subscriber can therefore be obtained
from curves of Ec/Ior vs. geometry for 2-path cases. These curves are
available as a function of subscriber speed and for the AWGN cases.
The curves are generated from link level simulations. In the reverse
link analysis (see above), the AWGN values were scaled to obtain
Eb/Nt requirements for a fixed receiver in a moving environment. This
scaling was done by comparing measurements of 2G fixed wireless
requirements to AWGN values. Since there are less empirical results on
2G forward link fixed wireless Eb/Nt requirements, the forward link
3G AWGN values shall be used without adjustment as fixed wireless
requirements.
The link level simulation curves
12
plot Ec/I
or
as a function of the
geometry. Geometry is defined as I
or
/(FNoW+I
oc
), where I
or
= the sum
of received power density from the cell(s) in the active set, FNoW is the
mobile noise floor, and I
oc
= the received power density from all
surrounding cells not in the active set. The Ec/I
or
value from the curves
applies to the link from the host cell only. The Ioc termdoes not contain
the receiver noise, as the underlying simulations were interference-
limited. For the handoff case, this value becomes the ratio of the total
received power density from the two handoff cells (i.e.,
I
or
= I
or
(1) + I
or
(2)) to the total impairment density Ioc. The curves
were produced with 20% of the host power allocated to pilot.
To compute the appropriate value of Ec/I
or
for the subscriber placement
presumed, the value of geometry for each subscriber must be
computed. The value of geometry can be computed by noting the
following:
• The pilot power is a constant fraction η of the total maximum cell
power (I
or1
W)
• At the cell edge, each subscriber’s ratio of pilot power to total
background power is THRES
• At the cell edge, I
or1
=I
or2
due to the placement of subscribers and
the assumption that all cells broadcast at full, equal power.
Accordingly:
...........................................................................................................................
12 These curves are found in the document “Simulation Study of the OTD Mode for the
Voice Service Case in IS-2000”, by Qi Bi, Yung-Fang Chen, and Raafat Kamel; March
2000.


Fixed wireless voice networks
Power requirements of forward link
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These three equations can be combined to yield:
Evaluation of this expression for THRES=-12 dB and a 20% ratio of
pilot to host power yields a geometry of 1.7, or 2.3 dB. Note that this
analysis implies that the geometry is constant for all subscribers on the
edge, regardless of effects such as lognormal fading. The constant
value follows from the assumption that optimization for all possible
boundary (i.e., exit/entry) positions has established a value equal to the
THRES value in order to ensure handoff performance at the cell edge.
The value of Ec/I
or
for AWGN and 3 velocities for a geometry of
2.3 dB are tabulated below for 2 GHz. These values can therefore be
used to analyze the relative increase between the 3G-1X full mobility
and 3G-1X fixed wireless capacities for the PCS case. These results
will serve as a conservative estimate of the relative increase at lower
frequencies (e.g., 450 MHz, 850 MHz) since at longer wavelengths
typical subscriber velocities will yield lower fast fading rates. These
rates will bias the spread of Ec/I
or
for nonzero velocities towards the
upper rows of the table,
13
resulting in a slightly higher relative increase
when the receiver is fixed.
W I W FN
W I W I
G geometry
W I W I W I W FN
pilot
W I pilot
oc t
or or
THRES
oc or or t
or
+
+
=
=
+ + +
=
2 1
10 /
2 1
1
10
η
1
2
10
1
10 /

|
.
|

\
|
=

η
THRES
G
...........................................................................................................................
13 For example, a speed of 100 km/hr. at 2 GHz is roughly equivalent to a speed of 400
km/hr. at 450 MHz: each achieves the same fast fading rate, since the wavelength at 450
MHz is approximately 4 times greater than that at 2 GHz. The value of -15.9 dB would
therefore be excluded from the 450 MHz case.


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Fixed wireless voice networks
Power requirements of forward link
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Table 8-19 Ec/Ior for 2-path, d=0 (equal strength handoff legs),
geometry is 2.3 dB, frequency=2GHz
For the full mobility case, presuming that each velocity is equally
probable, the mean and standard deviation of the random variable x is
0.028 and 0.0058, respectively. In contrast, for the fixed wireless case
the single constant value of x is 0.021 (equivalently, a mean of 0.021
and a standard deviation of 0).
This information can now be used to evaluate the fundamental forward
link equation for the fixed and fully mobile cases. The left hand side is
a random variable that can be approximated as Gaussian since the sum
is over a large number of independent variables (note that the voice
activity and allocation x are independent). To satisfy the equation with
high (e.g., 98%) probability, we require that the 98
th
percentile (the
value corresponding to the mean plus two standard deviations) of the
Gaussian distribution be less than or equal to the right hand side. In
summary:
The last equation is quadratic in √N, and can be solved for N. In
solution, a value of µ=0.29 is employed since this is the fraction of total
power consumed by a pilot at 20% total (the value employed in the
Ec/I
or
simulations) and the additional overhead channels of page and
Velocity x = Ec/Ior
“0” km/hr. (AWGN) -16.7 dB (2.1%)
3 km/hr. -14.3 dB (3.7%)
30 km/hr. -15.3 dB (3.0%)
100 km/hr. -15.9 dB (2.6%)
[ ]
0 ) 1 ( 2
,
1 2
1
2 2 2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2 2 2
1
≤ − − + + +
+ + =
= =
− ≤ +
− ≤ =

=
µ σ η σ η σ σ η η
σ η σ η σ σ σ
η η η
µ σ η
µ α
α α α α
α α α
α
x x x x
x x x y
x y
y
j
N
j
j
N N
y Accordingl
N
N y E
x y
y


Fixed wireless voice networks
Power requirements of forward link
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sync. Additionally, the mean and standard deviation of voice activity
are estimated simply by presuming full rate (1) with a probability of 0.4
and 1/8 rate with a probability of 0.6.
With these assignments, the quadratic equation in √N is evaluated for
1) the N corresponding to full mobility; and 2) the N corresponding to
AWGN. The ratio of the latter to the former is 1.4, or a 40% increase in
channels. Since the full-power (blocking) condition for full mobility
has been estimated in simulations to be 35 channels (26.4 Erlangs), the
corresponding number of primary channels at the AWGN full-power
(blocking) condition should be 35(1.4)=49. This corresponds to 37
Erlangs at the 1% blocking condition and 39.3 Erlangs for the 2%
blocking condition.
This estimate must be treated as an upper bound on the capacity for a
fixed receiver in a moving environment, since in arriving at this value
no adjustment was made to the Ec/Ior value obtained from the AWGN
condition. In contrast, the AWGN value in uplink analysis was scaled
in order to account for motion in the surrounding environment.
Nevertheless, the forward link result of 37 Erlangs is significant in that
it suggests that the forward link should be able to support the 34
Erlangs estimated for the uplink. This conclusion is applicable to
lower frequencies as well, since the relative increase between fixed and
mobile capacity at PCS frequencies should be less than or equal to the
relative increase at longer wavelengths (see above).
3G-1X RC4 In several cases, Walsh codes are the capacity limiting resource.
Forward link RC4 allows for twice the number of Walsh codes relative
to RC3 (128 vs. 64). However, the cost of the extra Walsh codes is
higher, required power requirements to support RC4 subscriber units.
The power fraction (Ec/Ior) versus Geometry curves show about 1 dB
power penalty for RC4. This 1 dB can be directly applied as an Erlang
capacity reduction. Thus, the 37 Erlangs for RC3 is reduced by 1 dB to
29.4 Erlangs for 1% blocking and from 39.3 to 31.2 Erlangs for 2%
blocking. In this case the limiting resource is forward link air interface
capacity.
3G-1X with SMV The 1 dB Eb/Nt penalty from utilizing RC4 typically leads to the
forward link air interface being the limiting resource. The SMV
(Selectable Mode Vocoder) provides capacity gains for the forward
link. The capacity gains for SMV in the forward link are expected to be
as follows.


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Fixed wireless voice networks
Power requirements of forward link
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Thus the increase in forward link capacity relative to the RC4 case for
Mode 1 is to 39.3 Erlangs for 1% blocking, or 41.8 Erlangs for 2%
blocking. For Mode 2, the capacity increases to 48.2 Erlangs for 1%
blocking, and 51.2 Erlangs for 2% blocking.
Mode Forward link gain
Mode 0 0%
Mode 1 34%
Mode 2 64%
Mode 3 80%
½ Max mode 1 70%
½ Mac mode 2 93%


Fixed wireless voice networks
Conclusions
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............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Conclusions
The following table summarizes the capacities for various
configurations.
Where the highlighting indicates the limiting resource as follows:
• No highlighting indicates that the reverse link air interface is the
limiting resource
• Pink highlighting indicates that Walsh codes are the limiting
resource
• Yellow highlighting indicates that the forward link air interface is
the limiting resource.
• Green highlighting indicates that further analysis is required to
verify the forward link power requirements are satisfied.
Capacities for fixed wireless 3G-1X data networks are currently being
studied.
Fixed Wireless Application Indoor (Omni Subscriber
Antenna)
Outdoor (Directional Subscriber
Antenna)
Base Station Antenna 3-sector omni 3-sector omni
Vocoder 8K 13K 8K 13K 8K 13K 8K 13K
1% blocking
ASCI 1.0 Voice 22.9 16.1 33.4 19.5 36.1 32.5 46.9 36.1
ASCI 1.1 Voice 27.3 19.5 34.3 23.8 36.1 36.1 46.9 42.4
3G-1X Voice RC3/RC2 (RL & FL) 29.0 24.6 35.2 29.9 36.1 36.1 46.9 44.2
3G-1X Voice RC4 (FL) 29.4 N/A TBD N/A TBD N/A TBD N/A
3G-1X Voice RC4 (FL) SMV Mode 1 39.3 TBD TBD TBD
3G-1X Voice RC4 (FL) SMV Mode 2 43.3 TBD TBD TBD
2% blocking
ASCI 1.0 Voice 24.6 17.5 35.6 21.0 38.4 34.7 49.6 38.4
ASCI 1.1 Voice 29.2 21.0 36.5 25.5 38.4 38.4 49.6 44.9
3G-1X Voice RC3/RC2 (RL & FL) 31.0 26.4 37.5 31.9 38.4 38.4 49.6 46.8
3G-1X Voice RC4 (FL) 31.2 N/A TBD N/A TBD N/A TBD N/A
3G-1X Voice RC4 (FL) SMV Mode 1 41.8 TBD TBD TBD
3G-1X Voice RC4 (FL) SMV Mode 2 45.9 TBD TBD TBD


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Fixed wireless voice networks
References
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............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
References
[1]. “Range vs. number of subscribers for the forward and reverse
links,” Qualcomm, July 18, 1995.

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