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**Physics B: FyBNVC06 Circular-Rotational Motion, Energy and Linear Momentum
**

Instructions: The Test Warning! There are more than one version of the test. At the end of each problem a maximum point which one may get for a correct solution of the problem is given. (2/3/¤) means 2 G points, 3 VG points and an MVG ¤ quality. Tools Approved formula sheets, ruler, and graphic calculator. You may use one page of a personalized formula sheet which has your name on it. This should be submitted along with the test. Time: 120 minutes . Grade limits: There are two alternatives to choose. This regards the last problem. Both alternatives give a maximum of 66 points of which 29 are VG points. Only alternative include 6 MVG (¤) points while the other offers only 3 MVG (¤) points. Lower limits for examination grade Pass (G): 22 points Pass with distinction (VG): 44 points of which at least 10 VG-points Pass with special distinction (MVG): 48 points of which at least 20 VG-points and you must show several Pass with Special Distinction qualities in at least three of ¤-marked qualities. Problems number 8, 9 and 10 are heavily graded and are of greatest importance for both VG and MVG. You may choose to solve these problems before solving the others.

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Suggested solutions Test V1 Ch5-8 FyBNVC06 Rotational motion, Linear momentum, Energy Sjödalsgymnasiet

A 500. g object is moving in a flat horizontal circle of diameter 80.0 cm at a constant speed of 2.00 m / s . Calculate the centripetal force acting on the object. [2/0] Suggested solutions: d 0.800 m = 0.400 m , v = 2.00 m / s Data: m = 500. g = 0.500 kg , d = 80.0 cm ⇔ r = = 2 2 (2.00)2 N = 5.00 N v2 FC = m ⋅ = (0.500) ⋅ [2/0] Answer: FC = 5.00 N r 0.400 1 In the multi-choice problems below circle clearly the correct answer. Write clearly your answer on the box provided for the answer. If the explanation is required write your reasoning as clear as possible in the space provided below the problem 2 A metallic ball of mass m is attached to the end of a very light string and is moving at a constant speed of v in a circular path of radius r on a frictionless horizontal surface as illustrated in the figure: a. When the ball is in the position illustrated the direction of the force is towards [1/0] i. A ii. B iii. C iv. D

A

v

B

m

C

D

Answer: ____________

b. If the velocity of the ball is doubled the tension on the string [1/0] i. is halved ii. remains the same iii. is doubled iv. is quadrupled Answer: ____________ Why? Explain: [0/1]

c. If the length of the string is doubled while the speed of the ball on its horizontal circular path remains the same. The centripetal acceleration of the ball [1/0] i. is halved ii. remains the same iii. is doubled iv. is quadrupled Answer: ____________ Why? Explain: [0/1] d. If the mass of the ball is doubled while the speed of the ball on its horizontal circular path and the length of the string both remain the same. The centripetal acceleration of the ball [1/0] i. is halved ii. remains the same iii. is doubled iv. is quadrupled Why? Explain: [0/1]

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Suggested solutions Test V1 Ch5-8 FyBNVC06 Rotational motion, Linear momentum, Energy Sjödalsgymnasiet

Suggested solution: a. When the ball is in the position illustrated the direction of the force is towards [1/0] A i. ii. B iii. C iv. D Answer: Alternative iii: C

A

v

B

m

C

D

b. If the velocity of the ball is doubled the tension on the string [1/0] i. is halved ii. remains the same iii. is doubled iv. is quadrupled Answer: Alternative iv: the force is quadrupled. v2 FC = m ⋅ r (2v )2 = m ⋅ 4 ⋅ v 2 = 4 F FC 2 = m ⋅ [0/1] C1 r r c. If the length of the string is halved while the speed of the ball on its horizontal circular path remains the same. The centripetal acceleration of the ball [1/0] i. is halved ii. remains the same iii. is doubled iv. is quadrupled Answer: Alternative iii: The centripetal acceleration of the ball is doubled. v2 aC = r v2 2 ⋅ v2 aC 2 = = = 2 aC 1 [0/1] r r 2 d. If the mass of the ball is doubled while the speed of the ball on its horizontal circular path and the length of the string both remain the same. The centripetal acceleration of the ball [1/0] i. is halved ii. remains the same iii. is doubled iv. is quadrupled Answer: Alternative ii: The centripetal acceleration of the ball remains the same. The v2 centripetal acceleration is independent of the mass of the ball: aC = [1/1] r

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Suggested solutions Test V1 Ch5-8 FyBNVC06 Rotational motion, Linear momentum, Energy Sjödalsgymnasiet

A 5.00 kg rifle fires a 7.00 g bullet at a velocity of 450. m / s . The rifle kicks back as a result. Calculate the velocity of the kick back of the rifle. [2/0] Suggested solutions: Data: M = 5.00 kg , m = 7.00 g = 7.00 ×10 −3 kg , vb = 450. m / s The liner momentum of the system is conserved. If we assume the direction of the bullet positive the rifle kicks in the opposite, i.e. in the negative direction. The total momentum of the system is zero initially: r r m 7.00 ×10 −3 × 450. = 0.630 m / s 0 = Mvr + mvb ⇔ − Mvr + mvb = 0 ⇔ vr = vb = [2/0] M 5.00 Answer: vrifle = 0.630 m / s 3 4 It takes for the Moon 27.3 days to rotate about the Earth at a “circular orbit” of radius

3.84 × 108 m . Moon’s mass is 7.35 ×10 22 kg and its radius is 1.74 × 106 m . Earth’s mass is 5.98 ×10 24 kg . a. Find the speed of the Moon on its orbit about the Earth. [2/0] b. Find the angular velocity of the Moon. [1/0] c. What is the source of the centripetal force acting on the Moon? Use two independent methods to calculate the centripetal force acting on the Moon. [2/1] d. What would happen to the Moon if its speed was greater than the value calculated above? Why? [1/1] e. What would happen to the Moon if its speed was less than the value calculated above? Why? [1/0] f. Use two independent methods to calculate the arc (distance) covered by the Moon in one day. [2/1] Suggested solution: Data: T = 27.3 days ; RE − M = 3.84 ×108 m , rM = 1.74 ×10 6 m , M M = 7.35 ×10 22 kg , M E = 5.98 ×10 24 kg a. Answer: The speed of the Moon on its orbit about the Earth, i.e. its tangential velocity is: v ≈ 1020 m / s

b.

c.

2π ⋅ r 2π ⋅ (3.84 ×108 ) m / s = 1022.9 m / s ≈ 1020 m / s ⇔ v= [2/0] T 27.3 × 24 × 3600 Answer: v ≈ 1020 m / s Answer: The angular velocity of the Moon is: ω = 8.48π ×10 −7 rad / s [1/0] 2π 2π ω= rad / s ⇔ω= T 27.3 × 24 × 3600 v 1022.9 m / s = 2.664 ×10 −6 rad / s = 8.48π ×10 −7 rad / s Alternative solution: ω = = 8 r 3.84 ×10 m Answer: The source of the centripetal force on the Moon is the attractive force between the Earth and the Moon. The centripetal force acting on the Moon is: FC ≈ 2.0 ×10 20 N v=

FC = m ⋅

(1022.9) N = 2.003 ×10 20 N ≈ 2.0 ×10 20 N v2 = 7.35 ×10 22 ⋅ r 3.84 ×108 Second independent method: Using G ≈ 6.67 ×10 −11 N ⋅ m / kg 2

(

)

2

[2/0]

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M EMM 7.35 ×10 22 5.98 ×10 24 −11 FC = G = 6.67 ×10 ⋅ 2 r2 3.84 ×108

(

(

)(

)

)

N ≈ 2.0 ×10 20 N

[0/1]

d.

e.

f.

Answer: If the Moon was orbiting the Earth at a higher speed than v = 1022.9 m / s it would have gradually drifted away from the Earth and we would have lost it a long time ago. The reason is the fact that if v > 1022.9 m / s then the gravitational force on the Moon would not be sufficient to keep the running away Moon on its orbit. [1/1] On the other hand if the Moon was orbiting the Earth at a lower speed than v = 1022.9 m / s it would have eventually fallen into the Earth and its orbit would have been of a spiral form. The reason is the fact that the gravitational force on the Moon would be larger than the centripetal force necessary to keep the Moon on its orbit. [1/1] Answer: The distance covered by the Moon in one day is: s = 8.84 ×10 7 m 2π 2π rad θ= rad θ = ω ⋅ t ⇔ θ = 8.48π ×10 −7 × 24 × 3600 = [1/0] 27.3 27.3 The distance covered by the Moon in one day is: s = 8.84 ×10 7 m 2π = 8.84 ×10 7 m s = R ⋅θ ⇔ s = 3.84 ×108 × [1/0] 27.3 Alternative solution: s = v ⋅ t ⇔ s = (1022.9 m / s )(24 × 3600 s ) ≈ 8.84 ×10 7 m [0/1]

A rigid red ball of mass 2.00 kg moving to the right at 25.0 m / s collides with a blue rigid ball of an unknown mass moving at 5.00 m / s traveling in the same direction, i.e. toward the right. After the collision the red ball continues its motion to the right at a reduced velocity of 10.0 m / s while the blue ball gains momentum and moves at 7.0 m / s . a. Calculate the mass of the blue ball. [2/0] b. Is the collision perfectly elastic? Why? Explain. [1/1] Suggested solutions: Data: mR = 2.00 kg , vir = 25.0 m / s , vib = 5.00 m / s , v fr = 10.0 m / s , v fB = 7.0 m / s 5

a. Answer: The mass of the blue ball is mB = 15.0 kg Conservation of linear momentum requires: r r r r mR viR + mB viB = mR v fR + mB v fB

[2/0]

(2.00)(25.0) + mB (5.00) = (2.00)(10.0) + mB (7.00) ⇔ 50.0 + 5 ⋅ mB = 20.0 + 7 ⋅ mB

30.0 = 15.0 kg 2 Note: The problem is not logical! How could the red ball move faster than the blue one after r r the collision? The internal logic of the problem implies: v fR ≤ v fB . b. Answer: The collision is not a perfectly elastic collision. [1/0] If the collision was a perfect elastic collision, the total mechanical energy of the system at the moment of collision would be conserved. i.e.: 1 1 1 1 mR v 2 iR + mB v 2 iB = mR v 2 fR + mB v 2 fB / / / / 2 2 2 2 50.0 − 20.0 = 7 ⋅ mB − 5 ⋅ mB ⇔ 2 ⋅ mB = 30.0 ⇔ mB =

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Initial kinetic energy of the system is: 1 1 1 1 Ei = mR v 2 iR + mB v 2 iB = (2.0 )25 2 + 15 ⋅ 5 2 = 812.5 J 2 2 2 2 Final kinetic energy of the system is: 1 1 1 1 E f = mR v 2 fiR + mB v 2 fB = (2.0)10 2 + 15 ⋅ 7 2 = 467.5 J 2 2 2 2 Answer: The mechanical energy is not conserved! Ei = 812.5 J > 467.5 J = E f . Therefore, the collision is inelastic. 6

[0/1]

A rescue plane is going to drop emergency supplies to isolated group of mountain climbers 240 m below. If the plane is flying horizontally with a speed of 288. km / h , how far (horizontal distance) in advance of the recipients must the supplies be dropped? [1/3] Suggested solutions: 1000 m / s = 80.0 m / s Data: y = 275 m , v x = v0 x = 288. km / h = 288. 3600 The supplies have exactly the same initial velocity as the plane, i.e.: v x = v0 x = 80.0 m / s During the time that the supplies fall freely the move in the horizontal direction according to ⎧ x = v x ⋅ t = v0 x = 80.0 ⋅ t m ⎪ ⇔ x = 80.0 ⋅ t = 80.0 ⋅ (7 ) = 560. m ⎨ 1 240 275 = 0 + ⋅ 9.8 ⋅ t 2 = 4.90 ⋅ t 2 ⇔ t 2 = ⇔ t ≈ 7.00 s ⎪ 2 4.90 ⎩ Answer: The plane must drop the supplies x = 560. m in advance of the recipient.

Pilots may be tested for the stresses of flying high-speed jets in a whirling “human centrifuge” that takes 60.0 s to turn through 20 complete revolutions before reaching its final speed a. What is the angular acceleration of the “human centrifuge” during the first 60.0 s of the acceleration? [1/1] b. What is the final angular velocity of the system? [1/1] 60.0 s = 3.00 s Suggested solutions: Data: t 20 = 60.0 s ⇔ T = 20 a. Answer: Assuming a uniform acceleration, the angular acceleration of the “human centrifuge” during the first 60.0 s of the acceleration is: α =

7

π

2θ 2π × 20 π 4π π = = rad / s 2 ; ω = ω0 + α ⋅ t ⇔ ω = ⋅ (60) = rad / s 2 2 45 45 3 t 60 4π rad / s b. Answer: The final angular velocity of the system is ω = [1/1] 3 2π 2π 4π = ⇔ ω = 2ω + ω0 = rad / s Second method: ω = 2π ⋅ f = 3 T 3 4π ω − ω0 π rad / s 2 = 3 = ω = ω0 + α ⋅ t ⇔ α = t 60 45

45

rad / s 2 .

[1/1]

θ = α ⋅t2 ⇔ α =

1 2

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In assessing your work with problems 8, 9 and 10 your teacher will pay extra attentio to: ∗ How well you plan and carry out the task. ∗ Which priciples of physics you use and how you justify using them ∗ How general your solutions are ∗ How well you justify your conclusions ∗ How well you cary out your calculations ∗ How well you present your work ∗ How well you use physical and matematical language. ∗ How clear your solutions are.

A 20.0 g rifle bullet traveling at 240.0 m / s buries itself in a 5.00 kg wooden block sitting on a flat horizontal surface. The coefficient of friction between the surfaces in contact is 0.4 . How far will the block slide? [2/4/¤] Suggested Solutions: Data: mb = 20.0 g = 0.020 kg , vb = 240.0 m / s , M Wb = 5.00 kg , vWb = 0 , μ = 0.4 We may divide the problem to two parts. Part I may deal with the part that takes care of the moment of penetration of the bullet into the wood. At this point the linear momentum of the system is conserved while its mechanical energy is not. This is due to the fact that part of the mechanical energy of the system is used in breaking chemical bound between the atoms of the wood and as a result heating of it: r r r mb vbi + mWb vWbi + .. = (mb + mWb )v f 8

0.020 × 240 = (0.020 + 5.00)v f 4.80 = 5.02v f

[1/1]

4.80 m / s ≈ 0.956 m / s [0/1] 5.02 Part II: In this part, the kinetic energy of the wooden block that initially is moving at v f ≈ 0.956 m / s is wasted against the friction that results in the full stop. Lets assume the vf =

block comes to full stop after moving x m . Conservation of energy requires that: v2 1 2 (mb + mWb )v f = μ (mb + mWb )g ⋅ x ⇔ x = f [0/1] 2μg 2 Note that the friction force acting on the wooden block is F f = μ (mb + mWb )g and the work

done against the friction is: W f = F f ⋅ x = μ (mb + mWb )g ⋅ x .

= ≈ 0.116 m = 11.6 cm [0/1] 2μg 2 × 0.4 × 9.82 Answer: The block moves 11.6 cm on the flat horizontal surface where the coefficient of friction between the two surfaces in contact is 0.4 . [1/0] Grading: MVG point, ¤, goes to the strategy and plan of how to solve problem, how it is presented and solved, as well as its clarity and the mathematical and physical terms and principles used in the process.

x=

v2 f

(0.956)2

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A 3.0 kg object moving towards the east at 5.0 m / s collides head-on with a heavier object of mass 4.0 kg moving at 3.5 m / s toward the west. Find the final velocity of each mass if: a. the bodies stick together. [2/0] b. the collision is perfectly elastic. [1/3/¤] [1/1] c. the 4.0 kg object stops as a result of the collision. d. The 3.0 kg object has a velocity of 3.5 m / s toward the west after the collision. [1/2] e. Are the results obtained above reasonable? Why? [0/3] Suggested solutions: m1 = 3.0 kg , v1 = 5.0 m / s , m2 = 4.0 kg , v2 = −3.5 m / s . East is positive! a. Answer: The bodies that have stuck together move toward the west at v f ≈ 0.14 m / s . 9 If the bodies stick together, the collision is perfectly inelastic. The linear momentum of the system is therefore conserved, while part of the kinetic energy of the system is lost as heat and other forms of energy: r r r m1v1i + m2 v2i + .. = (m1 + m2 + ..)v f

3.0 × 5.0 − 4.0 × 3.5 = (3.0 + 4.0)v f 7 ⋅ v f = 3.0 × 5.0 − 4.0 × 3.5 = 1 vf = 1 m / s ≈ 0.14 m / s 7

[1/0] [1/0]

b.

If the collision is perfectly elastic, both the linear momentum and mechanical energy of the system must be conserved. Lets assume that the m1 = 3.0 kg object bounces back and move at v1 f toward west while the m2 = 4.0 kg also bounce and move to the east

at v2 f : r r r r m1v1i + m2 v2i + .. = m1v1 f + m2 v2 f + ...

1 1 1 1 2 2 m1v12i + m2 v2i = m1v12f + m2 v2 f / / / / 2 2 2 2 ⎧ ⎪m1v1i − m2 v2i = −m1v1 f + m2 v2 f [0/1] ⎨ 2 2 2 2 ⎪m1v1i + m2 v2i = m1v1 f + m2 v2 f ⎩ ⎧m1v1i + m1v1 f = m2 v2i + m2 v2 f ⎪ ⎨ 2 2 2 2 ⎪m1v1i − m1v1 f = m2 v2 f − m2 v2i ⎩ Reorganizing the equations and dividing them to each other: 2 2 ⎧m1 v12i − v12f = m2 v2 f − v2i ⎪ ⎨ ⎪m1 (v1i + v1 f ) = m2 (v2i + v2 f ) ⎩ 2 2 m1 v12i − v12f m2 v2 f − v2i / / = [0/1] m1 (v1i + v1 f ) m2 (v2i + v2 f ) / / v1i − v1 f = v2 f − v2i

(

)

(

)

(

)

(

)

**v2 f = v1i − v1 f + v2i
**

m1v1i − m2 v2i = −m1v1 f + m2 v2 f

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**m1v1i − m2 v2i = −m1v1 f + m2 (v1i − v1 f + v2i ) m1v1i − m2 v2i = −m1v1 f + m2 v1i − m2 v1 f + m2 v2i
**

2m2 v2i + v1i (m2 − m1 ) [0/1] (m1 + m2 ) 2 × 4 × 3.5 + 5(4 − 3) 33 66 v1 f = m/ s = m/ s = m / s To the left (3 + 4) 7 14 v2 f = v1i − v1 f + v2i 2m2 v2i + v1i (m2 − m1 ) = v1 f (m1 + m2 )

v1 f =

v1 f =

66 m/ s 14

v2 f = 5 −

33 53 + 3.5 = m / s Toward the east 7 14

v2 f =

53 m/ s 14

Check: ⎧m1v1i − m2 v2i = −m1v1 f + m2 v2 f ⎪ ⎨ 2 2 2 2 ⎪m1v1i + m2 v2i = m1v1 f + m2 v2 f ⎩ 53 66 ⎧ OK ⎪3 × 5 − 4 × 3.5 = −3 × 14 + 4 × 14 ⇔ 1 = 1 ⎪ ⎨ 2 2 ⎪3 × 5 2 + 4 × (3.5)2 = 3 × ⎛ 66 ⎞ + 4 × ⎛ 53 ⎞ ⇔ 124 = 124 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎪ ⎝ 14 ⎠ ⎝ 14 ⎠ ⎩

OK

66 m / s toward the 14

[1/0/¤]

Answer : After the collision the m1 = 3.0 kg object will move at v1 f = west and m2 = 4.0 kg object will move at v2 f =

**53 m / s toward the east. 14 Alternative solutions (simpler solution, looses generalization ¤ point): m1 = 3.0 kg , v1 = 5.0 m / s , m2 = 4.0 kg , v2 = −3.5 m / s . East is positive!
**

⎧m1v1i − m2 v2i = −m1v1 f + m2 v2 f ⎪ ⎨ 2 2 2 2 ⎪m1v1i + m2 v2i = m1v1 f + m2 v2 f ⎩ ⎧3 × 5 − 4 × 3.5 = −3v1 f + 4v2 f ⎪ ⎨ 2 2 2 2 ⎪3 × 5 + 4 × (3.5) = 3v1 f + 4v2 f ⎩ 1 + 3v1 f ⎧ ⎪− 3v1 f + 4v2 f = 1 ⇔ 4v2 f = 1 + 3v1 f ⇔ v2 f = 4 ⎪ 2 ⎨ ⎪3v 2 + 4v 2 = 124 ⇔ 3v 2 + 4⎛ 1 + 3v1 f ⎞ = 124 ⇔ 12v 2 + 1 + 6v + 9v 2 = 496 ⎜ 2f 1f 1f 1f 1f ⎜ 4 ⎟ ⎟ ⎪ 1f ⎝ ⎠ ⎩ 21v12f + 6v1 f − 495 = 0

v1 f =

v2 f

− 3 ± 32 + 21× 495 − 3 ± 32 + 21× 247 66 ⇔ v1 f = = m / s ≈ 4.7 m / s 21 21 14 ⎛ 66 ⎞ 1 + 3⎜ ⎟ 1 + 3v1 f ⎝ 14 ⎠ m / s = 14 + 198 m / s = 212 m / s = 53 m / s = = 4 4 56 56 14

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c.

If the 4.0 kg object stops as a result of the collision, the collision is not necessarily perfectly elastic. Therefore, we may have conservation of linear momentum but not necessarily that of conservation of mechanical energy. We should, of course, be conscious of not ending up in a situation of creating energy in the process. r r r r m1v1i + m2 v2i + .. = m1v1 f + m2 v2 f + ...

3.0 × 5.0 − 4.0 × 3.5 = 3.0 × v1 f 1.0 = 3.0 × v1 f v1 f = 1.0 m/s 3.0 2 3 × 52 4 × (3.5) Ei = + = 62 J 2 2

2

[1/0]

1 1 ⎛1⎞ Ef = ⋅ 3× ⎜ ⎟ = J 2 3 ⎝ 3⎠ Even though in this problem energy is not created! Still the problem is weird. How could an object collide head on with another and continue moving in the same direction while the other object that was originally moving to the left stops as a result of the collision. This problem can not happen in reality and solid objects! [0/1]

d. The 3.0 kg object has a velocity of 3.5 m / s toward the west after the collision. Similar to the problem above. We may have conservation of linear momentum but not necessarily conservation of mechanical energy! Still, we must check if the results are physically acceptable. r r r r m1v1i + m2 v2i + .. = m1v1 f + m2 v2 f + ...

3.0 × 5.0 − 4.0 × 3.5 = −3.0 × 3.5 + 4.0 ⋅ v2 f 1.0 = −10.5 + 4.0 × v2 f 4.0 × v2 f = 1.0 + 10.5 = 11.5

[0/1]

11.5 m / s = 2.875 m / s [1/0] Answer: v2 f = 2.875 m / s 4.0 2 3 × 52 4 × (3.5) Ei = + = 62 J 2 2 2 2 3 × (3.5) 4 × (2.875) Ef = + = 34.9 J 2 2 In contrast with the part “c”, this situation may take place. No violation of principles of physics or reality takes place. The 3.o kg ball traveling to the right collides with another ball traveling left and as a result of collision it changes its direction of motion. The other ball must also change its direction of motion too. [0/1] v2 f =

e. Situations “a”, “b”, and “d” are reasonable, but not “c”. See above. [0/3]

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10

Show that on a roller coaster with a circular vertical loop, the difference in your apparent weight at the top of the loop and at the bottom of the loop is 6 ⋅ g . Ignore friction. Show also that as long as your speed is above the minimum needed, this answer is independent of the size of the loop or how fast you go through it. [2/4/¤¤¤¤]

h

2R

Suggested solutions: In order for the object to pass the top point the normal force must be larger than zero. Its minimum value at the top is zero. i.e.: FN ≥ 0 . Free-body-diagram for the object at the top may be represented as: Taking the direction of the acceleration as positive, Newton’s second law, m r r Fnet = ma for the object passing the top may be written as:

FN _ top + mg = maC Note that the apparent weight of any object is the normal force exerted by the surface on the body, i.e. FN .

FN _ top + mg = m mv

2 top

2 vtop

mg

aC

FN

+

R = FN _ top ⋅ R + mg ⋅ R

1 2 The total energy of the object at the top is: Etop = 2mgR + mvtop 2 1 1 2 Etop = 2mgR + mvtop = 2mgR + (FN _ top ⋅ R + mg ⋅ R ) 2 2 1 Etop = 2.5 ⋅ mgR + ⋅ FN _ top ⋅ R 2 Note that 2mgR is the potential energy of the object at the top. The reference point for the potential energy is taken to be the lowest point of the circle. Free-body diagram for the object at the bottom may be illustrated as: Taking the direction of acceleration, i.e. up, positive, Newton’s second law of motion, r r Fnet = ma , for the object at the bottom of the vertical circle may be expressed as:

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2 vbottom FN _ bottom − mg = m R 2 v FN _ bottom = mg + m bottom R 2 v FN _ bottom = m bottom + mg R

FN

+

aC

m

Using the conservation of energy: Ebottom = Etop

1 Using Etop = 2.5 ⋅ mgR + ⋅ FN _ top ⋅ R calculated above we may find the 2 velocity of the object at the bottom to its energy at the top: 1 2 1 Ebottom = mvbottom = Etop = 2.5 ⋅ mgR + ⋅ FN _ top ⋅ R 2 2 2 mvbottom = 5 ⋅ mgR + FN _ top ⋅ R

Using FN _ bottom =

mg

2 mvbottom 2 + mg and replacing mvbottom = 5 ⋅ mgR + FN _ top ⋅ R in it results in: R 2 5 ⋅ mgR + FN _ top ⋅ R mv FN _ bottom = bottom + mg = + mg = 5 ⋅ mg + FN _ top + mg = FN _ top + 6 ⋅ mg R R Answer: FN _ bottom − FN _ top = 6 ⋅ mg QED.

Note that the difference in the apparent weight of the object is FN _ bottom − FN _ top = 6 ⋅ mg and it is independent from the speed of the object and the radius of the ring. It is always 6 ⋅ mg just a function of the mass of the object and the gravitational acceleration of the object.

© behzad.massoumzadeh@huddinge.se ☺Free to use for educational purposes.

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