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# Engineering Analysis with COSMOSWorks Professional 2006

Paul M. Kurowski Ph.D., P.Eng.

SDC

PUBLICATIONS

Design Generator, Inc.

**Schroff Development Corporation www.schroff.com
**

www.schroff-europe.com

Inc. ISBN: 1-58503-249-2 SDC Design Generator.D. PUBLICATIONS Schroff Development Corporation www.schroff-europe. Kurowski Ph..Eng.schroff.com www.com .Engineering Analysis with COSMOSWorks Professional 2006 Paul M. P.

Schroff Development Corporation. Copyright © 2006 by Paul M. transmitted. Kurowski All rights reserved. photocopie d. Microsoft Windows and its family products are registered trademarks of the Microsoft Corporation. reproduced. Every effort has been made to provide an accurate text. The author and the manufacturers shall not be held liable for any parts developed with this book or held responsible for any inaccuracies or errors that appear in the book. This document may not be copied. COSMOSWorks is registered trademarks of Structural Research & Analysis Corporation.Finite Element Analysis with COSMOSWorks 2006 Professional Trademarks and Disclaimer SolidWorks and its family of products are registered trademarks of Dassault Systemes. or translated in any form or for any purpose without the express written consent of the publisher. ii .

Finite Element Analysis with COSMOSWorks 2006 Professional Acknowledgements Writing this book was a substantial effort that would not have been possible without the help and support of my professional colleagues. His teaching experience includes Finite Element Analysis. and Ph. Machine Design. and training in Computer Aided Engineering methods. I would like to thank: ? SolidWorks Corporation Mathseed Expeditions Tutoring Suchit Jain Hari Padmanabhan Maciej J. Kurowski is a member of the Association of Professional Engineers of Ontario and the Society of Automotive Engineers. Design Analysis. Kurowski is also the President of Design Generator Inc. Dr. for their questions and comments that helped to shape the unique approach this book takes. Mechanics of Materials. Rand Worldwide. in Applied Mechanics from Warsaw Technical University.designgenerator. His interests focus on Computer Aided Engineering methods used as tools of product design where numerical models reduce the need for physical prototypes. the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME). and Solid Modeling. SolidWorks Corporation and others.com iii . Dr. the Parametric Technology Corporation (PTC).Sc. Paul Kurowski obtained his M. a consulting firm with expertise in Product Development. the Association of Professional Engineers of Ontario (PEO). Product Development. Kurowski is a professor in the Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.. Kurowski ? I would like to thank the students attending my various training courses in Finite Element Analysis. Kurowski has published many technical papers and taught professional development seminars for the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE). I thank my wife Elzbieta for her support and encouragement that made it possible to write this book. Dr. Dr. About the Author Dr.D. He can be contacted at www. Kinematics and Dynamics of Machines. at the University of Western Ontario’s Faculty of Engineering. He completed postdoctoral work at Kyoto University.

See chapter 6 for details. iv .Finite Element Analysis with COSMOSWorks 2006 Professional About the cover The image on the cover presents results of modal analysis of an unsupported plate.

Finite Element Analysis with COSMOSWorks 2006 Professional Table of contents Before You Start Notes on hands-on exercises Prerequisites Selected terminology 1 1: Introduction What is Finite Element Analysis? Who should use Finite Element Analysis? Objectives of FEA for Design Engineers What is COSMOSWorks? Fundamental steps in an FEA project Errors in FEA A closer look at finite elements What is calculated in FEA? How to interpret FEA results Units of measure Using on-line help Limitations of COSMOSWorks Professional 3 2: Static analysis of a plate Using COSMOSWorks interface Linear static analysis with solid elements The influence of mesh density on results Finding reaction forces Controlling discretization errors by the convergence process Presenting FEA results in desired format 23 ii .

Finite Element Analysis with COSMOSWorks 2006 Professional 3: Static analysis of an L-bracket Stress singularities Differences between modeling errors and discretization errors Using mesh controls Analysis in different SolidWorks configurations 59 4: Stress and frequency analysis of a thin plate Use of shell elements for analysis of thin walled structures Frequency analysis 73 5: Static analysis of a link Symmetry boundary conditions Defining restraints in a local coordinate system Preventing rigid body motions Limitations of small displacements theory 89 6: Frequency analysis of a tuning fork Frequency analysis with and without supports Rigid body modes The role of supports in frequency analysis 97 7: Thermal analysis of a pipeline component Steady state thermal analysis Analogies between structural and thermal analysis Analysis of temperature distribution and heat flux 105 8: Thermal analysis of a heat sink Analysis of an assembly Global and local Contact/Gaps conditions Steady state thermal analysis Transient thermal analysis Thermal resistance layer Use of section views in results plots 113 iii .

Finite Element Analysis with COSMOSWorks 2006 Professional 9: Static analysis of a hanger Analysis of assembly Global and local Contact/Gaps conditions Hierarchy of Contact/Gaps conditions 127 10: Analysis of contact stress between two plates Assembly analysis with surface contact conditions Contact stress analysis Avoiding rigid body modes 139 11: Thermal stress analysis of a bi-metal beam Thermal stress analysis of an assembly Use of various techniques in defining restraints Shear stress analysis 145 12: Buckling analysis of an L-beam Buckling analysis Buckling load safety factor Stress safety factor 153 13: Design optimization of a plate in tension Structural optimization analysis Optimization goal Optimization constraints Design variable s 157 iv .

Finite Element Analysis with COSMOSWorks 2006 Professional 14: Static analysis of a bracket using adaptive solution methods P-elements P-adaptive solution method Comparison of h-elements and p-elements 169 15: Design sensitivity analysis of hinge supported beam Design sensitivity analysis using Design Scenario 181 16: Drop test of a coffee mug Drop test analysis Stress wave propagation Direct time integration solution 189 17: Selected large deformation problems Large deformation analysis Creating a shell element mesh on the face of a solid 195 18: Mixed meshing problems Using solid and shell elements in the same mesh 211 19: Miscellaneous topics Selecting the automesher Solvers and solvers options Displaying mesh in result plots Automatic reports E drawings Non uniform loads Bearing load Frequency analysis with pre-stress Shrink fit analysis Rigid connector Pin connector Bolt connector 215 v .

Finite Element Analysis with COSMOSWorks 2006 Professional 20: Implementation of FEA into the design process FEA driven design process FEA project management FEA project checkpoints FEA report 237 21: Glossary of terms 245 22: Resources available to FEA User 253 vi .

experie nce and understanding gained from previously presented problems. In this book we cover the functionality of COSMOSWorks Professional 2006. We recommend that you study the exercises in the order presented in the book.schroff1. which you can download from http://www. As you go through the exercises. Functionality of different bundles is explained in the following table: COSMOSWorks Designer Linear static analysis of parts and assemblies with gap/contact COSMOSWorks Professional The features of COSMOSWorks Designer plus: Frequency analysis Buckling analysis Drop test analysis Thermal analysis Fatigue analysis * Optimization analysis * Fatigue analysis is not covered in this book. you will notice that explanations and steps described in detail in earlier exercises are not repeated later. Exceptions to the above are chapters 20-22 which do not include hands-on exercises. While you are guided through the specific exercises. The functionality of COSMOSWorks 2006 depends on which software bundle is used. COSMOSWorks Advanced Professional The features of COSMOSWorks Professional plus: Nonlinear analysis Fatigue analysis * Dynamic analysis Composite analysis All exercises use SolidWorks models. not all of the software functions are 1 . Each subsequent exercise assumes familiarity with software functions discussed in previous exercises and builds on the skills.com/ This book is not intended to replace regular software manuals.Engineering Analysis with COSMOSWorks 2006 Before You Start Notes on hands-on exercises This book goes beyond a standard software manual because its unique approach concurrently introduces you to COSMOSWorks software and the fundamentals of Finite Element Analysis (FEA) through hands-on exercises.

We use Windows terminology when referring to mouse-pointer actions. Press and hold the left mouse button down. Drag Right-click All SolidWorks files names appear in CAPITAL letters.Engineering Analysis with COSMOSWorks 2006 explained. solid modeling using SolidWorks software Familiarity with the Windows Operating System Selected terminology The mouse pointer plays a very important role in executing various commands and providing user feedback. We encourage you to explore each exercise beyond its description by investigating other options. Wait a second. Use this technique to modify the names of folders and icons in COSMOSWorks Manager. Use the mouse to point to an object. Click the right mouse button. Item Click Double -click Click-inside Self explanatory Self explanatory Description Click the left mouse button. folder and icon names appear in italics except in captions and comments to illustrations. Release the left mouse button. and invoke pop-up menus. Prerequisites We assume that you have the following prerequisites: ? ? ? An understanding of Mechanics of Materials Experience with parametric. even though the actual file name may use a combination of small and capital letters. and then click the left mouse button inside the pop-up menu or text box. and other ways to present results. select geometry. You will soon discover that the same simple logic applies to all functions in COSMOSWorks software. 2 . The mouse pointer is used to execute commands. Selected menu items and COSMOSWorks commands appear in bold. A pop-up menu is displayed. SolidWorks configurations. other menu choices. Use the left mouse button to select desired menu command. Move the mouse pointer to a new location.

FEA is used to solve problems ranging from very simple to very complex. At the other end of scale. acoustics.Engineering Analysis with COSMOSWorks 2006 1: Introduction What is Finite Element Analysis? Finite Element Analysis. However. FEA is widely used for solving structural. electromagnetism. or air bag deployment. hydro forming. specialized analysts implement FEA to solve very advanced problems . and many others. while other methods have been relegated to niche applications. and the Finite Volumes Method to mention just a few. hand calculations. we highlight the most essential characteristics of FEA as performed by design engineers as opposed to those typical for FEA preformed by analysts. Time constraints and limited availability of product data call for many simplifications of their analysis models. such as. However. In mathematical terms. prototypes. both FEA theory and numerical problem formulation become completely transparent to users. text books. FEA for Design Engineers: another design tool For design engineers. In mechanical engineering. FEA has come to dominate the engineering analysis software market. Therefore. catalogs. FEA is one of many design tools that are used in the design process and include CAD. etc. is a method of numerical analysis. 3 . vehicle crash dynamics. FEA is a numerical technique used for solving field problems described by a set of partial differential equations. fluid dynamics. the Boundary Element Method. Other numerical methods include the Finite Difference Method. When implemented into modern commercial software. FEA is used for solving problems in many engineering disciplines such as machine design. and thermal problems. due to its versatility and high numerical efficiency. soil mechanics. This book focuses on how design engineers use FEA implemented in COSMOSWorks as a design tool. data bases. Who should use Finite Element Analysis? As a powerful tool for engineering analysis. spreadsheets. Design engineers use FEA during the product develo pment process to analyze the design-in-progress. commonly called FEA. FEA is not the only available tool of numerical analysis. vibration.

FEA for Design Engineers: concurrent with the design process Since FEA is a design tool. 4 . Analyses that are very complex and time consuming cannot be executed concurrently with the design process. and how a CAD model is different from an FEA model. it is essential to understand how to prepare CAD geometry in order to produce correct FEA results. so a CAD model is the starting point for analysis. and many other tangible and intangible factors. company organization and culture. and are usually better handled either by a dedicated analyst or contracted out to specialized consultants. Limitations of FEA for Design Engineers As you can see. but do it quickly and of course reliably.Engineering Analysis with COSMOSWorks 2006 FEA for Design Engineers: based on CAD models Modern design is conducted using CAD. FEA used in the design environment must meet high requirements. It should drive the design process rather than follow it. it should be used concurrently with the design process. This will be discussed in later chapters. Since CAD models are used for describing geometric information for FEA. A general consensus is that design engineers should handle relatively simple types of analysis. An obvious question arises: would it be better to have a dedicated specialist perform FEA and let design engineers do what they do best – design new products? The answer depends on the size of the business. type of products.

Figure 1-1: Traditional and. The process in FEA-driven product development uses numerical models. prototype. In an FEAdriven product. test” into a streamlined process where prototypes are not used as design tools and are only needed for final design verification. FEA-driven product development Traditional product development needs prototypes to support design in progress. rather than physical prototypes to drive development. With the use of FEA. the prototype is no longer a part of the iterative design loop. design iterations are moved from the physical space of prototyping and testing into the virtual space of computer simulations (figure 1-1).Engineering Analysis with COSMOSWorks 2006 Objectives of FEA for Design Engineers The ultimate objective of using the FEA as a design tool is to change the design process from repetitive cycles of “design. 5 .

In 1995 SRAC partnered with the SolidWorks Corporation and created COSMOSWorks. natural frequencies. buckling. although the history of the family of COSMOS FEA products dates back to 1982. 6 . When working with finite elements. but relatively small in comparison to the overall model size. Next. Fundamental steps in an FEA project The starting point for any COSMOSWorks project is a SolidWorks model. SolidWorks is a solid. As opposed to many other CAD systems that were originally developed in a UNIX environment and only later ported to Windows. parametric. which became the top-selling analysis solution for SolidWorks Corporation. which can be a part or an assembly. It belongs to the family of engineering analysis software products developed by the Structural Research & Analysis Corporation (SRAC). loads and restraints are defined. stresses. Creating finite elements is commonly called meshing. SRAC was established in 1982 and since its inception has contributed to innovations that have had a significant impact on the evolution of FEA.Engineering Analysis with COSMOSWorks 2006 What is COSMOSWorks? COSMOSWorks is a commercial implementation of FEA. parent of SolidWorks Corporation. First. heat flow. the COSMOSWorks solver approximates the sought solution (for example stress) by assembling the solutions for individual elements. material properties. called finite elements. In 2003. such as the analysis of deformations. the model geometry is split into relatively small and simply shaped entities. capable of solving problems commonly found in design engineering. The commercial success of COSMOSWorks integrated with SolidWorks CAD software resulted in the acquisition of SRAC in 2001 by Dassault Systemes. etc. feature-driven CAD system. In summary. SolidWorks software was developed specifically for the Windows Operating System. COSMOSWorks is tightly integrated with SolidWorks CAD software and uses SolidWorks for creating and editing model geometry. as is always the case with using any FEA-based analysis tool. The elements are called “finite” to emphasize the fact that they are not infinitesimally small. SRAC operations merged with SolidWorks Corporation. COSMOSWorks has been specifically developed for Windows and takes full advantage this allows for a deep integration between SolidWorks and Windows. one of the first SolidWorks Gold Products.

etc. Geometry of the model needs to be meshable into a correct finite element mesh. we can list the following FEA steps: ? ? ? ? Building the mathematical model Building the finite element model by discretizing the mathematical model Solving the finite element model Analyzing the results The following subsections discuss these four steps. representing thin walls with surfaces Sometimes needed because geometry must satisfy higher quality requirements than CAD geometry in order to be meshable . A more aggressive exercise that may depart from solid CAD geometry by for example. we can use CAD quality-control tools to check for problems like sliver faces. chamfers. logos. which can take the form of defeaturing. Building the mathematical model The starting point to analysis with COSMOSWorks is a SolidWorks model. This necessity to mesh often requires modifications to the CAD geometry.Engineering Analysis with COSMOSWorks 2006 From the perspective of FEA software. To cleanup. From the perspective of FEA methodology. multiple entities. This requirement of meshability has very important implications. described below: Term Defeaturing Description The process of removing geometry features deemed insignificant for analysis. We need to ensure that the CAD geometry will indeed mesh and that the produced mesh will provide the data of interest (e. etc. which involves defining the model and then splitting it into finite elements Solving for wanted results Post-processing for results analysis ? ? We will follow the above three steps in every exercise.g. idealization and/or clean-up. each application of FEA requires three steps: ? Preprocessing of the FEA model. that could be tolerated in the CAD model. but would make subsequent meshing difficult or impossible Idealization Clean-up 7 . such as external fillets. stresses or temperature distribution) with acceptable accuracy.

and definition of the type of analysis (e. definition of loads. 8 . Modification of geometry (if required) Loads Restraints MATHEMATICAL MODEL Material Type of properties analysis CAD geometry FEA geometry Figure 1-2: Building the mathematical model The process of creating a mathematical model consists of the modification of CAD geometry (here removing external fillets). geometry preparation may not be required at all.Engineering Analysis with COSMOSWorks 2006 It is important to mention that we do not always simplify the CAD model with the sole objective of making it meshable. loads and restraints. but not yet meshed geometry. restraints. and provide information on the type of analysis that we wish to perform.g. static ) that we wish to perform. but the resulting mesh would be too large (in terms of the number of elements) and consequently. Having prepared a meshable. FEA has not yet entered the picture. Often. we must simplify a model even though it would mesh correctly “as is”. Geometry modifications allow for a simpler mesh and shorter meshing and computing times. successful meshing depends as much on the quality of geometry submitted for meshing as it does on the capabilities of the meshing tools implemented in the FEA software. we now define material properties (these can also be imported from a SolidWorks model). Notice that the process of creating the mathematical model is not FEA-specific. This procedure completes the creation of the mathematical model (figure 1-2). material properties. Sometimes. the meshing and the analysis would take too much time..

more commonly known as meshing (figure 1-3). Analyzing the results Often the most difficult step of FEA is analyzing the results. meshing and solving. This completes the pre-processing phase.Engineering Analysis with COSMOSWorks 2006 Building the finite element model The mathematical model now needs to be split into finite elements through a process of discretization. The FEA model is then solved with one of the numerical solvers available in COSMOSWorks. Proper interpretation of results requires that we understand all simplifications (and errors they introduce) in the first three steps: defining the mathematical model. Solving the finite element model Having created the finite element model. loads and restraints are all discretized. we now use a solver provided in COSMOSWorks to produce the desired data of interest (figure 1-3). Geometry. Discretization Numerical solver MATHEMATICAL MODEL FEA model FEA results Figure 1-3: Building the finite element model The mathematical model is discretized into a finite element model. The discretized loads and restraints are applied to the nodes of the finite element mesh. 9 .

However. discretization of the mathematical model introduces discretization errors. Of these three types of errors. Solution errors are caused by the accumulation of round-off errors. as we will soon prove.Engineering Analysis with COSMOSWorks 2006 Errors in FEA The process illustrated in figures 1-2 and 1-3 introduces unavoidable errors. or second order elements (high quality). Solid elements The type of geometry that is most often used for analysis with COSMOSWorks is solid CAD geometry. Before proceeding we need to clarify an important terminology issue. COSMOSWorks offers two types of elements: tetrahedral solid elements for meshing solid geometry and shell elements for meshing surface geometry. in FEA terminology it denotes the type of element. The type of elements created by this process depends on the type of geometry meshed. Modeling errors affecting the mathematical model are introduced before FEA is utilized and can only be controlled by using correct modeling techniques. only high quality elements should be used for an analysis of any importance. commonly called “tets” in FEA jargon. The tetrahedral solid elements in COSMOSWorks can either be first order elements (draft quality) . In CAD terminology “solid” denotes the type of geometry: solid geometry (as opposed to surface or wire frame geometry). A closer look at finite elements Meshing splits continuous mathematical models into finite elements. Formulation of a mathematical model introduces modeling errors (also called idealization errors). The difference between first and second order tetrahedral elements is illustrated in figure 1-4. The user decides whether to use draft quality or high quality elements for meshing. Meshing of this geometry is accomplished with tetrahedral solid elements. and solving introduces numerical errors. only discretization errors are specific to FEA. 10 .

In a first order element. Single elements seldom experience deformations of this magnitude. Consequently. After deformation. The linear (or first order) displacement field gives these elements their name: first order elements. If 11 . First order tetrahedral elements model the linear field of displacement inside their volume. the faces of a second order element before deformation may be flat or curved. and along edges.Engineering Analysis with COSMOSWorks 2006 Before deformation After deformation 1 st order tetrahedral element Before deformation After deformation 2 nd order tetrahedral element Figure 1-4: Differences between first and second order tetrahedral elements First and second order tetrahedral elements are shown before and after deformation. Note that the first order element only has corner nodes. Consequently. depending on how the element has been mapped to model the actual geometry. while the second order element has both corner and mid-side nodes (one mid-side node is not visible for the second order element in this illustration). The edges of a second order element before deformation may either be straight or curvilinear. faces of a second order element after deformation can be either flat or curved. edges are straight and faces are flat and must remain this way after deformation. edges of a second order element may either assume a different curvilinear shape or acquire curvilinear shape if they were initially straight. The magnitude of deformation has been exaggerated in this illustration. on faces.

flat faces approximate the face of the curvilinear geometry. Second order elements map well to curvilinear geometry. Notice the imprecise element mapping of the hole. strain and consequently stress. as illustrated in figure 1-6. Even though these elements are more computationally demanding than first order elements. To make matters worse. Figure 1-5: Failure of straight edges and flat faces to map to curvilinear geometry A detail of a mesh created with first order tetrahedral elements. 12 . Second order tetrahedral elements have ten nodes and model the second order (parabolic) displacement field and first order (linear) stress field in their volume. straight edges and flat faces can not map properly to curvilinear geometry. on faces and along edges. therefore these elements can map precisely to curved surfaces. as illustrated in figure 1-5. This situation imposes a very severe limitation on the capability of a mesh constructed with first order elements to model stress distribution of any real complexity. second order tetrahedral elements are used for the vast majority of analyses with COSMOSWorks. The edges and faces of second order tetrahedral elements can be curvilinear before and after deformation. Figure 1-6: Mapping curved surfaces A detail of a mesh created with second order tetrahedral elements. are both constant in first order tetrahedral elements. Therefore.Engineering Analysis with COSMOSWorks 2006 you recall from the Mechanics of Materials. strain is the first derivative of displacement.