INTRODUCTION Hologram is a three dimensional imaging technique.

It uses laser light to record the pattern of light waves reflected from an object onto the emulsion of light sensitive film (or glass plates). When that film is developed and re-exposed to laser light (or normal incandescent light like most holograms today), it recreates in space all the point of light that originally came from the object. The resulting image, either behind or in front of the holographic film , has all the dimension of the original object and looks so real that you are tempted to reach out and touch it. There are two types of holograms which is reflection and transmission. They can distinguished by the way in which they are illuminated. Reflection holograms are light from the front, reflecting the light to you as you view it, like painting or photograph hung on the wall. Different film emulsion produce images with different characteristics. Silver halide is the emulsion of choice for most artist and holographers who use silver halide glass plates to achieve the higher quality images. Holographer use silver halide film which is cheaper, less fragile and easier to handle but does not produce the depth, resolution and projection possible with glass plates. However, film is used successfully for longer production runs. Besides that, dichromated gelatin(DCG) is a chemical gelatin mix that is coated onto a piece of glass. Dichromates produce very bright images in a golden yellow color. The images have the least range of depth, but they are viewable in normal light without special spotlights. This makes dichromates suitable as small gift products for consumer gift market or the premium and incentive industry. Photo polymer is the newest of the recording materials. Photo polymers have a plastic backing and are suitable for long production runs. The image depth of polymer is slightly less than that of silver halide, however the images are brighter with a wider angle of view.In addiction , transmission holograms are light from the rear (like a photographic transparency) and bend light as il passes through hologram to your eyes to form the image. Laser transmission holograms are made with lasers, like all holograms but also must be light with laser to be viewed. Therefore the image appear in color of the laser used in illuminating them for viewing usually red(helium neon laser) . Other types of holograms use a laser transmission hologram as the master, from which copies are made. White light transmission are illuminated with incandescent light (white light) and produce images that contain the rainbow spectrum of color. The colors change as the viewer moves up and down and are often called rainbow holograms.

METHODOLOGY In making transmission holograms, some materials have to be prepared. Those are holographic plates or film, diode laser for holography, clothespin, chemical developer and bleach, five developer trays, and photoflo solution. Holographic plates or film are used to record the holograms. Diode laser is used to fully illuminate the object. Next, clothespin functions to hold the laser while chemical developer and bleach are for the developing process of the holographic plates. Five developer trays which three are small and two are large in sizes are also needed for the developing process. Photoflo solution helps to avoid smudges on the finished hologram. It is a wetting agent that helps holograms turn out cleaner and clearer. It also reduces streaks and promotes more uniform and quicker drying. Although Photoflo solution is actually not required to make a hologram, it does help them look better. The methods used to produce transmission holograms are much similar to the steps used for reflective holograms. First, the diode laser is adjusted in its holder so that the beam spreads out horizontally. The chosen object is placed at a distance of 35 to 40 cm from the laser. Then, a white card is placed behind the object and the laser is adjusted while looking at the shadow on the card. The position of the laser is adjusted until the object is optimally illuminated. After that, the white card is removed. Next step is that an opaque cardboard is placed near the laser to block the light from reaching the object. This will serve like the shutter of a camera. Another step, a holographic plate is removed from its container in the darkest part of the room and close it back. The holographic plate is leaned on the object, making certain it will not slip or move; the emulsion should touch the object. Time for the object to settle is about 10 second which means the room has to be hold still. After that, the cardboard is lifted slightly off the table while still blocking the laser light, and wait 2 seconds for the vibration to subside. The cardboard is then lifted all the way up to expose the holographic plate and object for 10 seconds and the light is blocked again soon after that. Lastly, the exposed holographic plate is processed by using the chemical developer and bleach such as JD-4. Optionally, the holographic plate can be placed in the Photoflo solution for 20 to 30 seconds. After the drying process is completed, the hologram can be viewed with a point source of incandescent light such as the light from projector, flashlight of the sun. Diffused light sources such as frosted bulbs and florescent lamps cannot be used to view the hologram. For the best results, the emulsion side can be sprayed paint with a diffuse black paint to protect the emulsion and provides a dark background to enhance the visibility of the image.

APPLICATION Security and product authentication As a security devise, holograms are widely used on tax stamps of many countries. Tax stamps are issued by governments principally on alcohol and tobacco to ensure duty is paid and to distinguish genuine products from fakes. There are two varieties of holographic tax stamp— hologram tax stamp with security paper and only hologram with or without serial no. Hologram use to indicate the authenticity of certain product. The presence of hologram becomes a powerful obstacle to counterfeiting. Hologram usage on documents, anti-counterfeiting, tamper-proofing, customizing ticket protection, identification documents including credit and phone cards, drivers licenses and so on to minimize counterfeiting. Entertainment Various Hollywood movies, especially the science fiction films, have used holographic to make some special effects. Even movie posters are made holographic. Holograms are also used as promotional tools on records and CD covers. Some of the popular movies also using holographic effects. Like Star Treks' Holo deck, Star Wars' Princess Laya, Hologram Man and Escape from LA. Packaging (Consumer Goods Brand Protection) Hologram packaging includes flexible packaging, board packaging, rigid box, pack packaging and so on. All this type of packaging will increase the product attraction by provide eye catching impact, authentication, added value and hence increase the product sales. In addition, it also enhances the company’s image. Labels and Tapes Holograms are also used in labels, tapes and stickers. They are provided with a self- adhesive backing. They are also provided as hot stamping foil. Label applications include direct mail, promotional products, advertising pieces, and point purchase displays. Medical applications Holographic technique is also used in various medical applications like CAT scans, X-ray, MRI, Ultrasound, ophthalmology, endoscopy, otology, orthopedics and many more. Art and Interactive Graphics Holography is an art in itself as it deals with making some kind of visuals. By using holographic effects for the background of over printing lithography, some of the in-store lighting problems of holograms can be overcome. Color printing combined with holography form stunning interactive visual effects. Professional Photographers Professional photographers can also use holographic technique as add-ons or alternatives to regular two-dimensional portrait photography products.

Optical Devices Holographic lenses, diffraction gratings are optical devices in which the "object" is a mirror or a lens. They can be used to perform more specialized functions like making the panel instruments of a car visible in the windshield for increased safety. Holographic lens system to read bar codes is widely seen in supermarket and department store scanners.

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